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Difficulty—Beginner—Outlined Copy

★Prenatal Yoga Online Videos and Classes

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Difficulty & Intensity Guide

This comprehensive guide will help you find which series is right for you

Difficulty Levels

Difficulty refers to the level of skill and technique called for in a class.

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Beginner

Beginner series are most approachable for those who have little or no exposure to yoga. These series typically offer more modifications and detailed instructions on fundamental poses.

These series are perfect for someone who is looking to start a yoga practice and explore the benefits of yoga. These classes can help you to learn the basics of starting a practice, foundational poses, understanding breathwork, and learning to focus on the moment every time you come to the mat.

Read more Close

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Moderate

Moderate classes may include moderate pose modifications and less instruction than found in Beginner classes.

These series are perfect for someone who has previous exposure to yoga, whether at home or in a studio setting, and has a basic understanding of foundational poses and class structure. They are the perfect opportunity to grow your practice, maintain consistency, and enjoy classes designed to grow your pose library and increase your strength.

Read more Close

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Intermediate

Intermediate series tend to be more detailed tutorials on how to achieve more challenging asanas and end-goal poses. These classes help build strength and body awareness by exploring transitions, trying inversions, and mastering breath and movement.

These series are perfect for someone who has a consistent yoga practice and has established confidence in poses, progressions, and general yoga knowledge. They help students express creativity and find freedom in exploring flows and movement. There is less cueing than in Beginner or Moderate content.

Read more Close

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Advanced

Advanced classes are the perfect opportunity to explore your potential beyond what is found in typical in-studio classes. You’ll find your edge while exploring a greater level of strength, control, and skill work.

These series are ideal for students who have high body awareness, are comfortable with most poses, and have confidence in their strength and breath work. These classes allow opportunities to practice inversions, floating, or advanced transitions.

Read more Close

Created with Sketch.








Beginner

Beginner series are most approachable for those who have little or no exposure to yoga. These series typically offer more modifications and detailed instructions on fundamental poses.

These series are perfect for someone who is looking to start a yoga practice and explore the benefits of yoga. These classes can help you to learn the basics of starting a practice, foundational poses, understanding breathwork, and learning to focus on the moment every time you come to the mat.

Read more Close

Created with Sketch.








Moderate

Moderate classes may include moderate pose modifications and less instruction than found in Beginner classes.

These series are perfect for someone who has previous exposure to yoga, whether at home or in a studio setting, and has a basic understanding of foundational poses and class structure. They are the perfect opportunity to grow your practice, maintain consistency, and enjoy classes designed to grow your pose library and increase your strength.

Read more Close

Created with Sketch.








Intermediate

Intermediate series tend to be more detailed tutorials on how to achieve more challenging asanas and end-goal poses. These classes help build strength and body awareness by exploring transitions, trying inversions, and mastering breath and movement.

These series are perfect for someone who has a consistent yoga practice and has established confidence in poses, progressions, and general yoga knowledge. They help students express creativity and find freedom in exploring flows and movement. There is less cueing than in Beginner or Moderate content.

Read more Close

Created with Sketch.








Advanced

Advanced classes are the perfect opportunity to explore your potential beyond what is found in typical in-studio classes. You’ll find your edge while exploring a greater level of strength, control, and skill work.

These series are ideal for students who have high body awareness, are comfortable with most poses, and have confidence in their strength and breath work. These classes allow opportunities to practice inversions, floating, or advanced transitions.

Read more Close

Intensity Levels

Intensity is not the same as difficulty; it refers to the amount of exertion that a workout requires.

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Level 1

This intensity level is ideal for students seeking slow-paced, restorative, or breath-focused content.
Students often leave their mat feeling relaxed and at-ease.

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Level 2

Series within this level vary from energizing flows to entry-level strength content.
They typically move at a slow-to-moderate pace. Students can expect to feel comfortably challenged and explore a wider
range of movement.

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Level 3

Get sweaty with flow and strength content designed to increase your breathing and challenge your limits.
Level 3 intensity classes will increase the pace of your movement and test your endurance.

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Level 4

Push your edge in classes designed to make you sweat. This intensity level moves at a fast pace to increase your heart rate and
accelerate your breathing. Work hard to discover untapped levels of strength and endurance.

Created with Sketch.








Level 1

This intensity level is ideal for students seeking slow-paced, restorative, or breath-focused content.
Students often leave their mat feeling relaxed and at-ease.

Created with Sketch.








Level 2

Series within this level vary from energizing flows to entry-level strength content.
They typically move at a slow-to-moderate pace. Students can expect to feel comfortably challenged and explore a wider
range of movement.

Created with Sketch.








Level 3

Get sweaty with flow and strength content designed to increase your breathing and challenge your limits.
Level 3 intensity classes will increase the pace of your movement and test your endurance.

Created with Sketch.








Level 4

Push your edge in classes designed to make you sweat. This intensity level moves at a fast pace to increase your heart rate and
accelerate your breathing. Work hard to discover untapped levels of strength and endurance.
Intensity Levels

Intensity is not the same as difficulty; it refers to the amount of exertion that a workout requires.

Created with Sketch.








Level 1

This intensity level is ideal for students seeking slow-paced, restorative, or breath-focused content.
Students often leave their mat feeling relaxed and at-ease.

Created with Sketch.








Level 2

Series within this level vary from energizing flows to entry-level strength content.
They typically move at a slow-to-moderate pace. Students can expect to feel comfortably challenged and explore a wider
range of movement.

Created with Sketch.








Level 3

Get sweaty with flow and strength content designed to increase your breathing and challenge your limits.
Level 3 intensity classes will increase the pace of your movement and test your endurance.

Created with Sketch.








Level 4

Push your edge in classes designed to make you sweat. This intensity level moves at a fast pace to increase your heart rate and
accelerate your breathing. Work hard to discover untapped levels of strength and endurance.

Created with Sketch.








Level 1

This intensity level is ideal for students seeking slow-paced, restorative, or breath-focused content.
Students often leave their mat feeling relaxed and at-ease.

Created with Sketch.








Level 2

Series within this level vary from energizing flows to entry-level strength content.
They typically move at a slow-to-moderate pace. Students can expect to feel comfortably challenged and explore a wider
range of movement.

Created with Sketch.








Level 3

Get sweaty with flow and strength content designed to increase your breathing and challenge your limits.
Level 3 intensity classes will increase the pace of your movement and test your endurance.

Created with Sketch.








Level 4

Push your edge in classes designed to make you sweat. This intensity level moves at a fast pace to increase your heart rate and
accelerate your breathing. Work hard to discover untapped levels of strength and endurance.

How This Fits Together

Each series lives at an intersection of Difficulty and Intensity. While one maybe Beginner and Intensity 4, another may be Advanced and Intensity 1. We have something for everyone in every mood.

Tap a square to explore all series at that intersection of Diffuculty & Intensity

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4

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Beginner

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Intensity 4
Explore all series

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Moderate

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Intensity 4
Explore all series

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Intermediate

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Intensity 4
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Advanced

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Intensity 4
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3

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Beginner

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Intensity 3
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Moderate

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Intensity 3
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Intermediate

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Intensity 3
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Advanced

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Intensity 3
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2

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Beginner

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Intensity 2
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Moderate

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Intensity 2
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Intermediate

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Intensity 2
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Advanced

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Intensity 2
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1

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Beginner

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Intensity 1
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Moderate

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Intensity 1
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Intermediate

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Intensity 1
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Advanced

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Intensity 1
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Beginner

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Moderate

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Intermediate

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Advanced
Difficulty Levels
Intensity Levels

MacKenzie Miller's "Prenatal Yoga" Online Video Workouts on Alo Moves

Prenatal Yoga

MacKenzie Miller

Start Practicing
  • Overview
  • Classes
  • Community

What you get

  • Free 14 Day Trial
  • iPhone & Android
  • Download For Offline Use

About the Series

Care for your mental, emotional, and physical health during your pregnancy and beyond. This series is designed to empower and support your changing body with prenatal-specific yoga flows, meditations, lectures, and pranayama.

While many prenatal programs bypass the importance and power of the mind, this series embodies the whole journey of pregnancy. It speaks to the physical and physiological changes that occur and empowers you to feel confident while taking care of yourself during pregnancy. Modifications are provided for your practice as you evolve throughout your pregnancy journey.

It is so important to also tend to your mental wellbeing during your pregnancy. The included meditations will help you stay calm and grounded while on the rollercoaster of your pregnancy while providing you with time to connect to the being that is developing inside your belly.

This series includes:

• Two yoga flows filled with prenatal-specific modifications for each trimester.

• One strength training practice designed to maintain strength, stability, and power.

• Two lectures to inform and empower with information about the psychological, physiological, and cardiovascular changes that are taking place in your body.

• Four meditation practices that encourage centeredness during times of emotional, physical, and hormonal changes. It also allows for special quiet time with your growing baby.

