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showing 1 – 24 of 280 results

Test Prep: Writing a Multi Paragraph Essay (aligned to the AIR test)

Test Prep: Writing a Multi Paragraph Essay (aligned to the AIR test)
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by

JB Creations
Provide students with a strategy for writing a multi-paragraph essay on the AIR state test! This resource is PACKED with all you need to walk students through a modeled essay writing lesson from start to finish with detailed teaching slides, tips, and strategies. Students will learn how to generat
Subjects:
ELA Test Prep , Writing , Writing-Essays
Grades:
3rd , 4th , 5th
Types:
Test Prep , Minilessons , Printables
CCSS:
RI.3.9 , RI.4.9 , RI.5.9 , W.3.1 , W.3.2 , W.3.4 , W.4.1 , W.4.2 , W.4.4 , W.5.1
$12.50
50 Ratings

4.0

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ZIP ( 19.22 MB )

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Multi-Paragraph Essay Worksheet for Low Level Writers

Multi-Paragraph Essay Worksheet for Low Level Writers
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by

Speary
This worksheet explains briefly what the different parts of an essay are (Thesis Statement, Hook, Concrete Details, Commentary…). The second part of the worksheet is for the students to use when writing their essays. The worksheet tells them what to put into each section of the essay sentence by
Subjects:
English Language Arts , Writing-Expository
Grades:
7th , 8th , 9th , 10th , 11th , 12th
Types:
Worksheets , Handouts
$2.00
$1.00
8 Ratings

4.0

Digital Download

DOC ( 25.5 KB )

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Writing Handout: The Multi-Paragraph Essay and Thesis Statements

Writing Handout: The Multi-Paragraph Essay and Thesis Statements
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by

The Sentence Teacher
This is a two-page writing handout that focuses on:

1. The basic multi-paragraph essay structure (introduction, body, conclusion)
2. Essay writing terminology (hook, topic sentence, clincher, etc.)
3. What a thesis statement is NOT
4. Qualities of an effective thesis statement

This handout can be

Subjects:
English Language Arts , Writing
Grades:
6th , 7th , 8th , 9th
Types:
Handouts
$7.99
7 Ratings

4.0

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PDF ( 133.36 KB )

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Multi Paragraph Essay Writing Format with Visual Support

Multi Paragraph Essay Writing Format with Visual Support
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by

A Fresh Breath
Writing a multi-paragraph essay can be difficult for students to do. This format gives students support in writing an essay that contains an introduction paragraph, 3 supporting paragraphs, and a conclusion paragraph. This format is simple to use, giving students a label and space to put each type o
Subjects:
English Language Arts , Writing , Writing-Essays
Grades:
4th , 5th , 6th , 7th , 8th
Types:
Handouts , Printables , Graphic Organizers
$1.00
1 Rating

4.0

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PDF ( 248.81 KB )

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To Kill A Mockingbird: Write A Multi-Paragraph Essay on Two Themes

To Kill A Mockingbird: Write A Multi-Paragraph Essay on Two Themes
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by

Bullseye Education
This document contains one prompt for the production of a multi-paragraph essay related to a student’s choice of two themes from the novel. This prompt can be used for an in-class assignment or be modified for take-home use.

Below are instructions for writing a multi-paragraph essay.

Your task fo

Subjects:
English Language Arts , Literature , Writing-Essays
Grades:
9th , 10th , 11th , 12th , Higher Education , Adult Education , Homeschool
Types:
Lesson Plans (Individual) , Activities , Novel Study
$2.00
not yet rated

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DOC ( 27 KB )

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Multi-paragraph Essay “Herculean Tasks”

Multi-paragraph Essay “Herculean Tasks”
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by

Days of Yore
This assignment provides the students an opportunity to write a multi-paragraph essay in Social Studies in which they use text evidence to support their ideas. Attached are a grid with instructions to write a 4 paragraph essay along with text evidence article about the labors of Hercules.
Subjects:
World History , Writing-Essays
Grades:
7th , 8th , 9th , 10th , 11th , Homeschool
Types:
Activities , Handouts , Graphic Organizers
$5.00
not yet rated

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DOCX ( 260.4 KB )

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Multi Paragraph Essay Graphic Organizer

Multi Paragraph Essay Graphic Organizer
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by

LCMJ LCMJ
Multi Paragraph Essay (Third Grade Experience)
Subjects:
Writing-Expository , Writing , Writing-Essays
Grades:
3rd , 4th , 5th
Types:
Graphic Organizers
$2.00
1 Rating

4.0

Digital Download

DOCX ( 14.67 KB )

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Multi Paragraph Essay Graphic Organizer

Multi Paragraph Essay Graphic Organizer
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by

LCMJ LCMJ
Multi Paragraph Essay/Report (on the Writing Process)
Subjects:
Writing-Expository , Writing , Writing-Essays
Grades:
3rd , 4th , 5th
Types:
Graphic Organizers
$2.00
not yet rated

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DOCX ( 15.78 KB )

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Five 5 Paragraph Essay Organizer and Outline

Five 5 Paragraph Essay Organizer and Outline
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by

Amanda Rick
This is a printable two-part graphic organizer for the standard five paragraph essay. It can be used for a basic topic, an essay on a novel or nonfiction text, an opinion or persuasive essay, etc.

Parents and students have raved to me about the ease of this layout and format – a helpful transition

Subjects:
Writing-Expository , Writing , Writing-Essays
Grades:
3rd , 4th , 5th , 6th , 7th , 8th , 9th , 10th , 11th , 12th , Homeschool
Types:
Minilessons , Printables , Graphic Organizers
$3.00
13 Ratings

3.9

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PDF ( 355.37 KB )

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Web Cluster and Prewriting PowerPoint: THE 5-PARAGRAPH ESSAY Planning

Web Cluster and Prewriting PowerPoint: THE 5-PARAGRAPH ESSAY Planning
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by

PowerPoint Guru
This PowerPoint helps student with the entire scope of a 5-paragraph response. The main focus of the PowerPoint, however, is a building an outline and using a web cluster. The theme of the PowerPoint is connected to Spiderman's webs to build engagement with students whom you might traditionally ha
Subjects:
English Language Arts , Writing-Expository , ELA Test Prep
Grades:
4th , 5th , 6th , 7th , 8th , 9th , 10th , 11th , 12th , Higher Education , Adult Education , Homeschool
Types:
Lectures , PowerPoint Presentations , Fun Stuff

Also included in:  Freshman English: A Semester

$3.00
$2.75
43 Ratings

3.9

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PPT ( 9.95 MB )

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Personal Narrative Writing Process - Multi Paragraph

Personal Narrative Writing Process – Multi Paragraph
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by

Becky Brumm
Modeled after the Write From the Beginning writing process, this presentation walks writers through the process of creating a multi-paragraph writing piece STEP-BY-STEP! Starting off with a Circle Map, transferring ideas onto a Flow Map, Revising throughout, and Composing a Rough Draft. The Notebook
Subjects:
English Language Arts , Writing , Writing-Essays
Grades:
3rd , 4th , 5th , 6th , 7th , 8th
Types:
Interactive Whiteboard
$4.00
$3.00
4 Ratings

3.9

Digital Download

NOTEBOOK ( 296.14 KB )

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Multi-paragraph Graphic Organizer

Multi-paragraph Graphic Organizer
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by

Markers and Minions
This is a basic graphic organizer to help your students organize their writing into five paragraphs. There are three versions.
– The first version has each box labeled: introduction, body paragraph 1, body paragraph 2, body paragraph 3, and closing.
– The second version has each box labeled: intro
Subjects:
Writing , Writing-Essays
Grades:
3rd , 4th , 5th , 6th
Types:
Graphic Organizers
$1.00
23 Ratings

4.0

Digital Download

PDF ( 324.89 KB )

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A Tree Is Growing by Arthur Dorros: Multi-Paragraph Expository Writing Lesson

A Tree Is Growing by Arthur Dorros: Multi-Paragraph Expository Writing Lesson
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by

For The Birds In Third
This is a guided writing lesson for multi-paragraph expository writing connected to text. After reading A Tree is Growing, students sort and categorize pre-written details on a large piece of construction paper. In a subsequent lesson, students use their organized details to compose a five paragra
Subjects:
English Language Arts , Writing-Expository , Informational Text
Grades:
3rd
Types:
Lesson Plans (Individual) , Graphic Organizers
$1.00
8 Ratings

4.0

Digital Download

ZIP ( 12.59 MB )

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Multi-paragraph Writing Made Easy

Multi-paragraph Writing Made Easy
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by

Alisha Adkins
If your students can write a single paragraph, they can write a multi-paragraph essay. This 12 page mini-unit guides students through the writing process while demonstrating how to expand a paragraph into a full essay.
This material follows the "I do- we do – you do" model and scaffolds student wri
Subjects:
English Language Arts , Writing , Writing-Essays
Grades:
6th , 7th , 8th , 9th , 10th
Types:
Lesson Plans (Individual) , Activities , Printables
$4.99
2 Ratings

3.7

Digital Download

DOC ( 58.5 KB )

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Student Friendly Multi-Paragraph Response Rubric

Student Friendly Multi-Paragraph Response Rubric
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by

K Zutali
Based on rubrics used to score AIR multi-paragraph responses at the 6th, 7th, and 8th grade levels, the rubric centers around three areas: purpose, focus, organization; evidence, elaboration; and conventions. Wording for each area of the rubric has been reduced to its simplest and most concrete form
Subjects:
Writing-Expository , ELA Test Prep , Writing-Essays
Grades:
6th , 7th , 8th
Types:
Worksheets , Printables , Rubrics
$1.00
2 Ratings

4.0

Digital Download

PDF ( 748.37 KB )

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Writing Rubrics for Simple Sentence, Single Paragraph, and Multi-Paragraph

Writing Rubrics for Simple Sentence, Single Paragraph, and Multi-Paragraph
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by

Dominique – ABC's and IEP's
Included are 3 separate rubrics you can easily use to monitor your students writing!

LEVEL ONE: Single Sentence
LEVEL TWO: Single Paragraph
LEVEL THREE: Multi-Paragraph Essay

Use these for IEP goal progress, grading, OR both!

You can use this in the special education classroom or general educat

Subjects:
English Language Arts , Special Education , Writing
Grades:
Not Grade Specific
Types:
Handouts , Assessment , Rubrics
$1.00
1 Rating

4.0

Digital Download

PDF ( 43.9 KB )

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Journal Prompt Multi Paragraph Graphic Organizer

Journal Prompt Multi Paragraph Graphic Organizer
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by

Katie Reeves
This graphic organizer works well for higher level students that understand how to write a paragraph. It allows the students to choose topic sentences, one per paragraph, and 4 details to go with each. I taught my students how to use this graphic organizer by modeling it for them once. Some students
Subjects:
Writing , Writing-Essays
Grades:
4th , 5th , 6th , 7th
Types:
Graphic Organizers
$1.00
1 Rating

4.0

Digital Download

PDF ( 87.29 KB )

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Analytical Five-Paragraph Essay : 13 Smart Notebook Files. OVER 100 SLIDES! #ed

Analytical Five-Paragraph Essay : 13 Smart Notebook Files. OVER 100 SLIDES! #ed
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by

GeekedOutTeacher
Don't have SMART Notebook? These files can be opened with SMART Notebook Express http://express.smarttech.com/#

This bundle includes the following 13 Smart Notebook presentations to help walk your students through the writing process for a five paragraph essay:

Writing the Thesis Statement
Writin

Subjects:
English Language Arts , Writing , Writing-Essays
Grades:
8th , 9th , 10th , 11th , 12th
Types:
Lectures , Lesson Plans (Bundled) , Interactive Whiteboard
$20.00
$10.00
not yet rated

N/A

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ZIP ( 1.95 MB )

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Romeo and Juliet One Paragraph Essay Test

Romeo and Juliet One Paragraph Essay Test
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by

Carpe Librum
This is the essay test I use at the end of my Romeo and Juliet unit. My students choose two of the five topics to write a one paragraph, literary analysis essay over (these guidelines can be adapted at the teacher's discretion: one topic can be made into a multi-paragraph essay, for example).

The

Subjects:
English Language Arts , Literature , Writing-Essays
Grades:
8th , 9th , 10th , 11th , 12th
Types:
Assessment
$1.99
not yet rated

N/A

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PDF ( 121.92 KB )

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Paragraph Writing Practice

Paragraph Writing Practice
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by

The Owl Teacher
Common Core wants students to write multiple paragraphs but before they can do that, they need to be able to write just one paragraph. This resource scaffolds your students through everything they need to start writing a paragraph! See the preview for details!This resource begins with your students
Subjects:
English Language Arts , Writing , Tools for Common Core
Grades:
2nd , 3rd , 4th , 5th
Types:
Activities , Test Prep , Printables
$3.25
79 Ratings

4.0

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PDF ( 19.08 MB )

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The Three Little Pigs vs. Mr. A. Wolf (Opinion Writing Unit)

The Three Little Pigs vs. Mr. A. Wolf (Opinion Writing Unit)
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by

Markers and Minions
In this three-week long writing unit, students will formulate an argument and effectively use evidence to support their reasoning. This experience gives them the opportunity to practice these important skills using familiar and entertaining texts.

Your students will learn to:
– take a writing piece

Subjects:
Reading , Writing-Essays , Close Reading
Grades:
3rd , 4th , 5th
Types:
Projects , Lesson Plans (Bundled) , Thematic Unit Plans
CCSS:
W.3.1a , W.3.1b , W.3.1c , W.3.1d

Also included in:  All PBL, Research, and Writing Units! (Benchmark Advance)

$10.00
32 Ratings

4.0

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PDF ( 4.59 MB )

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Writing with the Hamburger Model

Writing with the Hamburger Model
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by

Deb Hanson
Writing with the Hamburger Model PowerPoint: This resource contains a 40-slide PowerPoint plus handouts. The first half of the PowerPoint focuses on how to use a hamburger planner to write a well-organized paragraph. The second half of the PowerPoint focuses on how to write a multiple paragraph essa
Subjects:
English Language Arts , ELA Test Prep , Writing
Grades:
2nd , 3rd , 4th , Homeschool
Types:
PowerPoint Presentations , Activities , Minilessons
CCSS:
CCRA.W.2
$4.00
173 Ratings

4.0

Digital Download

ZIP ( 9.5 MB )

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Basic Five-Paragraph Essay Kit

Basic Five-Paragraph Essay Kit
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by

Leo's Lit Parlor – Equipping ELA Excellence
Greetings!

If you’ve ever wanted an easy way to teach students how to write a simple five-paragraph essay, this kit is for you!

Students struggle mightily when structuring their arguments, and this package keeps things simple for students of ALL ages. For just $20, you can provide a framework to

Subjects:
English Language Arts , Writing-Expository , Writing-Essays
Grades:
9th , 10th , 11th , 12th
Types:
Activities , Assessment , Classroom Forms
CCSS:
CCRA.W.1 , CCRA.W.4 , CCRA.W.5
$20.00
not yet rated

N/A

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My Brother Sam is Dead CER Multi-Paragraph- Chapter 5

My Brother Sam is Dead CER Multi-Paragraph- Chapter 5
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by

Alexa Nemeth
CER writing format for Chapter 5 of my My Brother Sam is Dead novel for a multi paragraph essay.
Subjects:
Special Education , Writing
Grades:
4th , 5th , 6th
Types:
Worksheets
$1.50
not yet rated

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PDF ( 220.92 KB )

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Multi-Paragraph Essay Review

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Waianae English

on 29 October 2013

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Transcript of Multi-Paragraph Essay Review

Multi-Paragraph Essay Review
Step 1: The Introduction
A basic introduction contains three sentences. They are called the hook, background information, and the thesis.
The Thesis
The thesis can be written as a formula:
[Topic + verb + opinion] + "because" + List (subtopic 1 + subtopic 2 + subtopic 3)
Step 2: Body Paragraphs
Body paragraphs follow the "Write Tools" outline. You know:
1) Topic Sentence
2) Big idea
3) Tell me more (detail)
4) Tell me more (detail)
5) repeat steps 2-4
6) repeat steps 2-4
7) conclusion/transition
Step 3: Conclusion
A basic conclusion has two sentences:
1) Synthesized thesis
2) "So what?" or "What’s next?"
Step 4: Draft, Peer review, revise, and publish
This last step is just a continuation of the writing cycle.
topic+verb+opinion
This is called the claim. Its job in the thesis is to explain "what" a paper will talk about or explain.
"because"+list
This part of a thesis is called the plan. Its job is to tell the reader "how" a paper will explain the claim.
Synthesized Thesis
A synthesized thesis contains the main points from each of your body paragraphs. Basically, you are substituting the general statements of the list with details from your body paragraphs.
"So what?" Game
After reading your new synthesized thesis, ask yourself the question, "so what?" The answer to the question is your next sentence. You can also ask:
1) What’s next?
2) Who should care?
3) why is this important?

Full transcript

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    Writing a Multi-Paragraph Essay

    Published by Mavis McCoy
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    Presentation on theme: “Writing a Multi-Paragraph Essay”— Presentation transcript:

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    Writing a Multi-Paragraph Essay
    Introduction: Ideas should go from general to specific. Paragraph should be four to five sentences including thesis statement.


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    Writing an Introduction
    Begin with something to catch the reader’s attention, i.e. “feeling” or “emotional” words or a question/ anecdote / interesting or provocative statement / famous quotation, etc.


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    Writing an Introduction
    Thesis Statement: Thesis=Answer to prompt + your opinion Must include the author & title of the book. Thesis shows your opinion about an arguable topic. Thesis should go at the end of the paragraph.


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    Example Introduction:
    Jealousy is a powerful emotion that can lead to horrible circumstances. Sometimes, people are not even aware of what they are doing when they are doing it, but their emotions take over and make them do terrible things. In Arthur Miller’s The Crucible, jealousy and revenge take hold of young Abigail Williams causing her to wreak havoc on an entire town. Ultimately, it is Abigail’s actions that result in the witch trials and the killing of many innocent people.


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    Concluding Sentence (CS)
    Terms to Know Topic Sentence (TS) This sentence is the first sentence in your paragraph and lets the reader know what the main focus of the paragraph will be. Concluding Sentence (CS) – This is the last sentence in your paragraph. Sums it up and ties back to the thesis (As a result,…)


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    Terms to Know Concrete Detail (CD)
    This is the stuff from the literature – it’s the evidence for your commentary! Plot References/Paraphrasing facts, examples from story (what happened). Direct Quote- (DQ) Include citation Use the 4-step quote method.


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    Terms to Know Commentary (CM) This is the stuff from inside your head!
    This is the answer to “so what?” Your words and explanations. May be referred to as: analysis, interpreting, opinion, inference, insight, reasons, elaboration.


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    Writing Body Paragraphs
    Sent. #1 -Topic Sentence – TS Sent. #2 – CD –starts with “For example” Sent. #3 – DQ- From the text, must be cited. Sent. #4 – 2 CM – (It also indicates…; This is because…; This is important because…This shows that) Sent, #5 – Concluding Sentence – CS – Sums it up and ties back to the thesis (As a result,…)


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    Example of Body Paragraph
    In Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone, Harry is a champion to many of the more insecure students at Hogwarts. For example, when Malfoy takes Neville’s Rememberall, Harry gets on a broom and gets it back. He simply cannot stand someone who picks on others. Because of this, Harry becomes a hero to those less fortunate. In other words, he has found a place where he belongs, and he becomes determined to protect the vulnerable people he has grown fond of.


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    Writing a Conclusion Like Intro., just three to five sentences
    All CM; no CD Do NOT repeat your thesis statement or introductory paragraph, RESTATE it using different words. Reflect what your essay said & provide closure, moving this time from specific to general. Try to relate your thesis to the world at large. Do NOT add any new information!


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    Quotation Verbs  When introducing a quotation, choose a verb that best reflects what you want to say with the material you have chosen to quote. The following is a list of alternatives to the word states: demonstrates objects adds defends maintains argues assumes


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    Quotation Verbs disputes remarks challenges establishes shows claims
    specifies compares feels contrasts concludes illustrates suggests stresses contends introduces questions justifies presents believes


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    Transition Words To improve your writing you need to make sure that your ideas, both in sentences and paragraphs, stick together or have coherence and that the gap between ideas is bridged smoothly. One way to do this is by using transitions – words or phrases or techniques that help bring two ideas together. Transitional words and phrases represent one way of gaining coherence.


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    Transition Words Certain words help continue an idea, indicate a shift of thought or contrast, or sum up a conclusion. Check the following list of words to find those that will pull your sentences and paragraphs together.


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    Transition Words For continuing a common line of reasoning:
    consequently clearly, then furthermore additionally and in addition moreover in the same way following this further also pursuing this further in the light of the… it is because besides that easy to see that


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    Transition Words To change the line of reasoning (contrast):
    however on the other hand but yet nevertheless on the contrary


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    Transition Words For opening a paragraph initially or for general use: admittedly assuredly certainly granted no doubt nobody denies obviously of course undoubtedly unquestionably generally speaking in general to be sure at this level in this situation


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    Transition Words To restate a point within a paragraph in another way or in a more exacting way: in other words point in fact specifically


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    Transition Words Transitional chains, to use in separating sections of a paragraph which is arranged chronologically: first… second… third… generally… furthermore… finally in the first place… also… lastly in the first place… pursuing this further… finally to be sure… additionally… lastly basically… similarly… as well


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    Transition Words To signal conclusion in a paragraph or the entire essay: Therefore Hence In final analysis In conclusion Lastly Finally


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    A Few More Tips! Do not use first person.
    State your position and then defend it with support. Describe plot elements using present tense. Avoid informal, conversational expressions that are, u know, like, well, so, lol, idk, etc.



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    What Is a Descriptive Essay? Answers, Writing Tips, and 100 Examples of Topics



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    What Is a Descriptive Essay? Answers, Writing Tips, and 100 Examples of Topics

    What is a descriptive essay? A descriptive essay is a short paper which is all about describing or summarizing a topic. You don’t need to collect responses from other people like you do when writing an argumentative essay . Based on my own experience, I can tell that expository essays barely occupy more than one page. They won’t take a plenty of time. Still, if you have no desire to work on the stuff like that or you want to impress your essay reader even with such a simple assignment, contact academic writers for hire to have your vivid essay done in several hours.

    GET HELP FROM US

    No details, no proofs, no special effort… It is the simplest academic homework essay. In general, students should illustrate a descriptive essay with words instead of using pictures. Describe whatever you see, feel, touch, taste, or hear about the target topic. Learn here how to write an A-level college essay .

    A descriptive essay about a place, for instance, must provide author’s impressions from attending a certain place in the world: from a small town to the biggest country. We explain how to write a descriptive essay based on its types.

    How to Write a Descriptive Essay: Types to Consider

    Study professional descriptive essay examples to understand each type listed below better. A descriptive essay can describe any of the following issues:

    • Human essay. It is much harder to tell about a person. Overall, such task would mean telling about the appearance, actions, behaviors, mood, and qualities of the chosen individual.
    • Place essay. The primary thing you should understand to find out how to write a descriptive essay about a place is the paper’s focus. Focus on describing places with the most breathtaking sights; let your reader feel the might of such cities as New York or Rome in your description.
    • Event essay. You can describe your last vacation, loud rock gig, summer music festival, graduation day, or Euro trip.
    • Animal essay. Wild nature is full of wonders – choose the animal you like most of all or the one you can associate with yourself.
    • Occupation essay. Writing about the job of your dream is good training before preparing an admissions essay or job resume.
    • Behavior essay. If you want to describe the freaky behavior of your best friend to show how the same people act under different conditions, it’s your chance!

    We can explain just anything in details. The goal is to make it sound both artistically and officially.

    Keep in mind you can count on help with writing a descriptive essay from academic experts who care about your performance.

    100 Descriptive Essay Topics for Any Taste

    We have selected 100 most outstanding descriptive essay topics most of the school and college tutors expect to see from each student. Mind that these are only the examples of the descriptive essay ideas; students can think of their own original topics by replacing some words with more suitable.

    Despite there are many topics you might want to describe in detail, it is better to focus on a single person/place/event/object not to lose the point. Consider these 100 topics for your argumentative essay . A descriptive essay refers to showing than telling; deliver the main idea to your readers through drawing a picture of what you want to say.

    Person/People Essay Ideas

    1. Make a detailed description of your mother (other relatives).
    2. Provide a vivid description of your role model. It could be your favorite actor, singer, movie director, fashion model, political figure, best friend, parents, etc.
    3. Why does Martin Luther King deserve respect?
    4. Describe a character from your favorite TV show (e.g. Buffy Summers, Piper Halliwell, Clark Kent, etc.)
    5. Choose a famous villain and reveal his personality.
    6. Describe specific traits you enjoy in one of your peers.
    7. List features of your boyfriend/girlfriend (fiancé/bride) which make this person so important in your life.
    8. Would you prefer Wonder Woman or Xena, Warrior Princess?
    9. Essay: Share a description of your most liked teacher.
    10. Why do you believe John Kennedy was a great political figure on the examples of his contribution to the US society?
    11. Explain why your favorite actress is better than the others.
    12. Why would a certain person behave in the way he/she does?
    13. Which psychological factors had the greatest impact on your own behavior?
    14. Describe a person whom you hate.
    15. Share description of your least favorite movie.
    16. Essay: Which horror film character has scared you to death?
    17. How would you act if you meet your favorite celebrity on the street one day?
    18. What traits belong to the term “best friend”?
    19. How would you define your potential enemies?
    20. Describe why you believe in a friendship between man and woman based on your own experience.
    21. Write who your favorite business manager is.
    22. Write how a perfect fashion model should look like today.
    23. Write why you think Abraham Lincoln deserves a special place in the history of the US.
    24. Essay: List specific features which make your mom stand out from the rest of the mothers.
    25. Why is your dad the kindest dad in the world?

    Place/Location Descriptive Essay Examples

    1. Provide details on the house you’re living in. Would you like to change something about it, move away to another location, or stay without fixing anything, and why?
    2. Where would you like to rest next winter and why?
    3. Share an example of a perfect summer location with your readers.
    4. Provide details on your favorite winter location.
    5. Some students want to describe the rooms they are living in on campus. Share ideas how the college/university community could unite to make this place better.
    6. Describe the top favorite place in your native country.
    7. Essay: How do you picture an ideal place to have a wedding ceremony?
    8. Write about the place where people can see the brightest stars in the sky.
    9. Think of the features of the perfect place to have the loudest rock gig ever!
    10. List the names of the countries you would like to visit.
    11. My hometown is in my heart and soul.
    12. Why has Melbourne the heart of Australia despite it is not even its capital city?
    13. Describe the loudest place you used to visit.
    14. Write about the place you think is the best in the whole world.
    15. Essay: Tell more about the place you’re studying in.
    16. Describe the places you attended with your parents.
    17. Describe the most beautiful garden you have ever seen.
    18. Name the place you would choose for the summer festival.
    19. Write about 7 Wonders of the World.
    20. Write what you believe is the eighth Wonder of the World.
    21. Write how you feel when attending your childhood places.
    22. Essay: Write down why you prefer your native country over any other places in the world.
    23. Write how you can get to the certain destination.
    24. Describe a location for a perfect student party.
    25. Write about your favorite place which exists only in the fiction.
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    Memory/Mind Essay Ideas

    1. Help your readers picture the best day of your life using vivid descriptions, different examples, original comparisons, and more attributes of the talented essay writer.
    2. What was the most special thing on your last trip to the sea?
    3. Do you remember the first birthday of your best friend?
    4. Create a map which would allow people to travel your mind to see a bit of your experience.
    5. Describe the introductory day in any of the existing educational institution – school, college, or university – using the entire spectrum of emotions.
    6. Essay: What would you call the ugliest experience in your life?
    7. Find proper words to describe the memories associated with the beloved person who used to die.
    8. List the things you like doing with your grandparents.
    9. Describe the event in your academic life which makes you proud enough to share it with the admissions officers later.
    10. Provide a description of the first time falling in love.
    11. Provide a description of the day in your life when something you like (e.g. hobby, art, music band, comic book, other objects) has almost changed your vision completely.
    12. Describe what you believe young children tend to memorize best of all.
    13. Essay: Help your readers understand how it feels like in the mountains.
    14. Do you like riding the bicycle?
    15. Describe the last time you were abroad.
    16. Share your feelings with the readers who wish to learn more about taking part in the exchange
    17. How did you feel during your English language exam?
    18. Which event from your life made you feel scared?
    19. Describe something that made you laugh to death.
    20. Offer details on your visit to London.
    21. Describe a silent place in the woods you love since your early ages.
    22. Write how you remember the first snow in your life.
    23. Write why it is important to keep a diary.
    24. Essay: Write down several things you remember from your tenth birthday.
    25. Write how it feels to attend the funeral based on your memory.

