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Summer Session 2018 Offers Hundreds of Classes

Summer Session 2018

Springtime is on the way, but we’re jumping a season ahead to Summer! More than 600 Summer Session classes will launch starting May 29.  You don’t have to be a CSUN student to take them. Anyone in the community can register for these academic-credit classes so long as they meet course requirements. Choose from three separate sessions: May 29-Aug. 21; May 29-July10; and July 11-Aug. 21. Whatever your field or interest, CSUN has a class for you. And with many courses offered online, you won’t have to come to campus to take them. Current CSUN students can make registration appointments March 20-26 for early registration March 27-April 3. Open registration for everyone starts April 4. New classes continue to get posted, so keep checking the schedule. It’s time to get a head start in your studies, wrap up a class for your major or try out a new field!

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    ★Betrayal essays


    Oakland Magazine

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    • Summer Essays: A Moment of Betrayal

    Summer Essays: A Moment of Betrayal

    Her heart hammered against her rib cage as she slid to the ground.

    By Naneen Karraker

    Published:

    Katarzyna Bialasiewicz

    Editor’s Note: Summer essayists contemplate personal moments of disloyalty, sharing their stories that range from a failing body and objection to war to peer pressure and loss of faith.

    An act of betrayal can cause hopelessness and despair. But people show amazing resilience and often overcome the temporary setbacks disloyalty leaves in its disastrous wake.

    The East Bay Monthly asked East Bay writers to consider a moment of betrayal in the summer essay contest. The theme seemed to resonate well with the wordsmiths, and essayists responded by turning in moving prose about infidelity, loss, abusive relationships, inside jokes, bullying, and other topics.

    The essays chosen to present in print address betrayal in wide-ranging ways, touching on the strains of a weakening body, standing up to the U.S. Marines, and making a gut decision that puts a group of friends at odds. They explore a loss of faith in a trusted adult and a careless act in wartime. They are poignant, dramatic, exciting, heartwarming, and humorous tales, and they are well-written.

    Congratulations to the winning essayists, Naneen Karraker, Robert Menzimer, Stacy Appel, Patricia Young, Anna Rabkin, Flossie Lewis, and Bobbie Stein. Thanks to all the many Bay Area writers for submitting such wonderful prose—it was truly great reading. Look for our next essay contest in the winter.

    This is the first of the seven winning essays:

     

    My heart is pounding, a thundering fills my head, and I can’t catch my breath as I reach the top of the Philadelphia subway station stairs. This isn’t me. I’m healthy. At 66, I am strong and brave enough to do handstands several times a week. I travel a lot, too. These days I fly east several times a year for meetings. Today, I’m on my way to a two-day advisory board meeting at the Quaker Center.

    Through the pouring rain, I see a smudge of lights. If I squint and concentrate really hard, they look enough like the drugstore I’m trying to find. I need an umbrella. It’s six long blocks to my meeting. As blurry as they are, the lights become a beacon, a goal, helping me move ahead instead of lying down right where I am.

    "I’ve got to get an umbrella." I say it again and again as I fight against the growing weakness in my legs. I can barely put one foot ahead of the other, inching toward the half-dozen people waiting for the light to change.

    The light changes. I step off the curb, dragging my new rolling carry-on with one hand and clutching in the other a bag of crisp red apples I’d picked yesterday at my cousin’s Hudson Valley farm. The drugstore lights are just ahead. But when I reach them, I can’t find a door. Just the cold, hard side of a city building interrupted by a ribbon of faintly lit windows. Above them, a Walgreens sign shines a bright red into the dark, autumn evening. I’m imagining a friendly space where I can sit and finally catch my breath. But now what?

    I know I need to get out of the rain. I spot an opening in the side of the building, another subway exit, to my left. I push myself to take the dozen or so steps to reach it. Just inside, there’s a narrow landing, maybe 4 feet wide, before stairs leading down to the tracks. I park my suitcase against the wall just inside the opening and lean against it, fighting to suck in one long breath after another. A young man is perched on a ledge about 6 feet across the opening from me. He’s dressed casually, wearing earphones, swaying slightly to his music, eyes closed, waiting for the rain to let up. People rush in and out of the subway and along the sidewalk. My heart hammers against my ribs. My legs give way. I slide slowly down the wall, hoping my new suitcase can hold me. I remember something about how women can experience a heart attack without chest pains or shooting pains down the left arm. Fear spurs me to reach for my cellphone. I dial 911.

    A woman finally answers. Somehow I find the words to tell her I think I’m having a heart attack. "Where are you?" she asks. "Near the Walgreens on Broad and Chestnut," I mumble, praying I’ve accurately named my location. Philadelphia is a new city for me.

    "We’ll send an ambulance right away."

    I can barely focus through the fog that is now settling across my eyes. The steady flow of people becomes a blur. No one stops to help as my legs give way and I curl slowly to the damp sidewalk, knees bent, my back against the suitcase. Still grasping for air, I begin to tremble, afraid that the ambulance will come too late to find me. Then desperate, I lean toward the young man perched on the ledge across from me, struggling to make my voice heard.

    "Help me, I think I’m dying."

    He looks up, hops off the ledge, and kneels beside me.

    "Ma’am, I’m here. What’s going on?"

    "I called 911, but I don’t hear any sirens."

    "Don’t worry," he assures me. "I hear them. They’re coming."

    I strain to hear and struggle against the weight that’s making me feel like stretching out on the wet pavement. To hell with the pedestrians! So what if they have to step around me!

    He puts his arm around my shoulders, holding me close. Finally I can hear the sirens through the rain and traffic and pedestrian noise. Closer and closer. He then pulls away, gently propping me against my suitcase.

    "They’re across the street," he announces. He jumps up, racing toward the blur of flashing lights. I crumble sideways, stretching out on the wet sidewalk.

    Moments later he is beside me, carefully lifting me so I’m sitting again. "They’re here," he assures me. I can vaguely make out two EMTs, dragging their gurney, heading toward us. One of them guides me onto the gurney. He attaches an oxygen mask over my nose and mouth. As I focus on sucking in one breath after another, I can feel the young man moving around, making sure the EMTs have not only me, but also my suitcase and the bag of apples. Then he is gone.

    I’m still here, still here and beginning to breathe more easily, even though my body is not the body I’ve trusted for so many years.

    Over the past 46 years, Naneen Karraker honed her writing skills by passionately arguing for reducing overreliance on incarcerating people in the United States through letters to the editor, op-ed pieces, pamphlets, grant applications, and speeches. She and her late husband, a criminal defense attorney, raised two sons in Berkeley.

    Editor’s Note: This story appears in the July edition of our sister publication, The East Bay Monthly.

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    • Summer Essays: A Moment of Betrayal

    Summer Essays: A Moment of Betrayal

    Her heart hammered against her rib cage as she slid to the ground.

    By Naneen Karraker

    Published:

    Katarzyna Bialasiewicz

    Editor’s Note: Summer essayists contemplate personal moments of disloyalty, sharing their stories that range from a failing body and objection to war to peer pressure and loss of faith.

    An act of betrayal can cause hopelessness and despair. But people show amazing resilience and often overcome the temporary setbacks disloyalty leaves in its disastrous wake.

    The East Bay Monthly asked East Bay writers to consider a moment of betrayal in the summer essay contest. The theme seemed to resonate well with the wordsmiths, and essayists responded by turning in moving prose about infidelity, loss, abusive relationships, inside jokes, bullying, and other topics.

    The essays chosen to present in print address betrayal in wide-ranging ways, touching on the strains of a weakening body, standing up to the U.S. Marines, and making a gut decision that puts a group of friends at odds. They explore a loss of faith in a trusted adult and a careless act in wartime. They are poignant, dramatic, exciting, heartwarming, and humorous tales, and they are well-written.

    Congratulations to the winning essayists, Naneen Karraker, Robert Menzimer, Stacy Appel, Patricia Young, Anna Rabkin, Flossie Lewis, and Bobbie Stein. Thanks to all the many Bay Area writers for submitting such wonderful prose—it was truly great reading. Look for our next essay contest in the winter.

    This is the first of the seven winning essays:

     

    My heart is pounding, a thundering fills my head, and I can’t catch my breath as I reach the top of the Philadelphia subway station stairs. This isn’t me. I’m healthy. At 66, I am strong and brave enough to do handstands several times a week. I travel a lot, too. These days I fly east several times a year for meetings. Today, I’m on my way to a two-day advisory board meeting at the Quaker Center.

    Through the pouring rain, I see a smudge of lights. If I squint and concentrate really hard, they look enough like the drugstore I’m trying to find. I need an umbrella. It’s six long blocks to my meeting. As blurry as they are, the lights become a beacon, a goal, helping me move ahead instead of lying down right where I am.

    "I’ve got to get an umbrella." I say it again and again as I fight against the growing weakness in my legs. I can barely put one foot ahead of the other, inching toward the half-dozen people waiting for the light to change.

    The light changes. I step off the curb, dragging my new rolling carry-on with one hand and clutching in the other a bag of crisp red apples I’d picked yesterday at my cousin’s Hudson Valley farm. The drugstore lights are just ahead. But when I reach them, I can’t find a door. Just the cold, hard side of a city building interrupted by a ribbon of faintly lit windows. Above them, a Walgreens sign shines a bright red into the dark, autumn evening. I’m imagining a friendly space where I can sit and finally catch my breath. But now what?

    I know I need to get out of the rain. I spot an opening in the side of the building, another subway exit, to my left. I push myself to take the dozen or so steps to reach it. Just inside, there’s a narrow landing, maybe 4 feet wide, before stairs leading down to the tracks. I park my suitcase against the wall just inside the opening and lean against it, fighting to suck in one long breath after another. A young man is perched on a ledge about 6 feet across the opening from me. He’s dressed casually, wearing earphones, swaying slightly to his music, eyes closed, waiting for the rain to let up. People rush in and out of the subway and along the sidewalk. My heart hammers against my ribs. My legs give way. I slide slowly down the wall, hoping my new suitcase can hold me. I remember something about how women can experience a heart attack without chest pains or shooting pains down the left arm. Fear spurs me to reach for my cellphone. I dial 911.

    A woman finally answers. Somehow I find the words to tell her I think I’m having a heart attack. "Where are you?" she asks. "Near the Walgreens on Broad and Chestnut," I mumble, praying I’ve accurately named my location. Philadelphia is a new city for me.

    "We’ll send an ambulance right away."

    I can barely focus through the fog that is now settling across my eyes. The steady flow of people becomes a blur. No one stops to help as my legs give way and I curl slowly to the damp sidewalk, knees bent, my back against the suitcase. Still grasping for air, I begin to tremble, afraid that the ambulance will come too late to find me. Then desperate, I lean toward the young man perched on the ledge across from me, struggling to make my voice heard.

    "Help me, I think I’m dying."

    He looks up, hops off the ledge, and kneels beside me.

    "Ma’am, I’m here. What’s going on?"

    "I called 911, but I don’t hear any sirens."

    "Don’t worry," he assures me. "I hear them. They’re coming."

    I strain to hear and struggle against the weight that’s making me feel like stretching out on the wet pavement. To hell with the pedestrians! So what if they have to step around me!

    He puts his arm around my shoulders, holding me close. Finally I can hear the sirens through the rain and traffic and pedestrian noise. Closer and closer. He then pulls away, gently propping me against my suitcase.

    "They’re across the street," he announces. He jumps up, racing toward the blur of flashing lights. I crumble sideways, stretching out on the wet sidewalk.

    Moments later he is beside me, carefully lifting me so I’m sitting again. "They’re here," he assures me. I can vaguely make out two EMTs, dragging their gurney, heading toward us. One of them guides me onto the gurney. He attaches an oxygen mask over my nose and mouth. As I focus on sucking in one breath after another, I can feel the young man moving around, making sure the EMTs have not only me, but also my suitcase and the bag of apples. Then he is gone.

    I’m still here, still here and beginning to breathe more easily, even though my body is not the body I’ve trusted for so many years.