• One pranayama practice to help harness the power of breath during labor and delivery.

• One myofascial release class to relieve physical discomfort and tension.

Both mind and body will reap the amazing benefits of exercise, movement, meditation, and self-care, helping to prepare you for the arrival of your bundle of joy.

Read More
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instructor


Instructor


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Normal fa332be3 3fe0 4788 9ac3 fd71432eef44MacKenzie Miller

Work hard, find softness. MacKenzie Miller will leave you feeling as if you have flirted with gravity and laughed with the divine. Students are instantaneously transported away from the hustle of their daily lives, allowing their mat to be an arena reserved for cultivating inner peace.

MacKenzie is a certified personal trainer and yoga instructor. Her teaching combines thorough understanding of alignment and anatomy with the joy of balance and movement. She engages deeply with her students and her classes are thoughtfully sequenced, creating a safe space to have fun and explore, work hard yet find softness.

No aspect of the modern practice experience is left untouched. All will leave energized, grinning and humming at the end.

Total Run Time

5 hr 6 min


(12 Videos)

Difficulty

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Moderate

Intensity

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Intensity 2
Difficulty & Intensity Guide
Difficulty & Intensity Guide

What you get

  • Lifetime Access
  • Satisfaction Guarantee
  • iPhone Access

Classes

  • Movegrid

    1

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    Preview: Go With The Flow

    (15:03)

  • Movegrid

    2

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    Preview: Embracing The New You

    (10:24)

  • Movegrid

    3

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    How To Approach This Plan

    (3:06)

  • Movegrid

    4

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    Lecture: Changes During Pregnancy

    (19:05)

    This lecture discusses the many physical and hormonal changes that occur during pregnancy. You will gain insight into how these changes impact your body and therefore, your…
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    5

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    Lecture: How To Modify During Pregnancy

    (22:15)

    This lecture provides suggestions and recommendations applicable to your yoga practice or fitness routine by trimester, always remembering your body is your best guide.
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    6

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    Meditation: I Trust My Body

    (18:20)

    Women’s bodies are miracle makers. This meditation helps strengthen the bond between you and your body. Building trust in its ability to communicate with you will help you …
  • Movegrid

    7

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    Meditation: Moving Through Fear

    (17:52)

    Fear is present at some point during pregnancy, whether it be about the process, the baby, or your ability as a mother. Instead of letting your fears run rampant, this medi…
  • Movegrid

    8

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    Meditation: Embracing The New You

    (18:33)

    In this meditation, we reflect on the emotional and physical changes that occur during pregnancy.
  • Movegrid

    9

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    Meditation: The Waves

    (18:40)

    This wave meditation will guide you through fluctuations of the mind and body. It comes in handy during labor when you are having contractions.
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    10

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    Pranayama: The Power Of Breath

    (16:57)

    Pranayama practices are powerful coping tools, especially when life is stressful or chaotic. This pranayama practice will guide you through Nadi Shodhana, which is a breath…
  • Movegrid

    11

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    Restorative: Soft & Supported

    (30:32)

    Feel completely supported with gentle poses that create space and is doable throughout your whole pregnancy.
  • Movegrid

    12

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    Myofascial Release: Revive & Refresh

    (31:16)

    Nourish your fascia and release physical tension through this myofascial practice. This class can provide the physical release you desire without the negative side effects …
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    13

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    Strength Training: I Am Powerful

    (36:27)

    Strength work helped me step into my physical power during pregnancy, and helped me realize how much strength comes from the mind. In the circuit training, we strengthen yo…
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    14

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    Flow: Supple & Strong

    (38:45)

    This 30-minute flow is all about creating healthy mobility and strength around your hips. I provide variations throughout so you can adjust and modify to what feels best to…
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    15

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    Flow: Go With The Flow

    (34:31)

    This simple flow allows you time to move and breathe in your body. We place emphasis on opening the upper body, specifically the chest and shoulders. Enjoy!

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Prenatal Yoga Master Class

ASW20 Applications

Health & fitness

Keeping in shape whilst pregnant is so important and will make getting back in shape after the birth so much easier. Yoga is being used by more and more women to do just that.

This collection of 177 prenatal yoga and pilates exercise tuitional videos will hopefully give you plenty on inspiration to stay in shape. Many if not all of the workouts can be carried out in the comfort of your own home.

App features:
** Edit the video title, subtitle and keep your own set of user notes.
** Move the video around it's group and even change it's group.
** Make videos your favourites and give them your own rating
** Search by title or notes
** View by favourites or rating
** View by history the last ten played or visited videos

Videos include:
Prenatal Yoga Routine Lara Dutta
Prenatal Yoga 1 – 25 min version
Heidi Kristoffers Prenatal Yoga Flow Part 1
Prenatal Yoga Flow 2 Shoulders and Arms With Heidi
Prenatal Yoga With Heidi Legs and Butt
The Absolute Best Yoga Move To Do During Pregnancy
Beginner Prenatal Yoga Baby Mama Yoga 1 – BEXLIFE
Prenatal Yoga Love Your Unborn Baby In The Womb 15 Minute Pregnant Yoga Routine Part 1
Prenatal Yoga Exercise with Debra Geymayr
PreNatal Yoga for Beginners 29 minute Yoga Class
Pregnancy Yoga – Main Routine
Shiva Rea Mama and Baby Yoga Yoga Gaiam
Prenatal Yoga with Lara Dutta Routine
Denise Austin 3rd Trimester Toning Pregnancy Workout
Third Trimester Pregnancy Exercises Beautiful Belly Healthy Pregnancy Workout
40 Weeks of Fitness Prenatal Workout Series with Lauren Huber Griffith Full Video
Prenatal Yoga with Summer Huntington
Free Yoga Class Prenatal yoga class online with Lesley Fightmaster Pregnancy Yoga
prenatal yoga – pregnancy yoga for birth
30 Minute Intermediate Advanced Prenatal Yoga
Pregnancy Yoga – Strength Stability
Pregnancy Yoga – Energising Flow
Pregnancy Yoga – Vinyasa Flow
Pregnancy Yoga Birth Preparation
Pregnancy Yoga – Embrace Change
Pregnancy Yoga is back
Pregnancy Yoga – 5 Key Modifications
Labour Oriented Endurance Exercises – Keep-ups
Lara Dutta Meditation Yoga
Har Har Meditation
Pregnancy Exercises – Yoga
Pregnancy Yoga – Warm up routine
Method PreNatal Yoga 2-5
Method PreNatal Yoga 4-5
Method PreNatal Yoga 5-5
Method PreNatal Yoga 3-5
Method PreNatal Yoga 1-5
Pregnancy Exercise – Warm Up
Pregnancy Exercises – shoulders and obliques
Prenatal Yoga Routine Gift Of Life 1st Trimester
Prenatal Vinyasa Yoga for Flow and Hip Opening
Happy Pregnancy Workout Exercises for 1st 2nd Trimester
20-Minute Gentle Prenatal Yoga Class Yoga w OneUrbanYogini
Pregnancy Yoga How to Workout Stretches For Pregnant Women by Jen Hilman
Leg and Butt Workout Prenatal Fitness Class FitSugar
Pregnancy Workout 1st 2nd Trimester Toning- Denise Austin
Denise Austin Prenatal Cardio Workout- Fit Firm Pregnancy
Prenatal Stretching and Strengthening Workout Wellness Today
Prenatal Safe Stretch Routine Relief for insomnia restless leg syndrome sciatica more
Prenatal Cardio Dance Workout for a Fit Pregnancy KeairaLaShae
Yoga for the second trimester
Heidi Klum Prenatal Workout Andrea Orbeck Fitness Class FitSugar
All Levels Prenatal Yoga for Strength and Balance
Second Trimester Pre Natal Exercise Video
Prenatal Yoga with Lara Dutta – Routine
Pregnancy Yoga with Esther Ekhart and Jess
Pregnancy Yoga with Esther Ekhart and Jess Part 2
Prenatal Pregnancy Yoga Exercise
Prenatal Yoga for Digestion
Prenatal yoga labor inducing yoga
Warrior Pregnancy Yoga
Pregnancy Yoga Ease Hip Pain and Discomfort in Lower Back
Prenatal Yoga with Lara Dutta – Relevance and Benefits
Soham Meditation with Lara Dutta – Ajapa Japa
Prenatal Yoga with Lara Dutta – Labour Oriented endurance exercisesKeep–ups
Prenatal Yoga with Lara Dutta – Har Har Meditation
Third Trimester Prenatal Yoga 3rd Trimester Prenatal Yoga Garland Pose
Hatha Yoga for Joints ALL LEVELS Posture
Yoga for the Third Trimester
Antenatal Breathing and Relaxation for Labour

and many more

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Prenatal Yoga Master Class

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Description

Keeping in shape whilst pregnant is so important and will make getting back in shape after the birth so much easier. Yoga is being used by more and more women to do just that.