    Object/Thing Descriptive Essay Topics

    1. Dedicate several powerful paragraphs to what you consider your family relict.
    2. Describe an object which you believe has once saved your life or prevented other adverse consequences for you or one of your close people.
    3. The Silk Road.
    4. Find appropriate words to describe something you wanted so bad you were ready to steal it due to the fact you did not have enough money to buy it.
    5. The most expensive painting ever sold.
    6. Pick one of the recent technological innovations. Make a description explaining why this particular thing plays in important role in the development of modern society.
    7. Essay: There is one more thing every writer should keep in mind to have a full vision of how to write a descriptive essay about yourself.
    8. Providing a description of distance and time from the physical aspect.
    9. Wonderful things every human should know from the Ancient World (choose Egypt, Greece, or Rome)
    10. How would you describe the icons in your home?
    11. The Empire State Building (or any other magnificent construction)
    12. Taj Mahal: historical value.
    13. Solar System and planets in it.
    14. The role of Bible in our life.
    15. Essay: A comfortable bed as a definition of good sleep.
    16. Can a dress make a man?
    17. Why do we love soft toys that much?
    18. Things to take with you on a sea trip.
    19. What can money change in the life of every person?
    20. The true value of vegetables in the markets.
    21. Essay: Write why your old Tamagotchi still matters to you.
    22. Write how your favorite video game has impacted you.
    23. Write down specific attributes which make your favorite doll special.
    24. Describe your living rooms in detail.
    25. Describe the neighboring house in detail.

    Want to view several good descriptive essay examples from experts? We have attached the best samples to observe!

    Common Structure: How to Write a Descriptive Essay

    The structure of such essay depends on the topic. There is no need to follow strict chronology if you write about a person/object, but you should mind the order of events in the essay describing a place. Do not waste time on in-depth research or search for many sources – focus on writing about your feelings.

    Work on the senses. To succeed, it is important to create 5 titled columns on a separate worksheet to list five human senses. Any good descriptive essay must cover each of the five senses, taste, sight, touch, smell and sound, to make the reader(s) feel the full spectrum of emotions associated with the chosen topic. It is obvious that some topics are better associated with certain feelings than others; focus on these feelings when describing the issue in detail.

    Writing an outline. Create an outline to be your action plan during the entire writing process. No matter whether you’re a high school student or the one studying in college, the teachers everywhere expect to see a 5-paragraph descriptive essay. Descriptive essays belong to the category of creative pieces. Use them to expand your imagination by lengthening the text. The standard outline covers five paragraphs: introduction, 3-5 body paragraphs, and conclusion. Descriptive essays do not have a reference page as the obligatory part. Add important sources if you’re not reflecting personal experience.

    Explore how a professional descriptive writing looks in several great descriptive essay examples!

    Descriptive writing is not a piece of cake, but some expert recommendations help students to overcome different obstacles in their academic life:

    “Most of my students wondered how to write a descriptive essay about a person, place, or object. The best topic is one that writer has a deep connection with. No matter whether you have a list of wonderful topics or the one your teacher expects to see: brainstorming is the key! I recommend this technique to every student. Once you master brainstorming, it would be easier for you to work in a team within any environment. I like original ideas such as Things to Do in Your City, The Funniest Memory, A Perfect Day with a Favorite Rock Star, Detailed Description of the Self-Invented Food, and more.”

    Lisa Head, Literature Professor at University College London (UCL)

    DESCRIPTIVE ESSAY FORMULA

    1. Pre-writing stage. Do you have a clear image of the object you’re going to describe? Look at all sources you have on hands to define whether they provide all important information on the topic of your choice. Mind that having an experience in the discussed field would be a plus. Focus on your own senses, taste, smell, and other feelings while recalling your example, and then create an action plan for further writing.
    2. How to start a descriptive essay? Start writing with a powerful, eye-catching hook to grab the reader’s attention: simile, metaphor, literary quote, famous people quotations, poetry lines, interesting facts, jokes, etc.
    3. Create a draft of your expository essay. You may put all words that come to your mind; you’ll have a chance to make your ideas shorter later. It’s not enough to tell – show the image of the object with the help of words only. The way you create a mental image for the reader defines your ability to make up a good descriptive essay. It is the quality of a skilled narrator as well.
    4. Adding details to your essay with the help of enriched English vocabulary and online dictionaries. Use your English language vocabulary to add all missing feelings like hearing to the descriptive essay last Play with adjectives and adverbs. Mind your language when writing a descriptive paper – it must be lyrical to deliver all your feelings in full. Involve many different adjectives.
    5. Take time to revise and edit the paper with the help of various free online grammar checking tools. Once you have described your vivid place, check the structure of your essay again to answer several critical questions: Can the sentences or paragraphs be arranged in a better way? Are any transition words missing? Put down all sources used to describe your topic; make sure the descriptive essay is following the tutor’s instructions in full.
    6. Edit the descriptive essay. Try to avoid any grammar, spelling, or punctuation mistakes to show how great your knowledge of the language is.

    After completing your final descriptive essay draft, it is better to keep in touch with some experts to have the assignment fully checked. You should evaluate your work critically. Proofread and edit the descriptive essay to eliminate or fix any mistakes. You may be interested in adding some details in case you require telling something more about your main object.

    • What does a general revision process involve?
    • Are there enough details to make it possible for your readers to obtain a full and vivid perception?
    • Have you missed any small but significant descriptive details?
    • Are there words that convey the emotion, feeling (touch, smell, etc.) or perspective?
    • Does your essay possess any unnecessary details in your description which can be thrown away or replaced by the more meaningful information?
    • Does each section of your essay focus on one aspect of your description?
    • Are all paragraphs arranged in the most efficient way; are they properly connected with the help of corresponding transition words?

    Want a professional academic writing help to get rid of all troubles? Students tend to have too many homework assignments along with the need to study important material for their exams. We would like to offer a better opportunity than hiring expensive freelance writers who lack corresponding experience – place your order with the team of certified online academic tutors, and obtain top-quality descriptive essay on the topic of your choice!

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    Understanding what is a descriptive essay (Definition)

    A descriptive essay is an essay that you may be asked to write about a place, for example about a beach or a forest, about a person, a situation or adventure. You may be asked to describe anything; the main objective of descriptive essays is to test the ability of the writer to express themselves and explain their experiences. For you to be a pro in this kind of writing, you also have to be a good narrator because description goes hand in hand with narration.

    You should be able to describe every aspect surrounding your topic without discrimination. A good description should be able to bring the reader of your essay to the real happening of events. The reader should not question themselves or be left in suspense in a way; you should ensure that you exhaust your descriptions. Every point has to come out clearly in your writing. To come up with a good essay, you have to learn how to create a picture of what you are talking about in the reader’s mind. To achieve attracting the reader to your writing you have to understand how to apply the five-common sense. When you learn how to apply the five-common sense well, then you are sure to satisfy your reader.

    For you to come up with a good descriptive essay, you should learn to encrypt a good thesis statement. Writing a thesis is important while starting a sample descriptive essay because it reflects what the essay is going to cover in the summary. Brainstorming is also important as it gives you the points for your body paragraphs.

    How to design a good descriptive essay outline

    Like all other essays, a descriptive essay will need you to come up with a specific format to ensure quality content. The outline of a descriptive essay contains the segments that should be included in your essay writing. It is the structure of the essay that will guide you on how you should format your essay to meet the requirements. A descriptive essay can be divided into three parts, the introduction, the body and the conclusion.

    1. Introduction

    Tips on how to come up with a good introduction:

    It is the introduction of your essay that sets footing for the reader in your work. Before heading to the body, the reader will first come across your introduction. It is the introduction that makes the first impression of your work, so should it be attractive. From reading the introduction, the reader will either get bored with the rest of your work or gain the zeal to proceed. It is through the introduction that you can be able to make the reader understand what is to be shared in the essay. The following tips will guide you in writing a good introduction to your descriptive essay:

    • Start the introduction with suspense – you have to choose the right words in the introduction to capture the eye of the reader. To achieve this, you should apply phrases or even questions so that the reader can find the answers later in your essay.
    • Go straight to the points – the introduction should not constitute a lot of description; you should give a brief overview of what you intend to talk about in the body paragraph. At the same time, you should not reveal the objective of the essay in the introduction, because it would make the reader disinterested with the rest of your work. When the reader gets a hint of what you intend to achieve in the first paragraph, they will see no need to head to the body.

    Write a thesis statement at the end of the introduction – a thesis statement is a single sentence that mentions the objective of the essay in summary. The thesis should act as a guide for the reader on what to expect in the body; it is like a table of contents for a particular book. When you read through the table of contents for a particular book, you will be able to know what the book is all about and when you proceed in reading it, you get to understand it better. A good thesis should:

    • Define the scope of the essay – the thesis should be narrow for clarity purposes. Do not include an explanation of your thesis as it will mislead the reader on the major points, be short and clear to your points.
    • Avoid common words (clichés) – you should be creative in the choice of words so that your thesis does not look common. Most writers would start their thesis with statements such as ‘This essay will talk about….’ Try to be unique in your thesis if you want to score highly.
    • Create suspense in your thesis – you should make your thesis attract the reader to the body of your essay.
    1. The body

    After the introduction and the thesis, what comes next is the body. The body is the main part that constitutes your essay. All the points should be covered in the body. The body should support your thesis statement. To achieve great body paragraphs, you should:

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    • Use topic sentences at the start of every paragraph. The idea should come out clearly at the beginning before you proceed to give descriptions. After the topic sentence, proceed with your description to back up your idea.
    • Link your paragraphs using good transition words for descriptive essays. Most of the transition words are usually conjunctions, so you should be able to select appropriate conjunctions to suit your explanations. If you are connecting contradicting sentences, you should use contradicting conjunctions such as ‘however’ if you are adding, use addition conjunctions such as ‘in addition to.’
    • Organize your paragraphs appropriately – the organization of your work is fundamental for the merit in essay writing. You have to place each idea into its paragraph. The length of the paragraphs should also be standard, do not make your paragraphs too short or too long. A body paragraph should constitute at most six sentences.
    1. The conclusion

    The last part of your descriptive essay is the conclusion. A conclusion is the last chance that you have as a writer to impress the reader of your work. The last part that the reader can contain in their mind about your essay is the conclusion, and so it is also the determiner of the grading level that you will be categorized, so you have to pay all attention to this section. In conclusion: Make sure that the reader knows they are approaching the end, by use of words that suggest ending, such as ‘to finish with.’

    Restate the thesis statement – this is just to remind the reader of what the essay was obliged to cover. After reminding them of the thesis support your thesis with a summary of the points in the body paragraphs. You should state the main points briefly without much description as a support for the thesis. Your last parting shot with the reader should be intriguing so that they can leave with a memory for your essay. After your conclusion, you should make a review of your essay by proofreading. The importance of reading through your essay is that it enables you to identify the mistakes and maintain a good tone throughout your work.

    We have created a Free Plagiarism Checker for your convenience. Feel to use it!

    How to come up with descriptive essay ideas. (Hints)

    A descriptive essay will need a creative mind because it tests one’s ability to express what they can see in writing. Before writing a descriptive essay, you should be able to know how you are going to encrypt your essay to meet the question needs. Some of the hints on how to come up with great ideas for your description include:

    • Take time to brainstorm about the topic before starting. Brainstorming involves thinking about the topic and coming up with rough ideas to support your title. You should not think as you write the essay because points may not come out clearly, just take your time and think as you jot down, in summary, the points in the topic on a piece of paper. The best way is creating a list of points before you proceed to the actual paper.
    • Use your senses extensively – the only way that you can link with the reader is by use of senses. There are five common senses that you should use in your descriptions to bring the reader the real picture of the scene or person you are describing. You should be able to engage the reader in your work by the use of senses. You should be able to give a testimony about the scene, how you felt about the situation and what you think about the happenings. A rhetorical question can also be a good way of making the reader engaged in your work.
    • Choose right words for your descriptions – you should choose words that imply the situation or person under description to avoid misleading. You have to equip yourself with vocabularies to explain different feelings lest you have loose essay imagery.
    • Satisfactory descriptions – you should be able to describe the events clearly, so that the readers of your work do not find themselves asking questions on your essay.
    • Good organization of your work – you should be able to plan your work, to avoid mix up of emotions. The reader might be confused when you do not attach appropriate emotions to the description you are giving.

    Some of the descriptive essay topics you can come across

    There are many descriptive essay topics that you may be examined on as a writer. You should be ready to handle any topic when you have the essay format. It is good to get exposed to different topics as a writer as it gives you the experience and prowess in writing. Most of the descriptive essays are usually about events and ceremonies. You may be asked to write about an event that was held somewhere at a particular time of the year. In this case, you should explain the events as one of the attendees for the situation. Choosing a good topic for your essay is important. The topic of the essay should be attractive to those intending to read your essay.

    Your topic should be manageable and have ample points to cater for the length of the essay. The title for your essay is dependent on the topic is given. The difference between a topic and a title is that the topic is a theme that you are to write about whereas the title is the description that you give as a heading to your essay. A good example of a descriptive essay is an essay about ‘my best teacher.’ In such as essay, in the introduction, you should give a memory about the teacher that makes you adore the teacher. From that, the reader would be able to ask themselves more about the teacher, and they would anticipate for the body. In the body, you can give the attributes of the teacher and support your claims with relevant illustrations. In conclusion, summarize the main attributes and give a reason that makes that teacher the best.

    Significance of descriptive essay examples

    It is good to go through various examples of descriptive essays to advance in writing techniques. As a writer, you should go through various samples so that you can get exposed. Going through various samples can enable you to note the mistakes of other authors and correct the same when you get to your own. Due to the advancement of technology, you can easily get access to this examples from different resources online. Some of the common resources that may contain descriptive essay examples are articles, journals, and magazines. Most of the stories in the magazines constitute a lot of description, and by going through this samples, you will be able to acquire the right words to use for your description.

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    Further reading:
    • How to Write a Descriptive Essays
    • How to Write a Rhetorical Analysis Essay
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    Best Ideas For Descriptive Essay Topics

    For students, you are familiar with descriptive essays and know that they should provide readers with detailed info about the chosen idea or subject. They should be impressive, interesting and let other learn something significant and new. When working on academic essays, be sure to choose your topic carefully. Some students make a huge mistake because they think descriptive essays can be great regardless of their chosen topics, but they are wrong. That’s why you should spend some time to come up with a good, original, and impressing one. Who can write my paper ? If you’re asking this question, you have no ideas in your mind, but the good news is that you can always get our professional help and be sure in its highest quality and fast speed.

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    Best Ideas For Descriptive Essay Topics


    • Childhood memories. Everyone has them, and you are not an exception. It can be something humorous, so don’t hesitate to use your personal feelings and thoughts when writing a great descriptive essay.
    • When writing your mla format paper , you can focus on widespread fears, like snakes and height phobias, but they may not sound original enough for your picky professor. That’s why you should have a more unusual feat that can provide you with a better topic for your essay. You have many options to choose from, so start with working from your ideas and suggestions.
    • Scenic views. They provide students with a great flexibility to fully use their creativity. Make sure you choose the right words when describing favorite views to provide readers with a unique opportunity to imagine them too.
    • Embarrassing moments. When looking for unusual descriptive essay topics, use your humor to become a real writing genius, and the best part is that you are provided with plenty of room.
    • This topic idea is quite personal, and you are free to write about anything, such as influencing the life of other people, and so on.

    Great Examples of Descriptive Essay Topics


    If you still have no suitable topic in your mind, focus on this list of interesting and fresh ideas to get inspired by them. Choose the most interesting one that you can describe well because it’s hard to write a good academic essay if you don’t like its subject.

    • Your favorite character from book, movies, and cartoons.
    • A person you’d like to resemble.
    • The worst place in the world.
    • The best place for your next vacation.
    • A holiday celebration in any chosen country.
    • Your perfect house.
    • Your favorite season.
    • The best cuisine in your opinion.
    • Your perfect partner to write a sample case study .
    • Your first day at high school.
    • The worst and best moments in your life.
    • The most convenient place and way to do academic homework.
    • Your experiences in learning foreign languages.
    • Your favorite piece of art.

    How to Prewrite Descriptive Essays


    Choosing your topic is only the first step to write a good descriptive essay, so there are other stages involved, including prewriting or getting ready.

    • Create your thesis statement, which is the main idea of your future essay. Make sure it can tell readers more about the purpose of writing it and use the right thesis format . Pick the most important and interesting details to describe to support your thesis and include them into the main body.
    • Create an outline to list the ideas discussed in every paragraph of your academic essay. Don’t forget about the introductory one, at least a few main paragraphs, and your conclusion.

    Tips on Writing a Good Academic Essay


    • It should be structured in a way that really makes sense in terms of your chosen topic. For example, if you’re writing about a specific event, your paragraphs should be listed in a chronological order. If you are trying to describe a place, they should go from general to specific.
    • Write a clear and interesting introduction. It’s a bit different from other papers, such as a cv example , and it should establish the main purpose of your descriptive essay.
    • Write a concise and clear topic sentence at the beginning of every main body paragraph. This is what provides readers with a better idea of its basic purpose. Make sure each of them is related to a topic sentence.
    • Give more sensory details to support your thesis. You can use a wide range of literary tools, including metaphors, similes, and so on.
    • Write a great conclusion that summarizes everything stated in your descriptive essay. It should literally restate your main thesis because it’s the last thing others will read, so your conclusion will stay in their mind the longest.

    Ideas on how to Finalize Your Descriptive Essay


    • Once your academic paper is finished, take a break and relax to refresh your mind. Take a look at it after a while to evaluate it as future readers.
    • Read your essay while keeping readers in mind and ask a few basic questions. Does it unfold in a certain way to help them understand your chosen topic? Are there any confusing paragraphs?
    • Reread it a few times, as it will help you achieve a few important goals, such as locating sections that may be confusing or awkward.
    • Ask your friends or other students to read your descriptive essay to ensure that it makes sense and has no mistakes to be fixed.
    • Proofread it once again for spelling, grammar, and other errors and clichés.

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    essay

    October 7, 2016

    Election 2016: The International Issues

    Photo by Gstudio Group/Fotolia

    This essay is one piece of a two-part overview of the issues facing America’s next president. Read about the domestic challenges here .

    From Russia to North Korea to the slaughter in Syria, the next president will face foreign-policy challenges that test the very fundamentals of world order.

    In recent months, RAND researchers have outlined the decisions that must be made, the dangers involved, and the least-bad options that now often pass for good ones. They have assessed the fight against ISIS, developed a peace plan for Syria, and mapped a future for the world economy.

    Senior political scientist Michael J. Mazarr set the scene in a recent op-ed . “U.S. foreign policy over the coming decade,” he wrote, “is likely to focus on the task of managing relations among a collection of tough, ambitious great powers that are determined to shift at least some of the global balance of power away from the United States.”

    ISIS: The Long Fight

    Iraqi Army and U.S. Army soldiers collaborate during a simulation at Camp Taji, Iraq, March 3, 2015

    Iraqi Army and U.S. Army soldiers collaborate during a simulation at Camp Taji, Iraq, March 3, 2015

    Photo by Sgt. Cody Quinn/U.S. Army

    The Islamic State has been driven from some of its most important cities and now finds itself under siege in others. But defeating it on the battlefield is only the first step in what will be a long fight to dismantle what it stands for.

    Western perceptions of the Islamic State as the command-and-control hub of an international terror corporation are misguided. Instead, it is a three-part threat , RAND experts wrote: the self-declared caliphate itself; its franchisees in places like Libya and Nigeria; and its ideology, open-sourced for anyone to claim.

    The coalition fighting ISIS on the ground has made great strides since senior international policy analyst Linda Robinson traveled through the region in the early months of the campaign. She found that the local forces on the front lines were, with some exceptions, fragmented, outgunned, and unprepared to reliably hold ground. Her recommendations, that the United States and its partners provide significantly more training and equipment to those local fighters, have since become strategy.

    ISIS’s opponents on Arabic-language Twitter outnumber its supporters, six to one.

    Success in the fight against ISIS will require further developing those local fighters into competent hold forces, she said, as well as establishing effective governance in Iraq and Syria.

    But as an ideology, ISIS is only the symptom of a disease, not the underlying cause, senior policy analyst Andrew Liepman and political scientist Colin P. Clarke wrote. The coalition still must address the social and political forces that gave rise to ISIS, such as vicious sectarian divisions in Iraq and the civil war in Syria.

    There is reason for optimism in an unlikely place. ISIS may be known for its deft use of social media, but a recent RAND analysis found that its opponents on Arabic-language Twitter outnumber its supporters, six to one . They could represent a potent force in the fight against the idea of ISIS.

    Syria: A Practical Peace Plan

    Civilians walk with containers for fuel and water in Aleppo, Syria, February 11, 2016

    Civilians walk with containers for fuel and water in Aleppo, Syria, February 11, 2016

    Photo by Alexander Kots/Komsomolskaya Pravda via AP

    The United States can no longer afford to wait for a comprehensive political settlement to bring an end to the bloodletting in Syria. Its principal goal, at least for now, should be to establish and sustain an enduring ceasefire , even if that means postponing a decision on the homicidal regime of President Bashar al-Assad.

    That is the only practical way to end the fighting, a team of RAND experts led by former ambassador and special envoy to Afghanistan James Dobbins concluded.

    Their peace plan would freeze the conflict along existing battle lines , effectively dividing Syria into several semi-independent zones—one controlled by the regime, one or more by the Arab opposition, and another by the Kurds. At least some state authority would devolve to those groups, allowing them to govern the areas they now hold, with international oversight.

    For now, America’s main goal in Syria should be to establish and sustain an enduring ceasefire.

    A fourth zone, the vast and desolate east of Syria, would remain a free-fire zone. There all sides could turn their attention to the destruction of a common enemy, the Islamic State.

    A durable ceasefire would at least buy negotiators time to work out the future shape of a Syrian state—and the fate of the Assad regime—without the running clock of a daily body count. Anything else risks making “’the best’ (that is, Assad’s removal) the enemy of ‘the good’ (maintaining the ceasefire),” the RAND experts wrote—and ending up with the worst, a resumption of violence with no realistic plan to stop it.

    Refugees: Lessening the Risk of Radicalization

    An aerial view of Lagadikia refugee camp near Thessaloniki, Greece, June 4, 2016

    An aerial view of Lagadikia refugee camp near Thessaloniki, Greece, June 4, 2016

    Photo by Nicolas Economou/NurPhoto

    As millions of displaced Syrians crowded into desert camps and urban slums, RAND researchers sought to better understand the forces that pushed former waves of refugees into the arms of radicals .

    Their study of more than half a dozen previous refugee crises, from Asia to Africa to the Middle East, identified several common threads that seem to lead toward greater risk of radicalization. They found, for example, that refugees kept in isolated camps, with little opportunity for work or education and little sense of security, have been especially vulnerable to infiltration by militant groups.

    Those findings provide a guide to the international community as it struggles to accommodate refugees now and in the future in a way that lessens the risk of radicalization. Host countries, in particular, should allow refugees some freedom of movement, provide adequate security, and establish opportunities for youth beyond primary school.

    Critical to those efforts, of course, is international support and funding that doesn’t wane as a refugee crisis drags into years.

    Some of that funding could support local businesses that employ both refugees and non-refugees, said senior political scientist Barbara Sude , the study’s lead author. That would improve the lives of people on both sides and strengthen the ties between their communities— all good defenses against the threat of radicalization.

    Russia: The Baltic Question

    Baltic Fleet mariners shout during the final rehearsal of the naval parade to mark Russian Navy Day, Baltiysk, Russia, July 27, 2016

    Baltic Fleet mariners shout during the final rehearsal of the naval parade to mark Russian Navy Day, Baltiysk, Russia, July 27, 2016

    Photo by Igor Zarembo/Sputnik via AP

    Sixty hours. In repeated war games at RAND , sixty hours is all it took Russian forces to punch through NATO’s thin defenses in eastern Europe and reach the capitals of Estonia or Latvia.

    It may seem unlikely that Russian President Vladimir Putin would risk war with NATO, senior research analysts David A. Shlapak and Michael Johnson wrote. But, as their games showed, the potential consequences if he did are so dire that it “may be less than prudent to allow hope to substitute for strategy.”

    Both NATO and the United States have announced stepped-up troop rotations in eastern Europe, a good first step at reinforcing deterrence. But RAND’s research concluded that NATO would need a force of about seven brigades—including three heavy armored brigades— on the ground, properly supported and backed by air power, to fundamentally change the strategic equation for Moscow.

    If Putin risked war with NATO by invading the Baltics, the potential consequences would be dire.

    That would represent a small part of overall spending of NATO member countries, Shlapak and Johnson wrote. Without further strengthening its eastern flank, they added, NATO will remain outnumbered, outranged, and outgunned.

    At the same time, the United States should look for ways to engage Russia , Mazarr wrote. There are areas for mutual cooperation, he noted, such as counterterrorism and nonproliferation. Russia aspires to a respected position in the world order, he wrote—not “the role of hated troublemaker.”

    North Korea: The Wild Card

    North Korean leader Kim Jong-Un watches a parade from a balcony at Kim Il-Sung Square in Pyongyang, May 10, 2016

    North Korean leader Kim Jong-Un watches a parade from a balcony at Kim Il-Sung Square in Pyongyang, May 10, 2016

    Photo by Wong Maye-E/AP

    An underground explosion in rural North Korea in early September rattled seismographs in South Korea and homes fifty miles away in China. It was North Korea’s most powerful nuclear test to date, the latest escalation in one of the world’s most dangerous guessing games.

    This year alone, the erratic regime of leader Kim Jong-Un has test-fired more than 30 ballistic missiles, sent a rocket into space in what was widely seen as another missile test, and detonated two nuclear bombs. Those tests show that the North is determined to advance its weapons programs and the threat they pose, even in the face of ever-tightening international sanctions, senior defense analyst Bruce W. Bennett wrote.

    North Korea’s nuclear tests call into question the long-standing U.S. approach of “strategic patience.”

    The tests also call into question the United States’ long-standing approach of “strategic patience” with North Korea, Bennett wrote. The U.S. sent two B-1 bombers over South Korea in a display of resolve after the September nuclear test, and has moved to deploy an advanced missile-defense system there.

    The quickening pace of provocations from the North this year suggests a weak leader feeling more and more internal pressure, Bennett wrote—and seeking to divert attention through displays of force. That raises another troubling question for the international community: What would happen if the North Korean regime collapses?

    That could plunge parts of the North into anarchy, leave its weapons of mass destruction exposed, and threaten civil war in a country with more than one million military and security personnel, Bennett said. At the same time, it would likely cut off food distribution, provoking a humanitarian disaster “even more serious than is normally the case in North Korea,” he said.

    Central America: Slowing the Exodus

    Coast Guard members from South Padre Island, Texas, detain Mexican nationals aboard a lancha after they were spotted fishing illegally in U.S. territorial waters, May 1, 2015

    Coast Guard members from South Padre Island, Texas, detain Mexican nationals aboard a lancha after they were spotted fishing illegally in U.S. territorial waters, May 1, 2015

    Photo by Petty Officer 1st Class Andrew Kendrick/U.S. Coast Guard

    Nearly 40,000 unaccompanied children, fleeing poverty and violence in Central America, made the treacherous journey to America last year and were stopped at the border. Even more have been coming this year.

    The United States is working with the governments of El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala to slow the exodus by stimulating economic growth, promoting education, and targeting criminal networks. But more needs to be done on this side of the border , senior policy researcher Daniel M. Gerstein and associate sociologist Ernesto F. L. Amaral wrote.

