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★Introduction to Computer Science and Programming in Python

MIT OpenCourseWare, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
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Introduction to Computer Science and Programming in Python

A black backlit keyboard.

6.0001 is intended to teach basic programming concepts to students with no prior coding experience. ( Dboybaker , licensed CC-BY-NC-SA)


MIT Course Number


As Taught In

Fall 2016



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Course Description

Course Features

  • Video lectures
  • Captions/transcript
  • Interactive assessments
  • Lecture notes
  • Assignments: problem sets (no solutions)
  • Assignments: programming with examples

Course Description

6.0001 Introduction to Computer Science and Programming in Python is intended for students with little or no programming experience. It aims to provide students with an understanding of the role computation can play in solving problems and to help students, regardless of their major, feel justifiably confident of their ability to write small programs that allow them to accomplish useful goals. The class uses the Python 3.5 programming language.

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  • Computer Science
  • Computer Science > Algorithms and Data Structures
  • Computer Science > Programming Languages

Ana Bell, Eric Grimson, and John Guttag. 6.0001 Introduction to Computer Science and Programming in Python. Fall 2016. Massachusetts Institute of Technology: MIT OpenCourseWare, https://ocw.mit.edu . License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA .

For more information about using these materials and the Creative Commons license, see our Terms of Use .


MIT puts free programming course online


MIT puts free programming course online

It’s all free, including lecture notes and videos. Just the thing for those rainy weekends.

If you’ve never written or debugged a program, here’s an opportunity – MIT has a free introduction to programming on its web site.

There’s a lot of these free courses floating around online – we recently pointed out that MIT has more than 2,000 online . You don’t get an MIT degree, but they might fit the bill if you’re the type that values having some knowledge under your belt.

Fortunately there’s "little or no" programming experience required for this one. The goal: write "small programs". Python is the weapon of choice.

According to the MIT syllabus, the course includes:

  • the process of writing and debugging a program
  • learning a basic set of "recipes"—algorithms
  • straight line, branching, and looping programs
  • algorithmic techniques
  • how to structure programs using decomposition and abstraction

More than a few weekends in there.

Also read: Learn electronics online for free

Copyright © PC & Tech Authority . All rights reserved.

course free misc software mit programming python



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How Much Can You Really Learn With a Free Online Education?

The world’s most prestigious universities have begun posting entire curricula on the Web—for free. Is there such a thing as a free higher-education lunch? I enrolled to find out

By Josh Dean

posted Sep 1st, 2009 at 11:40am

Domo Schola / Doctrina Gratis

Jon Valk

I was not screwing around. When I took the first physics class of my life, at age 35, it was at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and my professor was Walter Lewin, one of that institution’s most respected instructors. Lewin is a man so comfortable with his vectors that he diagrams them in front of a classroom audience while wearing Teva sandals.

OK, I wasn’t really “at” MIT. And “took” the class may be a stretch. I was watching the video of one of Lewin’s lectures from the comfort of my backyard in Brooklyn, and I too was wearing sandals (but not Tevas; I have standards).

Lewin is the breakout star of MIT’s OpenCourseWare (OCW) program, what the school calls a “Web publication” of virtually every class taught in its hallowed halls. For his dynamic teaching and frequent stunts (building a human pendulum, firing golf balls at glass panels), he’s been downloaded by physics enthusiasts around the globe and profiled on the front page of the New York Times as the first luminary of online open learning. The professor’s fans are examples of a new type of student participating in a new kind of education, one built around the vast library of free online courseware offered by many of the world’s temples of higher learning, as well as museums, nonprofit organizations and other knowledgeable benevolents.

Why would someone who’s not paying $38,000 or getting a single credit subject themselves to the rigors of an MIT course? For one thing, OCW offers elite teaching on demand. College students at lesser schools can use a teacher like Lewin to stretch themselves (32 percent of MIT’s OCW users are enrolled at another college). A high-school physics teacher might tune in to brush up on the laws of thermodynamics — or become a better teacher by studying different methods of instruction. An engineer can beef up by taking tests from the advanced-level classes to identify stuff he ought to know but doesn’t and then dive into course notes to learn them.

And then there’s the just plain curious, a category that would include me. I wondered: What’s an MIT course like, anyway? Could I, more than a decade out of school, hang with those young brainiacs? To find out, I dusted off my three-ring binder and re-enrolled in school part-time from the comfort of my couch, drawing not just from MIT but from the many free sources online. Mimicking a typical course load, I would take a science course and a language course, attempt to cram in a computer-programming course, and watch as many miscellaneous lectures as I could stand. I wanted to see if I, in a month, operating as an adult balancing a semi-regular schedule and lots of other obligations, could actually learn something.

MIT for Free

The idea behind MIT’s OpenCourseWare program was born in 2000 on the recommendation of a faculty committee convened to answer two questions: How is the Internet going to change education? And what is MIT going to do about it?

Steve Carson, a spokesman for OCW, which is now a full entity within MIT with a $3.6-million budget, told me that the group was expected to recommend a for-profit distance-learning program. Once they started thinking hard about such a model, however, it didn’t make sense.

The problem is that MIT is, by its very nature, an exclusive institution, which accepts a mere 12 percent of its applicants and charges a small fortune for the privilege of attending. To put a scaled-back version of that online, available to a much larger audience, and still award credit would potentially devalue the existing university. Instead, they decided to do the opposite: put everything out there for free, but with no offer of credit or a degree. It would cost a lot of money, sure, but it would be great for the school’s image, and it would be a tremendous resource for actual MIT students — as Carson puts it, a “souped-up Wikipedia” for the MIT community to use. In the meantime, it would give the whole world the opportunity to sample an MIT education. Shigeru Miyagawa, a professor of Japanese and linguistics at MIT, was one of the key members of that committee. He speaks of the program with uncut idealism. “Why are we doing this?” he says. “We’re doing this because of the belief that knowledge, when you share it, expands.”

Mathematics on the Refrigerator

Jon Valk

Boy does it. OCW went live as a pilot program in 2002 with 50 courses. Five years later, MIT celebrated the publishing of its 1,800th course, and today more than 250 schools around the world have similar programs — many participating through the OCW Consortium, set up by MIT to help other schools follow its example. MIT estimates that 56 million people have accessed its courses alone, either directly from OCW or from its six translation sites. The 200-plus members of the OCW Consortium saw 15.7 million visits in the first quarter of this year alone. Apple created iTunes U to distribute classes in audio and video. YouTube has a channel called YouTube EDU.

And there’s much more beyond MIT — sites like Academic Earth (a clearinghouse for lectures from scholars and intellectuals), Google Code University, and thousands of free or for-profit sites teaching everything from Swedish to how to build and service solar cells. It’s a rich, burbling, overwhelming world. You could easily tumble down this rabbit hole and emerge weeks later, bearded, bleary-eyed and the most annoying party guest of all time. Or you could find that you’re not as smart as you thought you were.

Reality Check

“In physics we explore the very small to the very large,” Lewin said. He stood in front of the class in pleated khaki cargo pants and a blousy blue oxford and spoke with the sort of vague, undefined European accent that would make him an excellent foil for James Bond. (He turns out to be Dutch.) Lewin dismissed the American system of measure as “extremely uncivilized” and said his class would be based on the metric system. Then he rolled the film “Powers of 10,” at which point my screen went black and a note indicated that copyright prevented the film from being included.

Day one, and I’d already stumbled on an important limitation of the OCW experience. MIT (or any school) doesn’t have the right to give away copyrighted materials such as films or textbooks used in class. In the case of the former, it’s often not much of an issue; I just went to YouTube and dialed up the slightly dated (and moderately psychedelic) 1977 film made by Ray and Charles Eames to depict the relative size of things in the universe. But when it comes to books, it’s a stumbling block.

I was operating under the misguided notion that I could survive this experiment using only what was completely free, so I chose not to click the amazon.com link to order the textbook. That turned out to be a major problem. It quickly became clear that I was not equipped with the same foundational basis in math or physics that the students in this first-semester freshman physics course were, and without the supplemental text, I had no additional tool for decoding Lewin’s scribbles. Obviously, I couldn’t ask a question, either.

I stuck with it, for a while. In a week, I watched three of Lewin’s 50-minute lectures and understood almost none of them. The stunts for which he’s become famous are undeniably entertaining — I think it’s fair to call this prop-wielding genius the Gallagher of science — but at the end of each hour I’d look down at my scrawls and realize they were useless to me. They looked like hieroglyphics.

I got that long-dormant lost-in-class feeling that triggers notebook doodles and clock watching, and I started to dread “going.” And so, in a departure lounge at Miami International Airport, around the time Lewin said, “We now come to a much more difficult part, and that is multiplication of vectors,” I decided to drop the class.

Thank God for Flash Cards

The guilt I felt over my failure to absorb higher math was soon offset by two things. First, I realized that unlike in college, there was no consequence or embarrassment to dropping the class. No walk of shame to the registrar’s office, and it’s not as if Lewin would miss me. Two, I was getting more bilingual by the day.

After hunting for the perfect online language course, I’d settled on a Romanian class from BYKI (Before You Know It), a for-profit site with a broad selection of free options, including a boiled-down version of its software that enables you to study vocabulary and basic grammar using a program of downloadable pop-up flash cards. The idea is to hook you and hope you’ll pay up to $70 for the full version, but what’s free is substantial; plenty, it seemed, to crash-prepare for a trip. I wasn’t actually going to Romania, I was simply curious about the tongue that I’d recently learned is the fifth Romance language. In fact, I happened to have a trip scheduled to a place where Romanian would do me no good at all: Ecuador.

On day five, lying on the musty sheets of a hotel bed in Quito, I learned to count from one to 10 in Romanian in less than half an hour using the program’s highly intuitive card system. It starts by having you read and repeat the words in English and Romanian and then has you type the translation both ways. It’s self-correcting, and when you miss a word, that word is given higher priority and appears more often until you’ve proven that you’ve learned it. It works. By the time I headed out for the night, I could transcribe a phone number in Romanian.

Romanian on Refrigerator

Jon Valk

It turns out that this kind of itinerant self-schooling is pretty common. MIT says 61 percent of OCW users live outside the U.S. (the largest block is in East Asia, with 22 percent). Steve Carson shared case studies with me featuring students, educators and self-learners from Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Nigeria and St. Lucia.

Take the story of two Bostonians, Ann Nguyen and Alison Cole. Recent college grads (Nguyen from the University of Massachusetts — Amherst, Cole from Scotland’s Edinburgh Napier University), the two decamped this summer to India, where they plan to live cheaply for a few years while attempting a bold experiment. Nguyen and Cole saw in OCW’s freely available teachings the material for an “alternative grad school” of their own design. Theirs is the ultimate study-abroad program — self-imposed graduate-level distance learning conducted from a far-flung location that also happens to have plenty of opportunities for hands-on work related to the subject of study, environmental engineering. Cole told me that she’s not sure how well it will work but that the two want to answer a number of questions, foremost among them: Can a person conduct work with high academic integrity outside the auspices of an institution?

“I’m an academic at heart,” Cole says. “But the realization that continuing my education would only further my debt and reduce my ability to afford life and a family really bummed me out.” She and Nguyen are using the syllabi from MIT OCW’s courses in ground hydrology, soil behavior and aquatic chemistry to construct a program that will study arid-land restoration, a subject that has practical applications in India and will also be relevant out there in job-land when it comes time to move back. (How employers will feel about this self-governed education remains to be seen.)

Although Cole and Nguyen appear to be the first to attempt to use OCW as the basis for a full-blown graduate program, they’re hardly the only hardcore autodidacts. Consider “Deevani,” who e-mailed me one afternoon in response to a call for satisfied OCW students. Deevani turned out to be A. Ines Rooney, a 34-year-old music-industry executive who moonlights as a songwriter specializing in the Latin-inspired hip-hop known as reggaeton. Rooney is self-taught in 12 languages, including Urdu, Bengali and Mandarin, and spends whatever spare time she has after producing and recording records (and raising her children) to devour OCW language, culture, literature, economics and finance classes — some 80 of them so far, she estimates. “I think I have a Ph.D. right now,” she says, half-kidding. “I just don’t have the credit.”