This collection of 177 prenatal yoga and pilates exercise tuitional videos will hopefully give you plenty on inspiration to stay in shape. Many if not all of the workouts can be carried out in the comfort of your own home.

App features:
** Edit the video title, subtitle and keep your own set of user notes.
** Move the video around it’s group and even change it’s group.
** Make videos your favourites and give them your own rating
** Search by title or notes
** View by favourites or rating
** View by history the last ten played or visited videos

Videos include:
Prenatal Yoga Routine Lara Dutta
Prenatal Yoga 1 – 25 min version
Heidi Kristoffers Prenatal Yoga Flow Part 1
Prenatal Yoga Flow 2 Shoulders and Arms With Heidi
Prenatal Yoga With Heidi Legs and Butt
The Absolute Best Yoga Move To Do During Pregnancy
Beginner Prenatal Yoga Baby Mama Yoga 1 – BEXLIFE
Prenatal Yoga Love Your Unborn Baby In The Womb 15 Minute Pregnant Yoga Routine Part 1
Prenatal Yoga Exercise with Debra Geymayr
PreNatal Yoga for Beginners 29 minute Yoga Class
Pregnancy Yoga – Main Routine
Shiva Rea Mama and Baby Yoga Yoga Gaiam
Prenatal Yoga with Lara Dutta Routine
Denise Austin 3rd Trimester Toning Pregnancy Workout
Third Trimester Pregnancy Exercises Beautiful Belly Healthy Pregnancy Workout
40 Weeks of Fitness Prenatal Workout Series with Lauren Huber Griffith Full Video
Prenatal Yoga with Summer Huntington
Free Yoga Class Prenatal yoga class online with Lesley Fightmaster Pregnancy Yoga
prenatal yoga – pregnancy yoga for birth
30 Minute Intermediate Advanced Prenatal Yoga
Pregnancy Yoga – Strength Stability
Pregnancy Yoga – Energising Flow
Pregnancy Yoga – Vinyasa Flow
Pregnancy Yoga Birth Preparation
Pregnancy Yoga – Embrace Change
Pregnancy Yoga is back
Pregnancy Yoga – 5 Key Modifications
Labour Oriented Endurance Exercises – Keep-ups
Lara Dutta Meditation Yoga
Har Har Meditation
Pregnancy Exercises – Yoga
Pregnancy Yoga – Warm up routine
Method PreNatal Yoga 2-5
Method PreNatal Yoga 4-5
Method PreNatal Yoga 5-5
Method PreNatal Yoga 3-5
Method PreNatal Yoga 1-5
Pregnancy Exercise – Warm Up
Pregnancy Exercises – shoulders and obliques
Prenatal Yoga Routine Gift Of Life 1st Trimester
Prenatal Vinyasa Yoga for Flow and Hip Opening
Happy Pregnancy Workout Exercises for 1st 2nd Trimester
20-Minute Gentle Prenatal Yoga Class Yoga w OneUrbanYogini
Pregnancy Yoga How to Workout Stretches For Pregnant Women by Jen Hilman
Leg and Butt Workout Prenatal Fitness Class FitSugar
Pregnancy Workout 1st 2nd Trimester Toning- Denise Austin
Denise Austin Prenatal Cardio Workout- Fit Firm Pregnancy
Prenatal Stretching and Strengthening Workout Wellness Today
Prenatal Safe Stretch Routine Relief for insomnia restless leg syndrome sciatica more
Prenatal Cardio Dance Workout for a Fit Pregnancy KeairaLaShae
Yoga for the second trimester
Heidi Klum Prenatal Workout Andrea Orbeck Fitness Class FitSugar
All Levels Prenatal Yoga for Strength and Balance
Second Trimester Pre Natal Exercise Video
Prenatal Yoga with Lara Dutta – Routine
Pregnancy Yoga with Esther Ekhart and Jess
Pregnancy Yoga with Esther Ekhart and Jess Part 2
Prenatal Pregnancy Yoga Exercise
Prenatal Yoga for Digestion
Prenatal yoga labor inducing yoga
Warrior Pregnancy Yoga
Pregnancy Yoga Ease Hip Pain and Discomfort in Lower Back
Prenatal Yoga with Lara Dutta – Relevance and Benefits
Soham Meditation with Lara Dutta – Ajapa Japa
Prenatal Yoga with Lara Dutta – Labour Oriented endurance exercisesKeep–ups
Prenatal Yoga with Lara Dutta – Har Har Meditation
Third Trimester Prenatal Yoga 3rd Trimester Prenatal Yoga Garland Pose
Hatha Yoga for Joints ALL LEVELS Posture
Yoga for the Third Trimester
Antenatal Breathing and Relaxation for Labour

and many more

Screenshots


  • Screenshot 1
  • Screenshot 2
  • Screenshot 3
  • Screenshot 4
  • Screenshot 5
  • Screenshot 6

Features

  • Use this app as a “Video Referencing Library” where you can come back for a refresher lesson or search for how to do something new.
  • Edit the video title, subtitle and keep your own set of user notes.
  • Move the video around it’s group and even change it’s group.
  • Make videos your favourites and give them your own rating
  • Search by title or notes
  • View by favourites or rating
  • View by history the last ten played or visited videos

Additional information

Published by


ASW20 Applications


Copyright


ASW20apps


Developed by


ASW20 Applications

Release date


10/10/2016

Approximate size


7.59 MB

Category


Health & fitness

This app can


Access your Internet connection


Permissions info

Installation


Get this app while signed in to your Microsoft account and install on up to ten Windows 10 devices.

Language supported


English (United States)


Publisher Info


Prenatal Yoga Master Class support


Additional terms


Terms of transaction


Seizure warnings


Photosensitive seizure warning


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★Compare and Contrast Essay Topics: 135 Fresh Ideas




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  3. Top 100 Great Compare And Contrast Essay Topics

Top 100 Great Compare And Contrast Essay Topics

Oct 16, 2017
Essay writing tips

Top 100 Great Compare And Contrast Essay Topics

Writing a compare and contrast essay can be challenging for first-year college students. Writing a paper like this requires you to inspect two or more subjects for similarities or differences. Compare and contrast essays are not a basis for answering a specific question. Nor are they used for solidifying an opinionated argument. Your goal is to create analogies for the purpose of explanation or clarification. To write an essay in this format, you need to sharpen up your critical thinking skills.

Choose your writer

compare and contrast essay

Finding The Right Sources

When writing an academic piece that aims to compare and contrast more elements together, it is important to do so in a manner that sparks interest and keeps the audience tuned in. Nonetheless, it is important to remain consistent since creative and objective pieces will tackle the issue in different ways. Similar to an argumentative essay the objective approach seeks to elaborate using accurate facts backed up by solid evidence.

Choosing a topic is a crucial stage. The best way to choose an appropriate topic is searching for credible references that come from primary or secondary sources respectively. These are usually accredited sources that date back to a minimum of five years, however, this may vary depending on the topic of discussion. Keep in mind that your reading list will form the backbone of the essay, thus to help give you a better idea of where to start looking here’s a short list of options:

  • Textbooks
  • Books
  • Documentaries
  • Academic journals
  • Scientific magazines
  • Newspapers
  • Official reports

Tips On How To Write A Compare And Contrast Essay

Regardless the topic or style that students choose to use when tackling such an assignment, it is vital to adhere to the traditional structure of an academic paper.

compare and contras essay writing tips

Introduction
It is best to grab the reader’s attention right from the start by using an interesting source as the foundation of your argument. This will help outline what the topic is about and guide the discussion into the right direction through the thesis statement.

Developing your arguments
As previously mentioned thorough research will allow one to create a minimum of three claims. Each should have its own individual supporting argument as to highlight these points in their respective paragraph.

Refuting opponent’s arguments
A solid viewpoint is capable of disproving the opponent’s arguments by using facts and logic. Thus, it is important to be aware of what the opposition might say while conducting research, so one is well prepared. Try to make note of at least two opposing views what could potentially come up as preparation.

Conclusion
Restate your thesis statement and stress why your side is right once again.

Finding Great Topics To Write About

Don’t limit yourself to topics that you already know inside-out. Compare and contrast essay writing can be exciting if you use it to discover something new. To find appropriate compare and essay topics to write about, you must engage in critical and analytical thought. You will need to find a topic that is not too broad or too narrow. Otherwise, you risk wasting your time and effort.

One of the most time-effective methods when teachers do not provide you with a list of topics is to go through various types of reading material, such as:

  • Newspapers
    Using these types of sources as reading material is often highly recommended due to the fact that they tackle ongoing world events as well as the latest innovations in different spheres. Thus, one may choose to find an expert opinion or even bias information and use it to strengthen or prove a point.