    Over the past 46 years, Naneen Karraker honed her writing skills by passionately arguing for reducing overreliance on incarcerating people in the United States through letters to the editor, op-ed pieces, pamphlets, grant applications, and speeches. She and her late husband, a criminal defense attorney, raised two sons in Berkeley.

    Editor’s Note: This story appears in the July edition of our sister publication, The East Bay Monthly.

    This page requires javascript. It seems that your browser does not have Javascript enabled. Please enable Javascript and press the Reload/Refresh button on your browser.

    Add your comment:

    Edit Module Show Tags

    East Bay 365: Our Daily Blog

    East Bay Distillers Featured in CA Whiskey Week

    Thursday’s Briefing: Hurricane Michael Lashes Florida; El Niño Grows in Pacific

    More

    Edit Module Show Tags

    Retail Therapy

    Big savings on local dining & more.

    Edit Module Show Tags

    40 Percent Off at Kouzina

    Edit Module Show Tags

    Slideshows

    Slideshows

    Hoedown at the O’ Club

    More

    Edit Module Show Tags

    Edit Module Show Tags

    Related Articles

    Webster Street Finds

    Artist Elizabeth Sher Plays With Perception

    Eyeing the Black Risk Takers of Paulson Fontaine Press

    Edit Module Show Tags

    Snapshots

    Building the Future

    More

    Edit Module Show Tags

    Most Popular Articles

    Politics

    In the Mayor’s Race, Will Oakland Become the Next Boston?

    Business & Technology
    Business & Technology

    Oakland Undergoes a Construction Boom

    Politics
    Politics

    The Real Cause of Gentrification

    News
    News

    BART in Alameda?

    People
    People

    Cooper Teare Runs His Way to the Top

    ★Three Examples of Genocide Essay

    Three Examples of Genocide Essay

    772 Words
    4 Pages

    From the time humans existed, hatred seemed to be the dominant trait that possessed the souls of men. It was inevitable emotions could provoke people to engage in acts without thinking; but it was the acts that were premeditated which were classified as evil and brutal. A. M. Rosenthal, the author of No News From Auschwitz, described a single moment in history where these kinds of acts were invoked. This appalling endeavor is known as genocide which is the deliberate destruction of a national, racial or a religious group
    (Winston Dictionary). Genocide is universal rather than limited to one time and one group of people. The Catholics in Ireland were being threatened and eliminated by the
    Puritans. The typical Irish lifestyle

    …show more content…

    During 1915 and 1916, one and a half million Armenians were killed. “The Armenian Genocide was masterminded by the Central Committee of the Young Turk Party” (Armenian
    Genocide). The extermination of the Armenians occurred in a systematic fashion. First the Armenians in the army were disarmed, placed into labor battalions and then killed. Then the Armenian political and intellectual leaders were rounded up on April 24, 1915, and killed. Finally, the remaining Armenians were called from their homes and told they would be relocated … and then marched off to concentration camps … in the desert … would starve and thirst to death in the burning sun (Armenian Genocide). To this present day, the
    Turkish Government denied these allegations. They claimed the Armenians were only removed from a “war-zone.” The leaders of the Young Turk Government were found guilty of carrying out the killing by a secret network (Armenian Genocide).
    The decision to eradicate the Armenians was not an impulsive decision, but “the result of extensive and profound deliberations” (Armenian Genocide). In the case with China, genocide resulted in the extermination of the newly born female infants. Since ancient times, the Chinese have regarded the males to be precious and more prestigious than the females. The birth of a boy signifies wealth, prosperity and luck (Chow). The Chinese Government recently passed a law which limited the

    Show More

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      effect. These stages are preclinical, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. Within the preclinical stage there are three sub-stages that deal with protein, plaque buildup in the brain called beta-amyloid. The symptoms for this stage are undetectable. Stage two is the MCI stage, which contain more visible symptoms such as deterioration of thinking abilities. Stage three is dementia. The symptoms for this stage are more severe and researchers use biomarkers (biochemical trackers) to detect the…

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      Learning about Adolf Hitler and the tragedy of the Holocaust, was a changing point to many, of how ones society could be exterminated because of one’s hair and…

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      In history, we learned about WW2 and The Holocaust. In 1932, Hitler rose to power as chancellor of Germany…

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    ★Problems With the Five Paragraph Essay and Ways To Write a Better …

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    How to Write a Five Paragraph Essay

    Five Parts: Drafting Your Introduction Developing Three Body Paragraphs Drafting Your Conclusion Revising and Editing Your Essay Essay Help Community Q&A

    Five paragraph essays are a common assignment throughout your school career, especially in high school and college. Since any subject can include a five paragraph essay, you’ll want to be good at writing them. Luckily, five-paragraph essays are really easy to write if you know the expected format and give yourself the time you need to write it. To write your five paragraph essay, draft your introduction, develop three body paragraphs, write your conclusion, and revise and edit your essay.

    Steps

    Part 1

    Drafting Your Introduction

    1. Image titled Write a Five Paragraph Essay Step 1

      1
      Start with a hook. Your hook should capture your audience’s attention, so choose a creative way to introduce your topic. This sentence should be a generalized statement about your topic that gives the reader a basic idea about your paper’s topic. Quotes, anecdotes, and quips all make great hooks for an essay. [1]

      • For example, you could phrase your hook like this: Nature’s life cycle is often used as a metaphor to convey ideas about the passage of life.
      • If you are writing a persuasive essay, don’t include your stance in your hook.
      • Don’t say “In this essay” or “I am going to show.” Instead, use the “show, don’t tell” technique using descriptive language.
      • It’s often easiest to come up with your hook after you write the rest of your essay. If you’re struggling to come up with one, use a basic placeholder and then create a better hook when you revise your essay.
    2. Image titled Write a Five Paragraph Essay Step 2

      2
      Include a sentence about your topic that provides more information. Your second sentence should tell the reader more about your topic, while still remaining generalized. Provide necessary background information and define your topic. [2]

      • Don’t reveal your main points yet.
      • For example, you could say something like this: While spring compares with birth, summer can symbolize maturity, with fall and winter showing a descent toward death.
    3. Image titled Write a Five Paragraph Essay Step 3

      3
      Write another sentence about your topic that leads to your thesis. Continue to provide background information, but start to narrow down toward your thesis. The reader should begin to see the focus of your essay start to take shape. [3]

      • This sentence depends on what type of paper you’re writing. If it’s an argumentative paper, introduce both sides of the argument. In an informative paper, mention the central idea and focus.
      • As an example, you could narrow your topic like this: Writers often use nature metaphors in their work to show themes about life, such as the blossoming of youth.
    4. Image titled Write a Five Paragraph Essay Step 4

      4
      Finish the introduction with your thesis . Your thesis should be the last sentence of your introduction, setting up the rest of your essay. Your thesis should contain your stance, your supporting points, or the theme for your points. Each of your paragraphs will connect back to your thesis, so think of it as a road map for your paper. [4]

      • For example, your thesis could read like this: In the poem “Raspberries,” the author shows youth through the ripening berries, summer blossoming, and blushing color of the fruit.
      • Each of the three examples provided in the thesis will become the topic of a body paragraph. For the example thesis, you would have body paragraphs about ripening berries, summer blossoming, and the blushing color of the fruit.

    Part 2

    Developing Three Body Paragraphs

    1. Image titled Write a Five Paragraph Essay Step 5

      1
      Arrange your points to sandwich your weakest. You should have three points, and you want your reader to view them as being strong. Starting off with your strongest point will show the reader that your stance is right, and ending with your second strongest point will create strong support for your thesis. This means that your weakest point needs to be in the middle. [5]

      • You should include three body paragraphs, one for each supporting point.
    2. Image titled Write a Five Paragraph Essay Step 6

      2
      Begin each body paragraph with a topic sentence. A topic sentence will state your point and connect it back to the thesis. This shows the reader why your point supports the idea(s) you presented in your thesis. The topic sentence will control the rest of your body paragraph, just like your thesis controls your essay. [6]

      • Your topic sentence is like a mini-thesis for just that paragraph.
      • Use a quote related to your thesis and analyze it in the body paragraph. If you use a topic sentence, put the quote next.
      • For example, your topic sentence could look like this: Ripening berries show youth in the poem “Raspberries” by reaching maturity and becoming ready for picking.
    3. Image titled Write a Five Paragraph Essay Step 7

      3
      Provide your evidence or examples. Depending on the type of essay that you are writing, you may pull evidence from a text or research that you did about your topic. Alternatively, you may use examples to back up your points, especially if you’re writing your essay in class. [7]

      • Each paragraph should contain two to three examples or pieces of evidence.
      • If you use research, cite your sources in the appropriate format that your instructor specifies.
    4. Image titled Write a Five Paragraph Essay Step 8

      4
      Add your own commentary. Your commentary is where you show your reader how your evidence or examples support your points and connect back to your topic sentence and thesis. Explain in your own words how your example or evidence proves your ideas, making your stance correct. In your mind, it may seem like you’ve made your point with just your examples. However, commentary is essential to a successful essay. [8]

      • Include two to three sentences of commentary for each example or piece of evidence.
      • Depending on the type of evidence or examples, it’s often best to alternate your evidence and commentary throughout the paragraph. For example, provide one example, then provide the commentary.
    5. Image titled Write a Five Paragraph Essay Step 9

      5
      Conclude your paragraph by linking back to your thesis. Summarize the points you’ve made in this paragraph, connecting back to your topic sentence and thesis. Show the reader how the points you expressed in this paragraph provide support.

      • For example, you could wrap up your paragraph like this: As the girl plucks the ripe raspberries from the bush and eats them, her actions represent her own youth and readiness to be “plucked” by someone.

    Part 3

    Drafting Your Conclusion

    1. Image titled Write a Five Paragraph Essay Step 10

      1
      Restate your thesis. You should start your conclusion with the ideas you expressed in your thesis. Don’t just copy-and-paste your thesis. Instead, rewrite your thesis with the weight of your argument behind it. Your reader has now read all of your points and evidence, and your thesis should reflect this. [9]

      • For example, you could restate your thesis like this: The poem “Raspberries” provides an allegorical representation of youth through a metaphor of ripening berries, summer blossoming, and blushing color of the fruit.
      • If you’re a beginning writer, it’s okay to start your conclusion with “In conclusion.” However, if you’re an advanced writer, avoid starting your conclusion with statements like “In conclusion,” “To conclude,” or “In the end.”
    2. Image titled Write a Five Paragraph Essay Step 11

      2
      Summarize how your points supported your thesis. Include a review of how each body paragraph supported your thesis, reminding the reader of your arguments. You should write two to three sentences that briefly explain what you’ve said. [10]

      • Use an authoritative tone as you restate your arguments so that your reader walks away knowing that you are correct.
    3. Image titled Write a Five Paragraph Essay Step 12

      3
      Avoid introducing new information. Providing new information in your thesis can result in lost points on your essay. This will cause your reader to walk away with questions instead of confidence in your ideas. In a conclusion, you should only be restating what you’ve already said. [11]
    4. Image titled Write a Five Paragraph Essay Step 13

      4
      Tie up your essay with a concluding sentence . Your concluding sentence should leave the reader with a lasting impression of your topic. Use this statement to ensure that your reader keeps thinking about your essay after they have finished reading it. The following are great ideas for writing a good concluding sentence: [12]

      • Include a call to action.
      • Provide a warning about what could happen if your stance is ignored.
      • Create an image in the reader’s mind.
      • Include a quote.
      • Make a universal statement about life.

    Part 4

    Revising and Editing Your Essay

    1. Image titled Write a Five Paragraph Essay Step 14

      1
      Use spell check. Spell check can easily save you lost points for misspellings. This should be your first step in editing your essay because you can have your word processor do your spell check and then take the provided suggestions.