Rooney is right. You’ll never earn a degree from your self-imposed studies. As Carson points out, no amalgam of text and video, no matter who builds it, will ever be a substitute for an actual MIT education. (Or an education from Carnegie Mellon, or Notre Dame, or anywhere else.) You can’t actually use the labs or interact with faculty, who are the real draw of a college.

Like any open-source program, however, free Internet education is evolving. “There are Yahoo groups that have formed around MIT content,” Carson says. “If [independent learners] don’t need certification but need content, they can go to OpenCourseWare and form a group.”

(Sort of) Living Up to My Potential

I could have used a support group. The second week of my experiment, a little shell-shocked by my failure in physics, I listened to three MIT biology lectures. It didn’t stick. Next I sought out something science-y that was both easier to handle and more practical. I opted for a seminar taught by the chemist Patricia Christie, a lecturer in MIT’s Experiment Study Group. “Cooking,” read the course description for Kitchen Chemistry, “may be the oldest and most widespread application of chemistry, and recipes may be the oldest practical result of chemical research.” It sounded perfect until I hit a snag: There were no video or audio lectures.

Dot Matrix Diploma

Jon Valk, Printer: iStock

I wrote to Carson in a panic, and he broke the news to me. Only 79 of the OCW courses come with video lectures (another 22 come with audio). The program was intended as a print-based initiative; whether to add video was the professor’s call. In essence, mine would be a lab class without the labs. I bit into the curriculum anyway. The class on bread obliged me to investigate the science of yeast, thought to be the oldest industrial biological agent. My curiosity piqued, I spent an entire afternoon bouncing around the Web reading about baking science.

Yeast cells coming to life are biochemistry in action. I tested the process by making a yeast air balloon, just like the students in the real class. I mixed yeast, sugar and water in a bottle and watched as the carbon dioxide given off inflated a balloon affixed to the neck. It was amateur science, sure, but it was science. And in the end I got something useful: some challah that my girlfriend, an aficionado of toast, declared the best bread she’d had all year. I began to look forward to each kitchen chemistry “class,” and by the last week of my experiment I had made my pancakes fluffier, attempted my first stew and my first pie, understood for the first time how baking soda works, and learned what an emulsion is. I even made a soft, lemony cheese. In the kitchen, at least, I was an improved person thanks to self-directed study.

Romanian was also proving a success. By the final week of my month-long experiment, I could meet and greet people in a Bucharest of my imagination, bargain a cabbie from 10 lei to 5 (though if he argued, I’d be stuck), and identify 16 different animals, including an eagle (the word, oddly enough, is vultur).

My foray into computer science, on the other hand, was only moderately better than the physics debacle. I started with the grand ambition of building an iPhone app, but the online Stanford University course I was considering required you to possess “C language and programming experience at the level of 106B or X.” I had no idea what these things meant, so I changed my mind. After spending two weeks of my “term” shopping for a new course (hey, no registration deadline here), I settled on trying to learn an old, elementary programming language called Logo. As one Logo site declared: So simple a child can do it!

Or me. A message board led me to a Logo class built by a generous British man. I downloaded the simple software and in minutes had mastered the first tutorial, which involved learning to direct a small turtle around the screen using simple commands. I could make squares, triangles and combinations of the two. I could also use Logo to complete equations both simple (addition) and more complex (trigonometric functions). A few tutorials later, I was making the program speak. It wasn’t long, though, before terms like “data types and values” and “flow control” crept into the syllabus and I felt myself falling behind, wishing I could raise my hand and ask someone to explain it to me. By the second or third lesson I was getting the dreads, and for days after I avoided it entirely, procrastinating by any means necessary, including Romanian.

My failure to keep up with even basic science courses told me something I already knew, which is that I’m a writer, not a scientist or programmer. And that leads me to the first of a few Free Online School Rules I’d learned by the end of my experiment:

1. You get what you pay for. “Free” means no asking questions in the middle of class, which can be a dealbreaker with a subject as potentially confusing as physics.
2. That said, it might help if you actually buy the textbook.
3. Free online learning is not going to teach you anything substantial overnight, or in a week (unless you are Rain Man, in which case you’re just memorizing anyway). Plan to do a whole course.
4. There are few things better than hot bread made with your own two hands, especially when you understand the science of why it’s so delicious.
5. We are at the beginning of this experiment, not the end.

“You know where we’re heading with this,” says Shigeru Miyagawa, who believes that OCW has enriched current students and faculty, enhanced MIT’s reputation as an institution at the forefront of innovation, and provided an invaluable opportunity to show off its smarts to those prospective geniuses that top schools fight for. “You can already see it. You” — here he means an institution — “can’t afford not to do OCW. I foresee that in five years, all major institutions will be opening courses to let the world see what they do. It’s a no-brainer, right?”

On the next page, our guide to the best places to learn on the web.

Who has time to search the web when there’s so much learning to be done? So we’ve put together a list of our favorite 10 free online resources here. The first lesson is that, if you can think of the topic, chances are you can find a course on it at one of these sites.

Learn from the Best: Many of the nation’s top schools have opened up online annexes

1. MIT OpenCourseWare
Its list of 1,900 courses includes Weight Training and Playwriting. But the majority of “students” visit the oldest open courseware program for the subjects that made the Institute so renowned: physics, math and electronics.

2. University of Berkeley
It’s no surprise that the top-ranked public university offers a few dozen online audio and video lectures each semester. And live videos from special campus events, like the Dalai Lama talking about peace through compassion, could make you feel like you’re in the middle of college life.

3. Johns Hopkins School of Public Health OpenCourseWare
If you’re interested in a softer side of science, you can find written, video and audio lectures on public health topics ranging from sexual health to the fundamentals of human nutrition.

Extracurriculars: Round out your education

4. Google Code U
Becoming a master of your own domain, speaking C++, and hackproofing your data are all possible at Google Code U. And if you feel inspired to give back to the community that teaches you all that computer science, you’re in luck. The site accepts appropriate course content from its users.

5. Hewlett-Packard Learning Center
Brush up on basic computer skills like Microsoft Word, Excel and Powerpoint, as well as life skills such as business etiquette, from the technology giant Hewlett-Packard. You can even opt to receive a degree to hang on the wall once you completed your course.

“You know,” “generally speaking,” “in order to” learn a foreign language, you have to memorize the most common phrases and words. Or so goes the mantra of this online language resource that promises to have you speaking one of over 70 different languages “before you know it.”

7. Digital Photography School
The site offers tutorials and tips for digital photographers of all levels.

Cast the Net Wide: A trio of lecture aggregators

8. Academic Earth
Perusing video lectures from different universities on Academic Earth is so smooth and seamless that you will have plenty of brain cells left over for learning.

9. YouTube EDU
In the same familiar format used for scanning screenshots of fluffy kitty videos, YouTube aggregates video content from different learning centers.

10. iTunes U
Use your iPhone or iPod touch for a higher purpose than tweeting with iTunes U. The application brings a list of the most popular lectures from different universities and cultural institutions to your fingertips.


  • feature
  • MIT
  • youtube
  • education
  • iphones
  • September 2009
  • Science

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Most students do not know what a proper structure of an essay looks like, which is why their writing skills leave a lot to be desired. The major problem they usually face is related to having too much poorly structured information in their papers. Which is why learning how to structure it can help them organize their ideas efficiently and make their essay easy to follow. Being able to come up with a proper structure can also be a solution to your instructor’s challenging requirements.

Essay Paragraphs – the Structure

Nearly all students are aware of the so-called ‘five-paragraph structure,’ which is the first thing their tutors introduce them to when teaching the basics of essay writing. Though being a basic structure, it is rarely used in colleges or universities where all papers commonly comprise three paragraphs, i.e., the introduction, body, and conclusion.

Each student should know that the basic essay structure is the same for all essay types, be it persuasive, narrative or descriptive papers. A poorly structured essay will, therefore, hardly impress your instructor and you may even end up losing valuable grades. Good essay papers should read like a remarkable story and have a proper introduction, main body and conclusion. This example of a good standard structure:

  • Introduction ( 1 paragraph).
  • The main body ( any number of paragraphs depending on the required number of pages, i.e., three or more sections).
  • Conclusion (1 paragraph).

Essay Introduction

Being the first paragraph of your essay, the introduction lets the reader know about its topic, as well as your viewpoint regarding it. The opening should contain the thesis statement which can be two to three sentences long, comprising a summary of the main points and/or arguments presented in the essay. The manner in which you write your introduction will help the reader decide whether they would like to proceed with reading the paper or just stop right there. Therefore, knowing the type of audience you are writing for is vital because that way you will be able to come up with a compelling thesis statement that will grab their attention immediately.

Essay Body Paragraphs Structure

If the student chooses to go with the five-paragraph structure, they need to make sure that there are three body paragraphs in their paper. If it is a college or university student who has been assigned to come up with an essay containing five or more pages, then the number of paragraphs can be correspondingly higher.

The paragraphs between the introduction and conclusion are what is commonly referred to as the main body of the essay. You are supposed to make sure that you divide your main body into structural segments, such as subheadings and paragraphs so that it does not look so clustered and confusing to the reader. To achieve this, one should keep in mind a few simple rules, such as:

  • Each subheading and paragraph should present a new point, topic, subject, or idea.
  • Your argument should be supported by evidence, e.g., examples, data, facts, etc.
  • A quick conclusion needs to be drawn.
  • This part should keep the reader interested, so make sure that you do not drag one point for too long and include quotes wherever applicable.
  • And remember – you can always seek essay help to ensure that your main content is structured correctly and well-presented.

The second paragraph of an essay is where you make a smooth transition from the topic introduced in the first body paragraph, thus making it easier for the reader to follow your key ideas. The seamless transition concept is also applicable to all your remaining paragraphs; however, each point or idea should be supported with evidence, e.g., examples, research results or statistical data. Keep in mind that it is not merely your writing skills that your professor is testing, but rather logical thinking, as well as your ability to create a meaningful and persuasive argument that will help you draw a definitive conclusion.

Essay Conclusion Paragraph

The conclusion is the last paragraph of the essay, which provides the reader with a summary of the main points presented in your work. You shouldn’t introduce any new ideas here but rather restate the thesis statement in such a way as to avoid repetition and to induce boredom in your audience. A well-written conclusion will leave the reader with the best impression of your paper, so do not try to rush things up because you may end up ruining your entire essay. It is a good idea to come up with a rough draft of the last paragraph, which will let you iron out any remaining inconsistencies and repetitions in the final product.

The structure of an essay is an effective way of communication with the reader, showing how well the student understands the topic and requirements of the assignment, as well as their ability to raise an argument and reach a conclusion.

The citation or bibliography is an integral part of an essay structure that comes after the conclusion and states all the material that you have referenced. If your paper has direct quotes, paraphrased quotes or content from other sources, citations are essential and should, therefore, not be left out. Keep in mind that unless you add proper citations, you can get penalized for plagiarism or even lose grades for submitting a poorly referenced essay. If a specific format is stated in your instructor’s requirements, you need to make sure that you painstakingly adhere to it because failure to do so may entail very unpleasant consequences. In case no format has been specified, just pick any commonly accepted one that you find easy-to-use and format your paper accordingly.

How you structure your essay determines the manner (or sequence) in which you would like the audience to receive information contained therein. Depending on an essay type, the format of the body paragraphs may differ; however, the overall layout remains the same at all times. Please, see below for a standard essay structure (citations included):

  • Introduction
  • Body Paragraphs
  • Conclusion
  • Bibliography/Citation

Professional experts to the rescue!

Not all students are good at writing, so whenever you’re in a pinch, our professional experts can always come to your rescue. If you don’t have enough time, lack the skills and have no clue how to follow the standard essay structure, you can always turn to a professional writing service for help. Actually, getting help is perfectly OK, and it does not reflect negatively on your abilities or intelligence. The thing is that students need to take care of lots of things during their academic life, which leaves them with little or no time at all for their papers. As a result, they write their essays in a hurry and end up getting poor grades.