  • News channels
    Quite often various news channels offer a summary of all the major events that took place that day. This segments usually takes about half an hour of your time but can be used as a primary source if referenced properly.

  • Magazines/Journals
    If economics, religions or politics are not exactly what you enjoy exploring as academic topics, then it is best to have a look at sports magazines, fashion journals, etc.

  • Internet
    As one of the most easily accessible sources, it also represents one of the greatest sources of inspiration. Keep in mind to double check the credibility of the sources before using them.
    Other means to stay in touch with global events is by attending various seminars, conferences or meetings and participate in the discussions carried out there.

Look for topics that are interesting and inspiring for you. As a comic book fan, I would love to read an essay about Superman versus his alter-ego Clark Kent. Superman is from a different planet. Unlike other superheroes, he doesn’t wear a mask because his true identity is Superman. He puts on a mask only when he becomes Clark Kent because that’s the only way he can blend in with our society. This is a great topic with many parallels in our modern world.

Here are 100 good compare and contrast essay topics for your mind to feast on:

  • Spotify vs Apple Music
  • Cats vs Dogs
  • Typhoon vs Hurricane
  • AT&T vs Verizon
  • Lion vs Tiger
  • Resume vs CV
  • Leasing vs Buying a car
  • Star Wars vs Star Trek
  • Coyote vs Wolf
  • Fascism vs Communism
  • iPhone SE vs iPhone 6
  • Coke vs Pepsi
  • Fiction vs Nonfiction
  • Plant Cell vs Animal Cell
  • Analogy vs Metaphor
  • Hobbes vs Locke
  • Tea vs Coffe
  • Expectations vs Reality
  • Apple vs Microsoft
  • Gandalf vs Dumbledore
  • Boys vs Girls
  • Stocks vs Bonds
  • High School vs College
  • South Korea vs North Korea
  • Stalin vs Hitler
  • Safari vs Chrome
  • Ants vs Termites
  • Kosher vs Halal
  • Hydrogen Bomb vs Nuclear Bomb
  • Facebook vs Twitter
  • Bachelor of Arts vs Bachelor of Science
  • Nike vs Under Armour
  • Shareholder vs Stakeholder
  • Head of state vs Head of government
  • Alligator vs Crocodile
  • Fruits vs Vegetables
  • Greek vs Roman Gods
  • Dusk vs Dawn
  • Game of Thrones book vs Show
  • Wage vs Salary
  • MMA vs Boxing
  • Soy Milk vs Milk
  • Mozart vs Beethoven
  • Pretty vs Beautiful
  • Football vs Soccer
  • Vampires vs Werewolves
  • Iron Man vs Hulk
  • Brain vs Heart
  • Toads vs Frogs
  • Closed vs Open headphones
  • Thunder vs Lightning
  • Monopoly vs Oligopoly
  • Summer vs Winter
  • Michael Jackson vs Elvis Presley
  • Renting vs Owning
  • Newton vs Einstein
  • Cowboys vs Indians
  • Baroque vs Renaissance
  • Jefferson vs Adams
  • Childhood vs Adulthood
  • American Idol vs The Voice
  • Nuclear Power vs Solar Power
  • Poor people vs Rich people
  • Coffee vs Energy Drink
  • Family vs Friends
  • Soviet vs American system
  • Tom Sawyer vs Huckleberry Finn
  • Watercolor vs Oil
  • Red vs White
  • Offence vs Defense
  • Rap vs Pop
  • Cash vs Credit Cards
  • Motorcycle vs Bicycle
  • Racism vs Sexism
  • Chamberlain vs Churchill
  • Recycling vs Landfill
  • Roman Empire vs British Empire
  • Letters vs Emails
  • Drama vs Comedy
  • Jazz vs Classical Music
  • 1984 vs Fahrenheit 451
  • Living in City vs Country
  • Juice vs Water
  • Books vs E-Books
  • Diesel vs Petroleum
  • Public vs Private transportation
  • Living at home vs Living on campus
  • Truth vs Lie
  • Real World vs Virtual World
  • Greek Philosophy vs Roman Philosophy
  • North vs South before the War
  • Harry Potter: The book vs Movie
  • Antique vs New
  • Home Education vs Traditional Education
  • Thor vs Loki: friends of enemies (according to the movie)
  • KFC vs McDonald’s
  • Online dating vs Real-life relations
  • Modern Dance vs Ballroom dancing
  • Being a freelancer vs Working in an office
  • City vs Country lifestyle

We hope that this article has given you an idea of how to choose a compare and contrast essay topic. Did you find our list useful? Have you decided to use one of our topics in your essay? Let us know in the comments section below!
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by

Melissa Kelly
Updated September 24, 2018

Compare and contrast essays are taught in school for many reasons. For one thing, they are relatively easy to teach, understand, and format. Students can typically understand the structure with just a short amount of instruction. In addition, these essays allow students develop critical thinking skills to approach a variety of topics.

Brainstorming Tip

One fun way to get students started brainstorming their compare and contrast essays is to create a Venn diagram , where the overlapping sections of the circle contain similarities and the non-overlapping areas contain the differing traits.

Following is a list of 101 topics for compare and contrast essays that you are welcome to use in your classroom. As you look through the list you will see that some items are academic in nature while others are included for interest-building and fun writing activities.

  1. Apple vs. Microsoft
  2. Coke vs Pepsi
  3. Renaissance Art vs. Baroque Art
  4. Antebellum Era vs. Reconstruction Era in American History
  5. Childhood vs. Adulthood
  6. Star Wars vs. Star Trek
  7. Biology vs. Chemistry
  8. Astrology vs. Astronomy
  9. American Government vs. British Government (or any world government)
  10. Fruits vs. Vegetables
  11. Dogs vs. Cats
  12. Ego vs. Superego
  13. Christianity vs. Judaism (or any world religion )
  14. Republican vs. Democrat
  15. Monarchy vs. Presidency
  16. US President vs. UK Prime Minister
  17. Jazz vs. Classical Music
  18. Red vs. White (or any two colors)
  19. Soccer vs. Football
  20. North vs. South Before the Civil War
  21. New England Colonies vs. Middle Colonies OR vs. Southern Colonies
  22. Cash vs. Credit Cards
  23. Sam vs. Frodo Baggins
  24. Gandalf vs. Dumbledore
  25. Fred vs. Shaggy
  26. Rap vs. Pop
  27. Articles of Confederation vs. US Constitution
  28. Henry VIII vs. King Louis XIV
  29. Stocks vs. Bonds
  30. Monopolies vs. Oligopolies
  31. Communism vs. Capitalism
  32. Socialism vs. Capitalism
  33. Diesel vs. Petroleum
  34. Nuclear Power vs. Solar Power
  35. Saltwater Fish vs. Freshwater Fish
  36. Squids vs. Octopus
  37. Mammals vs. Reptiles
  1. Baleen vs. Toothed Whales
  2. Seals vs. Sea Lions
  3. Crocodiles vs. Alligators
  4. Bats vs. Birds
  5. Oven vs. Microwave
  6. Greek vs. Roman Mythology
  7. Chinese vs. Japanese
  8. Comedy vs. Drama
  9. Renting vs. Owning
  10. Mozart vs. Beethoven
  11. Online vs. Traditional Education
  12. North vs. South Pole
  13. Watercolor vs. Oil
  14. 1984 vs. Fahrenheit 451
  15. Emily Dickinson vs. Samuel Taylor Coleridge
  16. WEB DuBois vs. Booker T. Washington
  17. Strawberries vs. Apples
  18. Airplanes vs. Helicopters
  19. Hitler vs. Napoleon
  20. Roman Empire vs. British Empire
  21. Paper vs. Plastic
  22. Italy vs. Spain
  23. Baseball vs. Cricket
  24. Jefferson vs. Adams
  25. Thoroughbreds vs. Clydesdales
  26. Spiders vs. Scorpions
  27. Northern Hemisphere vs. Southern Hemisphere
  28. Hobbes vs. Locke
  29. Friends vs. Family
  30. Dried Fruit vs. Fresh
  31. Porcelain vs. Glass
  32. Modern Dance vs. Ballroom Dancing
  33. American Idol vs. The Voice
  34. Reality TV vs. Sitcoms
  35. Picard vs. Kirk
  36. Books vs. Movies
  37. Magazines vs. Comic Books
  38. Antique vs. New
  39. Public vs. Private Transportation
  40. e-Mail vs. Letters
  41. Facebook vs. Twitter
  42. Coffee vs. an Energy Drink
  43. Toads vs. Frogs
  44. Profit vs. Non-Profit
  45. Boys vs. Girls
  1. Birds vs. Dinosaurs
  2. High School vs. College
  3. Chamberlain vs. Churchill
  4. Offense vs. Defense
  5. Jordan vs. Bryant
  6. Harry vs. Draco
  7. Roses vs. Carnations
  8. Poetry vs. Prose
  9. Fiction vs. Nonfiction
  10. Lions vs. Tigers
  11. Vampires vs. Werewolves
  12. Lollipops vs. popsicles
  13. Summer vs. Winter
  14. Recycling vs. Landfill
  15. Motorcycle vs. Bicycle
  16. Halogen vs. Incandescent
  17. Newton vs. Einstein
  18. . Go on vacation vs. Staycation
  19. Rock vs. Scissors

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Choosing The Best Compare Contrast Essay Topics For College

College essays can take many different flavors. You may be asked to writer persuasively, argumentatively or in any other similar field. This cornucopia of choice is excellent for becoming a well rounded writer and a student who is able to think on his or her feet.