    Given the numbers and the need, the most relevant question for policymakers may be how to best integrate those children allowed to stay into American society. U.S. officials should better monitor how children fare in their host families, in their schools, and in their communities, Gerstein and Amaral wrote.

    History has repeatedly shown the futility of building “impenetrable” border walls to keep people out.

    More broadly, America needs to streamline its immigration court system, with more judges to hear more cases in less time, Gerstein wrote in a separate paper. It also should invest in better technologies to secure the border and target suspect air and sea cargoes as well as individuals.

    A wall across the southern border— “a thin brittle line,” in Gerstein’s words—would only divert money and resources from those needed reforms. The evidence of history, he wrote, from the Great Wall of China to the French Maginot Line, has repeatedly shown the futility of building “impenetrable” barriers to keep people out.

    Trade: Adapt and Integrate

    View of a container terminal in China

    Photo by chungking/Fotolia

    International free-trade deals may have few friends in presidential politics, but they could strengthen economies at home and abroad as the world adapts to some 21st-century realities.

    America will remain the dominant player in the world economy for the foreseeable future. But it will have to accommodate rising world powers like China, as well as developing nations whose economies are growing while those of America’s closest allies slip.

    The United States stands to gain more from strengthening world economic institutions and rules —and engaging with those rising powers— than from pulling back, senior economist Howard J. Shatz wrote. Despite the rhetoric, trade and investment deals represent valuable tools in that effort—measured both in domestic dollars and cents and in the expansion of the world economy.

    The United States should strive to maintain and strengthen the global system of trade it helped create.

    Because of that, the United States should approve some version of a Pacific trade and investment agreement, Shatz concluded—and include an on-ramp for China to join. The U.S. also should sign a new trade and investment agreement with Europe to help restore growth there and benefit both economies.

    This is a decisive moment for the world economy. The United States should strive to maintain and strengthen the global system of trade it helped create—“spurring growth so lives are improved,” Shatz said, “and demonstrating to countries that a U.S.-led economic system is a desirable one in which to participate.”

    — Doug Irving

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    Topics

    • Central America
    • International Trade
    • The Islamic State (Terrorist Organization)
    • Migration
    • North Atlantic Treaty Organization
    • North Korea
    • Nuclear Weapons and Warfare
    • Refugees
    • Russia
    • Syria
    • United States

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    GR70463
    Public Service is Personal JoyImagine spending a year in Taiwan touring the natural beauty of the Jade Mountain and experiencing Taiwanese culture and food. Now imagine doing that while also putting a smile on tons of underprivileged children faces. oesn!t the experience seem worthwhile to you” #r would you rather be sitting in class ta$ing notes” I strongly support the idea that young %mericans should be re&uired to spend at least one year in public service to give bac$ to the community and enhance their own $nowledge.%t first glance’ public service may seem to be a tedious and wasted labor( however there is a bigger picture to mandatory public service which is to give bac$ to the community. )esiding in Montgomery *ounty Public Schools’ I am re&uired to complete seventy+five hours of community service in order to obtain my graduation diploma. Many students argue that the mandatory seventy+five hours of service is far too much. ,owever’ I am highly supportive  because I believe that public service’ whether seventy+five hours or a whole year’ is necessary for young %mericans because of the lifelong lessons and s$ills cultivated by volunteering. Service learning is beneficial to a young %merican!s future career and builds a strong foundation of responsibility.)e&uiring public service teaches young %mericans civic responsibility in order to strengthen communities and enrich the learning of responsibilities for their future. Public service does not only benefit those whom receive the help’ but also the person or people whom perform the sincere act. The opportunity to serve the community gives a chance for students to -apply what theyve learned in the classroom to real human needs/ 0#nline *ollege1. %lthough many argue that re&uiring public service will ta$e too much time out of the already busy lives of young%mericans’ students will be able to use their $nowledge to -better solve problems/0-#nline

     

    GR70463
    *ollege/1 by applying it in the real world for a good cause. Thus allowing students to also be gain education and critical s$ills used in everyday life. In addition’ by being more aware of the community’ it suggests that young %mericans are more li$ely to become voters because they careabout the fate of their community. Public service also helps create connections between peers to advocate better social interaction and enhances vital s$ills such as leadership for young %mericans. )ather than sitting at home doing homewor$ and watching television’ young %mericans are given the chance to get out of the house and help out a good cause while having a great time. %lso’ students can practice volunteerism with friends. Therefore’ instead of spending time with friends playing video games’students socially interact with one another while volunteering. This promotes greater social interaction as one can also ma$es new friends who share similar experiences with them. )e&uired public service also allows for the learned concept of -volunteering can mean learning to ta$e charge/ 023ari$ #nline1. 4oung %mericans are given the opportunity to strengthen leadership expertise by organi3ing’ communicating’ and collaborating events with peers as a team. %s a result’ young %mericans will be better prepared to tac$le challenges in their lives.4oung %mericans who participate in public service experience different tas$s while giving them the opportunity to search for 5obs they are passionate about’ all the while giving  bac$ to the community. ,ow can volunteering help young %mericans find their passion” 6olunteering can ta$e place in a variety of different forms such as mentoring’ administrative wor$’ office wor$’ arts’ and teaching. 6olunteering for mentoring’ -the opportunity to provide support and friendship to a person who may be going through a difficult period’ is feeling lonely’ or is ad5usting to a ma5or change in their life/ 0-6olunteer Ireland/1′ can lead to a passion in spending time with less fortunate people. ,ence’ one who volunteered to mentor could decide to

     

    GR70463
     pursue an education in counseling and become a counselor or physical therapist. Students will beable to -experiment with possible career paths/ 07oenig #nline1.)e&uiring public service does not only provide for career selection’ but also influences ones opinion on public policy. % common volunteering act is pic$ing up trash on a local street. 8y doing so’ one could reali3e the importance of the environment and cleaning the environment could become a lifelong hobby and interest. #n a large scale’ the volunteer could 5oin certain interest groups to support the environment such as the Sierra *lub which is -protecting millions of acres of wilderness/ 0-%bout the Sierra *lub/1 as well as
     
    -helping pass the *lean %ir %ct’ *lean 9ater %ct’ and 2ndangered Species %ct./ 0-%bout the Sierra *lub/1 These interest groups influence the passing of certain laws’ therefore by deciding to 5oin( one can help create change insociety. %lso’ this reproduces the fact that public service allows young %mericans to become more responsible and ta$ing charge of their own community.Public service has played an important role in my life( defining who I am as a person. Since I was a child’ I was associated with different non+profit organi3ation and involved in numerous activities to help out the community. I can remember a time when I was very young where I helped pic$ up trash alongside a community road. %t the time’ my short attention span combined with all the wal$ing made me extremely grouchy. I thought it was dumb and boring however my parents constantly forced me to enroll in tons of service activities. uring many of these activities’ I would repeatedly mutter to myself’ -9hy am I doing this” 9hy am I wasting my time”/ In time’ I would discover that I volunteer because it gives me great 5oy and is always worth my time.Through my own experiences’ I have learned that public service is highly beneficial and necessary for all young %mericans. In the beginning’ my parents had to force and encourage me

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    How to Write an Application Essay for a Scholarship

    Four Methods: Getting the Basics Right Driving Home Why You Deserve It Making It Perfect Things to Avoid Community Q&A

    Scholarships are a very popular way to finance the education of most college students. As they are very popular it is often hard to get into these programs. You really need to impress and convince the donor that you are the right person for their financial support. With a great application essay that is well written and thought out you can achieve just that.

    Steps

    1

    Getting the Basics Right

    1. Image titled Write an Application Essay for a Scholarship Step 1

      1
      Read and analyze the essay question. You’re going to want to make sure you understand the essay question before you write anything. But this isn’t just about understanding the question or prompt itself; you need to also understand why they’re asking the things that they are. What are they trying to find out about you by asking this? Analyze the question and try to figure out what they’re looking for so that you can respond appropriately.

      • For example, questions about your area of interest are really trying to gauge your passion for your subject and how well you know it. Questions about current events are probably trying to gauge how aware you are of the world around you and how well you understand complex issues.
    2. Image titled Write an Application Essay for a Scholarship Step 2

      2
      Research the foundation/school/etc before writing the essay. Foundations, schools, and other organizations granting scholarships often have core values which drive their company. If you want to impress them, research and find some of the key terms and core values that they use consistently and work those ideas and terms into your essay. [1]
    3. Image titled Write an Application Essay for a Scholarship Step 3

      3
      Outline your essay before you write it. An outline is a road map to writing your essay, and without a road map you will get lost. Write down each of the points you want to make in answer the question, with a few notes on how you will make those points or evidence you will use. Figure out the best order for all of your paragraphs and write that down too. [2]

      • Consider also making notes about how you will transition between paragraphs. Good transitions will help your reader follow and understand your thought process, so it is important to do this well.
    4. Image titled Write an Application Essay for a Scholarship Step 4

      4
      Answer the question. Make sure that when you do write the essay, you actually answer the question they asked. This is important: don’t answer the question you think they asked, answer the question that they actually asked. Sometimes, especially when reading quickly or without enough depth, we tend to take the wrong message away from something. Make sure that what you’re writing is what they want to know.

    5. Image titled Write an Application Essay for a Scholarship Step 5

      5
      Stay within the word count range. Staying within the word count will keep you from losing some serious points. Too long and no one will want to read it. Too short and you will seem incompetent. Try to stay within the upper 20% of the word count range.

    2

    Driving Home Why You Deserve It

    1. Image titled Write an Application Essay for a Scholarship Step 6

      1
      Use firm language and a passionate tone. When you answer the questions, you want to sound like someone who does things on purpose and with conviction. This is the kind of person that people want to give scholarships to because it tells them that you’re actually going to go out, do things, and make their money count.

      • Don’t use words and phrases like “maybe”, “sort of”, “I try…”, or “I hope…”.
      • Do use words and phrases like “I’m sure…”, “I can…”, and “I will…”.
    2. Image titled Write an Application Essay for a Scholarship Step 7

      2
      Tell your story. You want your essay to be uniquely you. You want it to convey your story, not a story that could belong to anyone else. Find what makes you unique and work that into your essay. This can range from personal experiences to personal passions, and anything else you can think of. [3]
    3. Image titled Write an Application Essay for a Scholarship Step 8

      3
      Show your strengths. Use your essay to tell people what you’re good at. Show them your strengths and make sure to back up those strengths with examples. If you want to convey that you’re really organized, for example, tell them about how you helped your homeroom teacher completely revamp her storage system to be more efficient. Remember: don’t just tell…show.

      • For example, you can talk about your social skills. Tell them about how your frequent interactions with people have taught you to appreciate people from all walks of life and that
    4. Image titled Write an Application Essay for a Scholarship Step 9

      4
      Show why your shortcomings don’t matter. You will also want to acknowledge that you do have failures or shortcomings. This humanizes you and makes you sympathetic. However, it is also very important to show how those shortcomings don’t hinder you. Talk about how you overcome them and how you work through your problems. This makes you look smarter and more competent.

      • For example, if you’ve had some bad grades in the past, talk about how you used to have trouble prioritizing but that you worked out a system to help you focus and stay motivated.
      • Another example would be if you didn’t have a lot of social extracurriculars, like cheerleading or clubs. Discuss how you are shy but that you are starting to find new ways to ease yourself into situations that make you uncomfortable so that you can improve your social skills.
      • Does your academic and activity background look really all over the place? Disconnected and random? Don’t worry about this making you look unfocused. All you have to do is play up how well rounded all of these activities have made you. “With these experiences, I am ready to handle any situation or hardship that comes my way with ease and excellence.”

    3

    Making It Perfect

    1. Image titled Write an Application Essay for a Scholarship Step 10

      1
      Reread the essay to make sure you covered everything. Once you’re done writing it, make sure that what you wrote really answers the question or prompt and that your answer covered everything you wanted to cover. Rereading is a really useful step and can make a huge difference in the quality of any writing.

      • A useful trick is to wait a day or two before rereading your essay for the first time. This will help your brain to recognize mistakes because it won’t remember what you intended to write and fill in the blanks.
    2. Image titled Write an Application Essay for a Scholarship Step 11

      2
      Rewrite your essay. As you reread, you will almost certainly find things that you could have explained better or mistakes that you made. Copy edit your paper and look for grammar and spelling mistakes, tense problems, or even sentences which are correct but sound weird. Rewrite as much or as little as you feel is appropriate and don’t be afraid to rewrite again.

      • One trick to making sure that your text sounds perfect is to read it out loud to yourself. This will make it easier to spot problems and awkward sentences. Try to replace awkward sections with text that mirrors how you actually speak.
    3. Image titled Write an Application Essay for a Scholarship Step 12

      3
      Have someone edit it for you. Editing is very important. You can be an excellent editor with a fantastic knowledge of grammar and spelling and still make mistakes. If you give the essay to someone with good editing skills, they can only help you improve it by catching things that you might not. You can give your essay to a parent, a teacher, or a guidance counselor.

    4. Image titled Write an Application Essay for a Scholarship Step 13

      4
      Wait to send it. While you shouldn’t wait until the last minute, you should give it a little time before sending it in. This will give you time to think more about the answer and how you feel about what you wrote. If you still like it after waiting for a bit, send it in.

    4

    Things to Avoid

    1. Image titled Write an Application Essay for a Scholarship Step 14

      1
      Don’t write the essay last minute. Don’t wait until the last minute to write your essay. This will make you rushed and lower the quality of your work. It will also take away from the time that you could have spent perfecting and editing your essay. How much time you need is really dependent on you, but do make sure that you give yourself enough.

      • Take into account that it might be harder than you thought. It could also be that you end up being a lot busier than you thought. You may not have as much time available as you plan to so make sure to leave yourself lots of wiggle room.
    2. Image titled Write an Application Essay for a Scholarship Step 15

      2
      Avoid using boring language. Don’t sound cliché, and don’t use all of these overused descriptors. You really need to make your essay stand out so use language which is active, exciting, and engaging. A good way to do this is to follow the advice above about making it personal and passionate.

    3. Image titled Write an Application Essay for a Scholarship Step 16

      3
      Don’t ramble. Make sure that everything you write clearly ties back to the question you were asked and the unifying statement of your answer. You don’t want someone to get to the end of your essay and say, “What did I just read?” In fact, if you get too off topic, they probably won’t finish reading it at all.

    4. Image titled Write an Application Essay for a Scholarship Step 17

      4
      Don’t whine. Don’t make your essay into some sob story. It shouldn’t be about someone giving you money because you’ve had such a hard time. Everybody has had a hard time at one point or another. You should instead make your story one of triumph in the face of adversity. They will want to give you money if they see you as someone who can defy the odds. [4]

      • Having a sob story and then defying the odds by trying to go to college isn’t really enough, by the way. Having a really tough time and still getting good grades or managing to hold down a job during high school is much better.
    5. Image titled Write an Application Essay for a Scholarship Step 18

      5
      Avoid making yourself seem perfect. This gives the impression that A) you have a very unrealistic view of yourself and your abilities or B) you’re lying or C) you’ve never had to work through problems and will be unprepared to handle the stress of college or whatever it is you’re studying.

    Community Q&A

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        Tips

        • A great way to find a scholarship that is designed for your needs and lies in your fields of studies is the Federal Trade Commission or on sites that specialize on scholarship application processes and give you information and tips to select the right program. The Federal Trade Commission website for example has many resources and links for people who are looking for are scholarship and their service is free of charge.
        • Applying for a scholarship should not cost you money. Be wary of ones that do and check to make sure they are legit.
        • Read other application essays to get an idea of what works really well and what doesn’t.

        Warnings

        • Do not plagiarize! It has become very easy for people to tell when you’ve plagiarized an essay. You won’t be doing yourself any favors and you might end up in a lot of trouble.

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        Sources and Citations

        1. http://www.usnews.com/education/blogs/the-scholarship-coach/2013/01/31/4-ways-to-make-your-scholarship-essay-stand-out
        2. http://www.scholarships.com/financial-aid/college-scholarships/scholarship-application-strategies/top-10-tips-for-writing-effective-scholarship-essays/
        3. http://www.studyabroad.wisc.edu/pdf/Writing%20Tips%20for%20Scholarship%20Essays.pdf
        4. http://www.msjc.edu/StudentServices/Counseling/Documents/How%20to%20write%20a%20good%20scholarship%20essay.pdf

        Show more… (1)

        Article Info

        Categories: Scholarships | Application Essays

        In other languages:

        Italiano:  Scrivere un Saggio di Candidatura per una Borsa di Studio , Español:  escribir un ensayo de aplicación para una beca , Português:  Escrever um Ensaio de Candidatura para uma Bolsa de Estudos , 中文:  写奖学金申请文章 , Русский:  написать эссе для получения стипендии , Deutsch:  Ein Essay für eine Stipendienbewerbung schreiben , Français:  rédiger une dissertation pour une demande de bourse , Bahasa Indonesia:  Menulis Esai Lamaran Beasiswa

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        Essay Scholarships

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        Visit Us

        Join us at an upcoming event and learn more about the Isenberg MBA and our other professional programs. These occasions are a great opportunity to ask questions of advisors, professors and current students. Our recruiting team will be on hand to answer your questions and can help you determine the option that best suits your needs.

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        Oct
        16

        Online MBA Virtual Information Session

        12:00pm1:00pm EST
        Virtual

        Join MaryBeth Kimball, Director of New Business Development & Recruitment for Professional Programs to learn more about Isenberg’s Online MBA program. The session will cover FAQ’s about the admissions process and curriculum overview. Register today!

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        Oct
        22

        Full-time MBA Isenberg Visit Day

        1:30pm4:30pm EST
        Amherst, MA

        Isenberg Visit Days, hosted by the Full-time MBA, are opportunities for you to get a detailed overview of the MBA Program’s distinctive features and admission process. Take this opportunity to ask questions and learn more about the program. Register today!

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        Oct
        24

        Full-time MBA Virtual Information Session

        12:00pm1:00pm EST
        Virtual

        Join Mike Famighette, Director of the Full-time MBA, to learn more about Isenberg’s 2-year residential Full-time MBA program. The session will cover FAQ’s about the admissions process, curriculum overview, and the Isenberg MBA fellowship. Register today! 

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        Oct
        25

        Fall 2018 New England Graduate Business Forum

        5:00pm8:00pm EST
        Sheraton Boston Hotel

        Meet admission representatives from the Isenberg Graduate Program at the Fall 2018 New England Graduate Business Forum.

        Sheraton Boston Hotel
        39 Dalton Street
        Boston, MA 02199           

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        Oct
        29

        Full-time MBA Isenberg Visit Day

        1:30pm4:30pm EST
        Amherst, MA

        Isenberg Visit Days, hosted by the Full-time MBA, are opportunities for you to get a detailed overview of the MBA Program’s distinctive features and admission process. Take this opportunity to ask questions and learn more about the program. Register today!

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        Nov
        5

        Full-time MBA Isenberg Visit Day

        1:30pm4:30pm EST
        Amherst, MA

        Isenberg Visit Days, hosted by the Full-time MBA, are opportunities for you to get a detailed overview of the MBA Program’s distinctive features and admission process. Take this opportunity to ask questions and learn more about the program. Register today!

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        Nov
        6

        MS in Business & Analytics Information Session

        5:30pm6:30pm EST
        Isenberg 112

        Join Linda Enghagen, Associate Dean For Isenberg Professional Programs, as well as admissions staff for an in-person information session. The session will cover FAQ’s about the admissions process and curriculum overview. Register today!

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        Nov
        14

        Online MBA Virtual Information Session

        12:00pm1:00pm EST
        Virtual

        Join MaryBeth Kimball, Director of New Business Development & Recruitment for Professional Programs to learn more about Isenberg’s Online MBA program. The session will cover FAQ’s about the admissions process and curriculum overview. Register today!

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        Nov
        15

        Full-time MBA Virtual Information Session

        12:00pm1:00pm EST
        Virtual

        Join Mike Famighette, Director of the Full-time MBA, to learn more about Isenberg’s 2-year residential Full-time MBA program. The session will cover FAQ’s about the admissions process, curriculum overview, and the Isenberg MBA fellowship. Register today! 

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        Dec
        4

        MS in Business & Analytics Information Session

        5:30pm6:30pm EST
        Isenberg 112

        Join Linda Enghagen, Associate Dean For Isenberg Professional Programs, as well as admissions staff for an in-person information session. The session will cover FAQ’s about the admissions process and curriculum overview. Register today!

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        Dec
        11

        Full-time MBA Virtual Information Session

        12:00pm1:00pm EST
        Virtual

        Join Mike Famighette, Director of the Full-time MBA, to learn more about Isenberg’s 2-year residential Full-time MBA program. The session will cover FAQ’s about the admissions process, curriculum overview, and the Isenberg MBA fellowship. Register today! 

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        Jan
        28

        The MBA Tour – San Francisco

        2:00pm9:00pm EST
        5 Embarcadero Center, San Francisco, CA

        Meet with our admissions representatives at the upcoming MBA Tour in San Francisco. Register today! 
         

        Regency San Francisco 
        5 Embarcadero Center 
        San Francisco, CA 94111 

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        Jan
        30

        The MBA Tour – Boston

        2:00pm10:00pm EST
        Hynes Convention Center, Boston, MA

        Meet with our admissions representatives at the upcoming MBA Tour in Boston. Register today! 

        Hynes Convention Center
        900 Boylston Street
        Boston,  MA 02115

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        The MBA Tour – NYC

        9:00am5:00pm EST
        Sheraton New York Hotel and Towers, NY, NY

        Meet with our admissions representatives at the upcoming MBA Tour in Boston. Register today! 
         

        Sheraton New York Hotel and Towers
        811 7th Avenue
        New York,  NY 10019

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        Grand Hyatt Washington
        1000 H Street, NW 
        Washington, DC 20001 

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         » 50 Best Value Christian MBA Programs 2015 logo

        The Trusted Online Guide to Christian Colleges & Universities.

        FIND A CHRISTIAN DEGREE PROGRAM THAT’S RIGHT FOR YOU!

        FIND A CHRISTIAN DEGREE PROGRAM THAT’S RIGHT FOR YOU!

        FIND A CHRISTIAN DEGREE PROGRAM THAT’S RIGHT FOR YOU!

        FIND A CHRISTIAN DEGREE PROGRAM THAT’S RIGHT FOR YOU!

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        50 Best Value Christian MBA Programs 2015

        Staff Writers

        50 Best Value Christian MBA Programs 2015

        The value of an MBA education continues to be strong as ever. Full-time MBA graduates typically see an increase in their salary when compared to their earnings before starting business school. Employers continue to target MBA graduates when seeking new hires. The institutions in our ranking not only position their graduates for a significant increase in their salary, but they also equip and train their graduates to integrate their Christian faith into the fast paced and challenging environment they will face upon graduation. We have put together this ranking to help those seeking an intentionally Christian MBA education to further investigate the 50 best Christian MBA programs in the country.

        To produce this ranking we began with schools that have been accredited by one of the following organizations: Transnational Association of Christian Colleges and Schools ( TRACS ) or Council for Christian Colleges and Universities ( CCCU ). In addition to these accrediting bodies, we have also considered members of the Association of Christian Schools International ( ACSI ). If an institution meets this initial criteria, we then narrowed the list down to schools with residential MBA programs. Qualifying schools were then ranked based upon the number of MBA concentrations offered, tuition costs, and special business school accreditation. We assigned a 20% weight to the number of MBA concentrations, 40% to the tuition costs, and 40% to the category of business school accreditation.

        50

        Azusa Pacific University

        Azusa Pacific University (APU) is located in Azusa, California. A private, evangelical institution founded in 1899, APU is one of the largest Christian universities in the nation and has been named one of America’s Best Colleges by U.S. News & World Report. An AACSB candidate school, APU’s MBA program is fully accredited by IACBE and WASC. APU offers six MBA concentrations options, including: Entrepreneurship; Finance; and International Business. The program requires 38 units for graduation, with tuition costs of $752 per unit. Most students complete the program within 18 – 36 months and the classes meet one night per week.

        49

        Point Loma Nazarene University

        Point Loma Nazarene University (PLNU), located in San Diego, California, was established in 1902. The Official University of the Southwest Educational Region of the Church of the Nazarenes, PLNU is accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges and their business school is accredited by ACBSP. PLNU offers both a Daytime MBA, designed for recent graduates, and an Evening MBA for working professionals. PLNU’s Evening MBA degree may be earned in 24 to 28 months while their Daytime MBA may be completed within one year; both provide student with valuable networks through connections with faculty and classmates. A 42 credit hour program, tuition cost for the for both MBA programs is $785 per unit.

        48

        Samford University

        Samford University , located in Birmingham, Alabama, holds the distinction of being the 87th oldest university in the nation. Founded in 1841, Samford has been ranked #3 of the Best Regional Universities in the South by U.S. News & World Report and the #1 Top University in Alabama by Forbes. 93% of the faculty hold terminal degrees and Samford’s business school is accredited by the AACSB. Samford offers their MBA program with concentrations available in Entrepreneurship and Finance & Marketing. Tuition falls in the upper range at $744 per credit hour.

        47

        Charleston Southern University

        Charleston Southern University (CSU), located in Charleston, SC, is one of South Carolina’s largest accredited private universities. Founded in 1964, CSU is affiliated with the South Carolina Baptist Convention and has been rated one of America’s Best Christian Colleges. CSU’s residential MBA program is available with 5 emphasis in Accounting; Finance; Leadership; Management Information Systems; Human Resource Management; and General Management. 99% of students enrolled in the MBA program are employed prior to admission. Tuition costs fall into the mid-to-low range for degrees of this type at $722 per credit hour.

        46

        Cairn University

        Cairn University , located in Langhorne, Pennsylvania, was established in 1913 originally as the Philadelphia Bible Institute. A non-denominational Christian institution, Cairn has an average graduate class size of 10 students and a 9:1 student/faculty ratio. An IACBE accredited program, Cairn’s residential MBA places emphasis on the “integration of biblical ethics and wisdom with business practice”. A 42 credit program, full time students may complete the program within 2 years. Tuition costs are $726 per credit.

        45

        Bluffton University

        Bluffton University is a Mennonite affiliated institution, established in 1899 and located in Bluffton, Ohio. Accredited by the Higher Learning Commission, Bluffton has been ranked by U.S. News & World Report in the top tier at #25 in the “Best Regional Colleges” listings. The school’s residential MBA program offers concentrations in five areas including Leadership; Health Care Management; and Accounting and Financial Management. Total tuition for the four semester program is $21,780, including all fees and books.

        44

        Lipscomb University

        Lipscomb Universit y, located in Nashville, Tennessee, was established in 1891 by David Lipscomb and James A. Harding and is affiliated with the Churches of Christ denomination. Accredited by ACBSP, Lipscomb’s residential MBA program offers both Professional MBA (PMBA) and MBA programs with concentrations in available in nine areas including: Accounting; Conflict Management; Financial Services; Leadership; and Non-Profit Management. Lipscomb’s evening MBA program may be completed in as little as 12-24 months and requires no minimum work experience. The GMAT score average is 530 and tuition costs an estimated total of $46,440, including books and case material.

        44

        LeTourneau University

        LeTourneau University (LETU), located in Longview, Texas, is a private Christian university. Founded in 1946 as a nondenominational school, the university is accredited by SACSCOC. LETU tied for #27 in U.S. News & World Report’s list of Best Regional Universities in the West. An IACBE accredited program, LETU’s MBA degree is offered at their Houston Center and online, following a model that allows students to complete one three-to-seven week long course at a time. Each course begins on a Monday and most assignments are due by the following Sunday evening. Tuition cost is $680 per credit hour with an estimated total tuition cost of $23,800.

        43

        Spring Arbor University

        Spring Arbor University (SAU) is the second-largest Evangelical Christian University in the state of Michigan. Located in Spring Arbor, MI, SAU was founded in 1873 for the purpose of providing a Christ-centered liberal arts education to students. Accredited by the Higher Learning Commission, SAU tied for #49 in U.S. News & World Report’s 2014 rankings of Best Regional Universities in the Midwest. SAU’s MBA program is available with the following concentrations: Finance; Healthcare Administration; Human Resource Management; Management; Organizational Development; and Strategic Leadership. SAU does not require applicants to take the GMAT/GRE or have any prior business school. Tuition cost is $605/credit hour, or $21,708 for the entire program. A 36 credit hour program, students may earn their MBA in as little as 18 months, making SAU’s MBA an affordable and flexible option.