So, why risk bad grades? Just get in touch with our professional academic service and let seasoned professionals take the load off your mind! You can rest assured that you will get a properly structured and well-researched paper written to the highest academic standards.

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Essay planning and structure

It is really important to plan your essay before you begin writing. Planning will save you time later. It is also essential that you have a starting point to plan from, even if it is in a very rough form.

The obvious place to start is at the assignment question itself. From the question you can develop your answer in the form of a thesis statement . From there you can decide what your essay’s subtopics will be and what you want to say about them. After you have a basic idea of what you want to talk about, you can begin to write the essay.

However, when writing an essay, it can also be difficult to come up with a point of view early on. Therefore, instead of developing a thesis statement first, you may choose to read up on the assignment question and make notes on relevant concepts, theories, and studies. Once you have these notes and can develop a summary of the issues, it should be much easier to write a thesis statement.

For more information on analysing the assignment question and planning your essay, see planning assignments .

Essay structure

All essays share the same basic structure, although they may differ in content and style. The essence of an essay is an opinion, expressed as a thesis statement or proposition, and a logical sequence of arguments and information organised in support of the proposition.

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★scottish independence Essay

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scottish independence Essay

Submitted By bobdidx
Words: 1128
Pages: 5

Open Document

Scottish Independence
The position towards independence in Alistair Darling’s eyes is; “ the white paper is a work of fiction, thick with false promises and meaningless assertions”. The national referendum vote takes place on the 18th of September this year, and gives every Scottish citizen over the age of 16 the opportunity to chose whether Scotland should once again become an independent sovereign nation. Supporters of the independence vote argue that it would ensure the fairness in the way laws are passed; laws passed in the UK are voted by only people who live there which makes sense, so why when laws are being passed that only effect Scotland do England have a chance to vote? Most people argue that if England isn’t going to be effected then what relevance is their opinion? For instance the winter allowance for Scottish pensioners was voted on by English citizens, even though it didn’t effect them. Due to this Scotland and England share the same allowances, even though Scottish pensioners will see much harsher winters. More votes like this will be made due to the fact that there is more people living in England than Scotland, and therefore, Scottish citizens are being over ruled by simple mathematics. The Scottish government believe independence will change the welfare for us and our families lives as the decisions will be made by the people who care about Scotland “people who live and work here”. SNP argues that by making Scotland independent it gives every Scottish citizen the chance to be part of a society that is ran by only Scottish people. Therefore meaning we can shape our lives and Scottish economy without England having to agree. During a short advert made by SNP the voice of a girl named Kirsty puts across the good points for independence. The advert displays many points from, free higher education and uni placements based on your work capability and not your bank balance, to our wealth and national resources in the hands of the people who care about Scotland the most. The clip ends with two powerful statements; “ A no vote means we stay with the present system, Scotland stifle with the repeated failures of Westminster government “ and “ A yes vote means we chose a new direction for our country, with independence we can take the decisions right for us, we have got what it takes to build a fairer, greener, more prosperous country”. Westminster is not a democratic parliament as we had no say on who gained a job in the House of Lords. If Scotland was independent we would run our own democratic and fair government and us as citizens would have the chance to elect our own MPs. This way our country would be ran to our standards with people whom we believe is good enough for the job and if it came to the point where we did not like the MP we could vote for them to be removed from parliament. First Minister Alex Salmond believes that Scotland being its own nation works better for the North Sea industry on a whole and is taking a more scientific approach when it comes to independence by thinking about what will be better for Scotland’s future. Oil is finite and the problem is the majority of scientists believe oil will only last for another 30 to 40 years, even though according to a survey taken by Oil and Gas UK the supply of oil will be available way beyond 2055. Overall, cutting out the sharing of Scotland’s oil will make us a much stronger economy. There are many supporters for independence but as always there is those who are against it and they also have their valid reasons to why they believe this. Even though Scotland does not have complete control over their country, having England and us voting on each others laws isn’t always a bad thing, we are part of a bigger nation and this means we have a bigger voice. Scotland is only a small country and becoming independent will only make them smaller and many fear their voice wont be heard as much as bigger countries.…

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Posts Tagged ‘Scottish Independence’

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Britain and Scotland have changed: The Tory Story of Britain is Dead

October 4th, 2018 | Author: Gerry

Britain and Scotland have changed: The Tory Story of Britain is Dead

Gerry Hassan

Bella Caledonia, October 3rd 2018

The British Conservative Party is one of the most successful electoral parties in the developed capitalist world. They might not look like it at the moment but this is a force which has adapted to numerous challenges and changes: the coming of the mass franchise and rise of the working class, emergence of Labour, the post-war settlement, and demise of Empire and the UK’s diminished global standing and influence.

The Tories are the party of privilege and entitlement; of a ruling class which has presided over a version of Britain which has been historically run for the few, not the many, but which has invited the vast majority of us into their political and social construction of prosperity, affluence and social mobility.

Having said that the Tory Party has always been more than the hard-nosed, selfish, greedy capitalists of leftist legend. Indeed, it can be said that the left-wing caricature of Toryism and Tories (‘Tory scum’ etc) has not only held back a more successful left politics, but it has aided Tories who have on occasion been able to defy these stereotypes: for example, in Macmillan’s promise to build 300,000 houses a year and by Thatcher’s council house sales appealing to working class voters. Read the rest of this entry »

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Speaking for Scotland: The Salmond Case, Independence and the Silences of Modern Life

September 6th, 2018 | Author: Gerry

Speaking for Scotland: The Salmond Case, Independence and the Silences of Modern Life

Gerry Hassan

Scottish Review, September 5th 2018

The Salmond controversy has garnered huge press coverage. Beyond the actual cases itself, this says a lot about the state of Scotland. I am not making any assumptions about the guilt or innocence of Alex Salmond or the veracity of the accusations. This case is not just about Salmond or the allegations, but casts a wider light on some aspects of Scottish life, with certain parts of society not coming up smelling of roses.

A caveat. ‘This is what we have become’ said Kenny Farquharson. No ‘we’ have not. This is not about the ugliness and hatred in all of us, but in parts of Scotland. All societies have unsavoury opinion and haters: we have to confront ours and not give them the power of assuming they speak for all Scotland.

In this piece I concentrate primarily on the comments and attitudes of Salmond supporters – mostly the private citizens who responded to the crowdfunder, welter of comments on social media, and the odd intervention from public figures – and consider what their views tell us about what they think of the world.

  1. Salmond’s crowdfunder

Salmond’s crowdfunder was a statement of what he could do, and of what he has – status and pulling power. As Dani Garavelli wrote, ‘What was his crowdfunder, if not a display of power and popularity?’ It was a problematic action in relation to the course of justice being allowed to take its course. Glasgow University legal academic James Chalmers observed: ‘his crowdfunder does not state what decision he seeks to challenge in a JR [Judicial Review], nor what remedy he is seeking in that process’. And why does someone like Salmond need to go out with his collecting bucket to the general public? Read the rest of this entry »

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Why the Alex Salmond controversy matters beyond politics

August 30th, 2018 | Author: Gerry

Why the Alex Salmond controversy matters beyond politics

Gerry Hassan

Scottish Review, August 29th 2018

There has only been one story in the last few days in Scotland; that of Alex Salmond.

The substantive allegations and Alex Salmond’s response and denial of any wrong-doing have been amply catalogued. The whole controversy covers many issues – alleged wrong doing, how to deal with such sensitive subjects, the role of the media and wider politics, and how justice is done and seen to be done, including how we treat those accused as well as their accusers.

Given there has been so much media coverage, instant comment and judgement I want to look at the big picture, and specifically two areas – how people have responded, and what, if any, wider consequences may flow from this.

Take the reactions of Salmond supporters. First it should be acknowledged that the vast majority of pro-independence and SNP opinion has publicly been very respectful and careful in what it has said. Nicola Sturgeon has set an important direction in what is a test of her leadership and clearly a difficult issue for her.

For a small minority of uber-believers Salmond can do no wrong and they will stand with him seemingly unconditionally. The range of responses this has brought has been telling, from social media images of ‘When I was in trouble … Alex stood with me … Until I hear differently, I’m with Alex’ to much more. Read the rest of this entry »

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Jeremy Corbyn in Scotland: What he should say about Broken Britain

August 25th, 2018 | Author: Gerry

Jeremy Corbyn in Scotland: What he should say about Broken Britain

Gerry Hassan

New Statesman, August 23rd 2018

Jeremy Corbyn is in Scotland. He has problems understanding Scotland and the changing dynamics of the UK. Here is the speech he should give while here.

The backdrop to this speech is that Corbyn and his team have not been seen to understand Scotland or understand its distinct politics. The Scottish party, despite making six gains at last year’s general election (up from one seat in 2015), finished third in the polls, and no sign of recovery under Richard Leonard’s leadership looks on the cards – with the party regularly in third place in the polls behind the SNP and Tories.

Since last year’s election, the Corbyn leadership have begun to recognise that Scotland matters if they are to win a general election. Eighteen of the seats which Labour needs to win to form a majority government – and all of them need to be won from the SNP.

Scottish Labour has not gained from the Corbyn surge. It has had no major inflow of new members as in England and Wales. The people who would have joined a Corbyn led Labour in Scotland had already joined the SNP which after the indyref – expanded fivefold. Labour need to understand and reconnect with the energy and activism of left-wing independence opinion, and if it is to be listened to – develop a different politics on the constitution and future of Scotland and the UK. Read the rest of this entry »

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How do we have public conversations in the age of rage?

August 17th, 2018 | Author: Gerry

How do we have public conversations in the age of rage?

Gerry Hassan

Scottish Review, August 15th 2018

Has the world of politics and public life ever been so messed up? And at a time of global confusion, disruption and challenge when intelligent politics is more needed than ever before.

British politics in the last week has seen stormy arguments over the rights and wrongs of Tory Boris Johnson and his comments about Muslim women wearing the burka. At the same time, Labour’s discomfort and problems over anti-semitism, which I wrote about last week, refuses to go away, continuing to plague the Corbyn leadership.

We are living in an age of bizarre cultural wars which show no sign of going away, that test the boundaries of what is and isn’t permissible comment, tolerance, and free speech. Read the rest of this entry »

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A Nation Changed?: The SNP and Scotland Ten Years On

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Gerry Hassan is a writer, commentator and thinker about Scotland, the UK, politics and ideas.
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Home » News » Higher Education Policy Institute/Times Higher Education Scottish independence essay-writing competition

Higher Education Policy Institute/Times Higher Education Scottish independence essay-writing competition

26th May 2014

Scottish Independence and higher education

Writers with strong opinions on what Scottish independence might mean for higher education are invited to enter the Higher Education Policy Institute/Times Higher Education Scottish independence essay-writing competition. The best pro- and anti-independence pieces will each win a £500 prize, and both essays will be published by THE. Nick Hillman, director of Hepi, said the competition was an opportunity for “students, academics and just interested watchers – from both sides of the border – to express their views”.

Entries must take a clear position for or against independence, and Mr Hillman said the competition was seeking essays “that may inject thoughts that have not been at the heart of the independence debate so far”. They do not necessarily need to cover all the consequences of independence for higher education, he added, and could focus on a single, original angle.

Entries should be submitted by 3 July 2014 to [email protected] , and should be no longer than 1,500 words.

Anyone may enter from any country and of any age.

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University of Edinburgh

26th May 2014
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★Best Cover Letter Tips For 2015

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Sample cover letter for a marketing manager

The best way to market yourself is with a top notch cover letter.

Kim Isaacs, Monster Resume Expert

Sample cover letter for a marketing manager

Use your marketing skills on your best client: you.

Are you an ace when it comes to marketing products and services, but stuck when promoting yourself for marketing manager jobs? To be considered for top marketing manager jobs, it helps to have a cover letter that demonstrates your skills as well as the value you’d bring to the company.