One of the more common essay types is the compare and contrast. Most things that are different have at least a few things in common and even things that appear identical on the surface must differ in some ways. Here are some things to keep in mind as you search for a topic:

Know the audience

The topic that would work well for a room full of your peers might not be appreciated as much by your professor or your parents or anyone else. Sometime this is just a matter of differing tastes, other times, you may have such an unpopular opinion that your readers would simply be outraged by the connections you make.

Have a good grasp of current events

Picking topics is always easier when you know what is going on in the world. Read newspapers online and follow informative blogs. You will learn things that help you to think outside of the box and write outside of it too.

Read widely

Newspapers are a good start but it’s a good idea to expand way beyond that. Look at fiction, try picking up another language and consuming literature from the related culture. Your ideas will be very different as a result.

Consider the following ideas for a start:

  1. How has this decade been different from and similar to the one that preceded it?
  2. Create a secure comparison between murder and the consumption of meat
  3. How is religion comparable to the use of alcohol or other drugs?
  4. What makes the entrepreneurial path different from the traditional 9 to 5 route?
  5. How did the character of Atticus Finch change between ‘To Kill A mockingbird’ and ‘Go Set a Watchman’
  6. How has the concept of childhood evolved or stagnated over the past century?
  7. Can the use of cannabis be compared to that of prescription drugs?
  8. Can the use of social media be successfully contrasted with roman games or are they too similar?
  9. How does the death penalty stack up against concerted efforts at rehabilitation?
  10. Does the music industry of today stack up well against that of previous generations?

 

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★Sorc melee solo roaming spec.

Characters
Home>Game World>Characters
  • Five Classes
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Five Classes
 
  • Wizard
  • Monk
  • Assassin
  • Fairy
  • Tamer
Class Background

 

Tamer Gong Ye Huang is good at animals’ language. He can talk with every kind of animals. Hundreds of years ago, he overheard the sound from the white parrot and got a Tao book. He was enlightened and created Tamer after decades of cultivation. Tamer improve their own ability by domesticating different kinds of wild animals.

As the best hunter, Tamer can use bow and crossbow to attack the targets. Besides, Tamer enjoys the reputation of wild survivor. They are able to track the enemy or set the trap to cause damages or catch the enemy. There has been an original relationship between Tame and beasts. Animals can be loyal guards after being tamed by Tamers.

 

 

Hometown: Darkness Valley

Standard Point: HP / Mana

Feature: The most excellent solo player

Weakness: They need increase their ability by their pet

Usage in a Team: Long-distance attacker, pet can be the secondary damage absorber

Weapons: Bow and Crossbow

Attack Attributes: Water and Poison

Main attribute: Intelligence

Weapon Talisman

 

[Crossbow] (Poison) Weapon Talisman [Bow] (Water) Weapon Talisman
Strong slowdown, faint and curse skills. Awful instant damage ability. Do a good job in PK.Strong curse, mass damage and animal control skills make Tamer a popular class in scenario.

 

Class Advantages & Disadvantages

 

Class AdvantagesClass Disadvantages
1. The best solo player.
2. Can capture and tame the animal to be the loyal combat pet.
3. Excellent long-distance attack ability.
1. Tamer is not strong herself, so she needs the combat pet to assist in combat.

 

 

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Order & Chaos Online 2: Redemption – Hints, tips, and tricks

Wow, you’ll win a lot of guild wars with these
Product:  Order & Chaos 2: Redemption
| Publisher:  Gameloft
| Format: Android, iPhone, iPad
| Genre: Multiplayer, RPG
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by Harry Slater
Order & Chaos 2: Redemption is, as you might expect, massive. It is, after all, one of those massively multiplayer online RPGs that you’ve heard so much about.

But thanks to some clever design it’s not the most intimidating game you’re ever going to stumble blind and confused into.

There is going to be a bit of stumbling though, so we thought we’d put together a beginner’s guide to show you the ropes, how the ropes work, and why you definitely shouldn’t pull that rope. Seriously, leave that rope alone.

Combined with our review diary, which you can read right here , you should be able to get to grips with the game pretty darn quickly. And if you don’t, well, we’re sorry, we tried.

Characters

After the big blustery opening you’ll be able to choose a character class. This is the most important decision you’re going to make in the game, and if you’re planning on playing with friends it’s worth having a chat about which roles people are going to take.

If you’ve played an MMO before then the character classes are going to be pretty familiar. If you haven’t, then here’s a brief break down of what you can expect from each of them.

Warrior

Warriors are your basic melee damage dealers. They should be front and centre in any scrap, soaking up the hurt to get more angry and more smashy.

Ranger

Probably the best class for solo play. They’re not as squishy as some of the magic-wielding classes when it comes to close combat, but they’re most effective controlling the crowd and dealing the hurt from as far away as possible.

Mage

Are of effect specialists. Where the ranger is more attuned to focusing on a couple of targets, Mages are all about keeping the crowd at bay and hurting many, many things with swirling blasts of magical magic.

Blood Knight

A new class for this sequel. Blood Knights are all about sacrifice. They deal huge damage, but at a cost to their own health. Best used as part of a group, with warriors soaking up the hits to free them up for explosive violence.

Monk

The Monk balances violence and healing powers. It’s another good bet for solo play, but works brilliantly when utilised properly in a group. Keeping other characters alive is a must deeper into the game.

The basics

Once you’ve chosen which class you’d like to play, you can pick one of two starting areas. They both end up in the same place, so only worry about picking one over the other if you’re starting your game with some friends.

The game does a pretty good job of walking you through what everything does, but we’ve got a few suggestions to make everything run that little bit better.

One good suggestion is to turn off tap to move in the settings. You’re probably going to be tapping on a lot of other characters accidentally in the scrum of the opening areas, and when you tap to deselect them, you’ll end up jogging off if you haven’t killed the functionality.

Patience is also a virtue to begin with. There are likely to be a lot of people running around trying to complete the same quests as you, so try not to become enraged when someone snaffles that quest item before you.

Quests

Keeping track of your quests can be a bit fiddly, especially if you’re trying to pay attention to the slightly haphazard story broiling around all the collect-this and take-that-there quests.

Checking your Quest Book regularly will keep you on track, and if you’re bored of following one quest line, you can jump onto any others that you have active.

Area quests pop up from time to time as well, and you start these automatically while you’re in that specific space. Your progress gets remembered if you wander away as well.

Taking side quests is a good way to build up your XP and stay ahead of the difficulty curve. They’re time consuming, but if you’re in a group you’ll blast through them pretty quickly.

Look at everything

There’s a dizzying amount of menus and gewgaws in Order & Chaos Online 2, but it’s worth checking them all regularly, because in the opening hours you’ll be given an awful lot of free stuff.

Jumping into dream dungeons is a good way to earn extra loot, and they shouldn’t be too tough to start off with either if you know what you’re doing.

You also get daily rewards just for logging in. So even if you’re not interested in having a play, quickly diving into the game will bag you some loot and keep your combo going for tomorrow.

And check the daily quests as well. Some of them are as simple as opening a mailbox or opening one of the chests you can grab after a certain time.

It can get a bit confusing, but just trawl through the menus, tap everything that says collect, and you’re half way there.

Other stuff

Your biggest problem at the start of the game is going to be your bag filling up. Make sure you sell as much trash as you can whenever you’re near a vendor. You’re going to collect a lot of worthless junk, and plenty of pieces of armour and equipment you can’t use too.

Remember to upgrade your weapon as often as you can to free up space as well. Once you get your special weapon after completing the first run of quests you’ll be able to fuse things to it to make it more powerful.

Crafting new armour is always sensible too. You’ll need to be near a crafting table to do it, which are usually near the merchants, but you’ll get better armour than the stuff you pull out of the innards of deceased pigs and spiders.

The opening section of the game isn’t exactly the most awe inspiring, but if you get your head down and plough through you’ll start unlocking more of the interesting things that Order & Chaos 2 has to offer.

 
 
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Talisman Online Monk Guide

Talisman Online Monk Guide by gamesensei

CONTENTS

b
I.       What is a MONK?
A. Why Choose a MONK?
B. Strengths and weaknesses
C. Monk vs. Other classes
II.      Builds, Skills and Talismans
A. Tanker build
B. Power build

III.     Appendices
A. Staff vs. Shovel
> Tanking
> Grinding
> Duels
> Power
> Party Value

bI. What is a MONK?