      • Always reread your sentence to make sure that the word processor is suggesting the right word. If you’ve misspelled a word that is similar to another word, then it’s possible that your spell check could suggest the wrong spelling, such as “then” instead of “than.”
    2. Image titled Write a Five Paragraph Essay Step 15

      2
      Proofread your essay. Take a break from working on your paper. It’s a good idea to give your mind a break, so consider taking a walk, stretching, or taking a bath. Then reread your essay looking for misspelled words, grammar errors, or typos. [13]

      • Look for errors that your spell checker missed.
      • If you can, ask someone else to proofread your paper. They will usually spot errors that you overlooked.
    3. Image titled Write a Five Paragraph Essay Step 16

      3
      Revise your essay to improve the flow. As you reread your essay, make sure that your ideas flow well. You may need to add additional commentary or rewrite sentences to make it flow better. You may also decide to add in additional transitions, such as “additionally,” “also,” “at the same time,” or “similarly.” As you revise your essay, double-check that you’ve addressed your thesis throughout. [14]

      • Combine choppy sentences.
      • Breakup long, convoluted sentences into shorter sentences.
      • Rewrite fragments and run-on sentences.
    4. Image titled Write a Five Paragraph Essay Step 17

      4
      Fix your formatting. Consult your assignment sheet or syllabus to see what formatting conventions your instructor prefers. Adjust your margins, font size, and spacing accordingly. Add your heading and page numbers.

      • If you have cited sources, make sure that you include a reference page in the style chosen by your instructor.

    Essay Help

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      Quick Summary

      To write a five paragraph essay, start with an introductory paragraph that includes a hook to capture your audience’s attention, and a thesis that explains the main point you’re trying to make. Then, use the next 3 paragraphs to explain 3 separate points that support your thesis. As you explain each point, use evidence from your research or examples in the text you’re discussing. Finally, conclude your essay with a paragraph summing up the points you’ve made and telling the reader how those points support your thesis.

      Did this summary help you?

      Tips

      • Never plagiarize an essay, which means copying someone’s work or ideas without giving them credit. Your teacher will deny you credit for the essay, and you may also get a discipline consequence.

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      Sources and Citations

      1. https://www.grammarly.com/blog/7-tips-for-formulating-the-perfect-five-paragraph-essay/
      2. https://owl.english.purdue.edu/engagement/2/2/58/
      3. https://owl.english.purdue.edu/engagement/2/2/58/
      4. https://www.grammarly.com/blog/7-tips-for-formulating-the-perfect-five-paragraph-essay/
      5. https://www.grammarly.com/blog/7-tips-for-formulating-the-perfect-five-paragraph-essay/
      6. http://www.aims.edu/student/online-writing-lab/process/topic-sentences.php
      7. https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/685/05/
      8. https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/685/05/
      9. https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/685/05/
      10. https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/685/05/
      11. https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/685/05/
      12. https://writingcenter.fas.harvard.edu/pages/ending-essay-conclusions
      13. https://www.grammarly.com/blog/7-tips-for-formulating-the-perfect-five-paragraph-essay/
      14. https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/561/05/

      Show more… (11)

      Article Info

      Categories: Essays

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      Español:  escribir un ensayo de 5 párrafos , Italiano:  Scrivere un Saggio in Cinque Paragrafi , Português:  Escrever uma Redação de Cinco Parágrafos , Deutsch:  Einen Aufsatz (ein Essay) mit 5 Absätzen schreiben , Français:  rédiger une dissertation en 5 paragraphes , 中文:  写一篇五段式英文论述文 , Bahasa Indonesia:  Membuat Esai Lima Paragraf , Nederlands:  Een essay van vijf paragrafen schrijven

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      The Five-Paragraph Essay

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      The Five-Paragraph Essay




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      An Introduction to Essay Writing


      Introduction

      • Choosing a Topic

      • Writing an Introduction

      • Structuring and Outlining

      • Types of Essays

      • Editing and Improving

      College student writing at desk in classroom
      PhotoAlto/Alix Minde/Getty Images
      by

      Grace Fleming
      Updated January 22, 2018

      A five-paragraph essay is a prose composition  that follows a prescribed format of an  introductory paragraph , three  body paragraphs , and a concluding paragraph , and is typically taught during primary English education and applied on standardized testing throughout schooling.

      Learning to write a high-quality five-paragraph essay  is an essential skill for students in early English classes as it allows them to express certain ideas, claims, or concepts in an organized manner, complete with evidence that supports each of these notions. Later, though, students may decide to stray from the standard five-paragraph format and venture into writing an  exploratory essay  instead.

      Still, teaching students to organize essays into the five-paragraph format is an easy way to introduce them to writing literary criticism, which will be tested time and again throughout their primary, secondary, and further education.

      Starting Off Right: Writing a Good Introduction

      The introduction is the first paragraph in your essay, and it should accomplish a few specific goals: capture the reader’s interest, introduce the topic, and make a claim or express an opinion in a thesis statement.

      It’s a good idea to start your essay with a really interesting statement  in order to pique the reader’s interest, though this can also be accomplished by using descriptive words, an anecdote, a striking question, or an interesting fact. Students can practice with creative writing prompts to get some ideas for interesting ways to start an essay.

      The next few sentences should explain your first statement, and prepare the reader for your thesis statement , which is typically the last sentence in the introduction. Your  thesis sentence  should provide your specific assertion and convey a clear point of view, which is typically divided into three distinct arguments that support this assertation, which will each serve as central themes for the body paragraphs.

      Explaining Your Thesis: Writing Body Paragraphs

      The body of the essay will include three paragraphs in a five-paragraph essay format, each limited to one main idea that supports your thesis.

      In order to properly write each of these three body paragraphs, you should state your supporting idea, your topic sentence, then back it up with two or three sentences of evidence or examples that validate this claim before concluding the paragraph and using  transition words to lead to the paragraph that follows — meaning that all of your  body paragraphs should follow the pattern of “statement, supporting ideas, transition statement.”

      Words to use as you transition from one paragraph to another include moreover, in fact, on the whole, furthermore, as a result, simply put, for this reason, similarly, likewise, it follows that, naturally, by comparison, surely, and yet.

      Pulling It All Together: Writing a Conclusion

      The final paragraph will summarize your main points and re-assert your main claim (from your thesis sentence). It should point out your main points, but should not repeat specific examples, and should, as always, leave a lasting impression on the reader.

      The first sentence of the conclusion, therefore, should be used to restate the supporting claims argued in the body paragraphs as they relate to the thesis statement, then the next few sentences should be used to explain how the essay’s main points can lead outward, perhaps to further thought on the topic. Ending the conclusion with a question, anecdote, or final pondering is a great way to leave a lasting impact.

      Once you complete the first draft of your essay, it’s a good idea to re-visit the thesis statement in your first paragraph. Read your essay to see if it flows well, and you might find that the supporting paragraphs are strong, but they don’t address the exact focus of your thesis. Simply re-write your thesis sentence to fit your body and summary more exactly, and adjust the conclusion to wrap it all up nicely.

      Practice Writing a Five-Paragraph Essay

      Students can use the following steps to write a standard essay on any given topic. First, choose a topic, or ask your students to choose their own topic, then allow them to form a basic five-paragraph by following these steps:

      1. Decide on your  basic thesis , your idea of a topic to discuss.
      2. Decide on three pieces of supporting evidence you will use to prove your thesis.
      3. Write an introductory  paragraph , including your thesis and evidence (in order of strength).
      4. Write your first body paragraph, starting with restating your thesis and focusing on your first piece of supporting evidence.
      5. End your first paragraph with a transitional sentence that leads to the next body paragraph.
      6. Write paragraph two of the body focussing on your second piece of evidence. Once again make the connection between your thesis and this piece of evidence.
      7. End your second paragraph with a transitional sentence that leads to paragraph number three.
      8. Repeat step 6 using your third piece of evidence.
      9. Begin your concluding paragraph by restating your thesis. Include the three points you’ve used to prove your thesis.
      10. End with a punch, a question, an anecdote, or an entertaining thought that will stay with the reader.

      Once a student is able to master these 10 simple steps, writing a basic five-paragraph essay will be a piece of cake, so long as the student does so correctly and includes enough supporting information in each paragraph that all relate to the same centralized main idea, the thesis of the essay. Check out these great examples of five-paragraph essays:

      • Learning to Hate Mathematics  (cause-and-effect)
      • Shopping at the Pig  (classification)
      • Watching Baseball, Playing Softball  (comparison-and-contrast)

      Limitations of the Five-Paragraph Essay

      The five-paragraph essay is merely a starting point for students hoping to express their ideas in academic writing; there are a number of other forms and styles of writing that students should use to express their vocabulary in the written form. According to Tory Young’s “Studying English Literature: A Practical Guide:”

      “Although school students in the U.S. are examined on their ability to write a five-paragraph essay, its raison d’être is purportedly to give practice in basic writing skills that will lead to future success in more varied forms. Detractors feel, however, that writing to rule in this way is more likely to discourage imaginative writing and thinking than enable it. . . . The five-paragraph essay is less aware of its  audience  and sets out only to present information, an account or a kind of story rather than explicitly to persuade the reader.”

      Students should instead be asked to write other forms, such as journal entries, blog posts, reviews of goods or services, multi-paragraph research papers, and freeform expository writing around a central theme. Although five-paragraph essays are the golden rule when writing for standardized tests, experimentation with expression should be encouraged throughout primary schooling to bolster students’ abilities to fully utilize the English language.


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        How to Write an Effective Graduate Admissions Essay







      ★Essay Questions

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      Each year, the Schreyer Honors College requires potential Scholars to answer three essay questions. These questions change on a yearly basis and are meant to elicit well-written, comprehensive responses. Essay responses do not have word count or formatting requirements.

      The essay questions are posted here a few months before the Penn State and Schreyer Honors College application is made available on August 1. We strongly encourage you to begin working on your essays immediately after they are posted.

      2019 Essay Questions

      • There are 27 amendments to the Constitution of the United States. What should be the 28th?
      • Are China and India developing countries? Why or why not?
      • The Seven Wonders of the World is a well-known list highlighting spectacular natural phenomena or human-made structures. Please describe some of the Seven Wonders of your world: They could include people, places, events, or things that have significantly affected who you are.

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      Tips for Answering the University of Pennsylvania Supplemental Essay Prompts

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      Want to write a supplemental UPenn essay that gets you accepted? Scroll down to read our tips!

      The University of Pennsylvania , or Penn, was established in 1790 and is one of the oldest universities in America. This prestigious Ivy League school is known for its top-notch research as well as its undergraduate programs that focus on practical applications grounded in a strong liberal arts foundation. It accepts the Common Application or the Coalition Application and requires a Penn writing supplemental in addition to the general Common/Coalition Application essay. Your supplemental essay helps Penn to gain a more holistic view of you as a potential student. Penn states: “ideal candidates are inspired to emulate our founder Benjamin Franklin by applying their knowledge in ‘service to society.’” Through your Common Application, the admissions committee is aware of your grades and test scores, and understands the level of rigor in your curriculum within the context of your high school environment. Use the supplemental essay as an opportunity to demonstrate how you are an ideal match for Penn and how Penn will help you to accomplish your life goals. Illustrate how you engage with and think about the world around you. Communicate your thoughts, values and perspectives so they can understand what is important to you!

      Penn offers a binding early decision option with a November 1st deadline. Consider this option if Penn is your first choice because the rate of admission is higher during early decision. In addition, if you have family alumni ties to Penn early decision may be the best approach. Alumni affiliation receives the most consideration during the early decision program. You are allowed to apply early decision to Penn and early action to other non-binding or non-restrictive early action programs. Always check with the specific schools for guidelines.

      Before you sit down to begin writing your essay, do your research to learn as much as possible about Penn’s approach to education. Familiarize yourself with the unique character of the school, go through the website, get a sense of the campus and academic atmosphere, if possible visit the campus, speak with current students, and imagine yourself as a student at Penn. In short, identify what makes the school a good fit for you .

      Penn is located in the city of Philadelphia and offers an exceptional education in a diverse urban setting on a primarily residential campus. Penn provides many opportunities for students to investigate various areas of interest. The availability of learning hubs is an example of how it fosters an active and dynamic exploration of ideas. Think about how you might embrace this approach and the overall academic climate at Penn.

      It should come as no surprise that Penn is steeped in tradition. Although the curriculum at Penn is flexible, it is grounded in a high quality liberal arts and science foundation. The four undergraduate schools (College of Arts and Science, Penn Engineering, School of Nursing, and The Wharton School) pride themselves on providing an integrated and functional education. “Penn students combine theoretical and practical thinking while developing the tools they need to innovate and lead in a world that demands an increasingly broad perspective.” Consider how these values will impact your experience at Penn.