For cover letter writing tips, view this sample cover letter for a marketing manager below. 

Additionally, you can learn more about marketing careers and search for  marketing manager jobs  on Monster.



Marketing manager cover letter template

15 Park Way
Sometown, CA 55555
Home: 555-555-5555 | Cell: 444-444-4444
[email protected]
Available to Relocate



Ms. Janet Ramos
VP Marketing
XYZ Company
1515 Market St.
Sometown, CA 55555

Re: Marketing manager position advertised on Monster.com

Dear Ms. Ramos:

I read your advertisement for a marketing manager with great interest. If you are seeking to augment your leadership team with an experienced and accomplished marketing professional known for breakthrough results, please consider my enclosed resume.

As JKL Company’s marketing manager since 2015, I direct all phases of both the creative and technical elements of marketing initiatives including data mining, brand creation, print/Web collateral development, lead generation, channel partner cultivation, customer segmentation/profiling, as well as CRM and acquisition strategies.

Perhaps most importantly, I offer a history of proven results, as evidenced by the following marketing accomplishments for my current employer:


  • Captured a 28% expansion in customer base since 2015, achieved during a period of overall decline in the retail industry.
  • Led national marketing campaign (comprised of trade show, media and PR initiatives) of company’s newly launched technology services division.
  • Developed and executed SEO strategy that achieved and sustained top 3 rankings on Google and Bing (organic, nonpaid results) for key product search terms.
  • Oversaw creation of new company logo and rebranded 100+ products to cement a cohesive corporate identity and support new company direction.

Given the opportunity, I’m confident in my ability to achieve similar groundbreaking marketing results for XYZ Company.

Ms. Ramos, I would welcome the chance to discuss your marketing objectives and ways I can help you attain them. Feel free to call me at 555-555-5555 to arrange a meeting. I look forward to speaking with you.


Marie Jones
Enclosure: Resume


Selling your skills

Knowing how to position yourself for a job is difficult, even for a marketing professional. Once your cover letter is in good shape, it’s time to work on your resume. You want to highlight your skills, experience, and demonstrate that you’d be the perfect fit for the company. Oh, and presentation does indeed matter. Could you use some help fine-tuning your resume? Get a free resume evaluation today from the experts at  Monster’s Resume Writing Service . You’ll get detailed feedback in two business days, including a review of your resume’s appearance and content, and a prediction of a recruiter’s first impression. Consider your resume a personal piece of marketing to help promote your skills to hiring managers. 

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    Resumes & Cover Letters

    Cover Letters Are Hard to Write—But This Template Makes it a Breeze


    Aja Frost

    Cover Letter Template

    “Thanks for helping me customize my resume ,” my friend said cheerily. “Now I just have to find the cover letter I used for my last job application and spruce it up a little.”

    “Nooooooo!” I said. “There’s no point in taking all that time to tailor your resume to each application if you’re going to use a fill-in-the-blank cover letter.”

    We ended up sitting together for another 30 minutes and coming up with a new one that highlighted what a great fit she was—not just for the role, but for the company. And while a half hour is a time investment, it’s absolutely worth it if it gets you the job. (Which my friend did.)

    Wondering how to customize your own cover letter ? Check out the cover letter template below.

    In Your Salutation

    Most job seekers already know this, but just in case: You should always address your cover letter to a specific person . It shows you’re willing to do your research. Plus, seeing “Dear John Doe” will impress the person reading it (even if he or she is not John Doe) much more than “To whom it may concern” will.

    If the job posting doesn’t include a name, look up the company’s hiring manager. No luck? Search for the person in charge of the department to which you’re applying. If you’re still striking out, try these advanced techniques .

    In Your Opening Paragraph

    The first section of your cover letter is the perfect opportunity to tell the hiring manager you understand what makes this organization and job special. I like to start with:

    I am excited to apply for [job title].

    Then I launch into my explanation.

    For example:

    I am excited to apply for the Sales Analyst position. TravelClick has become a leader in the hospitality industry by always focusing on its clients—whether they’re huge global brands or local hotels. Your commitment to customer satisfaction is something I’ve always strived for in my own career. I’d love to bring this dedication, along with my relevant skills and experience, to your award-winning company.

    If you’re having trouble with this section, look through the company’s site, social media profiles, employee LinkedIn accounts, and so on to focus in on the key reasons you want this job and would be good at it. Sure, we all need a salary, but you should be able to explain why you’re enthusiastic about this opportunity in particular. (Oh, and make sure you’re describing how you can help the company, rather than how the company can help you!)

    For even more ideas, check out these 31 cover letter examples of attention-grabbing intros.

    In Your Body Paragraphs

    Your next two paragraphs should describe your most relevant previous roles, the skills you’ve learned and experiences you’ve gotten from them, and how you’d apply those skills and insight to this position. I know, that sounds a little scary, so let’s break it down.


    The first line is super simple:

    During [time period], I worked as [job title] for [company name].

    In your next couple sentences, talk about the specific responsibilities you had in that role that are the closest to the responsibilities you’d have in this job.

    As [job title], I was responsible for [Task 1, Task 2, and Task 3].


    In this role, I worked on several projects, including [Project 1, Project 2, and Project 3].

    Now, it’s important not to regurgitate your resume here; rather, you want to take the most relevant experiences from your resume, expand on them, and describe why they’re so applicable for the job.

    It’s even more important to bring it home in your last one or two lines by discussing how you’d use what you learned from those experiences in this position.

    Here’s the whole thing:

    For the past three years, I’ve been working as a technical product manager for Blue Duck, where I’ve developed more than 30 high-level features that incorporated client requests, user needs, and design and product team capabilities with deadline and budget demands. Balancing so many needs was often challenging, and I learned how to find the solution that satisfied the maximum number of stakeholders. As your product manager, I’d apply this knowledge to ensure we delivered innovative solutions that worked for our customers and their users while staying on-time and within budget.

    Choosing Your Examples

    Wondering how you know which jobs and qualifications to highlight?

    Your current or most recent position should usually be in your cover letter (unless it was for a very short time period, or it’s not at all similar to the one you’re applying for). To find your second example, go back to the job description and highlight the three things they’re asking for that seem most important—as in, you couldn’t get hired if you didn’t have them. Maybe that’s familiarity with a niche field, or great writing abilities, or leadership talent.

    Whatever three things you highlight, make sure they’re reflected in your cover letter. Choose the job experience where you utilized those traits. And if you don’t have the exact skill they’re looking for, use the closest example you have .

    In Your Closing

    Most people use their closing paragraph to essentially say, “Thanks for reading, looking forward to hearing back.” But that’s a waste of valuable real estate! Just like the rest of your cover letter, your closing should be personalized.

    First, if you want to proactively answer a potential concern, here’s a good place to do it. Let’s say you’re currently living in Atlanta, but you want to work in Portland. End with one sentence explaining that you’re moving, such as “I am relocating to Portland in May and look forward to working in the city.” This line shows your reader you fully read the job description, and that location (or relocation) won’t be an issue.

    Perhaps you’re not quite qualified for the position. You should never say, “I know I’m not as qualified as other candidates, but…” However, you can say, “My background in [industry or profession], combined with my passion for your company and this role, would make me uniquely qualified to tackle [specific responsibility].” Ending on a strong note and highlighting why your unexpected experience is actually an asset will put the hiring manager’s mind at ease. ( More on that here .)

    Alternatively, you can use your closing to reinforce your strong interest in the job.

    For example, you could write:

    Again, TravelClick’s focus on customer service has made a huge impression on me. I would be thrilled to work at an organization where every employee—from an intern to the CEO—cares so much about the people they help.

    Thank you for your time,

    Aja Frost

    There’s no arguing that it takes longer to compose a custom cover letter for each application than just changing out the company names in a canned one. But if you care about getting the job (and I hope you do, since you’re taking the time to apply for it), personalizing each one is the way to go.

    Photo of typing courtesy of Shutterstock .


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    Aja Frost is a freelance writer specializing in business, tech, career advice, and productivity. Check out her website or say hi on Twitter .

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    Best Cover Letter Tips For 2015

    Published: Dec 18, 2014

    Best Cover Letter Tips For 2015

    December 18, 2014
    By Jessica Holbrook Hernandez, Expert Resume Writer

    The cover letter seems to be the document most job seekers get stumped on. They start to write one—and they’re just not quite sure what to say or how to say it. To ease the burden so many of you are feeling when you sit down to write it out, I thought I’d offer some cover letter tips from the experts.

    2015 Cover Letter Tips

    Cover Letter Tip #1: Be yourself.

    This is probably the most important tip of all. There’s so much formulaic cover letter advice that nowadays, every cover letter sounds exactly the same. That makes it even more difficult for employers to see the differences between candidates—which is one of the primary functions of your cover letter. So my advice is this… ditch the A, B, C formula and write about yourself and your interest in the position.

    Cover Letter Tip #2: Make a connection.

    When you are writing your cover letter and sharing about yourself, tell the employer why you’re interested in working for them. What do you admire about the company? Speak from your heart—in a professional way—but don’t be afraid to show a bit of your personality. This is what helps make your cover letter unique to you.

    Cover Letter Tip #3: Meet a need.

    Identify a need the company may have and share how you can help. Use examples of past successes to demonstrate or paint a visual picture for the employer of how you can help them in this same area. Again, speak in a conversational way and avoid using any templates or canned phrases.

    Cover Letter Tip #4: Avoid canned messages.

    Continuing on a bit with my last cover letter tip, I would avoid using any canned cover letter phrases and openings. For example: “please accept this… in response to…” or “I saw your advertised position of XYZ on a popular job board.” These tend to be incredibly overused. In fact, I’d venture to say 90 percent of cover letters start with one of these or a variation thereof. Buck the trend and start another way.

    Cover Letter Tip #5: Don’t bother repeating.

    Steer clear of repeating bullets from your resume. I’ve seen too many cover letters where people just pick three bullets from their resume and put them in their cover letter. Cover letters should introduce you to the employer, give them a glimpse of who you are, why you’re interested, and direct them to your resume for more information.

    Cover Letter Tip #6: Copy and paste your cover letter.

    I wrote a whole article on this one tip a few years ago, but it bears repeating now because I still see so many people who attach their cover letter to the email when applying for a position . I recommend making your cover letter the body of your email when you apply. In this case it would technically be referred to as an e-cover letter or e-note, but it will ensure it gets read. People read email. They see a cover letter attached and they may never open it and go right to the resume. But by making your cover letter the body of the email, it will be read.

    Cover Letter Tip #7: Keep it short.

    No one has the time to read your whole life story, but brevity is even more important when you’re using your cover letter as the body of your email. You want to keep it short so the reader will actually read it. If it seems too long, they’ll either scan it or avoid reading it because it’s too overwhelming.

    Cover Letter Tip #8: Close with a call.

    Encourage the employer to reach out to you via telephone or to review your social networking profile. Include both when you close your cover letter. You may even consider mentioning endorsements you have on your social networking profile so they can learn more about what your clients/past employers have to say about your work. Don’t forget to include your phone number at the end and a link to your profile URL to make it easy to access.

    Cover Letter Tip #9: Consider including a PS.

    I like to add a PS to the end of the cover letters we write. Of course, it’s not appropriate in every situation, but when you have something really compelling to say and you want to make sure it’s read, I recommend including a PS. Curiosity gets the better of people—it’s just human nature—and they will read it. So if you made an important contribution to a vital project that would benefit the employer, I recommend mentioning it.

    So that’s my list of cover letter tips for 2015. Which tip was your favorite? Didn’t see your favorite tip listed above? I’d love to hear it! Feel free to comment below and share it with me.

    About the Author

    Jessica Hernandez , is a resume authority for the Job Talk America radio program and multi-published expert author for resume, career, and job search publications. She boasts more than ten years in human resources management and hiring for Fortune 500 companies and utilizes her extensive experience to support job seekers in their quest to move onward and upward in their careers. Find out more at Great Resumes Fast .