        42

        King University , located in Bristol, Tennessee, is a private, Christian university and was founded in 1867 and is affiliated with the Presbyterian Church.  King offers both a Professional MBA (PMBA) program as well as a Traditional MBA. Concentrations for both programs include: Accounting; Finance; Healthcare Management; Human Resources Management; Management; and Marketing. King’s PMBA meets one night a week and the program may be completed in 16 months. Traditional MBA may be completed in as little as 10 months. Total tuition and fees expenses for the Traditional MBA are $19,500 and include a travel experience trip. Tuition for King’s PMBA is $490 with an estimated total of $17,940. There are no GMAT score requirements, however the PMBA does require 2 years of prior work experience.

        41

        Dallas Baptist University

        Dallas Baptist University (DBU) is a private liberal arts university. Located in Dallas, Texas, the school was founded in affiliation with the Baptist General Convention of Texas in 1898. DBU’s residential MBA program is available with concentrations in 13 areas including: Finance; Health Care Management; International Business; Management Information Systems; Marketing; and Project Management. Tuition costs are $704 per credit hour and a minimum of 36 credit hours are required for MBA graduates.

        39

        George Fox University

        George Fox University (GFU), located in Newberg, Oregon, was founded in 1891 as a school for Quakers and is affiliated with the Northwest Yearly Meeting of Friends. GFU has received numerous national recognitions including Forbes, Money Magazine, and U.S. News & World Report. Accredited by the ACBSP, GFU offers both One-Year and Part-Time MBA programs. Classes for the Part-Time MBA meet at the Portland Center once per week and students may choose either a weeknight format, or a weekend format. A 42 credit hour program, Part-Time students may earn their degree in 24 months with a total tuition cost of $32,970. GFU’s One-Year MBA program also a 42 credit hour program with classes meeting throughout the week. Courses are held at GFU’s Newberg Campus. Tuition cost for the One-Year MBA program is $742 per credit hour.

        38

        Geneva College

        Geneva College , located in Beaver Falls, Pennsylvania, was founded in 1848 by the Reformed Presbyterian Church of North America. Ranked at #14 in U.S. News & World Report’s list of the Best Regional Colleges in the North, Geneva’s business school is accredited by the ACBSP. Geneva’s MBA program is available with concentrations in Financing; Marketing; and Operations. A 36 credit hour program designed for working professionals, courses meet one night per week for nine weeks with classes that are designed to have practical application that students may put into practice immediately. Tuition costs are $695 per credit hour with an estimated total program cost of $25,020.

        37

        Malone University

        Malone University , located in Canton, Ohio, is a private, Christian, liberal arts university. Established in 1892, the university is named after its founders, Walter and Emma Malone, and had its start as a Bible College, originally. Malone’s MBA program is fully accredited by the ACBSP and students may enroll for classes online, on campus, or as full time students. No thesis is required for graduation and students can earn their MBA degree in as little as 18 months (if enrolled full time) to 24 months. Class sizes are kept small – between 15-25 students – with on-site classes meeting one night per week. Tuition is $625 per credit hour, with an estimated total tuition cost of $22,500.

        36

        Oklahoma Wesleyan University

        Oklahoma Wesleyan University (OKWU), located in Bartlesville, Oklahoma, is a private, Christian university. Ranked #6 in U.S. News & World Report’s Best Regional Colleges in the West, OKWU is accredited by The Higher Learning Commission. Designed for experienced working professionals, OKWU’s MBA program is available with concentrations in four areas: Finance; Human Resources; Marketing; and Nursing Management. Tuition costs are $11,404 per semester for the full-time student.

        35

        Bryan College

        Bryan College , located in Dayton, Tennessee, is a Christian liberal arts college and was established in 1930. Founded in response to the aftermath of the 1925 Scopes Trial, the school holds to the motto of “Christ Above All” and is committed to equipping students with a Biblical worldview. Ranked as #22 in U.S. News & World Report’s list of Best Regional Colleges in the South, Bryan College offers a MBA program available both on-site and online. An IACBE accredited program, concentrations are available in Marketing; Human Resources; and General Management. A minimum undergraduate GPA of 2.75 is required for admission and tuition costs are $495 per credit hour with an estimated total program cost of $17,640.

        34

        Milligan College

        Milligan College is a Christian, liberal arts institution founded in 1866 and located in Tennessee. Affiliated with Churches of Christ, Milligan is accredited by the Commission on Colleges and the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. Milligan offers a 14-month long MBA program, designed specifically for working professionals. A 32-credit hour program, classes meet one Saturday per month and follow a cohort model where students progress through the program together, graduating as a group. Courses are offered at both the Milligan campus as well as at the Center for Higher Education, in Kingsport. MBA concentration options include Leadership; Healthcare Management; and Operations Management. Tuition costs are $575 per credit hour, or $18,400 for the entire program (tuition cost only)

        33

        Lee University

        Lee University , located in Cleveland, Tennessee, is a private, Christian, liberal arts institution. One of the largest of its kind in the state, Lee was founded in 1918 by the Church of God. Accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges, Lee’s business school is also accredited by the ACBSP. Lee offers their MBA program in a unique hybrid format, combining a face-to-face classroom experience with online learning. Classes meet one evening per week and the MBA program may be completed in as little as 24 months. Tuition costs at Lee are $600 per semester hour; MBA students are also required to pay a MBA program fee of $400 per semester.

        32

        Houston Baptist University

        Houston Baptist University (HBU) was established in 1960 by the Baptist General Convention of Texas. Located in Houston, Texas, HBU is accredited by the Commission on Colleges and Schools of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. HBU offers a residential MBA program that may be completed in as little as 16 months. In order to make the program more easily accessible to working adults, HBU offers their courses four nights each week, Monday through Thursday, and grants rolling admission. Total tuition cost for students with a Bachelor of Business Administration is $30,000; non-BBA graduate tuition cost is $38,000.

        31

        Southern Nazarene University

        Southern Nazarene University (SNU) was founded in 1899 by the Church of the Nazarene. Located in Bethany, Oklahoma, SNU is a private, Christian, liberal arts university, the school tied for #84 in U.S. News & World Report’s ranking of Best Regional Universities in the West. SNU’s school of business is accredited by the Association of Collegiate Business Schools and Programs ACBSP). SNU currently their MBA program in both a general MBA track and an MBA with a Health Care concentration. Tuition cost is $27,280 for the entire program and includes books, laptop, and fees. A 40 credit hour program, most students complete their MBA degree in as little as 22 months.

        30

        Warner University

        Warner University was founded in 1968 in Lake Wales, Florida. Affiliated with the Church of God denomination, Warner is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges. Warner’s residential MBA program offers concentrations in three areas: International Business; Accounting; and Human Resource Management. Warner’s MBA degree may be earned in as little as 24 months. Tuition costs are $490 per credit.

        29

        Shorter University – Ledbetter College of Business

        Shorter University , located in Rome, Georgia, is a private liberal arts university established in 1873 under the Georgia Baptist Convention. Named one of the “Best in the Southeast” by The Princeton Review as well as one of the “Top 20 Southern Comprehensive Colleges” by U.S. News and World Report, SU is an accredited member in the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. Shorter University’s residential MBA program is a 31 semester credit program, designed to be completed in as little as one year and is offered in three metro Atlanta campuses, Marietta, Duluth, and Riverdale, and at the Rome campus. Tuition costs fall into the low range at $445/credit hour with an $12,555 estimated total program costs.

        28

        Carson-Newman University

        Carson-Newman University (C-N) is a private, Christian, liberal arts university located in Jefferson City, Tennessee and was founded in 1851. Ranked as one of the Best in the Southeast by the Princeton Review, C-N is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges. C-N offers a 30-credit hour residential MBA program which may be completed in as little as 11 to 24 months. Courses are designed to offer students flexibility by allowing them to enroll as either part time or full time students. Tuition costs are $450 per credit hour with an estimated total tuition cost of $13,500 (not including books or fees).

        27

        Tabor College

        Tabor College , located in Hillsboro, Kansas, was established in 1908 by the Mennonite Brethren and Krimmer Mennonite Brethren denominations. A private liberal arts institution, Tabor College is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission and is a member of the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools. The school tied for #49 in U.S. News & World Report’s list of Best Regional Colleges in the Midwest. Tabor College’s residential MBA program has the option of concentrations in the areas of Sales Management; Accounting; Leadership. The program is geared towards working adults and may be completed in less than 24 months. Tuition costs are $367/credit hour and there are no GMAT or GRE requirements.

        26

        California Baptist University

        California Baptist University (CBU) is located in Riverside, CA and was founded in 1950 by the California Southern Baptist Convention. A private liberal arts college, CBU is known as one of the best Christian universities in Southern California and has been named in U.S. News & World Report’s rankings for Best Regional Universities in the West. ACBSP accredited, CBU offers two residential MBA options with evening classes or an accelerated daytime program. The CBU MBA is available with concentrations in Healthcare Administration and Management. A program geared toward working professionals who are seeking to advance their careers, tuition is $726 per credit hour and approximately 36 credits are required to complete the program.

        25

        Franciscan University of Steubenville

        Located in Steubenville, Ohio, Franciscan University of Steubenville was founded in 1946 by the Franciscan Friars of the Third Order Regular. A Catholic university, Franciscan has been ranked by U.S. News & World Report in their annual ”Best Regional Universities” list as #30 in the Midwest. Franciscan’s MBA program offers an emphasis in Accounting and focuses on the application of functional business knowledge with the goal of producing “a generalist rather than a specialist.” Tuition costs are $695 per credit hour.

        24

        Belhaven University

        Belhaven University , located in Jackson, Mississippi, is a private, Christian, liberal arts institution founded in 1883. Belhaven has been listed as #65 in U.S. News & World Report’s ranking of the Best Regional Universities of the South. An IACBE accredited degree, Belhaven’s MBA program offers concentrations in Health Administration; Human Resources; Leadership; and Sports Administration. Designed for working professionals, classes are offered one night a week with a concentrated, continuous format approach. Belhaven’s admission requirements include a 2.8 cumulative GPA and a minimum two years of full-time work experience. Tuition costs are $590 per credit hour and include the cost of books; estimated total program cost is $21,240.

        23

        North Greenville University

        North Greenville University (NGU) is a comprehensive university located in Tigerville, South Carolina, and was founded in 1891. NGU is affiliated with the Southern Baptist Convention and received accreditation from the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. NGU offers a residential MBA program with concentrations available in Financial Planning and Human Resources Management. Tuition cost per credit hour is $425. A minimum undergraduate GPA average of 2.7 is required for admission; students who do not meet this GPA requirement may be asked to take the GRE exam.

        22

        Ohio Christian University

        Ohio Christian University (OCU), located in Circleville, OH, was established in 1948 originally as Circleville Bible College. Since its founding, OCU has expanded its scope and is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission of the North Central Association. Aside from their general MBA track, OCU currently offers their MBA program with six concentration options including: Accounting; Digital Marketing; Finance; Healthcare Management; Human Resources; and Organizational Leadership. A 36 semester credit program, tuition costs are $475 per credit.

        21

        Bethel College

        Located in Mishawaka, Indiana, Bethel College , is a private, Christian, liberal arts institution and was founded in 1947. Affiliated with the Missionary Church, Bethel’s business school is accredited by IACBE and the school was ranked by U.S. News & World Report as #19 in their list of Best Regional Colleges in the Midwest. Bethel’s MBA program is made up of 36-semester hours and may be earned in 24-months. Courses are flexible and students may begin at any time throughout the academic year. Classes are held in the evening, scheduled one at a time with one session each week. Tuition costs are $410 per credit hour with an estimated total tuition cost of $14,760 (not including books or fees).

        20

        MidAmerica Nazarene University

        A private, comprehensive liberal arts institution, MidAmerica Nazarene University (MNU) was established in 1966 and the school’s main campus is located in Olathe, KS. Affiliated with the Church of the Nazarene, MNU is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission and their business school is also ACBSP accredited. MNU’s residential MBA meets on-site one night each week and classes may be attended at either the school’s main campus in Olathe or at their Liberty Site in Liberty, MO. A 36 credit hour program, tuition costs are $515 per credit hour and the degree may be completed in 24 months. Admissions requirements include a minimum GPA of 3.0 or higher in the last 60 hours of undergraduate coursework.

        19

        Montreat College

        Montreat College , founded in 1916, is a private, Christian, liberal arts institution, located in Montreat, North Carolina. The school’s residential MBA program is offered at both their Ashville, NC and Charlotte, NC campuses. An IACBE accredited program, Montreat’s faculty is made up of entrepreneurs and business leaders and the program is committed to making education convenient for working adults. Montreat offers a single emphasis, besides their general track program, in Cybersecurity. Tuition costs are $510 per credit hour.

        18

        Eastern Mennonite University

        Eastern Mennonite University (EMU) is a private liberal arts university, located in Harrisonburg, VA. Affiliated with the Mennonite Church USA, EMU is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges. EMU offers both an Online Collaborative MBA and residential MBA program. EMU’s on-campus MBA offers concentrations available in Nonprofit Entrepreneurial Management and Health Service Administration as well as their General Management track. EMU’s core MBA program is 36 credit hours and students taking the two courses per term complete their degrees in two years; there is no thesis required for graduation. Tuition costs are $550 per credit hour.

        17

        Messiah College

        Messiah College , located in Mechanicsburg, PA, was founded in 1909 by the Brethren in Christ Church and is accredited by the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools. Named #5 in the U.S. News & World Report’s ranking of the Best Regional Colleges (North); the school boasts a 13:1 student-to-faculty ratio and 85.5% of faculty have earned their terminal degrees. Messiah’s MBA program offers an emphasis in Leadership. Tuition costs are $610 per credit hour and GMAT and GRE scores are not required.

        16

        Hope International University

        Hope International University (HIU), located in Fullerton, California, is a private, Christian university established in 1928. A non-denominational institution, HIU is accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges. HIU offers a residential MBA with a variety of concentration options in: General Management; International Development; Marketing Management; Non-Profit Management; and also a Customizable concentration option. Tuition costs are $690 per credit hour with an estimated total tuition cost of $24,840. Acceptance rate requirements include a minimum cumulative GPA equivalent to at least 3.0 on a 4.0 scale in all prior undergraduate level work.

        15

        Regent University

        Regent University was founded in 1978 and is located in Virginia Beach, VA. Regent currently offers twelve areas of concentration for their MBA program, including: Accounting; Entrepreneurship; Finance & Investing; Franchising; Leadership; Marketing; and Healthcare Management. Regent’s MBA is accredited by the ACBSP. Tuition costs fall in the mid range for degrees of this type at $785 per credit hour. The average GMAT and GRE scores are 485. 96% of Regent’s MBA students are employed three months after graduation.

        14

        University of Mobile

        Located in Mobile, Alabama, the University of Mobile is a private university founded in 1961. Affiliated with the Alabama Baptist Convention, the University of Mobile’s residential MBA program is accredited by the ACBSP. Geared towards working professionals who desire to advance their careers, Mobile’s MBA offers a small classroom experience where students can benefit from personal attention from their professors. Evening classes are also scheduled to provide greater convenience for students who are employed full-time. Tuition costs are $502 per credit hour.

        13

        Campbellsville University

        Campbellsville University (CU), located in Campbellsville, Kentucky, was originally founded in 1906 as a Baptist institution and has been named one of the Best Regional Universities in the South by U.S. News & World Report. CU offers a 36 credit hour MBA program which may be completed in as little as two years. Concentrations for the MBA are available in the areas of: Church Management; Healthcare Management; Human Resource Management; Information Technology; International Business; and Marketing. CU’s program seeks to equip students with the leadership skills necessary for managerial positions and to provide real-world preparation. Tuition cost is $465/credit hour.

        12

        Grand Canyon University

        Established in 1949 and located in Phoenix, Arizona, Grand Canyon University (GCU) is known as one of Arizona’s premier private universities. An ACBSP accredited degree, GCU’s MBA program offers emphasis in eight areas including Accounting; Finance; Health Management Systems; Leadership; and Sports Business. Applicants are required to have an undergraduate degree from a GCU-approved institution with a GPA of 2.8 or better. Tuition costs are $418 per credit hour with an estimated cost of $15,048 for the entire traditional MBA program.

        11

        Campbell University

        Campbell University (CU), located in Buies Creek, North Carolina, was founded in 1887 as a private, Baptist institution. 92% of the school’s full time faculty hold terminal degrees and the university has a 19:1 student-to-faculty ratio. CU’s MBA program is AACSB accredited and is available in two forms: Part Time Evening MBA, which is geared towards working professionals and may be completed in as little as 12 months, or Full Time Traditional MBA which may be completed in two years and is an ideal for students with minimal work experience. Tuition costs are $700 per credit hour and students are given the opportunity to study abroad with ten-day, semester long and yearlong options available.

        10

        Anderson University

        Anderson University – IN (AU) is located in Anderson, Indiana and affiliated with the Church of God and was founded in 1917. AU’s business school is ACBSP accredited and offers three program options: Residential MBA; Professional MBA; and MSN-MBA. Only 19 students are admitted into AU’s Residential MBA program and with a full-time commitment the degree can be completed in as little as ten months. Tuition costs for the Residential MBA are $860/credit hour; included in the cost of the program is an apartment, a computer, and a global business experience. AU’s Professional MBA is available with concentrations in eight areas, including: Accounting; Human Relations; and Leadership. This program may be competed in only 22 months with tuition costs at $425 per credit hour.

        9

        Oral Roberts University

        Oral Roberts University (ORU), an interdenominational, Christian, liberal arts university, is located in Tulsa, OK. Founded in 1963 and named after its founder, the evangelist Oral Roberts, the university’s graduate business programs are accredited by the ACBSP. The school tied for #46 in U.S. News & World Report’s list of Best Regional Universities in the West. ORU currently offers both Leadership-MBA (LMBA) and MBA programs. Geared toward working professionals with the desire to advance their careers, ORU’s MBA is available with concentrations in seven areas, including: Accounting; Entrepreneurship; and Marketing. Minimum GPA score of 3.0 is required for the traditional MBA, and a score of 3.2 for the LMBA. Tuition costs are currently $609/credit hour for the MBA program.

        8

        Indiana Wesleyan University

        Indiana Wesleyan University (IWU) is located in Marion, Indiana and was established in 1920. A private, Christian university, IWU is affiliated with The Wesleyan Church and is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission of the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools. IWU tied for #26 on U.S. News & World Report’s list of Best Regional Universities in the Midwest. IWU offers a 42 credit hour MBA program with concentrations in the area of: Organizational Leadership; Personal Financial Planning; School Administration; and MSN-MBA. Tuition costs are $547 per credit hour. Acceptance rate requirements include an undergrad GPA of 2.5 or higher from an approved institution; applicants with a GPA lower than 2.5 may be admitted on a probationary basis as established by the guidelines of IWU.

        7

        Northwest Nazarene University

        Northwest Nazarene University (NNU), a private, Christian, liberal arts institution, is located in Nampa, Idaho and was founded in 1913. Affiliated with The Church of the Nazarene, NNU has been named among the Best Regional Universities in the West by U.S. News & World Report and their business school is accredited by the ACBSP. NNU’s MBA program is available with concentrations in Healthcare; Operations Management; Finance; Global Business; and Leadership. Tuition costs are $550/credit hour. Designed for the working adult, NNU’s MBA program may be completed in as little as 16 months.

        6

        University of Sioux Falls

        Located in Sioux Falls, North Dakota, the University of Sioux Falls (USF) was established in 1883 and is affiliated with the American Baptist Churches. USF tied for 38th Best Regional College in the Midwest in U.S. News & World Report’s 2013 ranking. USF offers an MBA program with concentrations available in Marketing; Healthcare Management; General Management; and Project management. Admission requirements include an undergraduate GPA score of 3.0 or higher. Classes are made up of about 15 students and the program’s tuition cost is $375 per credit hour with an estimated total tuition cost of $13,690. USF’s business school is fully accredited by the IACBE.

        5

        Mount Vernon Nazarene University

        Mount Vernon Nazarene University (MVNU) is located in Mount Vernon, Ohio and has earned a reputation of being Ohio’s premier Christian university. Affiliated with the Church of the Nazarene, MVNU tied at #67 in U.S. News & World Report’s Best Regional Universities list (Midwest). MVNU’s residential MBA program is available with concentrations in Finance; Human Resource Management; Health Care Management; and Organizational Management. An ACBSP accredited program, MVNU’s classes are kept small to allow students build solid relationships with classmates and professors.

        4

        Liberty University

        Located in Lynchburg, Virginia, Liberty University was established in 1971 by Dr. Jerry Falwell, Sr. Ranked at #80 in U.S. News & World Report’s “Best Regional Universities” in the South, Liberty’s MBA program is accredited by ACBSP. An accredited bachelors degree with a 3.0 or higher GPA and a minimum of 15 hours of upper level (300-400 level) undergraduate coursework in Business is required to be accepted into the program. Liberty’s MBA is available with 10 concentration options, including: Accounting; Criminal Justice; Leadership; Human Resources; and International Business. Tuition costs are $540 per credit hour with an estimated total tuition program cost of $19,440.

        3

        Oklahoma Baptist University

        Oklahoma Baptist University (OBU) was founded in 1910 by the Baptist General Convention of Oklahoma and is located in Shawnee, OK. The school is accredited by The Higher Learning Commission North Central Association of Colleges and Schools and the Association of Collegiate Business Schools and Programs (ACBSP). Ranked by U.S. News & World Report as the 4th Best Regional College in the West, OBU has been Oklahoma’s highest ranking regional college for over 20 years. OBU’s MBA program features four concentrated areas of study (along with their general MBA) in Energy Management; Leadership; Project Management, and International Business. Tuition costs fall into the low range for degrees of this type, at $450/credit hour. 100% of OBU’s MBA graduates are employed at graduation and experience an overall 20 – 30% increase in salary after graduating.

        2

        Mississippi College

        Mississippi College (MC) is a private institution located in Clinton, MS and affiliated with the Baptist denomination. Founded 1826, MC holds the distinction of being not only the oldest College in Mississippi, but also the second oldest Baptist University in the United States. U.S. News & World Report has ranked MC as the 29th Best Regional University in the South. Regionally accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges, MC’s MBA program is also accredited by the ACBSP. Tuition costs for MC’s residential MBA are $545 per credit hour. Areas of concentration include Accounting and Finance in addition to the general MBA track.

        1

        Oklahoma Christian University

        Oklahoma Christian University (OC), located in Edmond, OK, was established in 1950 as Central Christian College and is affiliated with the Churches of Christ. Since its founding, the school has grown into a comprehensive Christian university and has been ranked #40 in U.S. News & World Report’s Best Regional Universities (West). OC’s school of business is ACBSP accredited and their residential MBA program offers concentrations in seven areas including: Accounting; Finance; Human Resources; Marketing; and Project Management. A 36 credit hour degree, the program may be completed in as little as 12-16 months, or up to 24 months. Tuition costs are $484 per credit hour.

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        Accredited Online MBA Programs

        Table of Contents

        1 – Compare MBA Programs
        2 – Search Degrees by State
        3 – Best Value Degrees
        4 – MBA Accreditation
        5 – Pick the Right Program

        Choosing the right online MBA is one of the biggest decisions many business professionals make in their lives. The growing need to balance busy schedules and multiple responsibilities has made online MBAs a popular choice as they offer both affordability and flexibility. Our page brings together all the information you need to choose the right accredited online MBA program for you. Below you will find statistics on 100 of the top online MBA degrees, our top advice on how to measure the value of programs to ensure the best experience, a discussion of common accreditation bodies, and, finally, our ranking of top accredited online MBA programs. With this information in hand, you will be one step closer to finding the perfect school and program.


        Compare 100 Accredited Online MBA Programs

        You can quickly sort and compare accredited online MBA programs using the table below. Click on the arrows to reorganize the table according to various measures, such as acceptance rates and average GMAT entrance scores. While this table does not provide a combined ranking, it makes it easy to see how 100 top programs from across the country stack up on many important factors that all applicants should consider when choosing to apply to the right programs. Programs are listed in alphabetical order.

        SchoolRankAccept. RateAvg.
        Under-grad GPA
        Avg. GMATAvg. Class size3yr Grad RateTuition
        (in-state)
        Tuition
        (out-state)
        Arizona State University 964%3.25925092%$1435$1435
        Arkansas State University 176%3.76022694%$587$587
        Ashland UniversityN/A3N/A2156%$635$635
        Auburn University 1170%3.45723261%$850$850
        Ball State University 578%3.45712557%$394$590
        Baylor University 3368%3.161325N/A$1027$1027
        Boise State University 6493%3.453925N/A$750$750
        California State UniversityN/A47%3.357515N/A$254$626
        Carnegie Mellon UniversityN/A64%3.365829N/A$1920$1920
        Central Michigan University 3946%3.25382470%$600$600
        City University of SeattleN/A41%N/AN/A1077%$678$678
        Clarion University of Pennsylvania 595%3.44562760%$483$522
        Clarkson University 2161%35331287%$1100$1100
        Cleveland State University 3487%3.245220N/A$569$1074
        Columbus State University 1261%3.1483495%$739$739
        Creighton UniversityN/A60%3.254015N/A$1025$1025
        DeSales University 1087%3.3N/A1475%$815$815
        Drexel University 3189%3.14882380%$1255$1255
        East Carolina University 6180%3.25172848%$353$985
        Embry Riddle Aeronautical University 2774%3.14831549%$620$620
        Emporia State UniversityN/A44%3.4N/A21N/A$247$371
        Florida Atlantic University 4168%3.151428N/A$800$800
        Florida Institute of TechnologyN/A3.14382047%$896$896
        Florida International University 1054%3.35201782%$1000$1000
        Florida State University 1364%3.55582579%$750$750
        George Washington University 2669%3.15305068%$1690$1690
        Georgia College State University 1884%35261592%$739$739
        Georgia Southern University 4677%3.15002894%$739$739
        Hofstra University 3886%3.1N/A24100%$1579$1579
        Indiana University Bloomington 283%3.46413279%$1300$1300
        James Madison University 1696%3.250618100%$900$900
        Kansas State UniversityN/A3.458316N/A$833$833
        Kennesaw State University 4568%3.25902896%$739$739
        Lehigh University 4481%3.36132336%$1075$1075
        Marist College 4242%3.35302347%$780$780
        Mercer University 1955%3.252519N/A$727$727
        Mississippi State University 2471%3.35802548%$426$426
        Missouri State University1574%N/A5902070%$1230$1230
        North Carolina State University 2469%3.35983093%$1039$1659
        Northeastern University 5887%3.2N/A1744%$1513$1513
        Norwich UniversityN/A3.1N/A969%$760$760
        Oklahoma State University 3792%3.15532960%$210$825
        Old Dominion University 3667%3.256614N/A$478$516
        Pennsylvania State University 289%3.35462397%$1185$1185
        Pepperdine University 771%3.25652666%$1670$1670
        Portland State UniversityN/A64%3.35484286%$575$575
        Queens University of CharlotteN/A353822N/A$990$990
        Robert Morris University 5234%3.35201771%$900$900
        Rochester Institute of Technology 4766%3.2N/A878%$1489$1489
        Rutgers University CamdenN/A3.351032N/A$1256$1256
        Sam Houston State University 4378%3.45272934%$286$286
        Samford University 6088%3.35473087%$789$789
        Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania 3792%3.25282534%$483$493
        Southern Illinois University 2363%3.36004585%$854$854
        Stevens Institute of Technology 4283%3.152114N/A$1501$1501
        SUNY Oswego 2283%3.35551971%$600$1016
        Syracuse University 2777%3.15801649%$1443$1443
        Temple University 245%3.45822497%$1245$1245
        Tennessee Technological University 5646%3.35312352%$447$706
        U Mass – Amherst 5383%3.45974859%$825$825
        U Mass – Lowell 3090%3.35552757%$630$630
        U of C – Colorado SpringsN/A75%3.35681050%$763$801
        UNC – Chapel Hill 145%3.26701394%$1585$1585
        University of Arizona 1478%3.356328N/A$1000$1000
        University of Baltimore 3783%3.350725N/A$824$824
        University of Cincinnati 6282%3.359663N/A$806$821
        University of Delaware 3272%3.35972068%$813$813
        University of Florida 454%3.35784388%$1113$1113
        University of Houston – Clear Lake 4843%N/A5252258%$438$917
        University of Houston – Victoria 5189%N/A50321N/A$322$730
        University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign 1521%3.4638N/AN/A$250$250
        University of KansasN/A3.356850N/A$775$775
        University of Louisiana 4972%3.25642048%$583$583
        University of Maryland College Park 968%3.260217N/A$1481$1481
        University of Memphis 5978%3.25184452%$596$841
        University of Miami 3548%3.546218N/A$1900$1900
        University of Michigan 6338%3.45872152%$859$1356
        University of Mississippi 1539%3.25833843%$669$669
        University of Nebraska – Lincoln 2089%3.46063638%$600$600
        University of Nevada – Reno 1579%3.250531100%$833$833
        University of New HampshireN/A100%3.44882147%$800$880
        University of North DakotaN/A3.45701863%$360$360
        University of North Texas 2054%3.35381558%$303$710
        University of ScrantonN/A3.2N/A1549%$965$965
        University of South Dakota 5790%3.15183546%$442$442
        University of South Florida 647%3.45502677%$462$907
        University of Southern California 846%3.263016N/A$1778$1778
        University of Tennessee 5488%3.25461886%$507$558
        University of Texas – Dallas 339%3.66163640%$706$1245
        University of Texas – Tyler 2587%3.24568181%$744$1155
        University of Utah 2968%3.457336N/A$1250$1250
        University of West Georgia 5593%3.24382288%$739$739
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        West Virginia University 4089%3.25202889%$932$932
        Western Kentucky University 5095%3.45441455%$679$679

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        The 80 Best Accredited Online MBA Degree Profiles

        Our Best Value Online MBA Programs list brings together top accredited online MBA programs from across the country that are all business accredited and offered at not-for-profit institutions. While most of these programs are available fully online, some do have residency or live classroom requirements that may also impact whether the program is right for you. After researching over 200 programs, we have created this list of 80 degree options based on many of the value-added measures discussed on this page, including, but not limited to, the overall cost. Other criteria include admissions requirements, academic rank, faculty engagement, degree recognition, and student success. Use this list as a starting point to further refine your online degree options based on your needs and experience. Due to our ranking system, some schools have tied for a ranking position. See our ranking methodology here .