      UPenn Supplemental Essay Prompt

      How will you explore your intellectual and academic interests at the University of Pennsylvania? Please answer this question given the specific undergraduate school to which you are applying. (400-650 words)

      Begin by discussing your intellectual and academic interests. Don’t be afraid to show your excitement but ground it in specifics as they relate to the education at Penn. This prompt allows you to discuss how you hope the undergraduate options at Penn can help you explore your interests and how an education at Penn will help you to flourish. Consider why you are a good fit for the undergraduate school of your choice (College of Arts and Sciences, School of Nursing, The Wharton School, or Penn Engineering). What specific academic, service, and/or research opportunities might enhance your journey? Include examples of how your personal experiences make the programs at Penn a good fit for you. How will the opportunities at Penn expand, nurture, and support your interests and aspirations? How do you hope to contribute to the collegiate environment at Penn? Consider how you might positively impact the overall Penn campus community. You need to address why you are driven to attend Penn and how a Penn education will help you to affect change in the world.

      Students applying to Digital Media Design and Computer & Cognitive Science should address both the specialized program and single-degree choice in their response.

      Note that additional essays are required if you are applying to one of the Coordinated Dual Degree and Specialized Programs offered at Penn (Huntsman: The Huntsman Program in International Studies and Business, LSM: The Roy and Diana Vagelos Program in Life Sciences and Management, M&T: The Jerome Fisher Program in Management and Technology, NHCM: Nursing and Healthcare Management, VIPER: The Roy and Diana Vagelos Integrated Program in Energy Research, NETS: The Rajendra and Neera Singh Program in Networked and Social Systems Engineering, and The Seven-Year Bio-Dental Program). These responses have limits that range from 400 to 650 words. Although these individual prompts are not addressed in detail here, keep in mind that each one asks you to share specific examples and experiences that demonstrate your potential for success along with your enthusiasm for and attraction to the particular program. These programs are a significant commitment and you need to convey your genuine dedication. The admissions committee uses your essays to determine whether you will be a good match for the particular dual degree or specialized program to which you seek admission.

      This is a competitive application process and you are up against an increasingly competitive group of applicants. Penn received 40,413 undergraduate applications for the class of 2021. Only 3,757, or 9%, were offered admission (6,147 applied early decision and 1,354, or 22% were admitted). Over 90% of the students admitted were in the top 10% of their high school class with average SAT scores of 715 in evidence based reading and writing, 730 in math, and an average ACT score of 33.5. Effectively communicating the intangibles through your essays is the best way to differentiate yourself from the crowd . Use your essay responses to discuss what is meaningful to you, project the value you might add to the campus community and convey how Penn is the ideal place for you to achieve your dreams for the future.

      Take a deep breath and try not to be intimidated by this process. Start early to allow yourself enough time to thoroughly research, prepare, and complete all aspects of your application. All these factors must come together in a compelling way to present you as a highly competitive applicant. Penn is interested in your personal stories, life experiences, hopes and aspirations. It seeks to attract and foster great thinkers and future leaders who will play constructive roles in society. Take the time and invest the energy to reveal your best self!

      If you’re applying to Penn, you already know you’re up against tight competition. Don’t be overwhelmed. Get the guidance of an experienced admissions specialist who will help you stand out from the highly competitive applicant pool so you can apply with confidence, and get accepted!  Click here to get started!

      Ivy League and Common Application Tips: How to get Accepted

      Marie Todd By  Marie Todd , Accepted’s college admissions specialist. Marie has worked in college admissions for over twenty years. She has both counseled applicants and evaluated applications. Most recently she evaluated 5000+ applications for the University of Michigan’s College of Literature, Science and the Arts; College of Engineering; School of Kinesiology. She is available to assist you (or your child) with your applications.  Want Marie to help you get accepted? Click here to get in touch!

       

      Related Resources:

      • Focus on Fit , a podcast episode
      •  How to Wow College Application Readers: Beyond Tests Scores and GPA
      •  10 Reflections on Teacher Recommendations

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      3. Personal Response to Literature Essay

      Personal Response to Literature Essay

      As with so many of my articles, this one is inspired by one of my students. More specifically, a grade 10-1 English student. And as with so many of my students who struggle to write essays, this one has fantastic ideas that are somewhat throttled by a lack of writing experience and a general sense of impatience. I can honestly understand both; however, when it comes to writing, especially writing a personal response to literature, it’s all about the prep. What you do before writing your response will ultimately make or break your essay, so it’s important to set aside your impatience and focus on the building blocks of writing a personal response. Here’s what I mean.

      First, you need to understand the question before you even read the literature.
      That’s right. The first thing you need to do is read the question. Carefully. My personal suggestion is to underline any keywords in the question. This is not just some cute trick to increase your comprehension of the question; these keywords need to be used repeatedly throughout your essay. Ultimately, you are highlighting essential vocabulary that you need to adopt in your response. You may look at sample topics in the electronic document, 2012 ELA 30-1 Diploma practice . See if you can pick out the key words in one of the provided prompts. Take a minute and do so.

      So, what did you get? Common prompts are ambition, life decisions, and adversity. You should be looking for key words similar to the ones above. Once you’ve found it, you are ready to move on to reading the literature, but please note that some prompts are expository in nature, where you need to explain the contents of a piece of literature. Others are argumentative and require a strong opinion on a given topic. Read your prompt carefully, because it can change the outcome of your essay in a big way.

      Next, you need to read the literature.
      Now that you’ve read and understand the question, you are ready to tackle the literature, be it poem, prose, or drama. Never, ever read the literature first and then read the question, simply because reading the question allows you to first comb through the literature, looking for specific examples of the key words you found in the question. See how that works? Two birds, one stone.

      Take your time when reading the literature. The examples you find here will help you form your ideas later on. You should be actively seeking to find the poet/author/writer’s opinion. Basically, ask yourself, “What is this writer trying to teach me?” The selections of literature in personal responses are tailored to the prompt, so have no worries that the prompt and the literature are unrelated; they most certainly are.

      Find a main idea, a unifying thought related to your prompt that is founded in the literature
                Here, you want to find the author’s message and tie it to your prompt. However, you can be fairly certain that the author’s message is one of these three threads: The author is completely against the idea in the prompt, the author is on the fence about the idea in the prompt, or the author is completely supportive of the idea in the prompt. Here’s an example of a main idea: The literature presents a commentary on the dangers of ambition. Here’s another: The poem advocates ambition as a tool for self-improvement and success. Or, here’s one more; a fence sitter: The short story warns that untempered ambition can be a danger to one’s self and others; however, if tempered, ambition can be a tool for the good of society. Do you see how they change? And it’s not your opinion, here. It’s the author’s.

      Finally, you need to brainstorm your body paragraphs.
      So this is the last stage of your prep, and it’s a really valuable thing to spend time doing. If you don’t spend time brainstorming your body paragraphs, they’re going to be a mess. Remember that with any body paragraph, you need 2 things: A topic sentence and supporting details. Your topic sentence always—always!—goes at the beginning of the sentence (OK, so this can actually change, but for you, writing an essay in an hour or less, just put it at the beginning and you’ll never go wrong). It should contain your topic, ambition, decisions, adversity, etc., here, and a controlling idea, one that is supported by the literature. Ensure that you generate these controlling ideas before beginning your essay. If you like, you may write the examples you found from the text along with the personal experience to which you are connecting the idea. Easy peasy.

      The traditional order of a personal response paragraph is pretty stock-standard. Here’s the run-down: Start with your topic sentence, give the example from the literature (you can give the line number, the title of the piece, the author, etc.), and then connect the literature to an anecdote. The anecdote doesn’t have to be true, just make it believable. No one is checking facebook; don’t worry. Finally, end your paragraph with a button, a little gem of wisdom that you gleaned from the literature or your experience. There is some play in this organization, but not much. Mess around too much with it, and you’re sure to run into trouble.

      So there you have it, all stages of prepping for a personal response to literature. If you are like my student and struggle with impatience, relax, have a coffee, and take the time to write two essays: one without any prep and one with prep as I have outlined, here. See which one is better. So remember, understand your question and prompt, read the literature and look for examples of keywords from the prompt in the literature. Generate a main idea and then brainstorm your body paragraphs. There is a lot to a personal response, so please be sure to organize yourself throughout.

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      Response to Literature Essay Unit – **UPDATED**

      Response to Literature Essay Unit - **UPDATED**
      Response to Literature Essay Unit - **UPDATED**
      Response to Literature Essay Unit - **UPDATED**

      Response to Literature Essay Unit - **UPDATED**
      Response to Literature Essay Unit - **UPDATED**

      Response to Literature Essay Unit - **UPDATED**

      Subject
      English Language Arts , Literature , Writing
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      Product Description
      Thorough and challenging, this essay unit provides everything you need to teach the Literary Analysis Essay. Filled with great ideas and strong examples, this unit will be a lifesaver, providing your students with all they need and saving you e time and frustration.

      Response to Literature Essay Unit – Table of Contents

      This is the order that I teach the Response to Literature Essay. I provide Writing Vocabulary and teach the Detailed Paragraph Structure. I have students write the body paragraphs first, and then go back later to write the intro and conclusion. Along with essay assignments and mini-lessons, which also serve as handouts, I provide several PowerPoint presentations, an essay rubric, a checklist of what to turn in with the final draft, and a reflection sheet. All in all, there are 20 documents that are ready to use, or can be easily adapted for your classroom.

      This is a great resource that I use every year, and it helps to produce some excellent quality student essays.

      1. Response to Literature Essay Assignment
      2. Writing Vocabulary with Examples PPT Presentation
      3. Planning Chart for Response to Literature
      4. Mini-Lesson: Detailed Paragraph Structure and Organization
      5. Detailed Paragraph Samples – CARS and Beauty and the Beast
      6. Detailed Body Paragraph Frame
      7. Mini-Lesson: Providing Commentary
      8. Mini-Lesson: Common Commentary Mistakes
      9. Mini-Lesson: Using Text Evidence
      10. Using Text Evidence PPT Presentation
      11. Response to Literature Essay Outline
      12. Mini-Lesson: Introductions and Conclusions
      13. Mini-Lesson: Introductory Paragraphs
      14. Mini-Lesson: Detailed Paragraph Help
      15. Peer Editing – Paragraph Revision
      16. Revise Your Essay – PPT Presentation
      17. Final Draft Essay Checklist
      18. Response to Literature Rubric
      19. Choose Not to Submit Form
      20. Response to Literature Essay Reflection

      ———————————————————————————————–
      See what buyers are saying about this unit:

      "This was worth every cent! There is so much to work with and it had been an incredible resource for my 7th Lang Arts class. Love it!!"

      "I bought this unit and another one from someone else at the same time. I have exclusively used this unit! It is great! The handouts are very clear, and the students refer back to them."

      "Best essay writing materials I’ve seen! And I’ve seen a lot! Thanks!"

      ————————————————————————————————
      I hope that this unit works well for you! Please look for my other materials, including:

      Powerful Paragraphing

      Paragraph Practice for back to school

      Back to School Writing Activity – Find Your Focus

      Introduction to Close Reading for Middle and High School

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      A Match.com glitch reactivated a bunch of old profiles, raising concerns about user data


      New,


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      The zombie profiles are further proof that data legislation remains ambiguous and the internet is still forever

      By

      Lizzie Plaugic


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      A Match.com glitch reactivated a bunch of old profiles, raising concerns about user data


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      On a recent Sunday, creative director Jason Debiak was having breakfast with his family in New Jersey, when something strange happened.

      “I was having an adorable breakfast with my family, my 2-year-old daughter and my wife,” he says. “Something came up [on my phone] and I usually try not to check my email, but I checked my email and it said, ‘You have 10 new matches on Match.com .’ I was like… what?”

      Debiak’s long-forgotten — and, he assumed, long-deleted — dating profile from over a decade ago had suddenly been reactivated. “I log in, and there I am, from 15 years prior, with less gray hair,” he said. “And my whole profile is there, everything.” Judging by the messages he received, Debiak says it seemed like the account had been reopened for about a week.