A monk is the barbarian class of Talisman Online, they carry either a shovel which looks like an oversized spear and a staff, which looks like a polearm.
b
A. Why should you choose a MONK as a class?

It’s simple, you want to be the captain of dungeon raids, a monk almost always leads the way in most dungeons. If you like the role of tanker and a stunner then a MONK is a class for you.

b        B. Strengths and Weaknesses
Strengths — The monk is the best stunner in the game, overall he has around 3 major stun skills up your arsenal. The stun time range from 1 to 5 seconds, that time could mean the difference of life and death. Aside from being the best stunner, the monk is also the best tanker in the game, his primary attribute is his Vitality followed by his Strength. He also has high defense, and a Monk’s equipment will always have more physical defense in them, more than any other classes. The monk ranks 1st in tanking, stunning and surviving.

Weaknesses — The monk deals low damage than any other class on monsters especially in dungeon raids, because of this, monsters tend to go for the healer or the one dealing most of the damage which is likely the wizard (however one skill of a monk draws the attention of all nearby enemies, more on that later). The monk has low magic defense (that’s why upgrading armors is a good thing). Some stunning skills also take a while to cooldown. The monk is basically melee, meaning he makes most of his attacks on close range. The monk also relies on fairies on boss fights (like any other class).

b        C. Monk vs. Other Classes

With high HP monks, a monk is virtually unstoppable most of the time. Given the right skills to use and perfect time could result of your opponent not being able to move at all on duels. Monk has a great advantage over assassins because Monks are melee and so as an assassin. He would have trouble dealing with the other 3 classes because they are all long range but given the right skills to cast, he can get close to them.

bII. Builds, Skills and Talismans
b                A. Tanker Build

This is the most common build of a Monk, the higher the defense and HP, the better. Tankers may lack damage but it is compensated by good stunning skills and the ability to better tank than others avoiding a team catastrophe.

>>>weapon of choice<<<

For tankers, there’s no better weapon than a shovel. Simply because it can stun. When you stun an opponent for seconds, your giving yourself more time to tank, because you are not receiving any damage at all. The best assistant talismans for the job are the Buddha bone which is the talisman you’ll get at level 10. Then diamond sutra which is the first assistant talisman you’ll get (from a quest). Buddha bone has the important tanking skills, Mercy and Sacrifice. Mercy makes your enemies hate you more with every attack you deal and sacrifice grabs all enemies around you and will forcibly attack you instead of your party members for a limited time. Do upgrade these skills of the Buddha bone, specially sacrifice.

>>>assistant talisman<<<

The diamond sutra is the best talisman a monk could have. The stun from Buddha Quake will stun enemies around you for 5 seconds (Pwnage!). And the Buddha shield skill will make a certain number of damage of every attack of an enemy be absorbed for a limited time (the damage absorbed depends on level and if all damage is absorbed, the damage it deals to you will be 1). On pressure situations, the Buddha shield can help you survive or buy a little time to get healed by your fairy teammates.

Oh by the way, the tanker build also needs a third talisman which you can get at level 20, the Treasure Loop. The treasure loop has one very useful skill “Robust”. Which increases your HP, better than a fairy’s sun needle does. But if combined with sun needle, your HP will sky rocket. So how can you have 3 talismans at once? Well since Treasure Loop will buff you for 30 minutes with Robust, you can replace it back with Buddha bone. Training your treasure loop so you can upgrade Robust to level 5 will also be useful but you need many energy points so you can go upgrade your Buddha bone again.

The last talisman is useless to the Tanker build, but you may play around with it. The Heart Lotus will give you the skills “Heart Fire” which increases your damage with Buddha and fire, and the super lame “Heart Lotus”, which summons a flower and that slows down enemies around it (which lures them as well) and makes invisible objects visible… (that part I haven’t been able to verify).

>>>breakdown<<<

Important skills to upgrade on shovel: Improve Giant Attack (when you max it out, you don’t need to many stamina and you’ll get more break points).

Skills to upgrade on assistant talisman: All skills in Buddha bone and diamond sutra, Treasure Loop’s Robust spell.

Optional: Shovel’s improve giant halt damage, improve giant burst

Training: Buff with MERCY, and ROBUST. Attack with Giant attack first and get your first break point then stun it with Giant Halt. Continue attacking with Giant attack and if it’s enough, cast Giant Burst. When doing bosses, replace Giant burst with Giant Break if the boss is stun-able. Cast Buddha Shield when HP is getting low. Cast Sacrifice when enemy chases other members (this is tricky because sacrifice can also draw mobs in or if the enemy is too far, you might cast it late).

b                B. Power Build

>>>weapon of choice<<<

A monk has two talismans to choose from, but if you want full power for your whole party, you might choose the staff (but I still recommend the shovel, im not a big fan of staff). The staff does melee damage as well as shovel, it also has a skill that lowers the enemies defense greatly (a great plus). Unlike the shovel, which deals Buddha damage (Buddha is actually earth), the staff deals more of the other elements like fire.

>>>assistant talisman<<<

I you would play safe on a power build, you would still use the talisman “Buddha Bone”. But if you want to go all Power, the talisman “Heart Lotus” can give you an instant boost with Heart fire as it increases damage. The Diamond Sutra is always a must for it is offensive and defensive at the same time.

>>>breakdown<<<

Important skills to upgrade on shovel: Improve Giant Attack Giant Burst (improving it at max, will deal more damage).

Important skills to upgrade on assistant talisman: Heart Lotus’ Heart Fire and Diamond Sutra’s Buddha Quake and Buddha Shield

Optional: Shovel’s Giant break can lessen your enemies Buddha defense, couple it up with Improved Buddha damage and heart fire. If you are into critical damage, you can improve the CS critical and damage.

bAPPENDIX

>>> Staff vs. Shovel

iThis area of the guide is highly controversial, as you can see on the replies to this guide, many have different views on the talisman weapons. This is purely my opinion and based on my experience

TANKING – This is quite probably the most controversial answer: my choice is shovel. Yes, the staff has high block but the shovel does stun more than a staff does. Shovel works well specially when bosses try to hit your allies, you can just do a burst attack that transfers it back to you (more times than not). The staff’s block is cool and all but surviving is your fairy’s job inside dungeons. However, in many cases like in BOSSES that can’t be stunned, staff does better.

GRINDING – I’m not sure at this one so I’ll just call it a tie. The shovel kills faster with the right combos but you take hits more and you have to sit down. The staff hits fairly good and you don’t have to sit down once in a while because of your blocking ability.

DUELS – Shovel, definitely, and there’s only one reason: “stun stun stun”.

POWER – Let’s call this another tie. Why? Yeah the shovel hits the most damage but it will take some time (and stamina) to even hit that high. The staff hits fairly but it doesn’t have burst. When you think about it, the shovel only looks powerful by the damage it does but the staff can outdo it by adding all the damage the staff has done over the course of time the shovel is getting burst points.

PARTY VALUE – Definitely the staff. The skill that lowers defense is a winner, which basically makes the party hit harder on mobs. If you just do grinding, staff is good when your with other players but once in bosses, it will be a different story.
isome might react again, heres my reason: if you lower the defense of the enemy, your partymates will hit harder, more times than not, will hit harder than you hit. So the boss will go after them than you.

===================
FAQ SECTION
===================

Q: Which skills should i improve on staff?

A: (by Prolific)
Staff lvl 60 outcome:
MAX – Improve Block Rate
MAX – Improve CS Rate
MAX – Improve Fire Damage
MAX – Fatal Bash
MAX – Fatal Burning
My next inherence skill will be Fatal Crack
—————————————————————–

Q: What is the best combo for staff?

A: (by Prolific)
Best combo?
Against Monk:
– Buddha Quake > Buddha Shield > Fatal Burning > Fatal Bash. After quake is about 1 sec to be finished you use shield straight away

Against Others:
– Buddha Quake > Buddha Shield > Fatal Bash. Fatal bash should really take over burning since it does heaps of damage on time and deals the same mp as burning

Assistant Talismans?
-Heart Lotus and Diamond Sutra

Other Talisman Online Articles

Talisman Online Tamer Guide
Talisman Online Monk Guide
Talisman Online Fairy Guide
Talisman Online Wizard Guide
Talisman Online Assassin Complete Guide
Talisman Online Master and Apprentice System Guide
Talisman Online PK Guide
Talisman Online Living Skill Guide
Talisman Online Hotkeys Guide
Talisman Online Frequently Asked Questions

15 July 2011 | Talisman Online |

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★Analysis-Sonnet 130 by William Shakespeare Essay – Free Papers …

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Shakespeare’s Sonnets


by:
William Shakespeare

Sonnet 130

My mistress’ eyes are nothing like the
sun;
Coral is far more red than her lips’ red;
If snow be white, why then her breasts are dun;
If hairs be wires, black wires grow on her head.
I have seen roses damask’d, red and white,
But no such roses see I in her cheeks;
And in some perfumes is there more delight
Than in the breath that from my mistress reeks.
I love to hear her speak, yet well I know
That music hath a far more pleasing sound;
I grant I never saw a goddess go;
My mistress, when she walks, treads on the ground:
   And yet, by heaven, I think my
love as rare
   As any she belied with false compare.