    Check out the latest Career Insider eNewsletter – December 18, 2014 .

    Sign up for the free weekly Career Insider eNewsletter .

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    ★Creative writing veronica roth

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    Veronica Roth is from a
    Chicago suburb. She studied creative writing at Northwestern University,
    and wrote DIVERGENT (Katherine Tegen Books, May 2011) and INSURGENT
    (May 2012). The third and final book in The Divergent Trilogy,
    ALLEGIANT, will come out on October 22, 2013. In the meantime she will
    spend endless hours browsing Wikipedia in her pajamas as she eats corn
    flakes. (Or some other kind of bland breakfast cereal.)

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    Movie Update: Clip Tomorrow + Insurgent News
    There have been a few movie updates (mostly exciting ones!) so I
    thought I would give you the whole scoop at once, in case you haven’t
    seen anything yet. So! Three things!
    First of all, a clip of the Divergent movie will be premiering tomorrow night on Entertainment Tonight and online at Yahoo Movies ! (Check for your local listings here .) Check out a little preview on the Divergent Instagram page…
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    Free Four: Tobias Tells the...

    Free Four: Tobias Tells the Divergent Knife-Throwing Scene (Divergent, #1.5)

    4.23 of 5 stars 4.23 avg rating — 69,711 ratings


    7 editions

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    The Transfer (Divergent, #0.1)

    The Transfer (Divergent, #0.1)

    4.25 of 5 stars 4.25 avg rating — 31,820 ratings


    11 editions

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    Four: A Divergent Story Col...

    Four: A Divergent Story Collection (Divergent, #0.1 – 0.4)

    4.29 of 5 stars 4.29 avg rating — 21,904 ratings


    28 editions

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    The World of Divergent: The...

    The World of Divergent: The Path to Allegiant (Divergent, #2.5)

    3.97 of 5 stars 3.97 avg rating — 17,149 ratings


    2 editions

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    The Divergent Series 2-Book...

    The Divergent Series 2-Book Collection (Divergent, #1-2)

    4.63 of 5 stars 4.63 avg rating — 9,357 ratings


    7 editions

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    Divergent Series Complete B...

    Divergent Series Complete Box Set (Divergent, #1-3)

    4.4 of 5 stars 4.40 avg rating — 12,068 ratings


    12 editions

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    The Initiate (Divergent, #0.2)

    The Initiate (Divergent, #0.2)

    4.28 of 5 stars 4.28 avg rating — 8,069 ratings


    6 editions

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    More books by Veronica Roth…

    Series by Veronica Roth


    (3 books)

    Veronica Roth (Goodreads Author)

    4.175978986185246 of 5 stars 4.18 avg rating — 2,219,873 ratings

    Upcoming Events

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    July 2014,

    Veronica Roth
    “Attn: Divergent fans! Still reeling from the Allegiant
    ending? We have answers! Read Veronica’s take on Tris’s fate, plus her
    tips for aspiring authors and thoughts on writing from Tobias’s POV for
    the Four stories.”

    more interviews »


    Veronica’s Recent Updates

    Veronica Roth

    wrote a new blog post
    Movie Update: Clip Tomorrow + Insurgent News
    There have been a few movie updates (mostly exciting ones!) so I
    thought I would give you the whole scoop at once, in case you haven’t
    seen anythin…
    Read more of this blog post »
    Dec 18, 2013 01:41AM  ·  321 likes  ·  like
    Veronica Roth

    Speak by Laurie Halse Anderson



    Laurie Halse Anderson (Goodreads Author)

    Rate this book
    1 of 5 stars 2 of 5 stars 3 of 5 stars 4 of 5 stars 5 of 5 stars

    Much has been said about how
    important this book is for teens, particularly those who have
    experienced what Melinda experiences, and I agree with that. But what I
    was surprised to discover as I read it was that I really enjoyed it,
    apart from its “me …more

    Dec 04, 2013 05:20PM  ·  331 likes  ·  like  ·  see review
    Veronica Roth

    The Fault in Our Stars by John Green

    The Fault in Our Stars


    John Green (Goodreads Author)

    read in
    March, 2012
    Rate this book
    1 of 5 stars 2 of 5 stars 3 of 5 stars 4 of 5 stars 5 of 5 stars

    Dec 04, 2013 04:39PM  ·  1507 likes  ·  like  ·  see review

    Veronica Roth

    made a comment on
    Official Writer Philosophy of Character Death
    Bethany wrote:
    “Veronica, this is a style question from a proofreader. Do your
    publisher’s copyeditors follow your own basic style decisions (the ones

    May 31, 2012 01:09PM  ·  see blog post

    Veronica Roth

    made a comment on
    Detergent, AKA Book 3
    Dale wrote: “If I
    can ask Veronica. Why is it set in stone that it will only be a trilogy?
    It seems to me more and more writers and setting sets of 3

    May 15, 2012 02:02PM  ·  see blog post

    Veronica Roth

    made a comment on
    Dark Days Tour, Part 1
    Jazmin wrote: “Why doesn’t anything ever come to Washington? D: Maybe show us a little love next time around? :)”

    Rebecca wrote: “Why can’t it come to …more

    May 09, 2012 12:55PM  ·  see blog post
    Veronica Roth

    When We Get There by Shauna Seliy

    When We Get There


    Shauna Seliy

    read in
    April, 2012
    Rate this book
    1 of 5 stars 2 of 5 stars 3 of 5 stars 4 of 5 stars 5 of 5 stars
    Apr 25, 2012 10:29AM  ·  6 likes  ·  like
    Veronica Roth

    What's Left of Me by Kat Zhang

    What’s Left of Me (The Hybrid Chronicles, #1)


    Kat Zhang (Goodreads Author)

    Rate this book
    1 of 5 stars 2 of 5 stars 3 of 5 stars 4 of 5 stars 5 of 5 stars
    Apr 25, 2012 10:28AM  ·  7 likes  ·  like
    Veronica Roth

    Crewel by Gennifer Albin

    Crewel (Crewel World, #1)


    Gennifer Albin (Goodreads Author)

    Rate this book
    1 of 5 stars 2 of 5 stars 3 of 5 stars 4 of 5 stars 5 of 5 stars
    Apr 25, 2012 10:26AM  ·  6 likes  ·  like

    Veronica Roth

    made a comment on
    The Giveaway of Many 4s!
    Thanks for your entries, guys! (I’m posting here as a kind of marker so I know that anything that comes after this is too late.)
    Apr 04, 2012 03:10PM  ·  see blog post

    More of Veronica’s books…

    Quotes by Veronica Roth

    “We believe in ordinary acts of bravery, in the courage that drives one person to stand up for another.”

    Veronica Roth ,

    inspirational-quotes ,
    “Becoming fearless isn’t the point. That’s impossible. It’s
    learning how to control your fear, and how to be free from it.”

    Veronica Roth ,

    dauntless ,
    divergent ,
    fearless ,
    four ,
    “I might be in love with you.” He smiles a little. “I’m waiting until I’m sure to tell you, though.”

    Veronica Roth ,

    See all Veronica Roth’s quotes »

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    The Daily Northwestern

    ‘Divergent’ author, Northwestern grad Veronica Roth talks new movie, advice for students


    The film adaptation of

    The film adaptation of “Insurgent,” the second book in Veronica Roth’s (Weinberg ’10) “Divergent” series will premier Friday. Roth is currently working on a new book series and encouraged writers to stick with their craft even when faced with tough competition.

    Source: Veronica Roth’s Facebook page

    Source: Veronica Roth’s Facebook page

    The film adaptation of “Insurgent,” the second book in Veronica Roth’s (Weinberg ’10) “Divergent” series will premier Friday. Roth is currently working on a new book series and encouraged writers to stick with their craft even when faced with tough competition.

    Rachel Yang , Reporter
    March 18, 2015

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    Veronica Roth, now 26, was still attending Northwestern when she wrote “Divergent,” the first novel in the popular dystopian trilogy.

    Fans are anxiously awaiting the March 20 premiere of “Insurgent,” the second installment of the series’ film adaptations.

    But despite achieving success at a young age, Roth (Weinberg ’10) told The Daily that while attending NU’s creative writing workshops, she struggled with being surrounded by writers she thought were more talented than she was. In an interview with college media organizations, Roth discussed what she learned from her college experience and what fans can expect from the upcoming film, her new book series and her advice to aspiring writers in college.

    “Of the three books, ‘Insurgent’ probably has the most complicated plot,” Roth said.

    As a result, there had to be cuts in order to keep the film action-packed. The first novel introduced readers to the “Divergent” world, where people are sorted into factions based on personality types. The protagonist, Tris Prior, played by Shailene Woodley in the films, breaks the norm by being Divergent and possessing multiple traits. The first book left off as Tris embarks on a plan to stop the corrupt faction leader who is trying to use one faction against another. “Insurgent” focuses on the struggles of carrying out that plan.

    In the “Insurgent” novel, Tris cannot use a gun because of stress, a plot point changed for the film.

    It would be hard to have a heroine “who doesn’t touch a gun and somehow also doesn’t die,” Roth said.

    Roth told The Daily her favorite scene in the upcoming movie happens when Tris and Four, a fellow Divergent, are subjected to a truth serum trial. Roth called the scene a “sci fi-esque moment.”

    “They’re taking this thing that doesn’t exist but (it’s) also a good character building moment, where people are revealing things,” Roth said.

    The last book in the trilogy, “Allegiant,” will be split into two films, Roth said. After these films are released, she said she will be ready to move on to her new book series.

    Roth said the first book in the new series, which she hopes to release in 2017, also has otherworldly elements and shares traits with “Star Wars.”

    “It’s set in space and it’s about a young man who unites with someone who’s supposed to be his enemy to get revenge,” she said.

    As she moves forward with the book, Roth also reflected on advice for aspiring writers in college.

    Roth told The Daily that the creative process is more important than the results of the creativity. Citing a passage from comedian Amy Poehler’s book, “Yes Please,” Roth advocated for “passion about the creative act” but “ambivalence about the results of your work.”

    “You don’t need to take to heart every single person’s reaction,” Roth said. “Some people are going to like it, and some people are going to not like it.”

    For college students, adopting this attitude is especially important, she said, because they are constantly worrying about the future.

    “If you can let writing carry through good times and bad times,” Roth said, “you have a much higher likelihood of succeeding in the industry, because you’ll be able to take criticism and you’ll be able to take rejection because you know that you’ll still be able to write at the end of the day.”

    Roth, who said she “just Googled it” when she wanted to get published, said she learned at NU to “go after the things that I want and not to wait until someone tells me how to do them.”

    NU’s driven environment, especially in creative writing workshops, made her realize the importance of “being comfortable with a lot of people around you being better than you,” which she said many NU students have not yet accepted.

    “Just because someone is more skilled than you, doesn’t mean that you don’t have value,” Roth said. “It’s okay to be in the world and to look up to people.”

    Email:  [email protected]northwestern.edu
    Twitter:  @_rachelyang


    Tags: Divergent , Insurgent , Shailene Woodley , Tris Prior , Veronica Roth


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    ★Post office not accepting online rates for USPS first class Mail …

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    Post office not accepting online rates for USPS first class Mail


    Is anyone else having an issue with taking packages that have labels purchased online using the new first class rates up to 15.99 ounces and having the postal clerks telling you that you don’t have enough postage because the package weighs over 13 ounces? One office knew about the commercial rate changes and another one even looked it up and asked their supervisor, called me back and told me I was wrong and that I had to pay the priority mail rate for packages over 13ounces. I just printed out the info from the usps website and it clearly shows that up to 15.99 ounces is now considered first class. I am afraid of postage due packages arriving to my customers even though I am following their guidelines. Also, Amazon has not updated their postage for the new first class postage. It is not allowing me to put in 14 or 15 ounces for first class. It automatically kicks me up to priority mail. I have to leave the site and go to stamps. com and ship from there.