      “I contacted customer service, and they said, ‘Oh, we’re sorry you got email notifications. We’ll turn off email notifications,’” Debiak said. “And I was like, ‘No, you don’t understand. Not only do I not want email notifications — I don’t want to be on your website, ever.’”

      “I don’t want to be on your website, ever”

      A Match Group spokesperson confirmed that a “limited number” of old accounts had been accidentally reactivated recently and that any account affected received a password reset. Match.com’s current privacy statement , which was last updated in 2016, says that the company can “retain certain information associated with your account” even after you close it. But that Match Group spokesperson also told The Verge that the company plans to roll out a new privacy policy “in the next month or so,” in order to comply with the EU’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) ; under the new policy, all those years-old accounts will be deleted. The Verge has requested clarification on which accounts will qualify for deletion, and what “deletion” will specifically entail, but has not received a response as of press time.

      In the past, it hasn’t been uncommon for dating websites to use and retain your data for research, marketing, or, as Match.com’s current privacy policy says, “record-keeping integrity.” In a 2009 ComputerWorld report , eHarmony’s then-VP of technology Joseph Essas said, “We have an archiving strategy, but we don’t delete you out of our database. We’ll remember who you are.” Herb Vest, the founder and CEO of the now-defunct dating website True.com, said in the same report: “The data just sits there.” Even if the profile reactivations were just a glitch in Match’s system, they’re a stark reminder that the internet doesn’t easily forget.

      Although there is no federal data destruction law in the US, 32 states — including Texas , where Match Group is headquartered — have data disposal laws that require “entities to destroy, dispose, or otherwise make personal information unreadable or undecipherable.” In addition to that, 13 states, also including Texas, have laws that require private companies to maintain reasonable cybersecurity practices . If that sounds vague, that’s because it is. “A lot of this is still, I don’t want to call it amorphous, but it’s still being defined, frankly,” explains Scott Shackelford, an associate professor and Cybersecurity Program chair at Indiana University-Bloomington. “What ‘reasonable’ is, is a moving target.”

      But that doesn’t change the fact that many former Match.com users feel blindsided by this, not to mention misled by Match. It’s not clear how many people saw their years-dormant Match.com profiles reactivated recently, but it’s not hard to find complaints about the ghost profiles online .

      First launched in 1993, Match.com has since become a dating behemoth. Its parent company, Match Group, now owns dating apps like OkCupid, PlentyofFish, and Tinder. (It reportedly tried to buy Bumble last year, and it’s now embroiled in a messy lawsuit with the app involving trade secrets and intellectual property.) OkCupid allows users to delete or disable their accounts but still retains data . PlentyofFish and Tinder’s privacy policies both claim to retain data “only as long as we need it for legitimate business purposes and as permitted by applicable legal requirements.” Tinder, like Match.com. also notes it will “retain certain data” after you close your account.

      “There probably are good reasons to keep deleted profiles for some period of time — for example, to prevent or detect repeat users or fake users, etc,” Albert Gidari, consulting director of privacy at the Stanford Center for Internet and Society, wrote in an email. “But that doesn’t mean forever.”

      Data is forever

      Rob P., who had been an active online dater since around 2005, recently had his Match.com profile resurface, even though he’s engaged now. And his experience with Match.com’s customer service after the fact was frustrating. He just wanted someone to delete his profile, but no one would do it. “They kept using terminology that was… not saying it’s permanently deleted, just ‘unviewable’ or ‘inaccessible,’” he says. “And I kept saying, ‘It needs to be deleted.’”

      Match Group has run into complaints about this before. A class action lawsuit filed in 2010 by former subscribers claimed that Match.com was trying to deceive users by keeping inactive and fraudulent accounts viewable. “With regard to inactive members (i.e., members who have cancelled their subscriptions and / or allowed their subscriptions to lapse),” the filing reads, “Match takes virtually no action to remove these profiles (that remain on the system, are searchable by members, appear as and are in fact counted among Match’s ‘active members’) for months and sometimes years after the individuals have become inactive.” The suit was dismissed in 2012 after US District Judge Sam Lindsay found that Match’s user agreement didn’t require it to remove these profiles.

      In 2015, California resident Zeke Graf filed a class action lawsuit against Match claiming the company was knowingly violating a California civil code which requires every dating service contract to include a statement allowing the buyer to cancel their subscription. That lawsuit was later voluntarily dismissed by Graf.

      In an increasingly privacy-conscious world, the sudden zombie appearance of an old social media profile would be an unnerving experience for anyone. But online dating, in particular, puts people in a vulnerable position, often encouraging users to reveal as much of themselves as possible. “You’re filling out questionnaires about your beliefs and feelings and who you are as a person,” Rob P. says. “Hopefully the algorithm uses that information to match you up with the best compatible mate, but it’s scary to think they’re holding on to that data even after you close your account.”

      Ex-user Katie Storms also saw her account, which she deactivated in 2014, pop up again this month. She’s concerned about data privacy, but also the more immediate impact that a new dating profile could have on her current relationship. “Thankfully I am married to an incredible man who, I immediately told him, ‘Hey, this happened, and I’m concerned about it,’ and we walked through it together,” she says. “I can’t imagine… not that I want to be married to anyone who wouldn’t be understanding about it, but what if you were?”

      this is so weird – i got so many emails this morning i finally was like i guess ill try to log in and see whats up? and i did and my profile from 10 YEARS AGO was fully up – and I haven’t paid https://t.co/c3WFxPlT7f a cent since i canceled! WTFFFFF https://t.co/SRcjwJJto4

      — jelly donuts (@jennalisetwts) April 14, 2018

      Jason Debiak also told his wife about the rogue profile immediately, but he later found out that some of her friends had seen it, and thought it was evidence of something more sinister. “That would’ve caused quite an issue if I hadn’t seen those emails,” he says.

      Zombie profiles can also affect current users, who, again, are putting themselves in a vulnerable position, only to be confronted with people who aren’t actually looking to date. “I felt like it was a little bit of a violation of privacy for me, and misleading to the people who are on Match.com right now looking for people,” Storms says. “I don’t blame those people who saw my profile and winked at me, but I’m sorry, I’m happily married.”

      Data retention policies, especially in the US, can vary from company to company. Match Group owns data from thousands of users, and — as recent scandals and controversies regarding the consequences of user data retention have taught us — it doesn’t have to be completely transparent about what it’s doing with that data. But these reactivations are a reminder that the internet has a long memory, and the burden often falls on the user to be mindful of what they share. “Obviously we need more transparency and control over our own data,” Rob P. says. “But it feels like uncharted territory.”

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        2018 folks



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      Why We Post Nothing—Nothing—About Our Kid Online. You Should Do the Same for Your Kids. 

      Why We Post Nothing—Nothing—About Our Kid Online. You Should Do the Same for Your Kids. 



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      Slate
      Data Mine
      How to understand your data
      Sept. 4 2013 5:30 AM

      We Post Nothing About Our Daughter Online



      Nothing. It’s the only way to defend her against facial recognition, Facebook profiling, and corporate data mining. 

      By Amy Webb




       

      Baby bath
      This is exactly the kind of photo you shouldn’t post of your child.

      Photo by Hemera/Thinkstock

      I vividly remember the Facebook post. It was my friend’s 5-year-old daughter “Kate,” (a pseudonym) standing outside of her house in a bright yellow bikini, the street address clearly visible behind her on the front door. A caption read “Leaving for our annual Labor Day weekend at the beach,” and beneath it were more than 50 likes and comments from friends—including many “friends” that Kate’s mom barely knew.

      The picture had been uploaded to a Facebook album, and there were 114 shots just of Kate: freshly cleaned and swaddled on the day of her birth … giving her Labradoodle a kiss … playing on a swing set. But there were also photos of her in a bathtub and an awkward moment posing in her mother’s lacy pink bra.

      I completely understood her parents’ desire to capture Kate’s everyday moments, because early childhood is so ephemeral. I also knew how those posts would affect Kate as an adult, and the broader impact of creating a generation of kids born into original digital sin.

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      Last week, Facebook updated its privacy policy again. It reads in part: “We are able to suggest that your friend tag you in a picture by scanning and comparing your friend’s pictures to information we’ve put together from your profile pictures and the other photos in which you’ve been tagged.” Essentially, this means that with each photo upload, Kate’s parents are, unwittingly, helping Facebook to merge her digital and real worlds. Algorithms will analyze the people around Kate, the references made to them in posts, and over time will determine Kate’s most likely inner circle.

      Kids Today Have a Lot Less Freedom Than Their Parents Did

      Six thousand respondents to Slate’s survey show a clear trend.

      The problem is that Facebook is only one site. With every status update, YouTube video, and birthday blog post, Kate’s parents are preventing her from any hope of future anonymity.

      That poses some obvious challenges for Kate’s future self. It’s hard enough to get through puberty. Why make hundreds of embarrassing, searchable photos freely available to her prospective homecoming dates? If Kate’s mother writes about a negative parenting experience, could that affect her ability to get into a good college? We know that admissions counselors review Facebook profiles and a host of other websites and networks in order to make their decisions.

      There’s a more insidious problem, though, which will haunt Kate well into the adulthood. Myriad applications, websites, and wearable technologies are relying on face recognition today, and ubiquitous bio-identification is only just getting started. In 2011, a group of hackers built an app that let you scan faces and immediately display their names and basic biographical details, right there on your mobile phone. Already developers have made a working facial recognition API for Google Glass. While Google has forbidden official facial recognition apps, it can’t prevent unofficial apps from launching. There’s huge value in gaining real-time access to view detailed information the people with whom we interact.

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      The easiest way to opt-out is to not create that digital content in the first place, especially for kids. Kate’s parents haven’t just uploaded one or two photos of her: They’ve created a trove of data that will enable algorithms to learn about her over time. Any hopes Kate may have had for true anonymity ended with that ballet class YouTube channel.

      Knowing what we do about how digital content and data are being cataloged, my husband and I made an important choice before our daughter was born. We decided that we would never post any photos or other personally identifying information about her online. Instead, we created a digital trust fund.

      The process started in earnest as we were selecting her name. We’d narrowed the list down to a few alternatives and ran each (and their variants) through domain and keyword searches to see what was available. Next, we crawled through Google to see what content had been posted with those name combinations, and we also looked to see if a Gmail address was open.

      Don’t Stalk Your Kid Online

      Parental stress about technology is incredibly destructive.

      We turned to KnowEm.com , a website I often rely on to search for usernames, even though the site is primarily intended as a brand registration service. We certainly had a front-runner for her name, but we would have chosen something different if the KnowEm results produced limited availability or if we found negative content associated with our selection.

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      With her name decided, we spent several hours registering her URL and a vast array of social media sites. All of that tied back to a single email account, which would act as a primary access key. We listed my permanent email address as a secondary—just as you’d fill out financial paperwork for a minor at a bank. We built a password management system for her to store all of her login information.

      On the day of her birth, our daughter already had accounts at Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and even Github. And to this day, we’ve never posted any content.

      A Slate Plus Special Feature:
      What Should I Keep in Mind When I Write About My Personal Life?

      When using friends and family to make an argument feels right, and when it feels wrong.

      All accounts are kept active but private. We also regularly scour the networks of our friends and family and remove any tags. Those who know us well understand and respect our “no posts about the kid” rule.

      When we think she’s mature enough (an important distinction from her being technically old enough), we’ll hand her an envelope with her master password inside. She’ll have the opportunity to start cashing in parts of her digital identity, and we’ll ensure that she’s making informed decisions about what’s appropriate to reveal about herself, and to whom.

      It’s inevitable that our daughter will become a public figure, because we’re all public figures in this new digital age. I adore Kate’s parents, and they’re raising her to be an amazing young woman. But they’re essentially robbing her of a digital adulthood that’s free of bias and presupposition. 

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      Customs of Indian culture

      The uniqueness of such country as India is indisputable. The culture of this country is so rich that many of its aspects are easily recognized and well known around the world. Not many countries can boast with such worldwide recognition. It is no wonder, as Indian culture is one of the oldest cultures of all times. Let’s have a look at the traditions and customs in India that make this country so unique.