Summary: Sonnet 130

This sonnet compares the speaker’s lover to a number of
other beauties—and never in the lover’s favor. Her eyes are “nothing
like the sun,” her lips are less red than coral; compared to white
snow, her breasts are dun-colored, and her hairs are like black
wires on her head. In the second quatrain, the speaker says he has
seen roses separated by color (“damasked”) into red and white, but
he sees no such roses in his mistress’s cheeks; and he says the
breath that “reeks” from his mistress is less delightful than perfume.
In the third quatrain, he admits that, though he loves her voice,
music “hath a far more pleasing sound,” and that, though he has
never seen a goddess, his mistress—unlike goddesses—walks on the
ground. In the couplet, however, the speaker declares that, “by
heav’n,” he thinks his love as rare and valuable “As any she belied
with false compare”—that is, any love in which false comparisons
were invoked to describe the loved one’s beauty.

Read a translation of
Sonnet 130 →

Commentary

This sonnet, one of Shakespeare’s most famous, plays an
elaborate joke on the conventions of love poetry common to Shakespeare’s
day, and it is so well-conceived that the joke remains funny today.
Most sonnet sequences in Elizabethan England were modeled after
that of Petrarch. Petrarch’s famous sonnet sequence was written
as a series of love poems to an idealized and idolized mistress
named Laura. In the sonnets, Petrarch praises her beauty, her worth,
and her perfection using an extraordinary variety of metaphors based largely
on natural beauties. In Shakespeare’s day, these metaphors had already
become cliche (as, indeed, they still are today), but they were
still the accepted technique for writing love poetry. The result
was that poems tended to make highly idealizing comparisons between
nature and the poets’ lover that were, if taken literally, completely
ridiculous. My mistress’ eyes are like the sun; her lips are red
as coral; her cheeks are like roses, her breasts are white as snow,
her voice is like music, she is a goddess.

In many ways, Shakespeare’s
sonnets subvert and reverse the conventions of the Petrarchan love
sequence: the idealizing love poems, for instance, are written not
to a perfect woman but to an admittedly imperfect man, and the love poems
to the dark lady are anything but idealizing (“My love is as a fever,
longing still / For that which longer nurseth the disease” is hardly
a Petrarchan conceit.) Sonnet 130 mocks
the typical Petrarchan metaphors by presenting a speaker who seems
to take them at face value, and somewhat bemusedly, decides to tell
the truth. Your mistress’ eyes are like the sun? That’s strange—my
mistress’ eyes aren’t at all like the sun. Your mistress’ breath
smells like perfume? My mistress’ breath reeks compared to perfume.
In the couplet, then, the speaker shows his full intent, which is
to insist that love does not need these conceits in order to be
real; and women do not need to look like flowers or the sun in order
to be beautiful.

The rhetorical structure of Sonnet 130 is
important to its effect. In the first quatrain, the speaker spends one
line on each comparison between his mistress and something else
(the sun, coral, snow, and wires—the one positive thing in the whole
poem some part of his mistress is like. In the
second and third quatrains, he expands the descriptions to occupy
two lines each, so that roses/cheeks, perfume/breath, music/voice,
and goddess/mistress each receive a pair of unrhymed lines. This
creates the effect of an expanding and developing argument, and
neatly prevents the poem—which does, after all, rely on a single
kind of joke for its first twelve lines—from becoming stagnant.


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Shakespeare’s Sonnets

Shakespeare’s Sonnet 130: His Not So Fair Lady

Many men in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries composed sequences of sonnets about women whom they loved. William Shakespeare’s incomplete sonnet sequence is among the genre’s most acclaimed. Most authors embellished their women’s physical characteristics, but Shakespeare’s 130th sonnet states that his mistress lacks most of the qualities other men wrongly praise their women for possessing, such as eyes like the sun or lips as red as coral. While Shakespeare criticizes his lover’s physical traits, he believes his ³love as rare as any² and displays subtle disdain for relationships ³belied by false comparison.² Through this work Shakespeare tells the reader that true love recognizes imperfections and feels devotion regardless of flaws.

Like most of Shakespeare’s work, his 130th sonnet has meaning on several levels. First, he commentates on love as opposed to lust. A lustful man would focus on pleasing corporal characteristics, such as white breasts, red lips, and fragrant breath; however, Shakespeare’s women’s ³breast are dun,² her lips not nearly as red as coral, and her breath less delightful than many perfumes. Because Shakespeare recognizes her bodily shortcomings, he uses his…

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Group dynamics

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Group dynamics is a system of behaviors and psychological processes occurring within a social group (intragroup dynamics), or between social groups (intergroup dynamics). The study of group dynamics can be useful in understanding decision-making behaviour, tracking the spread of diseases in society, creating effective therapy techniques, and following the emergence and popularity of new ideas and technologies. [1] Group dynamics are at the core of understanding racism, sexism, and other forms of social prejudice and discrimination. These applications of the field are studied in psychology , sociology , anthropology , political science , epidemiology , education, social work , business, and communication studies .

The three main factors affecting a team’s cohesion (working together well) are: environmental, personal and leadership.

Contents

  • 1 History
  • 2 Key theorists
    • 2.1 Gustave Le Bon
    • 2.2 William McDougall
    • 2.3 Sigmund Freud
    • 2.4 Jacob L. Moreno
    • 2.5 Kurt Lewin
    • 2.6 William Schutz
    • 2.7 Wilfred Bion
    • 2.8 Bruce Tuckman
    • 2.9 M. Scott Peck
    • 2.10 Richard Hackman
  • 3 Intragroup dynamics
    • 3.1 Group formation
    • 3.2 Joining groups
    • 3.3 Types of groups
      • 3.3.1 Primary groups
      • 3.3.2 Social groups
      • 3.3.3 Collectives
      • 3.3.4 Categories
    • 3.4 Group membership and social identity
    • 3.5 Group cohesion
    • 3.6 Black sheep effect
    • 3.7 Group influence on individual behaviour
    • 3.8 Group structure
    • 3.9 Group performance
      • 3.9.1 Social facilitation and performance gains
  • 4 Intergroup dynamics
    • 4.1 Intergroup conflict
    • 4.2 Intergroup conflict reduction
      • 4.2.1 Contact hypothesis (intergroup contact theory)
      • 4.2.2 Superordinate identities
      • 4.2.3 Interdependence
  • 5 Selected academic journals
  • 6 See also
  • 7 References

History[ edit ]

The history of group dynamics (or group processes) [2] has a consistent, underlying premise: ‘the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.’ A social group is an entity that has qualities which cannot be understood just by studying the individuals that make up the group. In 1924, Gestalt psychologist Max Wertheimer proposed ‘There are entities where the behaviour of the whole cannot be derived from its individual elements nor from the way these elements fit together; rather the opposite is true: the properties of any of the parts are determined by the intrinsic structural laws of the whole’ (Wertheimer 1924, p. 7). [3] (The proposition remains questionable, since modern biologists and game theorists do look to explain the ‘structural laws of the whole’ in terms of ‘the way the elements fit together’.)

As a field of study, group dynamics has roots in both psychology and sociology. Wilhelm Wundt (1832–1920), credited as the founder of experimental psychology, had a particular interest in the psychology of communities, which he believed possessed phenomena (human language, customs, and religion) that could not be described through a study of the individual. [2] On the sociological side, Émile Durkheim (1858–1917), who was influenced by Wundt, also recognized collective phenomena, such as public knowledge. Other key theorists include Gustave Le Bon (1841–1931) who believed that crowds possessed a ‘racial unconscious’ with primitive, aggressive, and antisocial instincts, and William McDougall (psychologist) , who believed in a ‘group mind,’ which had a distinct existence born from the interaction of individuals. [2] (The concept of a collective consciousness is not essential to group dynamics.)

Eventually, the social psychologist Kurt Lewin (1890–1947) coined the term group dynamics to describe the positive and negative forces within groups of people. [4] In 1945, he established The Group Dynamics Research Center at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the first institute devoted explicitly to the study of group dynamics. [5] Throughout his career, Lewin was focused on how the study of group dynamics could be applied to real-world, social issues.