    Edited by: Best Baby Products for You on Feb 7, 2016 6:21 PM


    My post office flagged me the other day…it is a very small branch with no drop box so usually i go to the counter. Kind of threw me since I’ve had packages like this for a few weeks now.

    The clerk knows me but questioned the 15 ounce first class…luckily I had the stamps.com notice bookmarked on my phone…pulled it up…then watched the whole post office stop and huddle around my phone…even the post master was surprised.

    Someone jumped on the computer as I left they all thanked me.

    If I was you I’d go back and complain…I would ask for a refund…and if there is a hassle try looking up the regional supervisor and get this straightened out.


    Best Baby Products for You:

    Is anyone else having an issue with taking packages that have labels purchased online using the new first class rates up to 15.99 ounces and having the postal clerks telling you that you don’t have enough postage because the package weighs over 13 ounces? One office knew about the commercial rate changes and another one even looked it up and asked their supervisor, called me back and told me I was wrong and that I had to pay the priority mail rate for packages over 13ounces. I just printed out the info from the usps website and it clearly shows that up to 15.99 ounces is now considered first class. I am afraid of postage due packages arriving to my customers even though I am following their guidelines. Also, Amazon has not updated their postage for the new first class postage. It is not allowing me to put in 14 or 15 ounces for first class. It automatically kicks me up to priority mail. I have to leave the site and go to stamps. com and ship from there.

    > Edited by: Best Baby Products for You on Feb 7, 2016 6:21 PM
    I just had a couple about 10 minutes ago that were over 13 oz and was able to use Amazon postage…but Amazon postage will kick any thing >15 oz to priority…actually did a little rework on one since it was 15.2 and got it under 15


    I have had several packages weighing in at 15 ounces being rejected for 1st class shipping here. I was argued with about postal weight increase for 1st class mail and basically called a liar by our crazy postal lady. I just shipped items media instead. I wasn’t about to be called a liar anymore. The USPS needs to get their act together. I am not sure what we can do? I will ship media like I always have on items over 13 ounces…



    ” I just shipped items media instead.” If it wasn’t something that qualified for media mail, then that could come back to bite you in the backside.


    Has anyone tried using the invisible postage option? It eliminates a lot of hassles.


    One was a small light book the other was a CD. I have been mailing for years so I am well aware of what can be mailed media an what can not. But thanks for the warning…



    I’ll try 15 ounces again and see if it works this time. Thank you.


    It didn’t work. I put in 15 ounces and it is charging me $5.75 priority. When I go to stamps.com , it charges me $3.60 for 15 ounces, but the problem is, when I take the package to the local post office, they tell me that I don’t have enough postage and that I need to pay them for priority mail. They don’t believe me so I did do several print outs, even from the USPS website that shows that up to 15.99oz is first class. The other problem is, if they don’t believe me, then when it gets scanned while on it’s way, it will wind up with the customer saying “postage due”. I hate to pay the higher rates when I don’t have to. I just got an order from CA and I am in PA and need to send it 2lbs. It costs almost $12 through USPS. My allowance from Amazon is $9.97 and they are taking 20% of the sale. Totally losing money on any West Coast packages for some of my products.


    I can’t ship media because these items don’t qualify.


    I don’t have a stamps.com account…but heard on the forums that there are issues with postage if they are linked. Not sure if the problem involves first class…but read posts that said for certain postage classes they have to unlink the two so that the Amazon interface will post the correct rates…then for other classes they link it back up.


    Price is not the problem…weight will still show up with stealth postage.

    The problem is that the old standard was any thing over 13 oz was nolonger first class…now everything up to 15.99 can be considered 1st class with online postage.

    The clerks are objecting because they are still in the mindset of the old weight classifications.


    I find that the people that work in the post office seem to be the least informed on new policies etc…

    Sad but true. Many times I have had to contact the consumer help office and come in with e-mails from them with contact info to educate the counter clerks and Management.


    I use it all the time, but the problem comes when the local branches see a box, see the first class postage, weigh it and then tell me that I should have purchased priority mail because it weighs 15 ounces.


    We were told by our P.O. only on-line customers, not those who buy postage at the counter, get the benefit of the increased weights for FIRST CLASS.

    More and more, I believe the local post-master/trainers make or break the postal system.


    If there is no postage stated, I would think the clerks would be even more confused.

    They routinely get confused by my packages done with Stamps.com which have no weight printed on them.

    There is no option in the stamps software to let you print the weight that I can find.


    No problems here, I was actually delighted to see the new FCM rates for 1 lb and under as it gives me a lot more flexibility.

    A few years ago I went to WAR with the local union steward who was very “my way or the highway” and he was bullying all the window clerks into ignoring the DMM regs. He HATED mailers like me that knew how to shave every penny off my mailing costs – even said “people like me are bankrupting the USPS” by using media mail and FCMP. Literally took intervention from my Congresswomen to Post Master General to get the guy and his lackies transferred.

    Amazing how getting right of just one piece of deadwood can change an either office. The window clerks seem a lot happier with him gone, the lines move faster without him hovering over everyone. He job was window clerk, but he act liked he was management, and for someone reason even the manager/Postmaster seemed to be terrified of him (he was violent, assaulted me once, guess the PM was afraid he would go postal on her).

    My ex-gf worked for the USPS in one of the sorting centers and she also mentioned how old guard employees often harass and bully younger employees who actually try to provide good service, even if they are NOT violating union rules.


    So if I unlink my stamps.com account with Amazon, Amazon will show 15.99 oz and under as first class? That is ok but the problem still remains that the local branches of the USPS don’t believe it. I found a few websites, including their own USPS site that shows the new charges for first class up to 15.99oz. What I am worried about is having my customers getting their packages saying postage due because the branch offices don’t know that first class has changed. I received a return with a postage due on my end even though it was under the 15.99 oz weight. I have lots of items that I ship that fall into that 13-15 oz range.


    Yes, I understand. I wasn’t saying that your items didn’t qualify. I was just saying that for sure, mine don’t so I can’t ship media. Thank you.


    Postal employees are some of the most poorly trained of the government employees. Many of the clerks think they know everything when in actuality they know nothing. You tell them, they don’t tell you. I report them, report them, report them. I have received quite a few apology phone calls.

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    A Mac tech support handbook

    It’s easy when you know the answer

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    5 essential tools for mac tech support

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    • get your mac ready for os x yosemite

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      OS X Yosemite: How to take charge of Mac startups

    • program dirty 2018.06.05 31 25 23.still001

      Mingis on Tech: WWDC recap

    I’ve put together an essential foundation document for Mac users who may sometimes try to help support friends and family.

    In this report, you’ll learn:

    • The three ‘R’s’
    • Essential startup keys
    • Using Disk Utility
    • 6+ utilities you should install
    • How to create a bootable USB drive
    • Recommended kit
    • Further reading

    The three R’s of tech support:

    [ Further reading: 21 keyboard shortcuts Mac users need to know ]

    You should have permanent recall of these three troubleshooting steps:


    This is sometimes all it takes. 


    [ Get certified as an Apple Technical Coordinator with this seven-part online course from PluralSight. ]

    Still having problems? Restart the Mac holding down Command-R to enter Disk Recovery mode. Launch Disk Utility in this mode and Fix Permissions on your drive. You can also run Disk Utility in normal mode.


    Enter Disk Recovery mode (Command-R) to run Disk Utility to Verify and Repair your Disk, or to reinstall the OS.

    Essential startup options

    Hold down these keys to access critical help.


    Startup from a bootable CD, DVD or USB drive (or N to launch from a network server, if available).


    Launches a Mac in Safe Boot mode, it will check the integrity of your startup volume and will launch with the minimum OS X extensions it needs, no user fonts, startup or login items. Graphics and system performance will be slower.

    Command, Option, P and R:

    Power up your Mac and hold these keys as soon as you hear the startup chime. Keep the keys depressed until you hear a second chime. Release them and the Mac should boot as normal, though now its PRAM data will have been reset. You will need to reenter some passwords (so get a note of these first), but this command should eradicate many inconsistencies.


    Launches your Mac in Recovery Mode and you get to access OS X utilities: Restore from Time Machine, Reinstall OS X, Apple support and Disk Utility.


    Launches Apple’s hardware test to uncover any hardware problems on the Mac.


    Allows you to choose which bootable device to launch Mac from.


    Verbose Mode will show you what’s happening during startup and may help identify a Mac problem. Command-S launches Single User Mode, a text-based UI for advanced users.

    Get to know these keyboard commands – zapping the PRAM, Recovery Mode and Hardware Test are invaluable.

    Using Disk Utility

    The Disk Utility app (Applications>Utilities) is Apple’s Swiss Army knife for most problems. If the Mac you are working with is running slowly, seems to be missing data or even if you’ve just upgraded the system, you should launch Disk Utility and “Verify Disk Permissions” and/or “Verify Disk”.

    If problems are found with Disk Permissions you can fix these using this app, but you cannot fix the startup disk. For this, you’ll need to start in Recovery Mode (Command-R). Lots more information on Disk Utility here .

    Essential utilities

    There’s life beyond Disk Utility, of course. It makes sense to familiarize yourself with these apps – not only will they enable you to keep your own system in good shape, but if you are attempting to troubleshoot another person’s Mac, these tools may provide considerable help.

    Onyx ( free )

    Incredibly useful (and powerful) system maintenance utility.

    Gemini (free)

    An excellent solution that helps identify duplicate files on your Mac

    OmniDiskSweeper utility (free)

    Find forgotten files and folders that may take up space.

    SuperDuper ( $28 )

    Always maintain a current clone copy of your Mac.

    Disk Warrior ( $100 )

    The ultimate emergency tool.

    AppCleaner ( donation )

    A fast and effective unused app deletion tool that safely eradicates space-consuming app resources.

    Glance at these 11 applications and this short collection of dull-seeming apps many users may need .

    Bootable USB drive

    You can create a bootable USB drives (you need at least 8GB ) of OS X Yosemite following these instructions from OS X Daily . Once you have created the drive, you’ll be able to launch any Mac from this drive, enabling you to troubleshoot the system.

    That’s fine if you want to launch in Yosemite, but you can create drives for older OS X versions, too (just to keep bases covered), so long as you (or a friend) have previously downloaded them from the App Store.

    • Open the App Store.
    • Enter your Apple ID and Password and Sign In.
    • Select Purchases and look for the previous OS version download (eg. OS X Mavericks).
    • Click Download and follow these instructions .

    I’ve linked to other reports, as this task requires an article of its own – however, there’s nothing more useful than a bootable disk when troubleshooting Macs.

    Recommended kit

    Always have access to a wired keyboard and mouse in case of Bluetooth problems.

    Keep a high-capacity portable hard drive to create on-the-fly backups – encourage people you help to get their own drives and invest in regular system backups using Carbon Copy Cloner .

    Apple’s AirPort Time Capsule is both a Wi-Fi basestation and network storage drive that will automatically keep backups of your system – though it isn’t infallible.

    I hope you’ve enjoyed this short guide. It should offer all the basic information you need to troubleshoot many Mac problems.

    Further reading

    Read OS X Daily and explore Apple support .

    • 6 great gifts your Mac will love you for
    • Setting up OS X Yosemite the way you want it
    • OS X Yosemite: How to take charge of Mac startups
    • How and why to Repair Disk
    • Using Apple’s hidden Wi-Fi Diagnostics tool
    • OS X: Everything you need to use Smart Folders
    • OS X: A quick guide to Services on your Mac
    • OS X: Sharing files between Windows and Mac

    Google+? If you use social media and happen to be a Google+ user, why not join AppleHolic’s Kool Aid Corner community and join the conversation as we pursue the spirit of the New Model Apple?

    Got a story? Drop me a line via Twitter or in comments below and let me know. I’d like it if you chose to follow me


    • Operating Systems
    • MacOS
    • Apple Mac
    • iMacs
    • Apple
    • OS X Yosemite

    Jonny is a freelance writer who has been writing (mainly about Apple and technology) since 1999.