      Tradition

      Indians cherish traditions. It is a wisdom that is passed from generation to generation. Due to respect for the traditions for many centuries, India managed to keep its unity, originality and identity.

      Family

      Citizens of India are very respectful of family values, and the number of divorces is extremely low in comparison with other countries. They also respect seniors in the family whose advice is a high priority. The final word is always after seniors, as they have more experience, and the younger generation has a chance to learn from that.

      Diversity

      India is often associated with the word “diversity”. It is no wonder, as many languages are spoken, many religions are professed, and people of many races are welcomed to live freely in this country.

      Clothes and jewelry

      India is famous for many things, but its traditional clothes are so distinguishable that they are recognized all over the world. Ethnic Indian saris are recognizable worldwide. Men clothes are as spectacular looking as women’s. As for jewelry, it is so exquisite that when you see it, you just want to try it on yourself straight away.

      Food

      Indian food is popular all over the world. And it is no wonder, as the unique combination of ingredients, herbs and spices makes this food so popular. Also, Indians have quite specific rules in dining. Food is generally served according to hierarchy. Men and children are being served first; however, if there is a guest, so he is a priority. As for women, they may eat after everyone has been served food. Notably, most of the time alcohol is not welcomed on the dining table.

      Restrictions in social behavior

      In conversation, it is advisable to stand quite away from a person you are talking to, as a sign of respect for their personal space. You need to make sure that you do not touch another person, especially with your shoes or bare feet. Public display of emotions is not welcomed, i.e. either it’s anger or affection, emotions need to stay private.

      India is for sure a precious gem. It seems that wherever you go, you will end up facing some exclusive piece of art in the form of painting , architecture or simply nature masterpiece. No wonder that this country is such a popular tourist destination. India is a party for mind and soul. You can enjoy the beauty of this country visually as well as spiritually.

      Perhaps not everyone knows that Indian culture is one of the oldest, richest and most diverse cultures in the world. India is truly a wonder, and if you have a chance to visit this beautiful and amazing country, just do so. You won’t regret that experience. That’s for sure.

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      Ozzz.org » Essays On Indian Culture

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      sreeja3
      • Secondary School
      • English

      • 15 points

      Write a essay on indian culture.minimum 500 words.attach a pic

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      divya57
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      divya57
      • divya57
      • Helping Hand
      Indian culture’ is the Mother of all cultures, be it art of living or apparently the rich knowledge of Science and Music. All the regions and religions of the world have their own culture with many customs, traditions and refined qualities. It is a culture of love, respect, honouring others and humbling ones own ego so that the inner nature, which is naturally pure and modest will shine forth.

      Respect and reverence for elders is a key stone of Indian culture. This genuine acknowledgment of seniority is demonstrated through endering customs, like, not sitting while they are standing, even serving their food first. We find the youngsters never using the proper names of their elders. In respect, we touch the feet of all elders, holy men and women in recognition of their great humility and attainment. A student touches the feet of his teacher. Purity in mind, body, speech, thought, word and deed is vitally important for us. The concept of Zero and the primordial sound of ‘Om’ was given by India.

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      hari49
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      • Virtuoso
      India is one of the world’s oldest civilizations and one of the most populated countries in the world.[3] The Indian culture, often labeled as an amalgamation of several various cultures, spans across the Indian subcontinent and has been influenced and shaped by a history that is several thousand years old.[1][2] Throughout the history of India, Indian culture has been heavily influenced by Dharmic religions.[4] They have been credited with shaping much of Indian philosophy, literature, architecture, art and music.[5] Greater India was the historical extent of Indian culture beyond the Indian subcontinent. This particularly concerns the spread of Hinduism, Buddhism, architecture, administration and writing system from India to other parts of Asia through the Silk Road by the travellers and maritime traders during the early centuries of the Common Era.[6][7] To the west, Greater India overlaps with Greater Persia in the Hindu Kush and Pamir Mountains.[8] Over the centuries, there has been significant fusion of cultures between Buddhists, Hindus, Muslims (Sunni, Shia, Sufi), Jains, Sikhs and various tribal populations in India.[9][10]

      India is the birthplace of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism, collectively known as Indian religions.[11] Indian religions are a major form of world religions along with Abrahamic ones. Today, Hinduism and Buddhism are the world’s third and fourth-largest religions respectively, with over 2 billion followers altogether,[12][13][14] and possibly as many as 2.5 or 2.6 billion followers.[12][15] Followers of Indian religions – Hindus, Sikhs, Jains and Buddhists make up around 80–82% population of India.

      India is one of the most religiously and ethnically diverse nations in the world, with some of the most deeply religious societies and cultures. Religion plays a central and definitive role in the life of many of its people. Although India is a secular Hindu-majority country, it has a large Muslim population. Except for Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Meghalaya, Manipur, Nagaland, Mizoram and Lakshadweep, Hindus form the predominant population in all 29 states and 7 union territories. Muslims are present throughout India, with large populations in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Kerala, Telangana, West Bengal and Assam; while only Jammu and Kashmir and Lakshadweep have majority Muslim populations. Sikhs and Christians are other significant minorities of India.

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      sreeja3
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      Write a essay on indian culture. minimum 100 words. attach a pic

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      Indian culture’ is the Mother of all cultures, be it art of living or apparently the rich knowledge of Science and Music. All the regions and religions of the world have their own culture with many customs, traditions and refined qualities. It is a culture of love, respect, honouring others and humbling ones own ego so that the inner nature, which is naturally pure and modest will shine forth.

      Respect and reverence for elders is a key stone of Indian culture. This genuine acknowledgment of seniority is demonstrated through endering customs, like, not sitting while they are standing, even serving their food first. We find the youngsters never using the proper names of their elders. In respect, we touch the feet of all elders, holy men and women in recognition of their great humility and attainment. A student touches the feet of his teacher. Purity in mind, body, speech, thought, word and deed is vitally important for us. The concept of Zero and the primordial sound of ‘Om’ was given by India.

      We should never use harsh, angered and indecent language and keep our body healthy and clean. Giving things with the left hand to others is considered a subtle insult. One must not sniff flowers picked for offering to the Deities. It is very important for a cultured Indian to apologize immediately if one touches someone with his shoes or sandals. The same applies inadvertently if you bump into each other. Thus our Culture is unique and irreplaceable and places responsibility of preservation on the current generation. Thus, a Nations culture resides in the hearts and souls of its people.

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      sreeja3

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      Helpers

      • Introduction
      • Available Methods

      Introduction

      Laravel includes a variety of global "helper" PHP functions. Many of these functions are used by the framework itself; however, you are free to use them in your own applications if you find them convenient.

      Available Methods

      Arrays & Objects

      array_add
      array_collapse
      array_divide
      array_dot
      array_except
      array_first
      array_flatten
      array_forget
      array_get
      array_has
      array_last
      array_only
      array_pluck
      array_prepend
      array_pull
      array_random
      array_set
      array_sort
      array_sort_recursive
      array_where
      array_wrap
      data_fill
      data_get
      data_set
      head
      last

      Paths

      app_path
      base_path
      config_path
      database_path
      mix
      public_path
      resource_path
      storage_path

      Strings

      __
      camel_case
      class_basename
      e
      ends_with
      kebab_case
      preg_replace_array
      snake_case
      starts_with
      str_after
      str_before
      str_contains
      str_finish
      str_is
      str_limit
      Str::orderedUuid
      str_plural
      str_random
      str_replace_array
      str_replace_first
      str_replace_last
      str_singular
      str_slug
      str_start
      studly_case
      title_case
      trans
      trans_choice
      Str::uuid

      URLs

      action
      asset
      secure_asset
      route
      secure_url
      url

      Miscellaneous

      abort
      abort_if
      abort_unless
      app
      auth
      back
      bcrypt
      blank
      broadcast
      cache
      class_uses_recursive
      collect
      config
      cookie
      csrf_field
      csrf_token
      dd
      decrypt
      dispatch
      dispatch_now
      dump
      encrypt
      env
      event
      factory
      filled
      info
      logger
      method_field
      now
      old
      optional
      policy
      redirect
      report
      request
      rescue
      resolve
      response
      retry
      session
      tap
      today
      throw_if
      throw_unless
      trait_uses_recursive
      transform
      validator
      value
      view
      with

      Method Listing

      Arrays & Objects

      array_add()

      The array_add function adds a given key / value pair to an array if the given key doesn’t already exist in the array:

      $array = array_add(['name' => 'Desk'], 'price', 100);
      // ['name' => 'Desk', 'price' => 100]

      array_collapse()

      The array_collapse function collapses an array of arrays into a single array:

      $array = array_collapse([[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6], [7, 8, 9]]);
      // [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]

      array_divide()

      The array_divide function returns two arrays, one containing the keys, and the other containing the values of the given array:

      [$keys, $values] = array_divide(['name' => 'Desk']);
      // $keys: ['name']
      // $values: ['Desk']

      array_dot()

      The array_dot function flattens a multi-dimensional array into a single level array that uses "dot" notation to indicate depth:

      $array = ['products' => ['desk' => ['price' => 100]]];
      $flattened = array_dot($array);
      // ['products.desk.price' => 100]

      array_except()

      The array_except function removes the given key / value pairs from an array:

      $array = ['name' => 'Desk', 'price' => 100];
      $filtered = array_except($array, ['price']);
      // ['name' => 'Desk']

      array_first()

      The array_first function returns the first element of an array passing a given truth test:

      $array = [100, 200, 300];
      $first = array_first($array, function ($value, $key) return $value >= 150;
      );
      // 200

      A default value may also be passed as the third parameter to the method. This value will be returned if no value passes the truth test:

      $first = array_first($array, $callback, $default);

      array_flatten()

      The array_flatten function flattens a multi-dimensional array into a single level array:

      $array = ['name' => 'Joe', 'languages' => ['PHP', 'Ruby']];
      $flattened = array_flatten($array);
      // ['Joe', 'PHP', 'Ruby']

      array_forget()

      The array_forget function removes a given key / value pair from a deeply nested array using "dot" notation:

      $array = ['products' => ['desk' => ['price' => 100]]];
      array_forget($array, 'products.desk');
      // ['products' => []]

      array_get()

      The array_get function retrieves a value from a deeply nested array using "dot" notation:

      $array = ['products' => ['desk' => ['price' => 100]]];
      $price = array_get($array, 'products.desk.price');
      // 100

      The array_get function also accepts a default value, which will be returned if the specific key is not found:

      $discount = array_get($array, 'products.desk.discount', 0);
      // 0

      array_has()

      The array_has function checks whether a given item or items exists in an array using "dot" notation:

      $array = ['product' => ['name' => 'Desk', 'price' => 100]];
      $contains = array_has($array, 'product.name');
      // true
      $contains = array_has($array, ['product.price', 'product.discount']);
      // false

      array_last()

      The array_last function returns the last element of an array passing a given truth test:

      $array = [100, 200, 300, 110];
      $last = array_last($array, function ($value, $key) return $value >= 150;
      );
      // 300

      A default value may be passed as the third argument to the method. This value will be returned if no value passes the truth test:

      $last = array_last($array, $callback, $default);

      array_only()

      The array_only function returns only the specified key / value pairs from the given array:

      $array = ['name' => 'Desk', 'price' => 100, 'orders' => 10];
      $slice = array_only($array, ['name', 'price']);
      // ['name' => 'Desk', 'price' => 100]

      array_pluck()

      The array_pluck function retrieves all of the values for a given key from an array:

      $array = [ ['developer' => ['id' => 1, 'name' => 'Taylor']], ['developer' => ['id' => 2, 'name' => 'Abigail']],
      ];
      $names = array_pluck($array, 'developer.name');
      // ['Taylor', 'Abigail']

      You may also specify how you wish the resulting list to be keyed:

      $names = array_pluck($array, 'developer.name', 'developer.id');
      // [1 => 'Taylor', 2 => 'Abigail']

      array_prepend()

      The array_prepend function will push an item onto the beginning of an array:

      $array = ['one', 'two', 'three', 'four'];
      $array = array_prepend($array, 'zero');
      // ['zero', 'one', 'two', 'three', 'four']

      If needed, you may specify the key that should be used for the value:

      $array = ['price' => 100];
      $array = array_prepend($array, 'Desk', 'name');
      // ['name' => 'Desk', 'price' => 100]

      array_pull()

      The array_pull function returns and removes a key / value pair from an array:

      $array = ['name' => 'Desk', 'price' => 100];
      $name = array_pull($array, 'name');
      // $name: Desk
      // $array: ['price' => 100]

      A default value may be passed as the third argument to the method. This value will be returned if the key doesn’t exist:

      $value = array_pull($array, $key, $default);

      array_random()

      The array_random function returns a random value from an array:

      $array = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];
      $random = array_random($array);
      // 4 - (retrieved randomly)

      You may also specify the number of items to return as an optional second argument. Note that providing this argument will return an array, even if only one item is desired:

      $items = array_random($array, 2);
      // [2, 5] - (retrieved randomly)

      array_set()

      The array_set function sets a value within a deeply nested array using "dot" notation:

      $array = ['products' => ['desk' => ['price' => 100]]];
      array_set($array, 'products.desk.price', 200);
      // ['products' => ['desk' => ['price' => 200]]]

      array_sort()

      The array_sort function sorts an array by its values:

      $array = ['Desk', 'Table', 'Chair'];
      $sorted = array_sort($array);
      // ['Chair', 'Desk', 'Table']

      You may also sort the array by the results of the given Closure:

      $array = [ ['name' => 'Desk'], ['name' => 'Table'], ['name' => 'Chair'],
      ];
      $sorted = array_values(array_sort($array, function ($value) return $value['name'];
      )); 

      array_sort_recursive()

      The array_sort_recursive function recursively sorts an array using the sort function for numeric sub=arrays and ksort for associative sub-arrays:

      $array = [ ['Roman', 'Taylor', 'Li'], ['PHP', 'Ruby', 'JavaScript'], ['one' => 1, 'two' => 2, 'three' => 3],
      ];
      $sorted = array_sort_recursive($array); 

      array_where()

      The array_where function filters an array using the given Closure:

      $array = [100, '200', 300, '400', 500];
      $filtered = array_where($array, function ($value, $key) return is_string($value);
      );
      // [1 => '200', 3 => '400']

      array_wrap()

      The array_wrap function wraps the given value in an array. If the given value is already an array it will not be changed:

      $string = 'Laravel';
      $array = array_wrap($string);
      // ['Laravel']

      If the given value is null, an empty array will be returned:

      $nothing = null;
      $array = array_wrap($nothing);
      // []

      data_fill()

      The data_fill function sets a missing value within a nested array or object using "dot" notation:

      $data = ['products' => ['desk' => ['price' => 100]]];
      data_fill($data, 'products.desk.price', 200);
      // ['products' => ['desk' => ['price' => 100]]]
      data_fill($data, 'products.desk.discount', 10);
      // ['products' => ['desk' => ['price' => 100, 'discount' => 10]]]

      This function also accepts asterisks as wildcards and will fill the target accordingly:

      $data = [ 'products' => [ ['name' => 'Desk 1', 'price' => 100], ['name' => 'Desk 2'], ],
      ];
      data_fill($data, 'products.*.price', 200); 

      data_get()

      The data_get function retrieves a value from a nested array or object using "dot" notation:

      $data = ['products' => ['desk' => ['price' => 100]]];
      $price = data_get($data, 'products.desk.price');
      // 100

      The data_get function also accepts a default value, which will be returned if the specified key is not found:

      $discount = data_get($data, 'products.desk.discount', 0);
      // 0

      data_set()

      The data_set function sets a value within a nested array or object using "dot" notation:

      $data = ['products' => ['desk' => ['price' => 100]]];
      data_set($data, 'products.desk.price', 200);
      // ['products' => ['desk' => ['price' => 200]]]

      This function also accepts wildcards and will set values on the target accordingly:

      $data = [ 'products' => [ ['name' => 'Desk 1', 'price' => 100], ['name' => 'Desk 2', 'price' => 150], ],
      ];
      data_set($data, 'products.*.price', 200); 

      By default, any existing values are overwritten. If you wish to only set a value if it doesn’t exist, you may pass false as the third argument:

      $data = ['products' => ['desk' => ['price' => 100]]];
      data_set($data, 'products.desk.price', 200, false);
      // ['products' => ['desk' => ['price' => 100]]]

      head()

      The head function returns the first element in the given array:

      $array = [100, 200, 300];
      $first = head($array);
      // 100

      last()

      The last function returns the last element in the given array:

      $array = [100, 200, 300];
      $last = last($array);
      // 300

      Paths

      app_path()

      The app_path function returns the fully qualified path to the app directory. You may also use the app_path function to generate a fully qualified path to a file relative to the application directory:

      $path = app_path();
      $path = app_path('Http/Controllers/Controller.php');

      base_path()

      The base_path function returns the fully qualified path to the project root. You may also use the base_path function to generate a fully qualified path to a given file relative to the project root directory:

      $path = base_path();
      $path = base_path('vendor/bin');

      config_path()

      The config_path function returns the fully qualified path to the config directory. You may also use the config_path function to generate a fully qualified path to a given file within the application’s configuration directory:

      $path = config_path();
      $path = config_path('app.php');

      database_path()

      The database_path function returns the fully qualified path to the database directory. You may also use the database_path function to generate a fully qualified path to a given file within the database directory:

      $path = database_path();
      $path = database_path('factories/UserFactory.php');

      mix()

      The mix function returns the path to a versioned Mix file :

      $path = mix('css/app.css');

      public_path()

      The public_path function returns the fully qualified path to the public directory. You may also use the public_path function to generate a fully qualified path to a given file within the public directory:

      $path = public_path();
      $path = public_path('css/app.css');

      resource_path()

      The resource_path function returns the fully qualified path to the resources directory. You may also use the resource_path function to generate a fully qualified path to a given file within the resources directory:

      $path = resource_path();
      $path = resource_path('sass/app.scss');

      storage_path()

      The storage_path function returns the fully qualified path to the storage directory. You may also use the storage_path function to generate a fully qualified path to a given file within the storage directory:

      $path = storage_path();
      $path = storage_path('app/file.txt');

      Strings

      __()

      The __ function translates the given translation string or translation key using your localization files :

      echo __('Welcome to our application');
      echo __('messages.welcome');

      If the specified translation string or key does not exist, the __ function will return the given value. So, using the example above, the __ function would return messages.welcome if that translation key does not exist.

      camel_case()

      The camel_case function converts the given string to camelCase:

      $converted = camel_case('foo_bar');
      // fooBar

      class_basename()

      The class_basename returns the class name of the given class with the class’ namespace removed:

      $class = class_basename('Foo\Bar\Baz');
      // Baz

      e()

      The e function runs PHP’s htmlspecialchars function with the double_encode option set to true by default:

      echo e('<html>foo</html>');
      // &lt;html&gt;foo&lt;/html&gt;

      ends_with()

      The ends_with function determines if the given string ends with the given value:

      $result = ends_with('This is my name', 'name');
      // true

      kebab_case()

      The kebab_case function converts the given string to kebab-case:

      $converted = kebab_case('fooBar');
      // foo-bar

      preg_replace_array()

      The preg_replace_array function replaces a given pattern in the string sequentially using an array:

      $string = 'The event will take place between :start and :end';
      $replaced = preg_replace_array('/:[a-z_]+/', ['8:30', '9:00'], $string);
      // The event will take place between 8:30 and 9:00

      snake_case()

      The snake_case function converts the given string to snake_case:

      $converted = snake_case('fooBar');
      // foo_bar

      starts_with()

      The starts_with function determines if the given string begins with the given value:

      $result = starts_with('This is my name', 'This');
      // true

      str_after()

      The str_after function returns everything after the given value in a string:

      $slice = str_after('This is my name', 'This is');
      // ' my name'

      str_before()

      The str_before function returns everything before the given value in a string:

      $slice = str_before('This is my name', 'my name');
      // 'This is '

      str_contains()

      The str_contains function determines if the given string contains the given value (case sensitive):

      $contains = str_contains('This is my name', 'my');
      // true

      You may also pass an array of values to determine if the given string contains any of the values:

      $contains = str_contains('This is my name', ['my', 'foo']);
      // true

      str_finish()

      The str_finish function adds a single instance of the given value to a string if it does not already end with the value:

      $adjusted = str_finish('this/string', '/');
      // this/string/
      $adjusted = str_finish('this/string/', '/');
      // this/string/

      str_is()

      The str_is function determines if a given string matches a given pattern. Asterisks may be used to indicate wildcards:

      $matches = str_is('foo*', 'foobar');
      // true
      $matches = str_is('baz*', 'foobar');
      // false

      str_limit()

      The str_limit function truncates the given string at the specified length:

      $truncated = str_limit('The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog', 20);
      // The quick brown fox...

      You may also pass a third argument to change the string that will be appended to the end:

      $truncated = str_limit('The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog', 20, ' (...)');
      // The quick brown fox (...)

      Str::orderedUuid()

      The Str::orderedUuid method generates a "timestamp first" UUID that may be efficiently stored in an indexed database column:

      use Illuminate\Support\Str;
      return (string) Str::orderedUuid();

      str_plural()

      The str_plural function converts a string to its plural form. This function currently only supports the English language:

      $plural = str_plural('car');
      // cars
      $plural = str_plural('child');
      // children

      You may provide an integer as a second argument to the function to retrieve the singular or plural form of the string:

      $plural = str_plural('child', 2);
      // children
      $plural = str_plural('child', 1);
      // child

      str_random()

      The str_random function generates a random string of the specified length. This function uses PHP’s random_bytes function:

      $random = str_random(40);

      str_replace_array()

      The str_replace_array function replaces a given value in the string sequentially using an array:

      $string = 'The event will take place between ? and ?';
      $replaced = str_replace_array('?', ['8:30', '9:00'], $string);
      // The event will take place between 8:30 and 9:00

      str_replace_first()

      The str_replace_first function replaces the first occurrence of a given value in a string:

      $replaced = str_replace_first('the', 'a', 'the quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog');
      // a quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog

      str_replace_last()

      The str_replace_last function replaces the last occurrence of a given value in a string:

      $replaced = str_replace_last('the', 'a', 'the quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog');
      // the quick brown fox jumps over a lazy dog

      str_singular()

      The str_singular function converts a string to its singular form. This function currently only supports the English language:

      $singular = str_singular('cars');
      // car
      $singular = str_singular('children');
      // child

      str_slug()

      The str_slug function generates a URL friendly "slug" from the given string:

      $slug = str_slug('Laravel 5 Framework', '-');
      // laravel-5-framework

      str_start()

      The str_start function adds a single instance of the given value to a string if it does not already start with the value:

      $adjusted = str_start('this/string', '/');
      // /this/string
      $adjusted = str_start('/this/string', '/');
      // /this/string

      studly_case()

      The studly_case function converts the given string to StudlyCase:

      $converted = studly_case('foo_bar');
      // FooBar

      title_case()

      The title_case function converts the given string to Title Case:

      $converted = title_case('a nice title uses the correct case');
      // A Nice Title Uses The Correct Case

      trans()

      The trans function translates the given translation key using your localization files :

      echo trans('messages.welcome');

      If the specified translation key does not exist, the trans function will return the given key. So, using the example above, the trans function would return messages.welcome if the translation key does not exist.

      trans_choice()

      The trans_choice function translates the given translation key with inflection:

      echo trans_choice('messages.notifications', $unreadCount);

      If the specified translation key does not exist, the trans_choice function will return the given key. So, using the example above, the trans_choice function would return messages.notifications if the translation key does not exist.