        Boise State University

        64. Boise State University

        College of Business and Economics

        View School Details
        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:539
        Acceptance Rate:93%
        Tuition (in-state):$750/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$750/credit

        Boise State University’s College of Business and Economics offers a fully online MBA degree accredited by the AACSB that can be completed in as little as 12 months. The program consists of 49 credits covering all aspects of business, including marketing, finance, business communication, and supply chain management. Multiple program start dates are available throughout the year, offering great flexibility to working professionals. Applicants must have a bachelor’s degree and at least two years of relevant experience. GMAT scores are waived for applicants with a 3.0 GPA from the final 60 credits and either a graduate degree or three years of managerial experience.

        University of Michigan - Dearborn

        63. University of Michigan – Dearborn

        College of Business

        View School Details
        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:587
        Acceptance Rate:38%
        Tuition (in-state):$859/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$1356/credit

        The College of Business at University of Michigan (UM) – Dearborn offers great value for anyone hoping to complete an MBA fully online or through a hybrid format at the UM Dearborn campus. The program comprises 36-48 credits depending on chosen electives and concentrations. Applicants can begin in the fall or winter terms for full- or part-time study or the summer term for part-time study, and admissions are accepted on a rolling basis. Students may choose an optional concentration in accounting, finance, international business, management information systems, marketing, or supply chain management. This online MBA program is one of the most competitive on our “Best Value” list with a 38% acceptance rate.

        University of Cincinnati

        62. University of Cincinnati

        Carl H. Lindner College of Business

        View School Details
        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:596
        Acceptance Rate:82%
        Tuition (in-state):$806/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$821/credit

        Carl H. Lindner College of Business at University of Cincinnati offers an AACSB-accredited MBA degree with numerous optional concentrations in the area of marketing, healthcare management, and taxation. This degree can take as little as 12 months to complete through the completion of 38-48 credit hours in applied business, research, and ethics. Start dates are offered throughout the year, including during the summer, with admissions deadlines typically set six week prior to the start date. Individuals with less than three years’ experience are admitted to the direct admission pathway while individuals with more than three years of experience are admitted to the Foundations Pathway, which can eliminate the need to complete the GMAT.

        East Carolina University

        61. East Carolina University

        College of Business

        View School Details
        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:517
        Acceptance Rate:80%
        Tuition (in-state):$353/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$985/credit

        East Carolina University’s College of Business offers an MBA degree fully online or through a hybrid combination of classes at the Greenville, NC campus. The 54-credit curriculum includes a broad overview of traditional business areas, including marketing, finance, and strategy, and some of these courses may be waived if you have previous undergraduate business education. No business experience or coursework is required; however, applicants must have a bachelor’s degree and, in most cases, a GMAT score of 500 or higher. Students can apply to begin at any of the four start dates during the year that correlate to the semester schedule.

        Samford University

        60. Samford University

        Brock School of Business

        View School Details
        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:547
        Acceptance Rate:88%
        Tuition (in-state):$789/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$789/credit

        The Brock School of Business at Samford University offers a 100% online MBA with many benefits, including online courses taught by the same professors who teach at the campus, AACSB accreditation, and a rolling admission date. Samford University MBA graduates also boast one of the lowest rates of student debt upon completion of the program. The MBA program consists of between 36-45 credits depending on previous education and three optional concentrations are offered in entrepreneurship, finance, and marketing. Applications are accepted for three start dates in January, May, and August with application deadlines on December 1st, May 1st, and July 1st respectively.

        University of Memphis

        59. University of Memphis

        Fogelman College of Business and Economics

        View School Details
        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:518
        Acceptance Rate:78%
        Tuition (in-state):$596/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$841/credit

        The Fogelman College of Business and Economics at University of Memphis offers an AACSB-accredited online MBA degree requiring the completion of 33 credits, including 30 core credits and one three-credit elective. Students have the option of completing several required courses during a three-day residency in Memphis prior to the beginning of the traditional semester schedule. Applications for the fall start date are due July 1st while summer semester applications are due May 1st. Students must submit an online application form along with GMAT or GRE scores, transcripts, a resume, a statement of personal interest, two letters of recommendation, and an essay.

        Northeastern University

        58. Northeastern University

        D’Amore-McKim School of Business

        View School Details
        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:Not Provided
        Acceptance Rate:87%
        Tuition (in-state):$1513/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$1513/credit

        At D’Amore-McKim School of Business at Northeastern University, MBA students complete 50 credits of online study, including 13 core classes and five additional electives that can be focused to develop a concentration in finance, healthcare management, high technology management, innovation entrepreneurship, international marketing, marketing, supply chain management, or sustainability. The MBA degree focuses on teaching students innovation skills through practical case examples and is AACSB-accredited. Applicants must have an undergraduate degree with a GPA of at least 3.0 and must be currently employed with at least five years experience in management.

        University of South Dakota

        57. University of South Dakota

        Beacom School of Business

        View School Details
        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:518
        Acceptance Rate:90%
        Tuition (in-state):$442/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$442/credit

        The University of South Dakota offers several online MBA degrees through the Beacom School of Business, including a general business focus and concentrations in business analytics, health services administration, marketing, and operations and supply chain management. This is one of the most affordable degrees on our “Best Value” list and requires 51-60 credits. Up to 18 credits of foundational coursework may be waived for students with prior business education. All applications are reviewed when submitted by the priority date: June 1st for the fall semester, October 1st for the spring semester, and March 1st for the summer semester. However, students may be admitted after these dates if space is available.

        Tennessee Technological University

        56. Tennessee Technological University

        College of Business

        View School Details
        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:531
        Acceptance Rate:46%
        Tuition (in-state):$447/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$706/credit

        Tennessee Technological University’s traditional MBA program is offered fully online or through a hybrid with courses at the Cookeville, TN campus. The AACSB-accredited program comprises 30 credits and can be completed full-time or part-time. Students can choose from concentrations in accounting, finance, human resource management, international business, management information systems, and marketing. Students are admitted in the fall, spring, and summer terms with application deadlines on July 1st, November 10th, and May 1st respectively. The College of Business also offers a new hybrid industry-immersed healthcare-focused MBA combining online courses with residencies in Nashville, TN. The hybrid healthcare MBA begins in January with applications reviewed beginning November 1st.

        University of West Georgia

        55. University of West Georgia

        Richards College of Business

        View School Details
        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:438
        Acceptance Rate:93%
        Tuition (in-state):$739/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$739/credit

        The online MBA at University of West Georgia Richards College of Business is part of the Georgia WebMBA program involving six universities across the state. Students complete 10 courses covering a broad range of business topics, including accounting, finance, and entrepreneurship. A two-day orientation in Atlanta at the beginning of the program is the only on-campus requirement. The degree is AACSB-accredited and takes 18 months to complete 30 credits. Students planning to start in the fall term must apply by August 3rd while students hoping to start in the spring must apply by December 10th.

        University of Tennessee - Martin

        54. University of Tennessee – Martin

        College of Business and Global Affairs

        View School Details
        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:546
        Acceptance Rate:88%
        Tuition (in-state):$507/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$558/credit

        The University of Tennessee – Martin offers an AACSB-accredited, fully-online MBA program for applicants with a bachelor’s degree and at least two years of work experience. The MBA program has a cohort style with students starting in either January or June and progressing together through the curriculum. Applications are due four weeks prior to the start date. The program typically lasts 20 months and courses are taught in four-to-six week blocks by the same faculty as on-campus classes. The College of Business  Global Affairs also offers an online MBA for financial services professionals and a hybrid MBA with either a general or agriculture focus.

        University of Massachusetts - Amherst

        53. University of Massachusetts – Amherst

        Isenberg School of Management

        View School Details
        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:597
        Acceptance Rate:83%
        Tuition (in-state):$825/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$825/credit

        Isenberg School of Management at the University of Massachusetts – Amherst has offered an online MBA degree for over 10 years and is AACSB-accredited. Consisting of 45 credits, the MBA degree has many possible concentrations, including business analytics, entrepreneurship, finance, healthcare administration, marketing, and sport management. Applications should be submitted by June 1st for fall admission, Oct 1st for spring admission, or February 1st for summer admission.

        Robert Morris University

        52. Robert Morris University

        School of Business

        View School Details
        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:520
        Acceptance Rate:34%
        Tuition (in-state):$900/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$900/credit

        Robert Morris University School of Business’ online MBA provides the opportunity to complete a degree fully online or through a hybrid combined with traditional classes at the Pittsburgh campus. Online courses are asynchronous so that students can access course materials and assignments at any time. The program is AACSB-accredited and includes 30 credits of general business content. No concentrations are offered. Applicants must have a bachelor’s degree with a minimum 3.0 GPA and a minimum GMAT score of 470. This is one of the most competitive programs on our list with an acceptance rate of only 34%.

        University of Houston - Victoria

        51. University of Houston – Victoria

        School of Business Administration

        View School Details
        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:503
        Acceptance Rate:89%
        Tuition (in-state):$322/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$730/credit

        Two AACSB-accredited MBA programs online are available through University of Houston – Victoria School of Business Administration – the Global MBA and the Strategic MBA . The Global MBA consists of 54 credits and focuses on international business topics and includes six core courses. The Strategic MBA allows students to focus on developing business strategy skills in a particular focus area through 48 credit hours, including accounting, entrepreneurship, economic development, finance, human resources, management, marketing, and international business. Recent Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA) graduates may finish a degree with as few as 30 credits due to course waivers. The student body is quite diverse and boasts a high number of international students enrolled in the program. This program may also offer greater value to students who plan to study part-time as students are allowed up to seven years to complete degree requirements and graduate.

        Western Kentucky University

        50. Western Kentucky University

        Gordon Ford College of Business

        View School Details
        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:544
        Acceptance Rate:95%
        Tuition (in-state):$679/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$679/credit

        Gordon Ford College of Business at Western Kentucky University has a flexible MBA program that allows for part- and full-time study and a study period 18 months up to five years. The degree program comprises 30 credits and courses are taken one-by-one, with each lasting seven weeks. Mature students without a recent bachelor’s degree can complete MBA foundation modules prior to admittance to facilitate a successful transition. The program also has a GMAT waiver option for students who have completed an AACSB-accredited bachelor’s degree with a GPA of at least 3.5 GPA. Students are accepted for fall and spring start dates with March 15th and October 15th application deadlines respectively.

        University of Louisiana - Monroe

        49. University of Louisiana – Monroe

        College of Business and Social Sciences

        View School Details
        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:564
        Acceptance Rate:72%
        Tuition (in-state):$583/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$583/credit

        University of Louisiana – Monroe’s MBA program online is another one of the most diverse on our list, welcoming many international students each year. The program is managed by the College of Business and Social Sciences and follows the same curriculum as the on-campus degree, both of which are AACSB-accredited. Applicants must have previous education in accounting, economics, finance, management, marketing, and quantitative methods or be willing to complete these prerequisites before beginning the online MBA. Students are admitted at the beginning of each academic semester and complete applications must be received at least 30 days prior. Full-time students can complete the program in as little as 18 months.

        University of Houston - Clear Lake

        48. University of Houston – Clear Lake

        College of Business

        View School Details
        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:525
        Acceptance Rate:43%
        Tuition (in-state):$438/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$917/credit

        University of Houston – Clear Lake offers an online MBA with AACSB accreditation and flexible study options. The 36-credit program structures courses in eight-week blocks and students can take either two courses per term (full-time equivalent) or one course per term (part-time equivalent). Full-time students can finish the degree in as little as 14 months while part-time students can finish in 28 months. Credit costs are lower for Texas residents, making this degree an even better value for in-state students. Optional concentrations are offered in environmental management, finance, human resource management, and management of technology. Applications are accepted for the spring, summer, and fall terms with deadlines on December 1st, May 1st, and August 1st.

        Rochester Institute of Technology

        47. Rochester Institute of Technology

        Saunders College of Business

        View School Details
        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:Not Provided
        Acceptance Rate:66%
        Tuition (in-state):$1489/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$1489/credit

        At Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) Saunders College of Business, the online Executive MBA is designed for working professionals with extensive management experience. The program is AACSB-accredited , takes 17 months to complete, and requires a three-day on-campus residency at the beginning of the degree. Start dates are offered in January and August with applications accepted on a rolling basis. Applicants must have at least six years of work experience to apply, therefore, RIT boasts the highest average amount of work experience completed by new students on our “Best Value” list, at 182 months prior to beginning the program. The deadline to apply for the fall term is July 1st and the deadline to apply for the spring term is December 1st.

        Georgia Southern University

        46. Georgia Southern University

        College of Business Administration

        View School Details
        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:500
        Acceptance Rate:77%
        Tuition (in-state):$739/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$739/credit

        Also ranked at 46 on our “Best Value” list is Georgia Southern University’s online MBA through the College of Business Administration. The curriculum requires 30 credits in general business study completed entirely online over the course of 21 months. However, US students are required to attend a two-day residency in Atlanta at the beginning of the program. Courses are asynchronous and can be accessed at any time. Applications are reviewed on a rolling basis for fall and spring entry. The degree is AACSB-accredited and priced the same for both in-state and out-of-state students, making this a good value for all students.

        Kennesaw State University

        45. Kennesaw State University

        Coles College of Business

        View School Details
        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:590
        Acceptance Rate:68%
        Tuition (in-state):$739/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$739/credit

        Another Georgia-based “Best Value” program is the WebMBA offered by Coles College of Business at Kennesaw State University. The program offers all courses online in a cohort format with one mandatory residency in Atlanta prior to the program start. The required 30 credits of study can be completed in as little as 18 months, although the program has a typical study period of 20 months. Applicants must apply with a bachelor’s degree, GMAT scores, a resume, and transcripts for spring, summer, or fall start dates. The deadlines to apply are November 1st for spring term, April 1st for summer term, and July 1st for fall term.

        Lehigh University

        44. Lehigh University

        College of Business and Economics

        View School Details
        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:613
        Acceptance Rate:81%
        Tuition (in-state):$1075/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$1075/credit

        Lehigh University’s College of Business and Economics has designed a 36-credit Flex MBA that can be completed fully online or through a mixture of online and on-campus courses in Bethlehem, PA. The degree can take two to five years depending on the student’s pace and course choices. While applications are reviewed on a rolling basis, prospective students are encouraged to submit complete applications by May 1st for the summer term, July 15th for the fall term, and December 1st for the spring term. Concentrations are offered in finance, international business, marketing, and supply chain management. A project management option is also available, but requires three residencies. Online courses may use either synchronous or asynchronous teaching methods, allowing students to further customize their online learning experience. Applicants are admitted for spring, summer, and fall terms.

        Sam Houston State University

        43. Sam Houston State University

        College of Business

        View School Details
        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:527
        Acceptance Rate:78%
        Tuition (in-state):$286/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$286/credit

        Sam Houston State University College of Business offers two different AACSB-accredited online MBA choices . The traditional MBA program consists of 36 credits of general business with 27 core courses and nine electives. The Executive MBA concentrates on the needs of professionals in banking and financial institutions. While courses are primarily online, students must attend two two-week residencies in Huntsville, TX. Sam Houston boasts one of the most affordable programs on our list, charging only $286 per credit for both in-state and out-of-state students. The school also has a GMAT waiver program that considers an applicant’s undergraduate GPA and relevant work experience. Application deadlines are August 1st for the fall term, December 1st for the spring term, and May 15th for the summer term.

        Stevens Institute of Technology

        42. Stevens Institute of Technology

        School of Business

        View School Details
        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:521
        Acceptance Rate:83%
        Tuition (in-state):$1501/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$1501/credit

        Completing an MBA online program at Stevens Institute of Technology’s School of Business prepares graduates for highly digitized workplaces as course content is infused with the latest knowledge on technological innovation and analytics. The AACSB-accredited, 48-credit curriculum may be a good value for business professionals interested in new data and technology trends in business. Applicants are encouraged to have at least two years of relevant work experience before applying to the program. The deadlines to apply are June 1st for the fall term and November 30th for the spring term, although applications may be reviewed after this time (space permitting).

        Marist College

        42. Marist College

        School of Management

        View School Details
        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:530
        Acceptance Rate:42%
        Tuition (in-state):$780/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$780/credit

        Through Marist College’s School of Management, students can earn an online MBA with an optional concentration in ethical leadership, financial management, or healthcare administration. The school has a business analytics focus to prepare graduates for emerging data and technology trends in the workplace. The MBA program is fully online but also offers optional residencies in New York City for local students as the main campus is located in nearby Poughkeepsie, NY. Applications are due by August 1st for the fall semester start date and December 1st for the spring semester start date. Admission to Marist College is one of the most competitive on our list as only 42% of applicants are admitted each year.

        Florida Atlantic University

        41. Florida Atlantic University

        College of Business

        View School Details
        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:514
        Acceptance Rate:68%
        Tuition (in-state):$800/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$800/credit

        Florida Atlantic University College of Business offers a great value AACSB-accredited MBA online degree that can be completed fully online. The program is 23 months in length and includes 40-46 credits of asynchronous and flexible online learning focused on general business content that can be combined with a number of concentrations or designations in international business or hospitality and tourism management. Six credits can be waived for applicants with approved undergraduate-level business education. Applications are welcome for the fall, spring, and summer semester cohort start dates and are reviewed on a rolling basis. The deadline for the fall term is August 7th, while the deadlines for spring and summer are January 4th and May 15th respectively. GMAT requirements may be waived for applicants with at least four years of relevant work experience or an advanced degree.

        West Virginia University

        40. West Virginia University

        College of Business and Economics

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        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:520
        Acceptance Rate:89%
        Tuition (in-state):$932/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$932/credit

        West Virginia University offers an AACSB-accredited MBA degree through the College of Business and Economics that combines online coursework with four required on-campus residencies in Morgantown, WV and Washington DC. Students complete 48 credits in two years of full-time study; however, the program offers one of the most flexible completion time frames on our list of up to eight years, which may be useful for part-time students or busy working professionals. Active or veteran military officers also have the option of completing the Military online MBA, which provides further flexibility for this particular group. The online MBA program can also be combined with several on-campus dual degree options including pharmacy, law, or a Master of Science in nursing. Students can begin in either fall or spring and applications are reviewed on a rolling basis with March 1st and July 1st deadlines.

        Central Michigan University

        39. Central Michigan University

        College of Business Administration

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        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:538
        Acceptance Rate:46%
        Tuition (in-state):$600/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$600/credit

        Students looking to minimize their debt load upon graduation will be interested to know that graduates of Central Michigan University College of Business Administration’s AACSB-accredited online MBA program have some of the lowest rates of graduating student debt on our list. Students complete between 36-43 credit hours including 27 credits of foundational courses. Several concentrations are offered and a four-credit “boot camp” experience held over a two-week residency is the only on-campus requirement for students in the enterprise systems concentration. The program offers high quality teaching with an average of 15 years of online teaching experience among faculty and 80 required hours of initial teacher training, both among the highest on our list. Applications are accepted on a rolling basis and should be submitted at least six weeks prior to the desired semester start date.

        Hofstra University

        38. Hofstra University

        Frank G. Zarb School of Business

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        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:Not Provided
        Acceptance Rate:86%
        Tuition (in-state):$1579/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$1579/credit

        Frank G. Zarb School of Business online MBA students at Hofstra University can complete the degree in as little as two years and the school has one of the highest three-year graduation rates on our list. Students are able to earn AACSB-accredited MBA degrees with concentrations in strategic business management or strategic healthcare management and gain industry exposure through two mandatory two-day residencies in New York City. GMAT scores are required except on a case-by-case basis for individuals with at least five years’ management work experience as approved by the program’s Executive Director. Applications are accepted on a rolling basis for fall admission.

        University of Baltimore

        37. University of Baltimore

        Merrick School of Business

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        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:507
        Acceptance Rate:83%
        Tuition (in-state):$824/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$824/credit

        At the Merrick School of Business at the University of Baltimore, in-state and out-of-state students pay the same affordable fee, making this a very affordable online mba program for students across the country. The MBA degree program is designed to offer maximum flexibility while still meeting the AACSB accreditation standards. Applicants can complete the degree, including one of 10 specializations, fully online or through a hybrid mixture including on-campus courses in Baltimore. Start dates are offered six times during the year and courses can be taken in seven-week or 15-week blocks throughout the year. Application deadlines are January 1st, February 1st, May 1, August 17th, and September 17th.

        Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania

        37. Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania

        John L. Grove College of Business

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        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:528
        Acceptance Rate:92%
        Tuition (in-state):$483/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$493/credit

        Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania’s online MBA developed by the John L. Grove College of Business is one of the most highly affordable programs on our list at $483 per credit for in-state students and $493 per credit for out-of-state students. The program requirements include eight core courses and two electives for a total of 30 credits and are offered through asynchronous and optional synchronous teaching methods. Students benefit from program faculty members who are required to complete at least 80 hours of training before teaching in the program. Graduates can earn this AACSB-accredited degree in as little as two years. Applications are evaluated based on a combination of experience and education and applicants must have at least a bachelor’s degree to apply. This program has a rolling deadline for fall, spring, and summer start dates.

        Oklahoma State University

        37. Oklahoma State University

        Spears School of Business

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        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:553
        Acceptance Rate:92%
        Tuition (in-state):$210/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$825/credit

        The online MBA program at Spears School of Business at Oklahoma State University offers both AACSB-accredited 43-credit, full-time and 42-credit, part-time study options. The curriculum focuses on using case studies to innovate and solve complex problems to help graduates prepare for managerial positions. Another benefit of this program is the low rate of student debt among graduates as it is one of the lowest on our “best value” list. A bachelor’s degree is necessary to be eligible and work experience, calculus coursework, and familiarity with quantitative analysis are recommended but not required. Applications are accepted until July 1st for the fall term and until November 1st for the spring term.

        Old Dominion University

        36. Old Dominion University

        Strome College of Business

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        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:566
        Acceptance Rate:67%
        Tuition (in-state):$478/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$516/credit

        Old Dominion University’s Strome School of Business offers an online, AACSB-accredited MBA degree along with several unique certificate specializations, including modeling, simulation, and visualization, and maritime, ports, and logistics management. The curriculum includes 40 credit hours and can be completed in as little as 21 months, although applicants with no previous business education may need to take foundational courses before beginning the core curriculum. Courses are structured in eight-week sections to help students concentrate on one topic at a time. Faculty in Old Dominion’s online MBA program have great teaching experience – an average of 18 years, which is one of the highest averages on our “Best Value” list. For the fall term, students must apply by June 1st, while the deadline for the spring term is November 1st and March 1st for the summer term.

        University of Miami

        35. University of Miami

        School of Business Administration

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        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:462
        Acceptance Rate:48%
        Tuition (in-state):$1900/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$1900/credit

        In as little as two years, students can earn an AACSB-accredited MBA online from the University of Miami School of Business Administration. During the program, students complete 42-51 credits depending on the area of specialization, including corporate finance, financial decision-making, and accounting practice. Optional on-campus residencies are offered to help online students develop a sense of community or complete an accelerated course. Students are admitted in fall and spring with application deadlines on August 7th and December 11th. The university may also set an early admission deadline that waives the required enrollment deposit for accepted students.

        Cleveland State University

        34. Cleveland State University

        Monte Ahuja College of Business

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        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:452
        Acceptance Rate:87%
        Tuition (in-state):$569/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$1074/credit

        At Cleveland State University’s Monte Ahuja College of Business, students have the chance to earn an online MBA in as little as one year. Although the program is shorter than most, it still meets the requirements for AACSB accreditation and comprises 34 credits that are taken in a set sequence to cover core business topics. Students are admitted into the cohort program in both fall and spring terms with applications reviewed on a rolling basis. The tuition cost includes all course materials and online resources, making it easier for prospective students to understand the overall cost and value of this MBA degree .

        Baylor University

        33. Baylor University

        Hankamer School of Business

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        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:613
        Acceptance Rate:68%
        Tuition (in-state):$1027/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$1027/credit

        At the Hankamer School of Business at Baylor University, MBA students can earn an AACSB-accredited degree in a faith-based environment. The online MBA degree consists of 48-60 credits with six start dates throughout the year. Applications are due approximately one month prior to the start date. Students hoping to finish quickly will be glad to know the degree can be completed in as little as 12 months, and Baylor University has one of the fastest average completion times on our list at 18 months. Applicants typically have six years of experience, although this is not a requirement for admission.

        University of Delaware

        32. University of Delaware

        Alfred Lerner College of Business and Economics

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        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:597
        Acceptance Rate:72%
        Tuition (in-state):$813/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$813/credit

        For a fully- online MBA with several concentration options, the University of Delaware’s Alfred Lerner College of Business offers great value. The degree can be completed in 16 months with one or more optional concentrations in healthcare, finance, or international business and is open to students with a bachelor’s degree in any major area. Courses are offered in six-week blocks during the year, and students with other specific business interests can also create a customized degree plan. This MBA is accredited by the AACSB and accepts applications on a rolling basis until the start of the program in the fall and spring terms.

        Drexel University

        31. Drexel University

        LeBow College of Business

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        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:488
        Acceptance Rate:89%
        Tuition (in-state):$1255/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$1255/credit

        Drexel Lebow College of Business is the home of the online MBA program at Drexel University. This degree offers a flexible completion date to accommodate full-time and part-time students with a maximum term of five years. A quarter credit system is used to structure the program’s 49 required credits and there are two start dates per year in the fall and spring. Applicants are reviewed on a rolling basis and admissions decisions are communicated in as little as two weeks from submission. The program features online coursework as well as practical learning opportunities, such as internships and a capstone project.