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    The ‘50s and ‘60s: Decades of Prosperity and Protest (DBQ)

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    Historians tend to portray the 1950s as a decade of prosperity, conformity, and consensus, and the 1960s as a decade of turbulence, protest, and disillusionment. These stereotypes are largely true, though, as with everything in life, there are exceptions to this perspective. Therefore, the historians’ portrayal of the 1950s and 1960s is accurate for the majority of Americans, though some groups were clearly exceptions.

    The 1950s were characterized as a prosperous and conformist decade for many reasons. The first and most widespread of these reasons was the development of the suburbs. As masses of Southern blacks migrated northward to the big cities, more rich and middle-class families left to live in the suburbs to escape the crime, redlining, and blockbusting of the cities. This mass migration later became known as the “white flight” (Document A). The white families that moved into the suburbs were the perfect picture of conformity—living in row upon row of identical “Levittown” houses, with little individuality or distinction. Furthermore, American families of the time often took the form of the “nuclear family” with two parents, two children, and often a pet like a dog or cat. This new “middle class” earned between $3,000 and $10,000 a year and included 60 percent of the American people by the mid-1950s. Fortune magazine described Americans as “a great mass…buy[ing] the same things—the same staples, the same appliances, the same cars, the same furniture, and much the same recreation” (Document C). The new “mass market” that developed in 1950s society was caused by two central reasons.

    The first reason that this “mass market” developed was the spread of television. Television had helped to create a “popular culture” that millions of Americans tuned into regularly. By the end of 1950, ninety percent of Americans owned a television, and nearly all owned a radio. Television and radio acted as tools for marketers to dictate the values of American society in order help sell their products. By the mid-1950s marketers spent $10 billion annually to advertise their goods or services on television. Television caused Americans to adopt an image of the “ideal” Americans; in doing so many Americans began to succumb to societal demands. Notably, suburban shopping malls began to replace downtown shops during the 1950s. Middle class white Americans became more sheltered in their sheltered suburban neighborhoods and did not see the poor blacks living in the cities. Isolated from others, many middle class Americans found no reason to dissent and sought to merely enjoy the prosperity of the decade with mind-numbing conformity.

    The second cause of the development of the new “mass market” in 1950s society was the escalation of the Cold War. The Cold War had isolated and demonized Soviets in American society. The political witch-hunt which took place under the lead of Senator McCarthy jailed hundreds of suspected Communist “enemies” for merely exercising their First Amendment rights to freedom of speech and freedom of the press. Americans became afraid of doing anything that might make them the targets of Federal investigation by organizations like the House of Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC). Newspaper editors and book authors grew afraid of publishing articles critical of the government in fear that they may might be accused of being Communist sympathizers and put in jail. A famous political cartoon from the 1950s shows Senator McCarthy extinguishing the Torch of Liberty (Document B). The fear of foreign ideas and values created by the McCarthyism scare caused a resurgence in American Conservatism during the 1950s. The government encouraged conformity and political consensus followed.

    However, not all enjoyed the political and social prosperity of the 1950s. Two thirds of Black American citizens still lived in the South where they continued to suffer the harsh realities of life in a segregated society. Harsh Jim Crow laws continued to govern all aspects of their existence and keep them economically inferior and politically powerless. However, conditions were improved with the landmark decision Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas in 1954 which ruled that segregation in the public schools as “inherently unequal” and thus unconstitutional. This decision was largely accepted throughout the North and even in the Border States, but states in the Deep South organized “massive resistance” to the decision. Southern Senators and Congressmen signed the “Declaration of Constitutional Principles” which pledged unyielding resistance to desegregation. Conflict arose when the governor of Arkansas, Orval Faubus, mobilized the National Guard to prevent nine Black girls from enrolling in a Little Rock High School. Faced with a direct challenge to Federal authority, President Eisenhower was forced to send troops to escort the children to their classes (Document E). It is clear that while the social and political conditions may have been ideal for the majority of middle-class Americans, conflicts and tensions were ever-present for the underprivileged American.

    The ‘60s were different from the ‘50s in many important ways. The worsening conditions in the cities, feminism, and the Vietnam War caused the social and political atmosphere to become turbulent and violent. Protests and war riots become commonplace; influential leaders like Malcolm X encouraged bloody protest; and women become increasingly discontent with their futile existences as homemakers. The political and social grievances, it seemed, had caused Americans to adopt a “counter culture” that encouraged a negative view of authority during the 1960s.

    The ‘60s saw even worse conditions in the cities than the previous decade. As whites continued to leave the cities and move to suburbs the poor city conditions only worsened. With less revenue in taxes, cities fell into disrepair, crime and drug use increased, and cities become “black, brown, and broke.” Blacks began to realize that the pacifist philosophy encouraged by leaders like Martin Luther King, Jr. was leading nowhere; conditions remained the same. Radical new leaders like Malcolm X encouraged “Black Power”, also known as Black Supremacy. X believed that “revolution is bloody, revolution is hostile, revolution knows no compromise, revolution overturns and destroys everything that gets in its way…you don’t do any swinging, you’re too busy swinging” (Document F). This violent, confrontational approach to dealing with social problems encouraged political upheaval and unrest. Law enforcement did not ease the situation either as demonstrated by the riot in Birmingham, Alabama in 1963 where attack dogs and fire hoses were turned against protestors, many of whom were in their early teens or younger. Even pacifist Martin Luther King, Jr. was arrested and jailed during the ensuing protests. While in jail, he changed philosophies and joined X in advocating civil disobedience against the law. Hundreds of demonstrations took place across the country during the 1960s from the East coast to the West; the country was truly coursing with the need to protest and be heard. The biggest and most important protest during the 1960s was the March on Washington where more than a quarter million people participated. Protesters demanded passage of better civil rights legislation, the elimination of racial segregation in public schools, and protection for demonstrators against police brutality. However, there were still other political problems that troubled the country during the ‘60s.

    The Vietnam War was a large point of contention in the minds of Americans during the 1960s. Unsure of the war’s purpose and disillusioned at the enormous human cost, Americans everywhere decried their opposition to the war. President Lyndon Johnson desperately tried to convince the nation that the Vietnam War would “restore world order” and “defend its [Vietnam’s] independence” (Document H). However, many Americans believed that the U.S. should leave Vietnam. The controversy over the war continued to boil because American politicians continued to support the war despite widespread American resentment for the war. Eventually, Nixon would respond to Americans’ wishes through “Vietnamization” of the war. However, there were also social issues that troubled Americans during the stormy sixties.

    The fight for women’s rights raged on throughout the ‘60s. Women began to feel dissatisfied with the simple lives they currently lived and they wanted change (Document G). Unable to obtain high-paying jobs and equal rights in the workplace, women were living as “second-class citizens” in a country where everybody is supposed to be equal under the law. The struggle for equal political rights was also accompanied by a radical social revolution. The “sexual revolution” was started when the birth control pill was introduced in the early 1960s. The pill made it easier to avoid pregnancies; thus, women could become more sexually “free.” Gays and lesbians also joined the “sexual revolution” by proudly parading in New York City in 1970. The unprecedented openness of the 1960s was yet another catalyst for controversy, turbulence, protest, and disillusionment in the 60s.

    It is clear that the 50s and 60s differ from each other; the 1950s were more conservative than the 1960s; the 1960s were more turbulent and prone to protests than the 1950s. However, there were some clear exceptions to these rules in the 1950s. The important differences between the decades are what make each decade a special chapter in the grand American story.

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    Aboukhadijeh, Feross. “The ‘50s and ‘60s: Decades of Prosperity and Protest (DBQ)” StudyNotes.org. Study Notes, LLC., 05 Jan. 2014. Web. 12 Oct. 2018. <https://www.apstudynotes.org/us-history/sample-essays/the-50s-and-60s-decades-of-prosperity/>.

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    1. Second year student: English Literature essay  
    2. Second year student: International Security essay
    3. Second year student: Anthropology essay  
    4. Third year student: English Literature essay
    5. Second year student: English Literature essay  
    6. Second year student: Biomedical Science essay

    Second year student: English Literature essay

    Discuss the relation between narrative style and moral judgement in Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness [ pdf 117KB ]

    Reveal essay

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    Tutor’s feedback – 75%

    This is an astute, and often sophisticated, essay which makes its arguments cogently. One of its strengths is that you are making excellent use of citation both to support your points but also to move your argument along (for example, see double ticks on pp.3-4). There is also significant independent reading to secure an original, thoughtful approach to the question. Though tendentious, the topic is broached with a real flair for critical analysis (one is well aware of the limits of Hampson’s defence of Conrad through the paragraph on p.5). Your conclusion is deft, with a very strong sense of the complexity of the issues. There is also the possibility, of course, that Conrad might identify with Marlow while at the same time undercutting his ‘racism’ not by expressing alternative perceptions but by plotting (see Peter Brooks, READING FOR THE PLOT as one way into this; Toni Morrison’s PLAYING IN THE DARK is another take on Achebe’s position).

    Second year student: international Security essay

    Discuss with examples how and why major international actors have been perceived as failing the victims of genocide [ pdf 98 KB ]

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    Tutor’s Feedback – 73%

    This is a well structured and fluently written essay with a clear argument, well done. The examples are appropriate and the evidence and quotations you have chosen highlight your argument well. Excellent set of readings.
    You could do more to say specifically why Bosnia, Rwanda and Armenia are cases of genocide at the start of the essay ? perhaps compare them against the UN Convention. You say they are all cases of genocide, but are they all exactly the same? Are there any differences between them that are of importance when considering outsiders’ failure to prevent/end them?
    To push your argument further, think about the reasons why major international actors fail the victims of genocide: you give a few reasons, such as political and economic interests, reputation, the desire to avoid costly and indeterminate conflicts, UN bureaucratic inertia and so on. Could you systematise these at all? Are the reasons the same in each case, such that you can make a general claim, or does it vary case by case?
    In the bibliography, make sure you give the publisher of books.

    Second year student: Issues in Contemporary Anthropology essay

    Explore the meaning of ‘radical evil’ and the ‘banality of evil’ and how they might relate to understandings of evil using the cases of Idi Amin and Adolf Eichmann [ pdf 50 KB ]

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    Tutor’s Feedback – 75%

    Deals confidently with very complex issues (Arendt’s ‘banality of evil’ vs Zizek’s ‘radical evil’). Focuses on Leopold’s work, but extends it considerably. Rather longer than expected, but a well constructed argument, and generally well written (however p.2 ‘Disobeying orders was not an option for Eichmann…. As a result conveying their agency the other Nazi officials do not qualify as banal’ is unclear & may misrepresent Arendt’s argument p.3 some confusion over Pottier’s & Leopold’s position. ). Interesting and original attempt to compare Arendt’s analysis with Zizek’s in relation to Amin. The conclusion needs more explanation about what is meant by ‘everyday understandings of evil….what one refers to with the word in the on a daily basis’ (sic) (Shame to have such a typo in the final sentence!). Nevertheless, a very good, thoughtful and original argument.

    Third year student: English literature essay

    Laurence Sterne and the Erotic: The Depiction of Sensibility in ‘A Sentimental Journey’ [ pdf 99 KB ]

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    Tutor’s Feedback – 78%

    This essay is clearly-written with a an intelligent, incisive style. The piece is well-presented and very thoroughly researched. I especially liked the essay’s alertness to the cultural and philosophical contexts of sensibility. In covering this topic, you used critical and historical sources to support, rather than to dictate, your analysis. Consequently, you convey a strong sense of engagement with, and ownership of, the material. Excellent work.

    Second year student: English literature essay

    Is Tess in ‘Tess of the d’Urbervilles’ portrayed as being responsible for her own demise? [ pdf 40 KB ]


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    Tutor’s Feedback – 73%

    Yours is a beautifully clear essay. You write very well, and your prose is delightful to read. You’ve also done your research and it shows. There is a remarkable lack of vagary about society or feminism in your piece, and you’ve picked canny quotes from your secondary sources that elucidate and situate your arguments.