      Str::uuid()

      The Str::uuid method generates a UUID (version 4):

      use Illuminate\Support\Str;
      return (string) Str::uuid();

      URLs

      action()

      The action function generates a URL for the given controller action. You do not need to pass the full namespace of the controller. Instead, pass the controller class name relative to the App\Http\Controllers namespace:

      $url = action(' [email protected] ');
      $url = action([HomeController::class, 'index']);

      If the method accepts route parameters, you may pass them as the second argument to the method:

      $url = action(' [email protected] ', ['id' => 1]);

      asset()

      The asset function generates a URL for an asset using the current scheme of the request (HTTP or HTTPS):

      $url = asset('img/photo.jpg');

      secure_asset()

      The secure_asset function generates a URL for an asset using HTTPS:

      $url = secure_asset('img/photo.jpg');

      route()

      The route function generates a URL for the given named route:

      $url = route('routeName');

      If the route accepts parameters, you may pass them as the second argument to the method:

      $url = route('routeName', ['id' => 1]);

      By default, the route function generates an absolute URL. If you wish to generate a relative URL, you may pass false as the third argument:

      $url = route('routeName', ['id' => 1], false);

      secure_url()

      The secure_url function generates a fully qualified HTTPS URL to the given path:

      $url = secure_url('user/profile');
      $url = secure_url('user/profile', [1]);

      url()

      The url function generates a fully qualified URL to the given path:

      $url = url('user/profile');
      $url = url('user/profile', [1]);

      If no path is provided, a Illuminate\Routing\UrlGenerator instance is returned:

      $current = url()->current();
      $full = url()->full();
      $previous = url()->previous();

      Miscellaneous

      abort()

      The abort function throws an HTTP exception which will be rendered by the exception handler :

      abort(403);

      You may also provide the exception’s response text and custom response headers:

      abort(403, 'Unauthorized.', $headers);

      abort_if()

      The abort_if function throws an HTTP exception if a given boolean expression evaluates to true:

      abort_if(! Auth::user()->isAdmin(), 403);

      Like the abort method, you may also provide the exception’s response text as the third argument and an array of custom response headers as the fourth argument.

      abort_unless()

      The abort_unless function throws an HTTP exception if a given boolean expression evaluates to false:

      abort_unless(Auth::user()->isAdmin(), 403);

      Like the abort method, you may also provide the exception’s response text as the third argument and an array of custom response headers as the fourth argument.

      app()

      The app function returns the service container instance:

      $container = app();

      You may pass a class or interface name to resolve it from the container:

      $api = app('HelpSpot\API');

      auth()

      The auth function returns an authenticator instance. You may use it instead of the Auth facade for convenience:

      $user = auth()->user();

      If needed, you may specify which guard instance you would like to access:

      $user = auth('admin')->user();

      back()

      The back function generates a redirect HTTP response to the user’s previous location:

      return back($status = 302, $headers = [], $fallback = false);
      return back();

      bcrypt()

      The bcrypt function hashes the given value using Bcrypt. You may use it as an alternative to the Hash facade:

      $password = bcrypt('my-secret-password');

      broadcast()

      The broadcast function broadcasts the given event to its listeners:

      broadcast(new UserRegistered($user));

      blank()

      The blank function returns whether the given value is "blank":

      blank('');
      blank(' ');
      blank(null);
      blank(collect());
      // true
      blank(0);
      blank(true);
      blank(false);
      // false

      For the inverse of blank, see the filled method.

      cache()

      The cache function may be used to get values from the cache . If the given key does not exist in the cache, an optional default value will be returned:

      $value = cache('key');
      $value = cache('key', 'default');

      You may add items to the cache by passing an array of key / value pairs to the function. You should also pass the number of minutes or duration the cached value should be considered valid:

      cache(['key' => 'value'], 5);
      cache(['key' => 'value'], now()->addSeconds(10));

      class_uses_recursive()

      The class_uses_recursive function returns all traits used by a class, including traits used by all of its parent classes:

      $traits = class_uses_recursive(App\User::class);

      collect()

      The collect function creates a collection instance from the given value:

      $collection = collect(['taylor', 'abigail']);

      config()

      The config function gets the value of a configuration variable. The configuration values may be accessed using "dot" syntax, which includes the name of the file and the option you wish to access. A default value may be specified and is returned if the configuration option does not exist:

      $value = config('app.timezone');
      $value = config('app.timezone', $default);

      You may set configuration variables at runtime by passing an array of key / value pairs:

      config(['app.debug' => true]);

      cookie()

      The cookie function creates a new cookie instance:

      $cookie = cookie('name', 'value', $minutes);

      csrf_field()

      The csrf_field function generates an HTML hidden input field containing the value of the CSRF token. For example, using Blade syntax :

       csrf_field() 

      csrf_token()

      The csrf_token function retrieves the value of the current CSRF token:

      $token = csrf_token();

      dd()

      The dd function dumps the given variables and ends execution of the script:

      dd($value);
      dd($value1, $value2, $value3, ...);

      If you do not want to halt the execution of your script, use the dump function instead.

      decrypt()

      The decrypt function decrypts the given value using Laravel’s encrypter :

      $decrypted = decrypt($encrypted_value);

      dispatch()

      The dispatch function pushes the given job onto the Laravel job queue :

      dispatch(new App\Jobs\SendEmails);

      dispatch_now()

      The dispatch_now function runs the given job immediately and returns the value from its handle method:

      $result = dispatch_now(new App\Jobs\SendEmails);

      dump()

      The dump function dumps the given variables:

      dump($value);
      dump($value1, $value2, $value3, ...);

      If you want to stop executing the script after dumping the variables, use the dd function instead.

      tip You may use Artisan’s dump-server command to intercept all dump calls and display them in your console window instead of your browser.

      encrypt()

      The encrypt function encrypts the given value using Laravel’s encrypter :

      $encrypted = encrypt($unencrypted_value);

      env()

      The env function retrieves the value of an environment variable or returns a default value:

      $env = env('APP_ENV');
      // Returns 'production' if APP_ENV is not set...
      $env = env('APP_ENV', 'production');

      note If you execute the config:cache command during your deployment process, you should be sure that you are only calling the env function from within your configuration files. Once the configuration has been cached, the .env file will not be loaded and all calls to the env function will return null.

      event()

      The event function dispatches the given event to its listeners:

      event(new UserRegistered($user));

      factory()

      The factory function creates a model factory builder for a given class, name, and amount. It can be used while testing or seeding :

      $user = factory(App\User::class)->make();

      filled()

      The filled function returns whether the given value is not "blank":

      filled(0);
      filled(true);
      filled(false);
      // true
      filled('');
      filled(' ');
      filled(null);
      filled(collect());
      // false

      For the inverse of filled, see the blank method.

      info()

      The info function will write information to the log :

      info('Some helpful information!');

      An array of contextual data may also be passed to the function:

      info('User login attempt failed.', ['id' => $user->id]);

      logger()

      The logger function can be used to write a debug level message to the log :

      logger('Debug message');

      An array of contextual data may also be passed to the function:

      logger('User has logged in.', ['id' => $user->id]);

      A logger instance will be returned if no value is passed to the function:

      logger()->error('You are not allowed here.');

      method_field()

      The method_field function generates an HTML hidden input field containing the spoofed value of the form’s HTTP verb. For example, using Blade syntax :

      <form method="POST"> method_field('DELETE')
      </form>

      now()

      The now function creates a new Illuminate\Support\Carbon instance for the current time:

      $now = now();

      old()

      The old function retrieves an old input value flashed into the session:

      $value = old('value');
      $value = old('value', 'default');

      optional()

      The optional function accepts any argument and allows you to access properties or call methods on that object. If the given object is null, properties and methods will return null instead of causing an error:

      return optional($user->address)->street;
      !! old('name', optional($user)->name) !!

      The optional function also accepts a Closure as its second argument. The Closure will be invoked if the value provided as the first argument is not null:

      return optional(User::find($id), function ($user) return new DummyUser;
      );

      policy()

      The policy method retrieves a policy instance for a given class:

      $policy = policy(App\User::class);

      redirect()

      The redirect function returns a redirect HTTP response , or returns the redirector instance if called with no arguments:

      return redirect($to = null, $status = 302, $headers = [], $secure = null);
      return redirect('/home');
      return redirect()->route('route.name');

      report()

      The report function will report an exception using your exception handler ‘s report method:

      report($e);

      request()

      The request function returns the current request instance or obtains an input item:

      $request = request();
      $value = request('key', $default);

      rescue()

      The rescue function executes the given Closure and catches any exceptions that occur during its execution. All exceptions that are caught will be sent to your exception handler ‘s report method; however, the request will continue processing:

      return rescue(function () return $this->method();
      );

      You may also pass a second argument to the rescue function. This argument will be the "default" value that should be returned if an exception occurs while executing the Closure:

      return rescue(function () return $this->method();
      , false);
      return rescue(function () return $this->method();
      , function () return $this->failure();
      );

      resolve()

      The resolve function resolves a given class or interface name to its instance using the service container :

      $api = resolve('HelpSpot\API');

      response()

      The response function creates a response instance or obtains an instance of the response factory:

      return response('Hello World', 200, $headers);
      return response()->json(['foo' => 'bar'], 200, $headers);

      retry()

      The retry function attempts to execute the given callback until the given maximum attempt threshold is met. If the callback does not throw an exception, its return value will be returned. If the callback throws an exception, it will automatically be retried. If the maximum attempt count is exceeded, the exception will be thrown:

      return retry(5, function () // Attempt 5 times while resting 100ms in between attempts...
      , 100);

      session()

      The session function may be used to get or set session values:

      $value = session('key');

      You may set values by passing an array of key / value pairs to the function:

      session(['chairs' => 7, 'instruments' => 3]);

      The session store will be returned if no value is passed to the function:

      $value = session()->get('key');
      session()->put('key', $value);

      tap()

      The tap function accepts two arguments: an arbitrary $value and a Closure. The $value will be passed to the Closure and then be returned by the tap function. The return value of the Closure is irrelevant:

      $user = tap(User::first(), function ($user) $user->name = 'taylor'; $user->save();
      );

      If no Closure is passed to the tap function, you may call any method on the given $value. The return value of the method you call will always be $value, regardless of what the method actually returns in its definition. For example, the Eloquent update method typically returns an integer. However, we can force the method to return the model itself by chaining the update method call through the tap function:

      $user = tap($user)->update([ 'name' => $name, 'email' => $email,
      ]);

      today()

      The today function creates a new Illuminate\Support\Carbon instance for the current date:

      $today = today();

      throw_if()

      The throw_if function throws the given exception if a given boolean expression evaluates to true:

      throw_if(! Auth::user()->isAdmin(), AuthorizationException::class);
      throw_if( ! Auth::user()->isAdmin(), AuthorizationException::class, 'You are not allowed to access this page'
      );

      throw_unless()

      The throw_unless function throws the given exception if a given boolean expression evaluates to false:

      throw_unless(Auth::user()->isAdmin(), AuthorizationException::class);
      throw_unless( Auth::user()->isAdmin(), AuthorizationException::class, 'You are not allowed to access this page'
      );

      trait_uses_recursive()

      The trait_uses_recursive function returns all traits used by a trait:

      $traits = trait_uses_recursive(\Illuminate\Notifications\Notifiable::class);

      transform()

      The transform function executes a Closure on a given value if the value is not blank and returns the result of the Closure:

      $callback = function ($value) return $value * 2;
      ;
      $result = transform(5, $callback);
      // 10

      A default value or Closure may also be passed as the third parameter to the method. This value will be returned if the given value is blank:

      $result = transform(null, $callback, 'The value is blank');
      // The value is blank

      validator()

      The validator function creates a new validator instance with the given arguments. You may use it instead of the Validator facade for convenience:

      $validator = validator($data, $rules, $messages);

      value()

      The value function returns the value it is given. However, if you pass a Closure to the function, the Closure will be executed then its result will be returned:

      $result = value(true);
      // true
      $result = value(function () return false;
      );
      // false

      view()

      The view function retrieves a view instance:

      return view('auth.login');

      with()

      The with function returns the value it is given. If a Closure is passed as the second argument to the function, the Closure will be executed and its result will be returned:

      $callback = function ($value) return (is_numeric($value)) ? $value * 2 : 0;
      ;
      $result = with(5, $callback);
      // 10
      $result = with(null, $callback);
      // 0
      $result = with(5, null);
      // 5

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