        University of Massachusetts Lowell

        30. University of Massachusetts – Lowell

        Manning School of Business

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        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:555
        Acceptance Rate:90%
        Tuition (in-state):$630/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$630/credit

        University of Massachusetts – Lowell offers great affordability for an AACSB-accredited degree with the same tuition rates for both in-state and out-of-state students. The Manning School of Business administers the program of 30-42 credits. Students with prior business education are typically able to waive foundational courses and only complete the required 30 credits to graduate. The program is available with a general business focus or with a concentration in finance, accounting, information technology, or marketing. Applicants should have at least two years of work experience before submitting an application. Applications are continually evaluated on a rolling basis.

        University of Utah

        29. University of Utah

        David Eccles School of Business

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        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:573
        Acceptance Rate:68%
        Tuition (in-state):$1250/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$1250/credit

        The online MBA offered through David Eccles School of Business at University of Utah is an accelerated, AACSB-accredited program taught through asynchronous online courses. Students take two courses at a time over the course of 24 months starting in the fall, spring, or summer terms. A three-day on-campus residency is required at the beginning to acquaint new students with the program. The school reports that 70% of all students have a bachelor’s degree in a non-business field with an average of seven years of work experience. Admissions for the fall term are accepted until August 1st, although applications are reviewed at various points throughout the year starting in February. The same is true for spring admissions, which are reviewed starting in September and are due by January 1st.

        Missouri University of Science Technology

        28. Missouri University of Science Technology

        Business and Information Technology Department

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        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:590
        Acceptance Rate:74%
        Tuition (in-state):$1230/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$1230/credit

        The MBA program at Missouri University of Science and Technology is housed in the Business and Information Technology Department and comprises 36 credit hours. Faculty in this program have one of the highest training requirements on our list at 80 hours and the program boasts a diverse student body with one of the highest numbers of international students on our list as well. Students can choose from one of many concentrations in marketing, international business, strategy, new product development, enterprise resource planning, supply chain management, business sustainability, human-computer interaction, project management, and business intelligence while earning this AACSB-accredited degree. Applications for the fall and spring terms are reviewed until classes begin (space permitting).

        Embry Riddle Aeronautical University

        27. Embry Riddle Aeronautical University

        College of Business

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        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:ACBSP
        GMAT Score:483
        Acceptance Rate:74%
        Tuition (in-state):$620/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$620/credit

        The Embry Riddle College of Business MBA is a unique 33-credit, AACSB-accredited program focused on business in aviation. The program teaches students a broad range of business skills applied in the aviation management context with optional specializations in accounting, finance, leadership, information technology, marketing, international business, and public administration. Faculty must complete at least 60 hours of training before teaching, one of the highest requirements among programs on our “Best Value” list. Multiple start dates with rolling deadlines are offered during the year, and the program can be completed fully online anywhere in the world with no residency requirements.

        Syracuse University

        27. Syracuse University

        Whitman School of Management

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        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:580
        Acceptance Rate:77%
        Tuition (in-state):$1443/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$1443/credit

        At the Whitman School of Management at Syracuse University, students can earn an AACSB-accredited MBA degree requiring 54 credits, including 36 credits of core courses, 15 credits of specialization electives, and three credits of US or international residency. Specializations include accounting, business analytics, entrepreneurship, finance, marketing management, and supply chain management. Each one-credit residency is three days long and can be completed at the university’s main campus in Syracuse or in rotating US and international cities. Previous residencies have been held in New York and Dublin, Ireland. New students are admitted throughout the year in January, April, July, and October with priority and final application deadlines several months ahead of time. Students with at least five years of work experience may be eligible for a GMAT waiver for their application.

        George Washington University

        26. George Washington University

        School of Business

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        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:530
        Acceptance Rate:69%
        Tuition (in-state):$1690/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$1690/credit

        George Washington School of Business is home to an online, part-time MBA comprised of 55 credits. Students take four courses per term and are admitted in the fall, spring, or summer semester. Those residing in the Washington DC area may also choose to combine online classes with on-campus offerings; however, the entire degree can be completed online through both asynchronous and synchronous courses. Each start date has three rounds of admission reviews with acceptance notifications provided one month after the deadline. Students must have a bachelor’s degree and complete the GMAT to be accepted, unless they have seven years of relevant work experience.

        University of Texas Tyler

        25. University of Texas Tyler

        College of Business and Technology

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        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:456
        Acceptance Rate:87%
        Tuition (in-state):$744/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$1155/credit

        The online MBA offered by University of Texas Tyler’s College of Business and Technology offers great value, specifically to Texas residents who pay lower tuition fees than out-of-state applicants. There are many program options accredited by the AACSB, including either 16-week or seven-week course terms, and a number of unique specialization options, such as quality management, oil, gas, and energy, and cyber security. Prospective students should apply with a bachelor’s degree, GMAT scores, and transcripts. In some instances, up to nine hours of transfer credit may be applied towards the degree requirements. Application deadlines for the fall and spring terms are August 15th and December 20th.

        North Carolina State University - Raleigh

        24. North Carolina State University – Raleigh

        Poole College of Management

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        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:598
        Acceptance Rate:69%
        Tuition (in-state):$1039/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$1659/credit

        The Jenkins MBA degree at North Carolina State University’s Poole College of Management in Raleigh is an AACSB-accredited, professional degree designed for working students. The 40-credit degree can be completed in 21 months, although part-time students are given up to six years to meet degree requirements with start dates in both fall and spring. Online classes can also be combined with on-campus classes in Raleigh or Research Triangle Park, NC and two three-day residencies in Raleigh are required except for active military personnel. An optional international residency is also offered. Applications are reviewed at several points during the year with initial reviews occurring up to 10 months prior to the start date. Applicants are encouraged to apply early.

        Mississippi State University

        24. Mississippi State University

        College of Business

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        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:580
        Acceptance Rate:71%
        Tuition (in-state):$426/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$426/credit

        For applicants interested in the lowest overall price per credit, Mississippi State’s College of Business has a competitive price of $426 per credit for both in-state and out-of-state students. The MBA degree is comprised of 30 credits and is AACSB-accredited with a flexible graduation length of up to eight years. An MBA specialized in project management for applicants with industrial engineering backgrounds is also offered and involves 36 credits of study. Students can begin the program in the fall, spring, or summer terms and should apply by August 1st, December 1st, or May 15th respectively.

        Southern Illinois University - Carbondale

        23. Southern Illinois University – Carbondale

        School of Business

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        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:600
        Acceptance Rate:63%
        Tuition (in-state):$854/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$854/credit

        Southern Illinois University (SIU) School of Business in Carbondale has an AACSB-accredited MBA program taught by the same faculty that teach SIU’s on-campus degree. The 42-credit degree is offered in a cohort style, can be completed in two years, and offers an optional concentration in agricultural economics. Unlike many other MBA programs that follow traditional academic schedules, this degree program only offers summer admission with early review of applications starting as early as September of the year prior to admission. Applicants generally have extensive work experience with an average of 180 months, one of the highest averages among programs on our list.

        Suny College at Oswego

        22. SUNY Oswego

        School of Business

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        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:555
        Acceptance Rate:83%
        Tuition (in-state):$600/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$1016/credit

        The State University of New York (SUNY) School of Business in Oswego has both a general MBA and an MBA in Health Services Administration available fully online or through hybrid methods with the Oswego campus. The programs require 36-57 credit hours depending on undergraduate education, which may allow for some waived requirements. At SUNY College at Oswego, online MBA faculty members have extensive experience teaching online with one of the highest averages among all the programs on this list at 16 years. Applications are accepted on a rolling basis for multiple start dates during the year. Applicants must have at least a 2.6 GPA and a GMAT score of 500 to be eligible for entry.

        Clarkson University

        21. Clarkson University

        School of Business

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        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:533
        Acceptance Rate:61%
        Tuition (in-state):$1100/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$1100/credit

        Students in the online MBA program at Clarkson University School of Business can complete an AACSB-accredited degree in as little as 21 months and can take advantage of a free summer intensive foundation course for students with no prior business education. The program consists of 16 courses including 11 required courses and a mandatory 400-hour internship for students with no previous work experience. These requirements can be met fully online or through a hybrid combination with on-campus courses in Schenectady, NY. Courses are taught by on-campus faculty who are known for their dedication to student communication, as they have one of the fastest response times on our “Best Value Online MBA” list. Applications are accepted on a rolling basis for all terms.

        University of North Texas

        20. University of North Texas

        College of Business

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        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:538
        Acceptance Rate:54%
        Tuition (in-state):$303/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$710/credit

        The 36-credit MBA program at University of North Texas School of Business is designed for busy, working professionals who want to complete an MBA degree in a short time frame. The degree can be fulfilled in as little as 14 months fully online with an optional concentration in organizational behavior and human resource management or strategic management. The online courses are asynchronous, offer maximum flexibility, and can be taken one at a time on in pairs each term. Unlike other MBA programs, start dates do not coincide with traditional schedules and are offered in January, March, June, August, and October. Students are encouraged to submit applications early, although there are not specified deadlines.

        University of Nebraska - Lincoln

        20. University of Nebraska – Lincoln

        College of Business Administration

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        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:606
        Acceptance Rate:89%
        Tuition (in-state):$600/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$600/credit

        The AACSB-accredited MBA degree at University of Nebraska – Lincoln College of Business Administration is offered in both online and hybrid formats. In the online program, students can earn an AACSB-accredited degree by completing 48 credit hours, including 30 credit hours of core coursework. Applicants must have prior education in both statistics and calculus to be eligible and are recommended, but not required, to have two years of management experience. Students are admitted to the program on a rolling basis and are authorized to begin taking classes as soon as their application is accepted in the fall, spring, or summer terms. The deadline for the fall term is July 1st, while the deadline for the spring term is November 1st, and the summer deadline is April 1st.

        Mercer University

        19. Mercer University

        Stetson School of Business and Economics

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        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:525
        Acceptance Rate:55%
        Tuition (in-state):$727/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$727/credit

        The Stetson School of Business and Economics is home to the online MBA program at Mercer University geared towards working professionals. The degree can be completed in 18 months but part-time study is common and students choose their own schedule each term, ultimately completing 36-45 credits. Concentrations are offered in marketing, finance, economics, general business, human resources, and healthcare management. Five start dates are offered in the fall, spring, and summer terms, each with a priority and a final deadline several months prior to the start date. Approximately half of all applicants are admitted to the program each year and admitted students typically have five years of work experience.

        Georgia College State University

        18. Georgia College State University

        J. Whitney Bunting College of Business

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        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:526
        Acceptance Rate:84%
        Tuition (in-state):$739/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$739/credit

        Georgia College State University participates in the Georgia WebMBA program that enables online students to complete an AACSB-accredited online MBA degree quickly. On average, students finish the program in 18 months, one of the fastest average completion times on our list. The program curriculum includes 12 credits of foundational coursework that can be waived for students with accepted undergraduate study and 30 credits of required courses with no electives. One mandatory residency is required prior to the beginning of the program. Apply by July 1st for admission into the fall cohort, by November 1st for the spring semester, or by April 1st for the summer semester. Applicants must have at least two years of relevant work experience to be considered.

        West Chester University of Pennsylvania

        17. West Chester University of Pennsylvania

        College of Business  Public Management

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        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:531
        Acceptance Rate:92%
        Tuition (in-state):$483/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$493/credit

        The online MBA program at West Chester University College of Business and Public Management is available fully online and can be completed in two years through accelerated, asynchronous study. This AACSB-accredited degree requires 30 credits of study with the option to focus electives on entrepreneurship, project management, or business analytics to earn an additional certificate. Applications are accepted on a rolling basis from students with prerequisite coursework in foundational business areas for five start dates during the year. The tuition rates for the program are very affordable at $483/credit for in-state students and $493/credit for out-of-state students.

        James Madison University

        16. James Madison University

        College of Business

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        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:506
        Acceptance Rate:96%
        Tuition (in-state):$900/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$900/credit

        James Madison University’s College of Business offers a hybrid MBA with three concentration options in executive leadership, information security, or innovation. This may be a good value for students in the Harrisonburg or McLean, VA area as the program does have on-campus requirements as well as online coursework. Students can also participate in international learning experiences, which have been held in China and India in the past. The online program boasts one of the highest three-year graduation rates on our list as well as some of the fastest instructor response times to student inquiries. All three MBA programs begin in the fall term and encourage applications before April 15 with rolling deadlines until July 1st, space permitting.

        University of Nevada - Reno

        15. University of Nevada – Reno

        College of Business

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        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:505
        Acceptance Rate:79%
        Tuition (in-state):$833/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$833/credit

        University of Nevada – Reno offers an online Executive MBA through the College of Business. An Executive MBA helps working professionals apply coursework to specific work situations and applicants must have at least five years of work experience. This may be a good option for students who plan to finish quickly as it has one of the highest three-year graduation rates of all programs on this list. The program follows a cohort model with new students beginning each fall term and completing the 36 required courses in two years. Applications are due June 1st.

        University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign

        15. University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign

        College of Business

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        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:638
        Acceptance Rate:21%
        Tuition (in-state):$250/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$250/credit

        The University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign is one of the most affordable MBA programs on our list , charging $250 per credit hour to both in-state and out-of-state students. Subsequently, the program also has one of the lowest acceptance rates at only 21% of all applicants. The College of Business administers the online MBA, which is AACSB-accredited and focuses on management and leadership skills. The program has a cohort structure that can be completed in two years by completing 72 credit hours. Courses are organized into specialization blocks and culminate with a capstone project. The online MBA program has a unique and flexible format that uses Coursera, a Massive Online Open Course (MOOC) platform. Admissions are reviewed on a rolling basis and students are able to enroll in the foundational MOOC courses immediately, rather than waiting for the next term to begin.

        University of Mississippi

        15. University of Mississippi

        School of Business

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        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:583
        Acceptance Rate:39%
        Tuition (in-state):$669/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$669/credit

        University of Mississippi, also known as Ole Miss, offers an online MBA through the School of Business. The MBA degree has AACSB accreditation , takes as little as two years to complete, and comprises 36 credits of broad business coursework and a capstone project. Applicants should have some prior business education and must sit for either the GMAT or GRE. New students are admitted into the program at the beginning of every term, including summer, however, it may take spring students longer to complete the program due to course availability. The program is competitive and only admits 39% of applicants, which is one of the toughest on our list.

        University of Arizona

        14. University of Arizona

        Eller College of Management

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        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:563
        Acceptance Rate:78%
        Tuition (in-state):$1000/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$1000/credit

        Eller College of Management at the University of Arizona offers an AACSB-accredited MBA online with six different start dates to accommodate non-traditional learners throughout the year. Applications are due approximately three weeks prior to the start date. Applicants must have at least two years of work experience and will complete 45 credits in as little as 14 months to complete the program. Concentrations are offered in entrepreneurship, health care, finance, management and organizations, management information systems, and marketing. Applicants do not need to take the GMAT if they possess an undergraduate degree in science, technology, engineering, or math with a GPA of at least 3.0, have a terminal graduate degree, or are a veteran or active military personnel.

        Florida State University

        13. Florida State University

        College of Business

        View School Details
        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:558
        Acceptance Rate:64%
        Tuition (in-state):$750/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$750/credit

        Florida State University offers a good value online MBA proam and it is consistently a highly ranked program. The MBA program is delivered by the College of Business with either a general business focus or a concentration in real estate. Both programs require 39 credits including 27 credits of core courses and 12 electives. Work experience is highly recommended for both programs although real estate-specific experience is not necessarily required. Applications submitted by June 1st are accepted for fall term, by October 1st for spring term, and by March 1st for summer term.

        Columbus State University

        12. Columbus State University

        D. Abbott Turner College of Business

        View School Details
        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:483
        Acceptance Rate:61%
        Tuition (in-state):$739/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$739/credit

        Based in Columbus, Georgia, Columbus State University takes part in the Georgia WebMBA program that enables online students to complete all MBA coursework online with one two-day residency required prior to the start of the program. Turner College of Business offers the program, which has a general business focus with attention given to international business contexts and leadership through 30 required credits with no electives. Applicants must have prerequisites in accounting, quantitative analysis, and finance to be admitted. The program begins in the fall term with applications due by June 30th.

        Auburn University

        11. Auburn University

        Raymond J. Harbert College of Business

        View School Details
        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:572
        Acceptance Rate:70%
        Tuition (in-state):$850/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$850/credit

        Auburn University’s Harbert College of Business offers an online MBA program for students based in the US or internationally-based US military personnel. The online MBA program consists of 39 credits, including 27 core courses. Students can begin the program in either fall or spring with optional on-campus orientations held before each start date. Applications are reviewed starting February 1st for fall admission and September 1st for spring admission. GMAT waivers are possible for students with either JD or PhD degrees. Online students can also benefit from the faculty’s extensive online teaching experience with an average of 15 years, one of the highest of the programs on our list.

        Florida International University

        10. Florida International University

        College of Business

        View School Details
        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:520
        Acceptance Rate:54%
        Tuition (in-state):$1000/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$1000/credit

        Working professionals may find the AACSB-accredited Corporate MBA at the College of Business at Florida International University a good value. The MBA program includes 42 credits that can be completed in as little as 18 months. Specializations include entrepreneurship and innovation, finance, international business, marketing channel strategy, business analytics, and strategic negotiations. Faculty have at least 80 hours of initial training, which is one of the highest in our list of programs. The program is also competitive, with approximately half of all applicants admitted to the program. Four start dates are offered in August, October, January, and March with applications due approximately one month prior. Applicants with four years of work experience may be eligible for a GMAT waiver on a case-by-case basis.

        Desales University

        10. DeSales University

        Division of Business

        View School Details
        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:ACBSP
        GMAT Score:Not Provided
        Acceptance Rate:87%
        Tuition (in-state):$815/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$815/credit

        DeSales University Division of Business offers a part-time MBA program with four start dates during the year and many specialization options. Students can begin taking classes as soon as an application is approved. The MBA degree requirements include 36 credits of core, concentration, and elective courses, as well as a capstone project. Applicants should have at least two years of work experience and an undergraduate degree. If the GPA is higher than 3.0, the GMAT requirement can be waived. For students worried about student debt, take note that DeSales online MBA graduates have some of the lowest rates of student debt upon graduation on our list.

        University of Maryland College Park

        9. University of Maryland College Park

        Robert H. Smith School of Business

        View School Details
        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:602
        Acceptance Rate:68%
        Tuition (in-state):$1481/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$1481/credit

        The Smith Online MBA from University of Maryland College Park is AACSB-accredited. In two years, students can complete 44 credits, including two residencies, and earn a specialization in accounting, finance, information systems and business analytics, marketing, or supply chain management. The online program also focuses on the skills needed for entrepreneurship and innovation. Applicants can choose from four start dates during the year with application deadlines on August 1st, November 1st, February 1st, and May 1st. Online classes are taught by the same on-campus faculty who teach traditional on-campus courses.

        Arizona State University

        9. Arizona State University

        W. P. Carey School of Business

        View School Details
        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:592
        Acceptance Rate:64%
        Tuition (in-state):$1435/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$1435/credit

        While per credit costs may be higher for Arizona State University’s online MBA program compared to others on our list, the MBA program is consistently year after year a highly ranked. The Carey School of Business attracts seasoned professionals with an average of seven years’ experience and average GMAT score of 592. Courses are taught in five-week blocks one at a time to provide an immersive learning experience. These online courses are taught by on-campus faculty to ensure online students receive the same quality of instruction compared to the traditional program. The online MBA program begins in August and January with various early, priority, international, and final deadlines throughout the year. Students may submit either GMAT or GRE scores with their application package.

        University of Southern California

        8. University of Southern California

        USC Marshall School of Business

        View School Details
        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:630
        Acceptance Rate:46%
        Tuition (in-state):$1778/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$1778/credit

        Another highly-ranked online MBA program is the University of Southern California (USC) Marshall School of Business’s AACSB-accredited, 51 credit program . Students take courses in key business areas through both asynchronous and synchronous methods, so this program may appeal to students who want to connect with other classmates and faculty in real time as part of their online experience. No concentrations, internships, or research projects are required, although a capstone project may be pursued at the end of the program. Applications are reviewed on a rolling basis for start dates throughout the year.

        Washington State University

        7. Washington State University

        Carson College of Business

        View School Details
        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:568
        Acceptance Rate:58%
        Tuition (in-state):$750/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$750/credit

        Washington State University offers an affordable, fully-online MBA experience for both in-state and out-of-state students through the Carson College of Business. The MBA program has an international business focus including an optional 10-day field study in Asia. Students can either complete 36 credits for a general MBA or pursue a concentration in marketing, finance, international business, or hospitality business management. Start dates are offered in January, May, and August, with applications due approximately one month prior. The GMAT waiver option may be attractive to applicants with at least a 3.0 GPA in undergraduate study, compelling recommendation letters, and either a previous graduate degree or seven years of work experience.

        Pepperdine University

        7. Pepperdine University

        Graziadio School of Business and Management

        View School Details
        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:565
        Acceptance Rate:71%
        Tuition (in-state):$1670/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$1670/credit

        At Pepperdine University’s Graziadio School of Business and Management, working professionals can earn an AACSB-accredited MBA degree online with a concentration in finance, leadership and managing organizational change, marketing, or general management. The 52-credit degree takes as little as two years to complete in the general stream, while the concentrations may require an additional term of work. Applicants must have at least two years of work experience; however, a GMAT waiver may be issued if the applicant has at least five years of experience and a quantitative undergraduate or graduate degree. Admissions are structured for fall and spring terms with three rounds of application deadlines throughout the year. Students at Pepperdine can look forward to highly-engaged faculty with one of the fastest response times of programs on our list, at four hours.

        University of South Florida - St. Petersburg

        6. University of South Florida – St. Petersburg

        Kate Tiedemann College Of Business

        View School Details
        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:550
        Acceptance Rate:47%
        Tuition (in-state):$462/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$907/credit

        The online MBA program at the University of South Florida – St. Petersburg offered by the Kate Tiedemann College of Business was ranked 6th place across the country in 2018. This program is AACSB-accredited, requires a minimum of 36 credits, and offers career advising and internship opportunities to prepare graduates for work. Several program themes and concentrations are offered, including the unique healthcare analytics stream. The program is self-paced so that students can take as many or as few courses as they choose each semester. Applications are accepted on a rolling basis for fall, spring, and summer term start dates.

        Ball State University

        5. Ball State University

        Miller College of Business

        View School Details
        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:571
        Acceptance Rate:78%
        Tuition (in-state):$394/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$590/credit

        The Miller College of Business at Ball State University offers a very affordable online MBA that costs $394 per credit for Indiana residents or $590 for out-of-state residents. Neither work experience nor an undergraduate degree in business is required. Students can begin in the fall, spring, or summer terms and should submit their applications by July 1st, December 1st, or April 1st respectively. The program requires 30 credits and can be completed as a general business degree or with a specialization in entrepreneurship, finance, health economics, policy, and administration, logistics and supply chain management, or sales management.

        Clarion University of Pennsylvania

        5. Clarion University of Pennsylvania

        College Of Business Administration  Information Sciences

        View School Details
        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:456
        Acceptance Rate:95%
        Tuition (in-state):$483/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$522/credit

        Clarion University of Pennsylvania’s College of Business Administration and Information Sciences offers an affordable MBA degree program fully online that is taught by experienced faculty who have an average of 18 years of online teaching experience. Several concentrations are offered in finance, healthcare, and innovation and entrepreneurship, although a general business degree is also available. At least 33 credits must be completed to graduate, including core and elective courses, with additional foundational courses required for students without prerequisites in key business areas. Applications are reviewed on a rolling basis for start dates throughout the year. A bachelor-to-master’s program is also also offered, which takes five years to complete.

        University of Florida

        4. University of Florida

        Warrington College of Business

        View School Details
        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:578
        Acceptance Rate:54%
        Tuition (in-state):$1113/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$1113/credit

        The online MBA at the University of Florida Warrington College of Business is AACSB-accredited and was awarded a 4th place tied finish compared to similar online MBA programs across the country. Students with undergraduate degrees in business can take the 16-month accelerated program, while all other students can take the 27-month program. Both require on-campus residencies and at least 32 credits of coursework. Several concentrations are offered and students can combine concentrations to meet the program requirements. Applicants must have at least two years of work experience and are admitted to the MBA program on a rolling basis throughout the year with several rounds of deadlines for the fall, spring, and summer terms.

        University of Wisconsin

        4. University of Wisconsin

        University of Wisconsin MBA Consortium

        View School Details
        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:501
        Acceptance Rate:70%
        Tuition (in-state):$638/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$638/credit

        At the University of Wisconsin MBA Consortium, students can earn an online MBA degree with a general business focus accredited by the AACSB. The MBA program offers great value to both in-state and out-of-state students who are charged the same rate per credit ($638). Students complete 30 credits, including 17 core credits and 13 elective credits across a wide range of topics. Applications are accepted for fall, spring, and summer terms with priority and final deadlines several months prior to the start date.

        The University of Texas at Dallas

        3. The University of Texas at Dallas

        Naveen Jindal School of Management

        View School Details
        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:616
        Acceptance Rate:39%
        Tuition (in-state):$706/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$1245/credit

        The University of Texas at Dallas is home to the Naveen Jindal School of Management and a competitive, professional, online MBA degree program. The program is well-recognized for providing a quality degree experience as it was ranked in 7th place in the online MBA category in 2017 by US News  World Report and had an average undergraduate GPA of 3.6, one of the highest among programs on our list. Given these high standards, it is no surprise that only 39% of all applicants are admitted. Students take 53 credits including 23 electives, although not all electives are offered in the online program. The program only admits new students in the fall and there are four admission rounds throughout the year with a final deadline in June.

        West Texas AM University

        3. West Texas AM University

        College of Business

        View School Details
        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:540
        Acceptance Rate:61%
        Tuition (in-state):$380/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$410/credit

        While there are many top online MBA degrees based in Texas on our list, our best value pick from the “Lone Star State” is West Texas AM University’s online MBA offered through the College of Business. This is one of the most affordable online MBA programs with a price tag of $380 per credit for in-state students and $410 per credit for out-of-state students. Other benefits are that the program can be completed fully online and is AACSB-accredited. West Texas AM offers to waive the common GMAT requirement for applicants with at least a 3.0 GPA from undergraduate studies. New students are admitted on a rolling basis throughout the year.

        Pennsylvania State University World Campus

        2. Pennsylvania State University World Campus

        Smeal College of Business

        View School Details
        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:546
        Acceptance Rate:89%
        Tuition (in-state):$1185/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$1185/credit

        Pennsylvania State University’s World Campus Smeal College of Business offers an online MBA. Although the overall cost of the degree is higher than some on our list, this program is incredibly flexible as it can accommodate full-time and part-time studies. Students who hope to finish their studies in a short amount of time will be happy to know that Penn State’s online MBA program has one of the highest three-year graduation rates on our list; however, the university permits students up to eight years to complete their studies. Another reason this program presents good value is the high number (17 years) of average teaching experience of the faculty, one of the highest on our list. Students are admitted in the fall and spring terms with early and standard deadlines several month ahead of the start dates.

        Temple University

        2. Temple University

        Fox School of Business and Management

        View School Details
        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:582
        Acceptance Rate:45%
        Tuition (in-state):$1245/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$1245/credit

        If the best online MBA program is what you are looking for and you don’t mind scheduled class times online, the Fox School of Business at Temple University might meet your needs. The MBA program comprises 48 credits with optional specializations and a mandatory capstone project. Courses have both synchronous and asynchronous components so that students can interact with colleagues and faculty in real time. Admissions are competitive with fewer than half of all applicants admitted to the program. New cohorts are accepted for fall, spring, and summer with priority and final application deadlines prior to the start date. The Fox online MBA offers two concentrations comprised of nine credits each, Marketing Management and Human Resource Management.

        Indiana University Bloomington

        2. Indiana University Bloomington

        Kelley School of Business

        View School Details
        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:641
        Acceptance Rate:83%
        Tuition (in-state):$1300/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$1300/credit

        The MBA degree from the Kelley School of Business is a well-recognized, 51-credit general business online MBA offering from Indiana University Bloomington. In fact, the program attracts many international students and has one of the highest levels of diversity among schools on our list. The program does have a required residency at the start, after which all classes are offered online. The application process is competitive, with one the highest average GMAT scores of new entrants on our list at 641. Applications are accepted on a rolling basis for four start times during the year.