    You’ve also located some wonderfully specific quotations from your primary source to support your argument that Hardy’s narrator sympathises with Tess. Some of your close readings are wonderfully astute, as when you point out that Tess implores Angel, rather than commanding him. Slightly less persuasive is your assertion that Tess is the victim of Alec’s eyes; I suspect you might have found better quotations, descriptions, or incidents denouncing Alec’s gaze.

    You are clearly very good at pursuing and proving an argument. I encourage you to be a bit more experimental in your next essay; perhaps choose a less straightforward topic and see where it takes you.

    Please see penciled notes throughout on shortening sentences and watching for comma splices (please look this term up in a style manual if it is unfamiliar).

    Second year student: Biomedical science essay

    Discuss the new insights in the understanding of Haemolytic Uraemic Syndrome and its worldwide implications following the large scale outbreak of E.Coli O104:H4 diarrhea in Germany 2011 [ pdf 680KB ]

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    Tutor’s Feedback

    An outstanding essay which shows a complete understanding and an ability to think around the topic, especially with regards to the pathogenic features. Very good evidence and an indepth discussion, which highlights the role of the unique features of the German outbreak. Also, good use of evidence to highlight the unusual epidemiology. The essay is logical, moves step by step in the sequence of events chronologically. Excellent presentation. Very good use of diagrams, especially the one on the plasmids. Good referencing. Very minor errors highlighted on script. Download the script for more detailed tutor feedback [ 737 KB ]

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    The largest private university in New Jersey, Fairleigh Dickinson University is recognized for its international programs and its educational rigor. The first college to establish international campus, FDU has a tradition of partnership with the United Nations, providing students with unprecedented opportunities for travel and learning. With all of these elements, FDU has been recognized by U.S. News & World Report as one of the best regional institutions in the North.

    FDU has also earned recognition for its online degree programs, which have helped them grow to their status as NJ’s largest private college. An unusual Bachelor of Arts in Individualized Studies is designed specifically for working adult learners; this program allows students to earn their bachelor’s degree through a combination of transfer credits, work experience, and alternative credits in addition to FDU online courses. This flexibility and convenience gives working adults the opportunity to earn a highly-regarded degree in a minimum of time.

    Cost: $36,910 per year

    Online Programs: 14


    New Jersey Institute of Technology

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    Built on the polytechnic institute model, a 19th century innovation that defined applied science and engineering education and research for the modern age, the New Jersey Institute of Technology is one of the foremost STEM universities in the region. Recognized by U.S. News & World Report as a top engineering and technology institution, NJIT’s public status, and their dedication to providing valuable education to all, have combined to make it one of the most diverse colleges in the nation.

    NJIT offers more than a dozen fully-online master’s degrees, and just as many online graduate certificates, in some of the most in-demand fields on the job market – and some with the highest ROI. These include Civil Engineering, Computer Engineering, Pharmaceutical Engineering, and many more; certifications allow students to earn further credentialing in areas that all but guarantee career success, such as Data Mining, Information Security, and Software Engineering. The ROI of a polytechnic and the price of a public university make NJIT an unbeatable deal.

    Cost: $16,108 per year

    Online Programs: 13


    Rutgers University Online

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    One of the oldest universities in America – founded in 1766, before the United States – Rutgers University is New Jersey’s premiere institution, the most respected public research university in the region and among the largest and most respected in the nation. From agriculture and engineering to business and technology, Rutgers has been a leader and model for centuries, and their name is recognized throughout the world. Today Rutgers is bringing that global reputation for excellence online with a strong slate of fully online bachelor’s and master’s degrees.

    Rutgers Online offers around a dozen online programs from some of their most respected divisions, including the School of Engineering, the School of Nursing, and the School of Business. Working professionals can increase their credentials with BBA and MBA degrees, Master of Public Administration, and Master of Social Work, along with nursing and education programs. With the Rutgers name, graduates can be assured of their place in the job market.

    Cost: $14,131 per year

    Online Programs: 11


    Seton Hall University

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    One of the oldest Catholic colleges in the US, Seton Hall University is known for its intellectual and educational excellence and influence throughout the northeast and the world. Seton Hall is especially recognized for their law and business schools, particularly through their strong network of connection that provide students with top-tier internship opportunities. A highly diverse institution, Seton Hall’s proximity to Manhattan is one of its greatest strengths for career progress.

    That Seton Hall reputation is on full view in their growing selection of online degree programs. With numerous master’s and bachelor’s options from the School of Nursing and the School of Education and Human Services, Seton Hall offers significant opportunities for advancement in those ever-necessary areas; programs in Data Visualization, Healthcare Administration, and more offer working professionals credentials in growing fields. The Seton Hall name opens doors throughout the north.

    Cost: $38,072 per year

    Online Programs: 11


    Caldwell University

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    A private Catholic institution, Caldwell University is deeply invested in the values and codes of the Dominican tradition, founded by the Sisters of Saint Dominic in 1939. That tradition not only emphasizes the pursuit of higher spiritual truths in education, but commitment to relationships and community, bringing Catholic values to all areas of life. Caldwell has a special focus on adult learning and career education.

    Caldwell University offers a number of fully online bachelor’s and master’s degree programs that have helped it achieve a reputation for value and quality in online education. With online degrees in nursing, business, and education, Caldwell’s programs are ideal for working adults who want to increase their credentials and see their careers move forward. Caldwell’s online programs are available throughout the northeast and New England, where the Caldwell name is known and respected by employers in all professional fields.

    Cost: $31,200 per year

    Online Programs: 8


    Rider University

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    A small, private liberal arts institution, Rider University is recognized by U.S. News & World Report as one of the top regional universities in the north. Their educational excellence is evident in numerous ways – nearly all (97%) of their full-time faculty hold terminal degrees in their field, and a low student-faculty ratio gives students the benefit of mentoring and personal attention that makes the liberal arts college special.

    That attention and guidance does not end with Rider’s on-campus students; Rider offers a half-dozen top-quality online degree programs some of their most trusted fields, including bachelor’s degrees in nursing, business, and psychology, and master’s programs in business, including Rider’s highly-regarded MBA. With Rider’s ample student support and market reputation in the region, online students can count on a degree from Rider to be well worth the investment.

    Cost: $38,360 per year

    Online Programs: 6


    Kean University

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    Kean University is a mid-sized public liberal arts and professional studies institution. Kean has its roots in the Newark Normal School, a teacher’s college founded in 1855, and in keeping with that tradition, Kean still graduates more teachers than any other college in New Jersey. In the years since, Kean has expanded from its traditional liberal arts programs to establish acclaimed programs in business, science, and technology.

    In recent years, Kean has expanded Kean Online with a number of online bachelor’s and master’s programs. Kean Online has established cooperative partnerships with New Jersey’s community colleges to provide clean transitions into online bachelor’s completion programs, while master’s degrees like the M.S. in Computer Information Systems and M.A. in Educational Administration pull from Kean’s youngest and oldest expertise. With one of the best tuition rates in the region, Kean University is a recognized value.

    Cost: $11,581 per year

    Online Programs: 6


    Montclair State University

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    A large, public research university, Montclair State University is consistently named one of the top 10 public regional universities in the North by U.S. News & World Report, with their professional programs in education and business recognized among the best in the region. Like Kean University, Montclair State had its origin in a normal school, but their growth and expansion throughout the 20th century have made MSU an institution to watch.

    Montclair State is also entering the online degree market an effort that is certain to continue developing in the coming years. Currently, online students can earn master’s degrees from Montclair State in Child Advocacy and Policy, Educational Leadership, and Business Administration, as well as a unique low-residency MFA in Dance. As Montclair State grows and builds – their School of Nursing just opened in 2016 – online students are sure to find MSU just as much of a value online as on-campus.

    Cost: $11,773 per year

    Online Programs: 5

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    It depends on the number of credits required to complete a program, the number of credits you transfer, and your personal pace of study. Our fastest programs can usually be completed in as little as two years. Our longest can usually be completed in 31 months.

    Yes. We make a variety of financial aid options available to online students.

    Please see our financial aid page for more information.

    Earning your degree online means the opportunity to move ahead in your career through a flexible education format. Although you’ll have deadlines, exams, and other traditional requirements, you won’t have a set time or place to attend class.

    This means you’ll be able to complete your coursework when and where it’s best for you. This flexible format also means that you’ll advance through a degree program at your own pace, making it possible for you to both earn your degree and maintain your work and life commitments.

    View all the benefits of earning your degree online .

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    AA Liberal Arts

    The AA degree is ideally suited to adult learners who have little or no previous college credit and is a great stepping stone towards a bachelor’s degree.
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    BA Individualized Studies

    This general studies degree is aimed at students who are interested in combining business theory with technological skills that are vital in today’s workplace.
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    Certificate – Computer Security  Forensics

    Designed for National Guard personnel, this graduate certificate is ideal for homeland security professionals seeking to enhance their professional credentials.
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    Certificate – Emergency Management  Administration

    Designed for National Guard personnel, this graduate certificate is ideal for homeland security professionals seeking to enhance their professional credentials.
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    Certificate – Global Leadership  Administration

    This graduate certificate is ideally suited for law enforcement as well as other professionals seeking to enhance their professional credentials. It can also be used as a supplement to our homeland security certificates.
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    Certificate – Global Security  Terrorism Studies

    Designed for National Guard personnel, this graduate certificate is ideal for homeland security professionals seeking to enhance their professional credentials.
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    Certificate – Law  Public Safety Administration

    This graduate certificate is ideally suited for law enforcement as well as other professionals seeking to enhance their professional credentials. It can also be used as a supplement to our homeland security certificates.

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    MS Electrical Engineering

    With a focus on practical application, this degree offers students the opportunity to specialize in one of three in-demand areas within the electrical engineering field.

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    MA Mathematical Foundations

    Designed for educators without a math background, this unique online degree trains instructors to teach upper primary and middle school mathematics.

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    MA Student Services Administration

    Individuals can build or advance their careers in administrative or student support in higher education. They may also obtain specialty certificates based on professional interest.

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    Master of Administrative Science

    The MAS program is designed primarily to serve adult students working in administrative and professional positions in the private sector, government agencies, and not-for-profit organizations.
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    MFA Creative Writing

    (Low Residency)
    Join a vibrant and nurturing literary community and become the best writer you can be with an MFA degree in Creative Writing from FDU.

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    MFA Creative Writing and Literature for Educators

    (Low Residency)
    Designed for middle- and high-school teachers, this unique program gives you the perfect mix of an MFA in Creative Writing and a traditional MA in English Literature, in a single well-coordinated package.

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    MS Digital Marketing

    This program trains students to become fluent in all aspects of digital marketing, including social media, search engine optimization, analytics and more.

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    MS Accounting

    Designed for students who want to advance their financial careers, this innovative online degree prepares graduates to qualify for the CPA exam.
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    MS Cyber  Homeland Security Administration

    Using a curriculum that emphasizes practical and theoretical aspects of homeland security, this online degree prepares students to become practitioners and managers in the field.

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    MS Service Innovation  Leadership

    Created for professionals who serve the public, this program prepares students to lead through training in industry strategies, financial systems, service management and more.
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    MS Supply Chain Management

    An accelerated pathway to a rewarding career in the global business environment.
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    MS Postdoctoral Clinical Psychopharmacology

    (Low Residency)
    This program provides training to licensed psychologists to enhance their ability to treat patients and develop the competence necessary for independent prescriptive authority.

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    Master of Sports Administration

    The MSA degree provides graduate students with skills to effectively manage and lead a wide range activities in sport industry, including sales, marketing, public relations, operations, facilities, and event management.
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    MSN Family Nurse Practitioner

    A flexible program that provides registered nurses with skills and credentials to diagnose and treat diverse patients.
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    MSN Nursing Education

    This online degree prepares professionals who hold a BSN and who are currently working in the profession to become nursing educators.

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    A Master of Business Administration provides students with the skills they need to successfully communicate, manage, and lead in a range of fields.
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    Our online RN-BSN program trains working nurses for management and leadership positions.
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