        Arkansas State University

        1. Arkansas State University

        College of Business

        View School Details
        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:602
        Acceptance Rate:76%
        Tuition (in-state):$587/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$587/credit

        Arkansas State University College of Business delivers an online MBA degree for busy professionals with relevant work experience including a concentration in supply chain management. The program comprises 27 credits and offers internships that count as three-credit electives. Even though students complete their coursework online, faculty are there to help and have some of the fastest response times to student inquiries of programs on our “Best Value” list. The program attracts high-achieving undergraduate students with a 3.7 GPA average among successful applicants and credits are priced affordably for in-state and out-of-state students at $587.

        University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

        1. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

        Kenan Flagler Business School

        View School Details
        MBA at a Glance

        Accreditation:AACSB
        GMAT Score:670
        Acceptance Rate:45%
        Tuition (in-state):$1585/credit
        Tuition (out-of-state):$1585/credit

        Our most highly-ranked “Best Value” online MBA is offered by the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill’s Kenan Flagler Business School. While the cost per credit is higher than some on our list, the online MBA program is highly-recognized and attracts high caliber applicants. In fact, successful applicants have an average GMAT score of 670, the highest on our list of “Best Value” programs, and fewer than half of all applicants are successful in their application. The program consists of 66 credits over at least 24 months, offers eight specializations, and provides students with the opportunity to complete electives in international cities around the world. New applicants are accepted on a rolling basis four times per year in October, January, April, and July with several priority deadlines.

        Online MBA Accreditation – What Does it mean? Why is it Important?

        Accreditation refers to a process through which schools, colleges, universities, and other higher education bodies are validated. There are standards that these centers of higher learning must meet in order to receive accreditation, which are set by an authorized accrediting agency. For online MBA programs, accreditation comes from agencies such as AACSB, AMBA, and EQUIS. Each of these agencies has a board comprised of faculty members from various educational institutions. This board takes on the responsibility of setting the accreditation standards.

        A college or university is accredited after areas such as the following pass a review by the accrediting body:

        • Overall Mission of the College
        • Objectives and Goals
        • Student Requirements for Admissions
        • Services Available to Students
        • Quality of Education
        • Reputation of Faculty

        Accreditation can make the difference between embarking on an exciting career path or being saddled with debt and worthless college credits.

        When a school or college has passed an accreditation process, it usually means that its degrees will tend to be valued by employers. That is why it is important to make sure that your Master of Business Administration degree and business school have the right accreditation.

        The accreditation process is often a rigorous one. As mentioned above, there are several areas that are assessed and evaluated, including faculty, services, infrastructure, curriculum and various other things. In order to gain the right accreditation, the institute must pass the expected standards in each of the areas evaluated by a certain body. The overall evaluation process takes a long time, so accreditation is usually granted within a period of years. For example, the AACSB’s initial accreditation process takes about three to five years. And accreditation is not a one-time process; it is a continuous evaluation that occurs periodically to ensure that a college or university continually maintains these standards. In order to maintain the accreditation, the institute must prove that it is constantly developing and improving. The idea is to make sure that the institute and its programs remain relevant and adaptable to the ever-changing higher education and business environment.

        Accreditation is a stamp of quality and prestige for a business school and its MBA programs.

        Top Accrediting Bodies

        There are three top agencies that are responsible for accrediting Master of Business Administration programs across the globe. They are:

        1. AACSB

        “AACSB” stands for Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. It is a US and Singapore-based accrediting agency that is responsible for accrediting undergraduate and graduate business programs all over the world. The agency was established in 1919 and has accredited business degrees and schools across more than 40 countries. In 1980, the AACSB started accrediting accounting programs as well. An AACSB accreditation holds a lot of value, ensuring that accredited schools “have the highest-quality faculty, deliver relevant and challenging curriculum, and provide educational and career opportunities that are not found at other business schools.”1 In fact, less than 5% of the over 16,000 business schools in the world have qualified for accreditation by the AACSB.1 The AACSB conducts an evaluation of a program or school every five years. Only 700 institutions in the world enjoy an AACSB accreditation and 75% of those institutes are in the US.1

        2. AMBA

        The “AMBA” or Association of MBAs is based in London, England. The agency has accredited business programs and schools in more than 49 countries. About 61% of AMBA-accredited MBA programs and business schools are located in Europe. In the US, only 2% of business programs and schools have AMBA accreditation. The AMBA began its operations in the 1980s. The agency is also responsible for accrediting other programs such as DBAs (Doctor of Business Administration) and MBMs (Master of Business and Management). The AMBA evaluates areas such as curriculum, faculty, strategy, assessment methods, and mission. According to AMBA standards, at least 25% of the faculty at a given school should possess a master’s or doctoral degree in a relevant field.

        Accreditation by a national or regional accrediting body creates a gateway for students to participate in more federally funded and state financial aid programs.

        3. EQUIS

        “EQUIS” stands for European Quality Improvement System. It is an accrediting agency operated by the EFMD Management Development Network. EQUIS is responsible for accrediting undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral programs, especially online MBA programs. The agency evaluates areas such as resources, corporate connections, faculty, governance, programs, research and development, students, and even contributions to the community. Only three schools in the United States are accredited by EQUIS.

        Accreditation and Financial Aid

        As mentioned, pursuing an online MBA program can be very expensive. That’s why most students seek some sort of financial assistance to support their education. The financial assistance can come from a wide range of sources in the form of grants, loans, assistantships, and scholarships.

        Financial aid from federal and state governments have conditions associated with them, one of which is that the school or program must be accredited by a national or regional accrediting agency that is recognized by the US Department of Education. This is yet another reason why accreditation is important. It proves to the government that the institute offers high-quality education to citizens, which is why they are willing to provide financial assistance to students.

        Accreditation organizations evaluate the quality standards of a business school’s teaching, faculty, services, and students, among other things.

        Which Online MBA Program is Right for Me?

        Each year, over 150,000 individuals in the United States alone are awarded traditional campus or accredited online MBA degrees. The receipt of an online MBA marks a momentous occasion in graduates’ lives, as they gear up for a rewarding professional career, one many of them roadmapped years before joining a business school. Almost 90% of online MBA program graduates state that their degree has been beneficial to them. But choosing an online MBA program is not easy; in fact, there are many things to think about before settling for one.

        1. Program Flexibility

        When considering an MBA program, you should look at the duration of each program and the flexibility they offer. Managing a job while pursuing an MBA degree is not easy. If you are a working student, the program should ideally allow you to make changes or adjustments if you need to focus on your career. A lot of schools allow online students to complete an MBA program in three to five years. Having more time to complete your degree will give you more flexibility so that you do not have to compromise your job responsibilities.

        It’s not just the long-term flexibility that matters. You should also consider the everyday flexibility offered by the program, such as whether the online coursework is offered synchronously or asynchronously. Synchronous learning requires students to be present at certain times for lectures, presentations, or class discussions. Asynchronous learning allows students to participate in coursework at their own pace without scheduled lectures or start and stop times. Inherently, asynchronous learning is more flexible than synchronous learning, so it is more conducive to a working professional’s busy schedule.

        2. Interaction with Peers and MBA Faculty

        An MBA program isn’t just about the coursework and skills taught. A solid MBA program also provides learning opportunities through networking, mentoring, and peer interaction. Even online MBA programs should provide a high level of interaction with professors and fellow students. Faculty teaching online programs should be available to students for consultation, and discussion should be facilitated between online students so that they can forge relationships that last beyond graduation.

        3. Access to Business School Resources and Services

        Some schools offering online MBA degrees may compromise on their quality. So when choosing an online MBA, it is necessary to verify that online students have access to the same resources as on-campus students. For example, the faculty should be primarily the same for both the online and on-campus programs. Online students should also receive access to the same services as the on-campus students, including services such as career placement and academic advising.

        4. MBA Accreditation

        Online MBA accreditation is important for any undergraduate or graduate program because many potential employers will place a higher value on accredited programs. The accreditation bodies that are among most widely valued are the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB International or AACSB), the Association of MBAs (AMBA), or European Quality Improvement System (EQUIS through the European Foundation for Management Development or EFMD).

        5. Return on Investment (ROI)

        Earning an MBA degree should theoretically help you in your career. While an MBA degree is an investment, think of it as an investment that will offer a direct return for your money. It’s a good idea to understand ahead of time the potential effect an MBA will have on your career so that you can weigh that potential with the upfront cost of the degree. If your new MBA helps you land that promotion you’ve been after, how many years will it take to earn back what you spent on the MBA?

        It is important to choose a program that suits not only your career goals but also your budget.
        When evaluating the ROI, consider the curriculum offered by the program. Make sure it is in line with your career goals and that it focuses on present-day business standards. Compare the online curriculum to the on-campus curriculum to ensure they are similar or the same.


        References:
        1. AACSB, Best Business Schools: https://bestbizschools.aacsb.edu/aacsb-accredited
        2. ACBSP, Business Schools: https://www.acbsp.org/page/accreditation
        3. IACBE, Business Schools: http://iacbe.org/accreditation/
        4. National Centre for Education Statistics: https://nces.ed.gov/collegenavigator/

        ★Counselling Micro Skills

        Basic Counseling Skills




        • Home

        • A. TECHNIQUES

        • Pattern of Sessions

        • Active Listening

        • Body Language

        • Asking Questions

        • Paraphrasing/Tone

        • Summary

        • Note Taking

        • Homework

        • Goodie Bag/Fun Stuff

        • Technique References

        • B. THEORIES

        • Client Centered

        • Holistic/Biopsychosocial

        • Strengths Based

        • Cognitive/Behavioral

        • Solution Focused

        • Existential Therapy

        • Letting Go

        • Theory References

        • C. SAMPLE SESSIONS

        • 1. Client Centered Counseling

        • 2.&3. No Show/Cancellation

        • 4. Strengths Based

        • 5. Cognitive Beh. Counseling

        • 6. Holistic Health Counseling

        • 7. Solution Focused

        • 8. Existential Counseling

        • 9. Becoming Unnecessary

        • D. SELF HELP

        • Journaling

        • Mood Mapping

        • Whole Health Check In

        • Community Resources

        • Ten Things I Like About Me

        • Common Lies We Tell

        • Goal-Setting

        • A Why to Bear a How

        • Happy People

        • Self-Help References

        • E. CONTINUING EDUCATION

        • F. SITE MAP

        • G. CONTACT ME!

        • H. READERS’ CONTRIBUTIONS


          • Addiction and Sleep – Jessica S


          • Alcohol Counseling – Carol G.


          • Depression and Addiction Rehab – Katherine C


          • Quit Smoking and Alcohol Rehab


          • Reducing Stigma – Patricia S.


          • Suicidal Thoughts and Alcohol Abuse – Julia W


          • Recovery Village – William B.


          • Bereavement Counseling – Sally W


          • Career Options – Sally W


          • Psychology Degrees – Lindsay F


          • Depression and Addiction Rehab – Katherine C


          • Diagnosing Depression – Melissa M


          • PostPartum Depression – Tracey F


          • Assisted Living Options for People with Disabilities


          • Cerebral Palsy Resources


          • Counseling and Persistent Pain – Sally W


          • Mesothelioma Resources


          • Be Happy – Hazel G.


          • Drug Dangers – Rebecca P.


          • Recall Report – Laura P.


          • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy – Sally W.


          • Couns. Resources – Tim C.


          • School Counselor ToolKit – Serena K.


          • Senior Resources – Claire S.


          • Addiction and Sleep – Jessica S


          • Better Sleep – Better Health – Cheryl C


          • Tuck Sleep – Kellen S


          • De-Fogging Brain – Sally W


          • Financial Stress – Sally W.


          • Improving Mental Clarity – Sally W


          • Stress on Health – Sally W.


          • Suicidal Thoughts and Alcohol Abuse – Julia W


          • Summer Side Gigs for Teachers – Joyce W


          • Tobacco in 2017 – Mary G.

        Paraphrasing – What You Think the Speaker Said

        Paraphrasing (link to Integrative Counselling Skills in action by Sue Culley, Tim Bond) is when you, the listener, restate succinctly and tentatively what the speaker said – conveying empathy, acceptance and genuineness.

        Since we cannot read our client’s mind and we’ve been given a lot of extraneous material, it’s good to learn how to rephrase briefly and acknowledge that this is what we think the client has said. For example, let’s say the client has gone into a lot of detail about a traffic jam and the effect on his blood pressure and his resulting visit with the doctor and the rude nurse and and and… To paraphrase would be to say in a tentative voice,“So after the traffic jam you felt your blood pressure was up, and the doctor confirmed this…?”

        By doing this you are letting your client know that you understand and, if you don’t, are willing to be corrected. AND you are helping her or him to “cut to the chase.” What would not be helpful to say right now is, “So you have an anger management problem!?” It may be what you are thinking, but you want the client to keep talking and for the client to come to that conclusion on her or his own.

        By the way, this is a good time to take interest in the tone of your voice. Be watchful of whether it is…

        • High / low

        • Loud / soft

        Picture

        • Fast / slow

        • Accommodating / demanding

        • Light-hearted / gloomy

        Moderation in all things including voice. And remember, the person may not remember what was said, but they will remember how you made them feel!



        In Class Homework – Trying Out Paraphrasing:

        10 minutes of listening and restating in a compact sympathetic way, and 5 minutes of feedback

        Listener – Get ready to actively listen and get into your encouraging body language.

        Ask an OEQ like, “What brings you here today?” You want the speaker to go on at some length.

        Speaker – Talk away!

        A few minutes later…

        Listener – Take what the speaker is saying and condense it – watching tone. You want to sound tentative.

        Speaker – Let the listener know if she/he is on the right track.

        *****

        Speaker

        1. Did you feel you were being sympathetically heard?

        2. What percentage correct was the speaker? Ten percent? 90%? How come?

        Listener

        1. How was it to listen with the understanding you would be paraphrasing back to the speaker?

        2. Did you feel you were “on the same page”? If not, why not?

        Don’t worry if you are not completely accurate. That is why the listener “plays it back” to the speaker using a tentative tone.

        Remember! The person may forget what you said, but will never forget how you made them feel!

        Time to do the switcheroo!

        *****

        Out of Class Homework

        Look for opportunities to practice paraphrasing.



        Don’t look at me in that tone of voice! – David Farber

        Lounge Cats II




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        Japanese Journal of Counseling Science
        Online ISSN : 2186-4594
        Print ISSN : 0914-8337

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        • Volume 45 (2012) Issue 4
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        Original Article
        Applying Microcounseling to Lawyer’s Acquisition of Counseling Skills
        Hayato KAWAGOSHIHiroko SUGIWAKA

        Author information
        • Hayato KAWAGOSHI

          Faculty of Psychology, Doshisha University

        • Hiroko SUGIWAKA

          Faculty of Psychology, Doshisha University

        Keywords:

        microcounseling ,
        lawyers ,
        legal counseling ,
        paraphrasing ,
        counseling skills

        JOURNALS
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        2012
        Volume 45
        Issue 4
        Pages 209-217

        DOI
        https://doi.org/10.11544/cou.45.4_209
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        • Published: 2012
          Received: May 01, 2012
          Released on J-STAGE: March 12, 2016
          Accepted: February 01, 2013
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          Revised: –

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        Abstract

        This study investigated the effects of acquiring counseling skills with microcounseling on lawyers. Participants were six lawyers who were asked to acquire paraphrasing, a counseling skill used in microcounseling. The scores of paraphrasing in a pretest, a posttest, and a follow-up test (two weeks later) were compared. In the posttest, the scores of paraphrasing were significantly higher than the scores in the pretest, and it remained at the same level from the posttest to the follow-up test. Furthermore, participants were asked to use paraphrasing in legal counseling between the posttest and the follow-up test. The results suggested that paraphrasing is useful for information arrangement, common understanding, emotional support, and communication facilitation. Additionally, the competence of regulating interpersonal relationship was improved by acquiring paraphrasing. These findings suggest that lawyers are able to acquire counseling skills with microcounseling and acquired counseling skills will work effectively in legal counseling.

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        © 2012 The Japanese Association of Counseling Science

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          • Front Psychol
          • v.3; 2012
          • PMC3495333
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          Front Psychol. 2012; 3: 482.
          Published online 2012 Nov 12. doi:  10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00482
          PMCID: PMC3495333
          PMID: 23162516

          Effects of Empathic Paraphrasing – Extrinsic Emotion Regulation in Social Conflict

          Maria Seehausen ,1,2,3,* Philipp Kazzer ,1,2,3 Malek Bajbouj ,1,2,3 and Kristin Prehn 1,2

          Maria Seehausen

          1Cluster of Excellence “Languages of Emotion,” Freie Universität, Berlin, Germany

          2Dahlem Institute for Neuroimaging of Emotion, Freie Universität, Berlin, Germany

          3Department of Psychiatry, Charité University Medicine Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin, Germany

          Find articles by Maria Seehausen

          Philipp Kazzer

          1Cluster of Excellence “Languages of Emotion,” Freie Universität, Berlin, Germany

          2Dahlem Institute for Neuroimaging of Emotion, Freie Universität, Berlin, Germany

          3Department of Psychiatry, Charité University Medicine Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin, Germany

          Find articles by Philipp Kazzer

          Malek Bajbouj

          1Cluster of Excellence “Languages of Emotion,” Freie Universität, Berlin, Germany

          2Dahlem Institute for Neuroimaging of Emotion, Freie Universität, Berlin, Germany

          3Department of Psychiatry, Charité University Medicine Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin, Germany

          Find articles by Malek Bajbouj

          Kristin Prehn

          1Cluster of Excellence “Languages of Emotion,” Freie Universität, Berlin, Germany

          2Dahlem Institute for Neuroimaging of Emotion, Freie Universität, Berlin, Germany

          Find articles by Kristin Prehn
          1Cluster of Excellence “Languages of Emotion,” Freie Universität, Berlin, Germany
          2Dahlem Institute for Neuroimaging of Emotion, Freie Universität, Berlin, Germany
          3Department of Psychiatry, Charité University Medicine Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin, Germany
          Edited by: Vera Shuman, University of Geneva, Switzerland
          Reviewed by: Philipp Kanske, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Germany; Molly Ireland, University of Pennsylvania, USA
          *Correspondence: Maria Seehausen, Cluster of Excellence “Languages of Emotion,” Freie Universität Berlin, Habelschwerdter Allee 45, 14195 Berlin, Germany. e-mail: [email protected]
          This article was submitted to Frontiers in Emotion Science, a specialty of Frontiers in Psychology.
          Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer
          Received 2012 Jun 24; Accepted 2012 Oct 19.
          Copyright © 2012 Seehausen, Kazzer, Bajbouj and Prehn.
          This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits use, distribution and reproduction in other forums, provided the original authors and source are credited and subject to any copyright notices concerning any third-party graphics etc.
          This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

          Abstract

          In the present study, we investigated the effects of empathic paraphrasing as an extrinsic emotion regulation technique in social conflict. We hypothesized that negative emotions elicited by social conflict can be regulated extrinsically in a conversation by a listener following the narrator’s perspective and verbally expressing cognitive empathy. Twenty participants were interviewed on an ongoing or recently self-experienced social conflict. The interviewer utilized 10 standardized open questions inviting participants to describe their perception of the conflict. After each of the 10 descriptions, the interviewer responded by either paraphrasing or taking notes (control condition). Valence ratings pertaining to the current emotional state were assessed during the interview along with psychophysiological and voice recordings. Participants reported feeling less negative after hearing the interviewer paraphrase what they had said. In addition, we found a lower sound intensity of participants’ voices when answering to questions following a paraphrase. At the physiological level, skin conductance response, as well as heart rate, were higher during paraphrasing than during taking notes, while blood volume pulse amplitude was lower during paraphrasing, indicating higher autonomic arousal. The results show that demonstrating cognitive empathy through paraphrasing can extrinsically regulate negative emotion on a short-term basis. Paraphrasing led to enhanced autonomic activation in recipients, while at the same time influencing emotional valence in the direction of feeling better. A possible explanation for these results is that being treated in an empathic manner may stimulate a more intense emotion processing helping to transform and resolve the conflict.

          Keywords: emotion regulation, empathy, social conflict resolution, paraphrasing, client-centered-therapy

          Introduction

          Emotion regulation research to date has mainly focused on an individualistic point of view emphasizing control mechanisms in the individual, such as attention deployment, cognitive reappraisal, or the willful suppression of emotional expressions (Gross and Thompson, 2007 ; Butler and Gross, 2009 ; Rime, 2009 ). Compared to the abundance and sophistication of the research pertaining to classification schemes on such intrinsic regulation, systematic analysis of extrinsic emotion regulation and especially of controlled interpersonal affect regulation (i.e., the process of deliberately influencing the emotional state of another person, as opposed to non-conscious affect spreading) is still relatively sparse. Rime ( 2009 ), however, points out that an emotional experience is virtually indivisible of a social response, which in turn is bound to shape and modify the original emotion, so that emotion has to be regarded as a fundamentally interdependent process.

          Niven et al. ( 2009 ) propose a classification system for controlled interpersonal affect regulation strategies, derived from Totterdell and Parkinson’s ( 1999 ) classification of strategies to deliberately improve one’s affect. Their final classification distinguishes between strategies used to improve versus strategies used to worsen others’ affect, and between strategies that engage the target in a situation or affective state versus relationship-oriented strategies. The technique of empathic paraphrasing, which is investigated in the present study, can be categorized as aiming at affect improvement and engagement within this classification framework. However, it also contains a relationship-oriented component, as empathic paraphrasing communicates interest and commitment in understanding the other’s perspective, thereby implying that their feelings are valid and worth listening to.

          Empathy has been conceptualized in many different ways, usually involving a cognitive and an emotional component (Preston and de Waal, 2002 ; Lamm et al., 2007 ; Decety and Meyer, 2008 ). Cognitive empathy means the ability to take the perspective of another person and infer their mental state, while emotional empathy refers to the observer’s affective response to another person’s emotional state (Dziobek et al., 2008 ).

          Paraphrasing or active listening (coined by Carl R. Rogers in Client-Centered-Therapy) is a form of responding empathically to the emotions of another person by repeating in other words what this person said while focusing on the essence of what they feel and what is important to them. In this way, the listener actively demonstrates that he or she can understand the speaker’s perspective (cognitive empathy). Rogers described empathy as the ability to sense the client’s private world as if it were one’s own, but without losing the “as if” quality (Rogers, 1951 ). Empathy is communicated through active listening, which in the Client-Centered approach aspires to evoke personal growth and transformation through providing a space of unconditional acceptance for the client. Rogers considered empathy, positive regard, and congruence both necessary and sufficient conditions for therapeutic change (Rogers, 1942 , 1951 ).

          This early notion on the importance of empathy for facilitating therapeutic change has gained ample empirical support over the last decades of research. How empathic a therapist is perceived to be has been identified as a critical factor for positive therapy outcome for both psychodynamically oriented and cognitive-behavioral psychotherapies (Bohart et al., 2002 ; Duan and Kivlighan, 2002 ; Orlinsky et al., 2004 ; Marci et al., 2007 ; Elliott et al., 2011 ; Norcross and Wampold, 2011 ). Based on a review of several studies Marci et al. ( 2007 ) describe a significant influence of perceived empathy on mood and general clinical improvement, even when controlling for other factors. Along this line, a meta-analysis conducted by Bohart et al. ( 2002 ) confirms a modest but consistent importance of empathy during psychotherapy. Zuroff et al. ( 2010 ) specifically examined the relationship between patient-reported measures of the three Rogerian conditions (positive regard, empathy, and genuineness) and therapeutic outcome, and found that patients whose therapists provided high average levels of the Rogerian conditions across all patients in their caseloads experienced more rapid reductions in both overall maladjustment and depressive vulnerability (self-critical perfectionism). Farber and Doolin ( 2011 ) conducted a meta-analysis on 18 studies also focusing on the effects of positive regard as defined by Rogers on treatment outcome, and found an aggregate effect size of 0.26, confirming a moderate influence of this factor.

          The effectiveness of showing empathy on treatment success has also been assured within the field of medical care. Medical researchers have coined the term clinical empathy, which Mercer and Reynolds ( 2002 ) define as (1) understanding the patient’s situation, perspective and feelings (and their attached meanings), (2) communicating that understanding and checking its accuracy, and (3) acting on that understanding with the patient in a helpful (therapeutic) way. Hence, within the clinical setting empathy entails not only cognitive and affective components but also a behavioral component to communicate understanding to the patient, i.e., through active listening (Davis, 2009 ). Accordingly, the active demonstration of empathy has already been recognized as a crucial component of promoting cooperation in challenging situations within the field of clinical care. Halpern ( 2007 ) stresses that physicians who learn to empathize with patients during emotionally charged interactions can thereby increase their therapeutic impact. By the same token, a growing body of evidence demonstrates that empathic communication effectively helps patients through challenging and fearful situations, ranging from painful dental treatments over psychological problems to pandemic crisis (Cape, 2000 ; Reynolds and Quinn Crouse, 2008 ; Bernson et al., 2011 ). Neumann et al. ( 2009 ) reviewed prior empirical studies on clinical empathy and conclude that clinical empathy is a fundamental determinant of successful medical care, because “it enables the clinician to fulfill key medical tasks more accurately, thereby achieving enhanced health outcomes” (Neumann et al., 2009 , p. 344).

          In sum, the effectiveness of empathic communication as an extrinsic emotion regulation technique has already gained solid empirical support from psychotherapy and medical research. For the present study, social conflict was chosen as the context to examine the effects of empathic paraphrasing on emotion, for two reasons. Firstly, social conflict is often accompanied by intense emotions such as anger and hurt, and therefore lends itself easily to the investigation of extrinsic emotion regulation, without requiring artificial emotion induction in the laboratory. The setting of real-life social conflict renders it possible to work with “real” emotion, while at the same time concentrating on a non-clinical population. Secondly, empathic paraphrasing is used with vast prevalence within the field of conflict resolution. Paraphrasing is generally applied as one of the most important constitutional elements across all domains of conflict mediation (business mediation, family mediation, community mediation, victim-offender mediation, etc.). Hence, it seems expedient to take a closer look at the emotional effects of a technique so widely used within the context of its most common application.

          Social psychology research offers evidence for a connection between dispositional affective empathy as well as dispositional perspective taking and adaptive social conflict behavior (Steins, 2000 ; Gehlbach, 2004 ; de Wied et al., 2007 ). However, there is hardly any research on the effects of being treated in an empathic manner (as opposed to feeling empathy oneself) on conflict behavior. Moran and Diamond ( 2008 ) report positive effects of therapist empathy on parent’s negative attitudes toward their depressed adolescent children. Being treated in an empathic way seems to help parents to also empathize with their children going through a rough time. This is an interesting finding, which contains parallels to social conflict situations and stimulates the question which emotional effects are triggered by being treated empathically, and how these emotional processes aid own empathic reactions toward others.

          An interesting train of evidence regarding the socio-cognitive effects of being treated empathically is provided by research on interpersonal mimicry and language matching in social interaction. Numerous studies confirm that non-verbal interpersonal mimicry increases affiliation and positive social judgment as well as pro-social behavior not only toward the mimicker but also toward people not involved in the mimicry situation, indicating that being mimicked not only leads to an increased liking toward the interaction partner, but to an increased pro-social orientation in general (van Baaren et al., 2004 ; Ashton–James et al., 2007 ; Fischer-Lokou et al., 2011 .; Guéguen et al., 2011 ; Stel and Harinck, 2011 ). This is true for the mimickee as well as the mimicker (Stel et al., 2008 ). Maddux et al. ( 2008 ) also report that strategic mimicry in negotiation abets more favorable negotiation outcomes, facilitating both individual and joint gains. This effect was mediated by higher levels of trust toward the mimicker. Ashton–James et al. ( 2007 ) tested several hypotheses on why mimicry promotes pro-social behavior and found that being mimicked during social interaction shifts self-construal toward becoming more interdependent and “other-oriented.” Additionally, mimicry strengthens one’s perception of interpersonal closeness with other people in general.

          Correspondingly, language style matching, i.e., similarity in use of function words, has been found to predict relationship initiation and stability (Ireland et al., 2011 ). On a similar vein, according to the interactive-alignment account of dialog, the success of any given conversation depends on the extent of the conversation partners arriving at a common understanding of the relevant aspects of what they are talking about, i.e., a common situation model (Pickering and Garrod, 2004 ). Interlocutors tend to automatically align at different levels of linguistic representation, e.g., through repeating each other’s words and grammar (Garrod and Pickering, 2004 ). This alignment at low-level structure positively affects alignment of interlocutors’ situation models – the hallmark of successful communication – as people who describe a situation in the same way tend to think about it in the same way as well (Markman and Makin, 1998 ; Menenti et al., 2012 ). These findings strongly support the hypothesis that paraphrasing, which involves a certain degree of language matching and bears parallels to mimicry on a verbal level, administrates emotional and socio-cognitive effects on the person being paraphrased.

          Regardless the impressive amount of research reviewed above, the specific dynamics of emotional response to empathic paraphrasing are yet largely unclear. Rime ( 2009 ) suggests that socio-affective responses such as comfort and empathy temporarily alleviate a narrator’s negative emotions and generate a deep feeling of relief. However, if no cognitive reframing and re-adjustment of goals, motives, models, and schemas occur, the alleviating effects of socio-affective responses can be expected to be only temporary, because the cognitive sources of the emotional unsettledness have not been transformed. Following this reasoning, the emotional effects of empathic paraphrasing should be expected to be short-lived. On the other hand, Rogers argued that receiving empathy and positive regard are necessary conditions for being able to revise overly rigid structures of the self and assimilate dissonant information and experiences (Rogers, 1942 , 1951 ). Hence, empathic paraphrasing may initiate a cognitive-emotional process progressing in several stages, with emotional alleviation and an increased mental openness and disposition for cognitive restructuring possibly being the first one. In this respect, the present research makes a valuable contribution by moving beyond correlational designs to presenting the first experimental study assessing in detail the emotional effects of empathic paraphrasing in the context of social conflict, hopefully providing a useful basis for further analysis in future studies.

          To investigate whether and how empathic paraphrasing in the context of a real-life social conflict extrinsically regulates emotion, we invited participants to an interview in which they were asked to talk about an ongoing or recently self-experienced social conflict with a partner, friend, roommate, neighbor, or family member. The interviewer responded to participants’ descriptions by either paraphrasing (experimental condition following half of the interview questions) or taking notes (control condition). We assessed valence ratings pertaining to participants’ current emotional state as well as skin conductance response (SCR), blood volume pulse (BVP), blood volume pulse amplitude (BVPamp), and heart rate (HR) as indicators of autonomous nervous system (ANS) activity during the interviews. We also recorded the interviews for documentation and analysis.

          Psychophysiological and voice parameters have been proven to be reliable indicators for emotional responses (Scherer, 2003 ; Kushki et al., 2011 ). HR is regulated by sympathetic (increase) as well as parasympathetic (decrease) pathways of the ANS (Li and Chen, 2006 ; Kushki et al., 2011 ), and reflects autonomic arousal (Critchley, 2002 ) as well as emotional valence (Palomba et al., 1997 ). BVP is a measure of changes in the volume of blood in vessels and has been associated with affective and cognitive processing (Kushki et al., 2011 ). BVP amplitude has been found to be lower during episodes of increased sympathetic activity (Shelley, 2007 ) and has also been shown to decrease when feeling fear or sadness in several studies (Kreibig et al., 2007 ). SCR depicts changes in the skin’s ability to conduct electricity and is considered a sensitive psychophysiological index of changes in autonomic sympathetic arousal that are integrated with emotional and cognitive states. In addition, SCR reflects vicarious emotional responses to another’s affective state (pain), and is therefore also connected to empathy (Hein et al., 2011 ).

          Based on the literature reviewed above, we hypothesized that empathic paraphrasing would lead to a reduction of negative emotion in the situation of talking about the conflict. Specifically, we expected valence ratings to be more positive after paraphrasing. Furthermore, we hypothesized that empathic paraphrasing would lead to lower autonomic arousal, reflected in psychophysiological measures and voice analysis.

          Materials and Methods

          Participants

          Twenty healthy subjects [10 female; age: mean (M) = 27, standard deviation (SD) = 7.9] participated in this study. All participants were native German speakers, and had recently experienced a potentially ongoing social conflict with a partner, friend, roommate, neighbor, or family member. No conflicts involving physical or psychological violence were included in the study. Due to technical problems, SCR and voice data of four participants as well as BVP data of three participants were lost. Therefore, 20 participants entered the analysis of self-report data, 16 entered voice data analysis and analysis of SCR, and 17 entered analysis of HR and BVP.

          The study was carried out in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and was approved by the ethical committee of the Charité University Medicine Berlin. All participants gave written informed consent prior to investigation and received payment for participation.

          Interview design and procedure

          Participants were told that the study investigates emotion in social conflict, especially how emotions develop while speaking about a social conflict. The interviewer further informed participants that she would try to understand their perspective, and sometimes summarize what she understood so far, while at other times take notes to help her memorize certain things and have them present over the course of the interview.

          Interviews consisted of 10 standardized open questions (e.g., “What exactly bothers you about the other person’s behavior?”). After the participant answered each question, the interviewer either paraphrased what had been said, or silently took notes (control condition). Following these paraphrasing interventions or control conditions, respectively, participants were asked to rate their current emotional state. In order to avoid confounding effects resulting from the content of the questions, as well as distortions due to emotional processing over the course of the interview, interventions, and control condition were given alternately during the interview. Half of all participants received an intervention (empathic paraphrasing) after the first question, a control intervention after the second question, and so forth; the other half received a control intervention first. All interviews were conducted by the same female interviewer, who had previously received 190 h of training in conflict resolution and has worked on cases in community mediation, business mediation, and family mediation over several years, applying empathic paraphrasing as one of the core techniques of conflict resolution.

          Paraphrasing in the present study was implemented in such a way that after each narration the interviewer briefly summarized the facts of the narration and described her understanding of how the narrator felt, and why, and what she understood was important to the narrator regarding the situation described. To confirm the accuracy of her paraphrasing, the interviewer asked if her understanding was correct at the end of each paraphrase. An example of a paraphrase is given in the Appendix.

          All interviews were audiotaped. Interview length was 30.16 min on average (SD = 11.03), depending on how extensively participants answered to the questions. Figure Figure11 depicts the interview questions as well as a schematic overview of the interview procedure and measurements.

          An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
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          Figure 1

          Interview guideline and procedure.

          Data acquisition and analyses

          Participants were asked to indicate their current emotional state (valence rating) on an eight-point Likert scale ranging from −4 to 4 (“How positive or negative do you feel right now?”) 10 times during the interview, following the interventions and control condition, respectively. Ratings were analyzed with two-tailed t-tests for repeated measures in IBM SPSS Statistics 20.

          Skin conductance response and BVP were recorded continuously with a sampling frequency of 40 Hz using a commercial sampling device (Biofeedback 2000X-pert, Schuhfried GmbH, Austria) during the entire interview. Both interviewer’s and participant’s voices were recorded using Audacity 1.2.6 with a highly directional microphone (Shure, WH20 Dynamic Headset Microphone, IL, USA).

          Skin conductance data was analyzed in LedaLab V3.3.1. Time frame of analysis was 25 s after the onset of the intervention or control condition. Within this interval, SCR was decomposed by continuous decomposition analysis (CDA; Benedek and Kaernbach, 2010 ). For each participant and interval, the maximum phasic activity was computed (with a minimum amplitude of 0.001 μS) and averaged for each participant across all intervals of both conditions).

          Blood volume pulse and BVPamp were analyzed for intervals of 23 s after the onset of intervention or control condition using Matlab 7.1 (The Math-Works, Inc., MA, USA). Data were smoothed using a six point Gaussian filter. BVP was further used for extracting HR data through computing the inverse of the distance between successive peaks of the BVP signal in intervals larger than 0.4 s (Kushki et al., 2011 ). Mean SCR between both conditions (paraphrasing interventions and control conditions), BVP, BVPamp (in%), and HR (in beats per minute) were also analyzed with two-tailed t-tests for repeated measures in IBM SPSS Statistics 20. In addition, we compared BVP, BVPamp, and HR during the paraphrasing intervention and the interview question directly following the paraphrase, with a standard time frame of 4 s for the question phase.

          Analysis of voice recordings was done with seewave in R statistics (Sueur et al., 2008 ). Using Audacity 1.2.6., intervals of speech for voice analysis were selected manually by listening to the recorded interviews and cutting out participants’ responses to each question – following an intervention or control intervention, respectively.

          Results

          Behavioral data

          Valence ratings following paraphrasing revealed less negative feelings than ratings following the control condition [t(19) = 3.395, p = 0.003]. Effect size is d = 0.76 (Cohen’s d for repeated measures, calculated with pooled means and standard deviations).

          Differences in valence ratings over the conditions are shown in Figure Figure22 .

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          Figure 2

          Mean valence ratings (with standard error of the mean) after the empathic paraphrasing and control conditions.

          Time series plots over the entire course of the interview show a U-shaped trend in valence ratings over time, which is mainly due to ratings following the control condition (see Figure Figure3).3 ). However, a repeated measures ANOVA including sequence of intervention over time as an additional factor demonstrates that the effect of the intervention remains untouched by sequence [main effect of sequence F(4, 72) = 1.768; p = 0.145; main effect of intervention: F(1,18) = 11.400; p = 0.003 interaction intervention × sequence F(4, 72) = 1.489; p = 0.215].

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          Figure 3

          Mean valence ratings over the course of the interview, averaged over both conditions (A) and split up into paraphrasing and control condition (B). At each of the 10 trials, 10 subjects received an intervention and 10 received a control intervention.

          Psychophysiological data

          Two-tailed t-tests for repeated measures show that participants had a higher SCR during paraphrasing than during the control condition [t(15) = 2.589; p = 0.021]. Effect size is d = 0.65 (Cohen’s d). Complementary results were found in participants’ HR, which was also higher during paraphrasing than during the control condition [t(16) = 6.491; p = 0.000; effect size d = 1.57]. No significant differences between the conditions for BVP were found [t(16) = 0.22; p = 0.812]. However, there was a strong trend for mean BVPamp [t(16) = −2.119; p = 0.050; effect size d = 0.51], which was lower during paraphrasing than during taking notes. Comparing BVPamp during paraphrasing with the interview question directly following the paraphrase, we also found that BVPamp is lower during paraphrasing than during the following interview question [t(13) = 2.381; p = 0.033; effect size d = 0.64]. For HR and BVP, no such difference between paraphrase and subsequent interview question was found. Figure Figure44 illustrates differences in psychophysiological measures and voice intensity over the two conditions.

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          Figure 4

          Measures of sympathetic activation (mean values with standard error of the mean). (A) Skin conductance response (SCR; in μS), (B) Heart rate (in beats/minute), (C) Blood volume pulse amplitude (BVPamp in%), and (D) Voice volume (in dB) during empathic paraphrasing and control condition.

          Voice analysis data

          Mean intensity/volume of participants’ voices was lower when they replied to an interview question following a paraphrase [t(15) = −2,466; p = 0.026; effect size d = 0.62]. There was no difference in mean fundamental voice frequency (F0) between the conditions [t(15) = 0.583; p = 0.568]. F0 range and F0 standard deviation did not differ between the conditions, either (see Table Table1).1 ). However, speech rate and articulation rate showed trends for slower speech following paraphrasing [speech rate t(15) = −1.86; p = 0.082; articulation rate t(15) = −2.05; p = 0.059]. Cohen’s d yielded effect sizes of d = 0.47 for speech rate and d = 0.51 for articulation rate.

          Table 1

          Means (M), standard deviations (SD), t-, p-, and d-values of all parameters in intervention and control condition.

          Empathic paraphrasing


          Control condition (taking notes)


          ptCohen’s d
          MSDMSD
          Valence ratings (N = 20)−0.551.10−0.931.020.003**3.400.76
          VOICE DATA (N = 16)
          Volume (in dB)33.403.5734.432.830.026*−2.470.62
          Fundamental frequency (F0 in Hz)249.098.26249.338.410.568−0.58
          Standard deviation F034.389.5034.6810.630.675−0.43
          Range F0315.9830.24312.7547.560.7450.33
          Speech rate3.110.763.230.760.082−1.860.47
          Articulation rate4.190.734.290.750.059−2.050.51
          PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL DATA (N = 17)
          Skin conductance response (SCR in μS)0.140.080.110.060.021*2.590.65
          Heart rate (HR in beats/minute)89.798.9483.3910.890.000**6.491.57
          Blood volume pulse (BVP in%)49.640.0849.630.110.8120.22
          Blood volume pulse amplitude (BVPamp in%)12.686.9316.4912.650.050−2.110.51
          Open in a separate window

          * and ** indicate significant findings.

          Table Table11 gives an overview of means and standard deviations of all psychophysiological, voice, and self-report parameters over the two conditions.

          Discussion

          The aim of our study was to investigate the short-term emotional effects of empathic paraphrasing in social conflict. To achieve this, we conducted interviews on real-life social conflicts currently experienced by our participants. During the interview, paraphrasing was alternated with a control condition (taking notes). Emotional valence ratings were obtained after each intervention and control intervention and psychophysiological and voice recordings were executed continuously during the interviews. Our hypothesis was that paraphrasing would lead to more positive emotional valence and lower autonomic arousal. Viewing the results of our study as a whole suggests that empathic paraphrasing has a regulating effect on a narrator’s emotions, however, this effect seems to be more complex than originally expected. In sum, we found that participants felt better when the interviewer paraphrased their emotions and perceptions of the conflict. At the same time, and contrary to our expectations, SCR, HR, and BVP amplitude indicate higher autonomic activation during paraphrasing. Voice intensity as well as speech and articulation rate of participants on the other hand was lower when answering to a question following a paraphrase.

          Effects of paraphrasing on valence

          The self-report ratings demonstrate that participants felt better after the interviewer had paraphrased what they had said. Also, the relatively high effect size suggests that this effect is strong and practically relevant. The interview itself also induced valence effects over time, insofar that participants experienced a decline in emotional valence in the middle of the interview, which recuperated toward the end of the interview. However, due to the alternation of intervention and control intervention, which was again alternated in sequence over participants, this trend does not affect the intervention effect.

          This self-reported valence effect is consistent with participants’ lower voice intensity after paraphrasing compared to the control condition. Banse and Scherer ( 1996 ) have linked high voice intensity with negative affects or aggressive speaker attitudes, thereby suggesting a conjunction between high voice intensity and negative emotional valence. Conversely, speech and articulation rate are also slightly lower following an intervention, even though these effects are not statistically significant. Speech rate is defined as the number of spoken units (e.g., words/syllables) per unit of time (minute/second). It is calculated across continuous speech segments, which may include pauses, disruptions, or dysfluency. Articulation rate is an analogical measure based only on fluent utterances, excluding pauses, and dysfluency (Howell et al., 1999 ). Speech rate has been demonstrated to increase when experiencing anger or fear compared to neutral emotional states (Scherer, 1995 ; Rochman et al., 2008 ). Hence, the lower speech and articulation rates following paraphrasing also suggest that participants experienced less negative emotion after paraphrasing.

          By the same token, HR was higher during paraphrasing than during the control condition, which according to Palomba et al. ( 1997 ) can also be interpreted as a valence effect. HR deceleration has been associated with negative emotional valence during presentation of unpleasant visual stimuli. In social tasks, HR acceleration has been measured in accordance with intensity of emotion, and to a lesser degree, with emotional valence (Palomba et al., 1997 ). Palomba et al. ( 1997 ) found significant differences in HR deceleration between positive, negative, and neutral visual stimuli, with positive stimuli producing the highest and negative stimuli the lowest HR. Hence, self-report data, voice data, and HR analysis all support the conclusion that emotional valence was positively influenced by offering cognitive empathy through paraphrasing. This effect of paraphrasing on valence bolsters Rime’s ( 2009 ) supposition that being treated empathically while socially sharing negative emotion produces a short-term alleviation of these negative emotions.

          Interestingly, the positive impact of mimicry on social judgment mentioned in the introduction (i.e., promoting liking toward the mimicker) suggests the generation of positive emotion as a result of mimicry. This was not the case for paraphrasing in our study: valence ratings in the intervention condition center around the neutral. Nevertheless, it is still possible that paraphrasing led to an increased liking toward the interviewer, while overall affect was neutral. Social judgment was not assessed in the present study, hence, no direct comparison with mimicry is possible. However, it would be interesting to compare the effects of mimicry and paraphrasing on emotion in future studies, as well as to study verbal mimicry or matching more extensively in the context of distressing conversations such as social conflict discussions.

          Effects of paraphrasing on arousal

          Skin conductance response, HR and BVP amplitude indicate a period of higher autonomic arousal while the interviewer paraphrased what participants had said, compared to taking notes on what they had said. Again, effects sizes of physiological measures suggest medium and in the case of HR, very strong, effects. This is surprising, as we presumed that the lower intensity of negative emotion induced by paraphrasing would be accompanied by lower arousal. Instead, paraphrasing apparently enhanced autonomic arousal. Quite conversely to psychophysiological data, the lower voice intensity following the intervention on the other hand suggests a calming effect of paraphrasing on autonomic arousal, as several studies on emotion and voice quality have associated high voice intensity with high sympathetic autonomic arousal emotions (Scherer, 2003 ). This apparent contradiction between voice data and psychophysiological data appears initially confusing, as vocal changes and changes in SCR both originate in mediated variation of HR, blood flow, and muscular tension caused by an arousing event (Duffy, 1932 ; Laver, 1968 ; Schirmer and Kotz, 2006 ).

          However, this discrepancy can be explained by the fact that BVP and SCR were recorded while participants listened to the interviewer paraphrasing, whereas voice analysis was done on recordings of participants’ answers to the interviewer’s next question, following the paraphrase. Thus, the autonomic arousal induced by paraphrasing may already have subsided and passed into a calmer state at the time participants answered the next question. This possibility is difficult to double-check for SCR as this parameter is reactive to speech and will thus be higher while participants are talking, even though autonomic sympathetic arousal induced by the intervention might have diminished already. However, we reassessed this hypothesis using BVP, BVPamp, and HR data, comparing the paraphrasing phase with the subsequent question phase and found a confirming result for BVPamp, although not for the other two measures. Participant had a lower BVP amplitude while listening to the paraphrase compared to listening to the interview question asked in direct succession. This indicates a specific effect of paraphrasing on autonomic arousal, which is not induced by speech in general. It should also be noted that voice intensity following paraphrasing is significantly lower than voice intensity following the control condition. Hence, given the assumption made above is correct, participants’ autonomic arousal is first heightened by listening to the paraphrasing, and after a short period of time lowered to a level below the control state. This is a very interesting finding, for which two possible explanations should be considered.

          Firstly, it is possible that empathic paraphrasing not only leads to a reduction of negative emotion in participants, but even induces positive emotions, such as happiness and relief about being listened to and validated. This would explain the initial higher autonomic arousal, which would in this case be due to a short-term experience of positive emotions, in accordance with Rime ( 2009 ) dissipating quickly. However, the behavioral data does not support this notion, as the valence ratings remain in the negative range of the scale even after paraphrasing, only approximating the neutral zero-point. Also, it should be noted that empathic paraphrasing is distinctly different from everyday forms of volunteering empathy or forms of social sharing of emotion as referred to by Rime. Paraphrasing does not offer sympathy or emotional empathy, but instead takes a purely cognitive road by demonstrating that the listener can understand the narrator’s perspective. It does not seem likely that this technique should have the same emotional effects as common social sharing responses such as offering sympathy.

          Therefore, as an alternative explanation of our results, it is more conceivable that demonstrating cognitive empathy through paraphrasing temporarily leads to a heightened focus on and increased processing of negative emotion, which might eventually have a resolving effect on these emotions. This explanation seems probable considering the nature of paraphrasing, which entails repeating emotional narrations in a pointed way, thereby sharpening and clarifying the emotional experience. In a study on the relationship between therapist pre-session mood, therapist empathy, and session evaluation, Duan and Kivlighan ( 2002 ) found that intellectual empathy (demonstrating an understanding of the client’s perspective, i.e., empathic paraphrasing) was positively correlated with client-perceived session depth (power and value of the session), but not correlated with perceived session smoothness (comfort and pleasantness of the session). In a way, paraphrasing confronts people with what they are feeling, and thus can stimulate a deeper processing of negative emotion (depth), which temporarily involves higher autonomic arousal and may even be perceived as trying and hard work (smoothness), but eventually abets resolution of the emotional conflict. It however seems unlikely that this process advances automatically without fueling cognitive work such as reappraisal and re-adjustment of goals and schemas. Yet, the clarifying focus on one’s own emotion, accompanied by the non-judgmental stance of empathic paraphrasing might strongly push this process forward. This notion is in line with Rogers’ original claim to evoke personal growth and transformation in the client through empathic paraphrasing, thereby achieving therapeutic change (Rogers, 1942 , 1951 ).

          Also, considering the findings from mimicry and language matching research, which have demonstrated that being treated empathically on basal levels such as facial expression and language style promotes attitude and behavior change, it seems plausible that empathic paraphrasing may foster socio-cognitive processes in a similar direction. As paraphrasing contains a deliberate effort to verbally align with the narrator, it may generate a shared situation model and in this way promote successful communication. It would be interesting to consider if empathic paraphrasing, as it bears a certain resemblance to mimicry on a verbal level, can also stimulate pro-social behavior in the person being paraphrased; for instance a greater willingness to open up for the other party’s perspective on the conflict. This would strongly support the idea of paraphrasing stimulating a clearance of negative emotion.

          There seems to be wide consensus between psychotherapists of different disciplines that psychotherapy benefits from an optimal level of arousal in the client, similar to the Yerkes–Dodson law, which posits an inverse U-shaped correlation between arousal and performance in complex tasks (Bridges, 2006 ). Markowitz and Milrod ( 2011 ) argue that emotional arousal is central for engaging the client in psychotherapy and making the therapeutic experience meaningful. They claim that the therapist’s ability to understand and respond empathically to negative emotional arousal should be considered the most important one of the common factors of psychotherapy. The therapist provides support and at the same time acts as a model, teaching the client to tolerate, verbalize, and integrate their feelings. Thus, negative feelings diminish and lose toxicity. In a similar vein, the traditional concept of the “corrective emotional experience” by Alexander and French ( 1946 ) describes the transformation of painful emotional conflicts as re-experiencing the old, unsettled conflict but with a new ending. This notion, which has gained ample empirical support, holds that processing emotional conflicts within a safe and empathic environment is necessary for therapeutic change (Bridges, 2006 ).

          A resembling road is also pursued by acceptance and mindfulness-based interventions. Research on acceptance-based and mindfulness-based therapy has shown that accepting and mindfully observing negative emotions (instead of trying to suppress them) leads to the dissolution of these emotions (Eifert and Heffner, 2003 ; Arch and Craske, 2006 ; Hayes-Skelton et al., 2011 ). Czech et al. ( 2011 ) cite several experimental studies which have demonstrated that acceptance of negative emotion decreases distress and increases willingness to engage in challenging tasks. Empathic paraphrasing may have similar effects, as it essentially applies the principles of mindfulness and acceptance from the outside – through a listener who takes on an accepting role, thereby prompting the narrator in the same direction. Offering cognitive empathy through paraphrasing draws attention to emotions, non-judgmentally describes and accepts them, and is thus very similar to acceptance-based and mindfulness-based therapy. The central difference might be the locus of initiation of these processes, which in the case of empathic paraphrasing comes from somebody else. Comparing the effects of mindfulness and empathic paraphrasing and investigating the potential consequences of this difference on emotion processing and emotion regulation could be an interesting research focus for future studies.

          Limitations of the present study

          A potential short-coming of the present study pertains to the nature of the control condition, which consisted of taking notes silently. It could be argued that, as only the experimental condition involved speech, the differences found might be due to a general effect of being spoken to, rather than to an isolated effect of empathic paraphrasing. However, it should be noted that within a social conflict situation, the content of a reply to emotional descriptions can never be perceived as completely neutral, and any control condition involving speech will induce emotional effects of its own, e.g., irritation or even anger caused by inapplicable verbal comments of the interviewer following participants’ emotional disclosure. The present control condition was deliberately chosen for providing a neutral baseline against which the effects of empathic paraphrasing can be tested before moving on to other modes of comparison.

          An aligned point of concern might be that it cannot be ascertained how the control condition was perceived by participants. For instance, even though they were informed that the note-taking simply served the purpose of bolstering the interviewer’s memory during the conversation, some participants may still have worried about the notes containing subjective judgment. This would most likely induce stress and add an emotional bias to the control condition. In this case, however, one would expect an increase in autonomic responses during the control condition, which did not occur. Still, considering these shortcomings of the control condition, the results need to be reproduced with varying kinds of control conditions involving speech before they can be viewed as definite.

          It should also be mentioned that this study focused exclusively on short-term emotional reactions to paraphrasing, in order to obtain a constitutional data base illustrating the regulatory effect of this communicational technique. Our results suggest that in addition to influencing immediate emotional valence, paraphrasing sets in motion an initially arousing process of coping with negative emotions associated with the social conflict, which eventually may lead to resolving these emotions. However, as we did not assess longitudinal measures pertaining to the emotions associated with the social conflicts in question, this conclusion has to remain speculative until backed up by further research.

          Finally, the relatively small sample size of the study makes it prone to distortions from individual variations and gender differences, e.g., in emotion expression. Again, replication of the results based on larger groups of study participants is called for.

          Conclusion and directions for future research

          The present study provides first experimental evidence that offering cognitive empathy through paraphrasing extrinsically regulates emotion in social conflict. Paraphrasing led to less negative feelings in study participants, while at the same time inducing higher autonomic arousal, which subsided after a short period of time. A possible explanation for these findings is that empathic paraphrasing stimulates an increased and focused processing of negative emotion in social conflict, and thus may contribute to resolving these emotions.

          Future studies investigating the emotional effects of demonstrating cognitive empathy may further scrutinize the short- and long-term effects empathic paraphrasing has on arousal, and test the hypothesis that paraphrasing induces a cognitive-emotional process which facilitates the resolution of negative emotion in social conflict. Also, it would be interesting to investigate the dynamics of this process more closely and identify factors necessary for its successful development. Presently, we are working on a neuroimaging paradigm designed to overcome some of the above mentioned shortcomings and further explore the effects of empathic paraphrasing on the disposition to consider other people’s perspective in social conflict.

          Conflict of Interest Statement

          The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

          Acknowledgments

          This study was financially supported by the Cluster of Excellence “Languages of Emotion” at Freie Universität Berlin which is funded by the DFG (German Research Foundation), and by the Open-Access publication fund of the DFG and the Freie Universität Berlin.

          Appendix

          Example of a paraphrasing sequence

          Interviewer: “What is worst for you about this situation?”

          Narrator: “The worst thing is not knowing what happens now, well, this uncertainty. I mean, there is a problem, I have to make sure the rent is being paid, because in the end I am responsible, because I am in the rental agreement…and then – not being able to deal with that situation, not being able to act, because I just don’t know what is going to happen. The worst…now I am not so sure anymore, what was worst about it – well, also interpersonally it was very disappointing, because after all I took care of everything, voluntarily, and…I mean, when she is acting this way now, that is also a lack of recognition for what I do, what I accomplish. For my whole courtesy. What aggravates things is that is was clear from the beginning that she does not do so well financially, but urgently needed an apartment, and I let her move in with me to help her. And that is something that is…not being trampled under her feet…but you notice that there is a lack of recognition. Well, I think this second issue is worse than the first one.”

          Interviewer: “So it is a combination, is it? For one, this thing, that in some way your existence is on stake here, that you are saying, this uncertainty is hard to bear – that you do not know how the rent is going to come around in the future. And then also the interpersonal issue, that you are saying you are disappointed of her, because you helped her, and in return you get this now, right? Especially the lack of recognition, the interpersonal treatment is what is worst – did I understand that correctly?”

          Narrator: “Yes.”

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