Increasingly, research has applied evolutionary psychology principles to group dynamics. As humans social environments became more complex, they acquired adaptations by way of group dynamics that enhance survival. Examples include mechanisms for dealing with status, reciprocity, identifying cheaters, ostracism, altruism, group decision, leadership, and intergroup relations. [6] Also, a combination of evolution and game theory has been used to explain the development and maintenance of cooperative behavior between individuals in a group.

Key theorists[ edit ]

Gustave Le Bon[ edit ]

Main article: Gustave Le Bon

Gustave Le Bon was a French social psychologist whose seminal study, The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind (1896) led to the development of group psychology .

William McDougall[ edit ]

Main article: William McDougall (psychologist)

The British psychologist William McDougall in his work The Group Mind (1920) researched the dynamics of groups of various sizes and degrees of organization.

Sigmund Freud[ edit ]

Main article: Sigmund Freud

In Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego , (1922), Sigmund Freud based his preliminary description of group psychology on Le Bon’s work, but went on to develop his own, original theory, related to what he had begun to elaborate in Totem and Taboo . Theodor Adorno reprised Freud’s essay in 1951 with his Freudian Theory and the Pattern of Fascist Propaganda, and said that “It is not an overstatement if we say that Freud, though he was hardly interested in the political phase of the problem, clearly foresaw the rise and nature of fascist mass movements in purely psychological categories.” [7]

Jacob L. Moreno[ edit ]

Main article: Jacob L. Moreno

Jacob L. Moreno was a psychiatrist, dramatist, philosopher and theoretician who coined the term “group psychotherapy” in the early 1930s and was highly influential at the time.

Kurt Lewin[ edit ]

Main article: Kurt Lewin

Kurt Lewin (1943, 1948, 1951) is commonly identified as the founder of the movement to study groups scientifically. He coined the term group dynamics to describe the way groups and individuals act and react to changing circumstances. [8]

William Schutz[ edit ]

Main article: William Schutz

William Schutz (1958, 1966) looked at interpersonal relations as stage-developmental, inclusion (am I included?), control (who is top dog here?), and affection (do I belong here?). Schutz sees groups resolving each issue in turn in order to be able to progress to the next stage.

Conversely, a struggling group can devolve to an earlier stage, if unable to resolve outstanding issues at its present stage.
Schutz referred to these group dynamics as “the interpersonal underworld,” group processes which are largely unseen and un-acknowledged, as opposed to “content” issues, which are nominally the agenda of group meetings. [9] [10]

Wilfred Bion[ edit ]

Main article: Wilfred Bion

Wilfred Bion (1961) studied group dynamics from a psychoanalytic perspective, and stated that he was much influenced by Wilfred Trotter for whom he worked at University College Hospital London, as did another key figure in the Psychoanalytic movement, Ernest Jones . He discovered several mass group processes which involved the group as a whole adopting an orientation which, in his opinion, interfered with the ability of a group to accomplish the work it was nominally engaged in. [11] His experiences are reported in his published books, especially Experiences in Groups. The Tavistock Institute has further developed and applied the theory and practices developed by Bion.

Bruce Tuckman[ edit ]

Main article: Bruce Tuckman

Bruce Tuckman (1965) proposed the four-stage model called Tuckman’s Stages for a group. Tuckman’s model states that the ideal group decision-making process should occur in four stages:

  • Forming (pretending to get on or get along with others)
  • Storming (letting down the politeness barrier and trying to get down to the issues even if tempers flare up)
  • Norming (getting used to each other and developing trust and productivity)
  • Performing (working in a group to a common goal on a highly efficient and cooperative basis)

Tuckman later added a fifth stage for the dissolution of a group called adjourning. (Adjourning may also be referred to as mourning , i.e. mourning the adjournment of the group). This model refers to the overall pattern of the group, but of course individuals within a group work in different ways. If distrust persists, a group may never even get to the norming stage.

M. Scott Peck[ edit ]

Main article: M. Scott Peck

M. Scott Peck developed stages for larger-scale groups (i.e., communities) which are similar to Tuckman’s stages of group development. [12] Peck describes the stages of a community as:

  • Pseudo-community
  • Chaos
  • Emptiness
  • True Community

Communities may be distinguished from other types of groups, in Peck’s view, by the need for members to eliminate barriers to communication in order to be able to form true community. Examples of common barriers are: expectations and preconceptions; prejudices ; ideology , counterproductive norms , theology and solutions; the need to heal, convert, fix or solve and the need to control. A community is born when its members reach a stage of “emptiness” or peace .

Richard Hackman[ edit ]

Richard Hackman developed a synthetic, research-based model for designing and managing work groups. Hackman suggested that groups are successful when they satisfy internal and external clients, develop capabilities to perform in the future, and when members find meaning and satisfaction in the group. Hackman proposed five conditions that increase the chance that groups will be successful. [13] These include:

  1. Being a real team: which results from having a shared task, clear boundaries which clarify who is inside or outside of the group, and stability in group membership.
  2. Compelling direction: which results from a clear, challenging, and consequential goal.
  3. Enabling structure: which results from having tasks which have variety, a group size that is not too large, talented group members who have at least moderate social skill, and strong norms that specify appropriate behaviour.
  4. Supportive context: which occurs in groups nested in larger groups (e.g. companies). In companies, supportive contexts involves a) reward systems that reward performance and cooperation (e.g. group based rewards linked to group performance), b) an educational system that develops member skills, c) an information and materials system that provides the needed information and raw materials (e.g. computers).
  5. Expert coaching: which occurs on the rare occasions when group members feel they need help with task or interpersonal issues. Hackman emphasizes that many team leaders are overbearing and undermine group effectiveness.

Intragroup dynamics[ edit ]

Intragroup dynamics (also referred to as ingroup-, within-group, or commonly just ‘group dynamics’) are the underlying processes that give rise to a set of norms, roles, relations, and common goals that characterize a particular social group . Examples of groups include religious, political, military, and environmental groups, sports teams, work groups, and therapy groups. Amongst the members of a group, there is a state of interdependence, through which the behaviours, attitudes, opinions, and experiences of each member are collectively influenced by the other group members. [14] In many fields of research, there is an interest in understanding how group dynamics influence individual behaviour, attitudes, and opinions.

The dynamics of a particular group depend on how one defines the boundaries of the group. Often, there are distinct subgroups within a more broadly defined group. For example, one could define U.S. residents (‘Americans’) as a group, but could also define a more specific set of U.S. residents (for example, ‘Americans in the South’). For each of these groups, there are distinct dynamics that can be discussed. Notably, on this very broad level, the study of group dynamics is similar to the study of culture. For example, there are group dynamics in the U.S. South that sustain a culture of honor, which is associated with norms of toughness, honour-related violence, and self-defence. [15] [16]

Group formation[ edit ]

Group formation starts with a psychological bond between individuals. The social cohesion approach suggests that group formation comes out of bonds of interpersonal attraction . [2] In contrast, the social identity approach suggests that a group starts when a collection of individuals perceive that they share some social category (‘smokers’, ‘nurses,’ ‘students,’ ‘hockey players’), and that interpersonal attraction only secondarily enhances the connection between individuals. [2] Additionally, from the social identity approach, group formation involves both identifying with some individuals and explicitly not identifying with others. So to say, a level of psychological distinctiveness is necessary for group formation. Through interaction, individuals begin to develop group norms, roles, and attitudes which define the group, and are internalized to influence behaviour. [17]

Emergent groups arise from a relatively spontaneous process of group formation. For example, in response to a natural disaster, an emergent response group may form. These groups are characterized as having no preexisting structure (e.g. group membership, allocated roles) or prior experience working together. [18] Yet, these groups still express high levels of interdependence and coordinate knowledge, resources, and tasks. [18]

Joining groups[ edit ]

Joining a group is determined by a number of different factors, including an individual’s personal traits [19] ; gender [20] ; social motives such as need for affiliation [21] , need for power [22] , and need for intimacy [23] ; attachment style [24] ; and prior group experiences [25] . Groups can offer some advantages to its members that would not be possible if an individual decided to remain alone, including gaining social support in the forms of emotional support [26] , instrumental support [27] , and informational support [27] . It also offers friendship, potential new interests, learning new skills, and enhancing self esteem [28] . However, joining a group may also cost an individual time, effort, and personal resources as they may conform to social pressures and strive to reap the benefits that may be offered by the group [29] .

The Minimax Principle is a part of social exchange theory that states that people will join and remain in a group that can provide them with the maximum amount of valuable rewards while at the same time, ensuring the minimum amount of costs to themselves [30] . However, this does not necessarily mean that a person will join a group simply because the reward/cost ratio seems attractive. According to Howard Kelley and John Thibaut, a group may be attractive to us in terms of costs and benefits, but that attractiveness alone does not determine whether or not we will join the group. Instead, our decision is based on two factors: our comparison level, and our comparison level for alternatives [30] .

In John Thibaut and Harold Kelley’s social exchange theory , comparison level is the standard by which an individual will evaluate the desirability of becoming a member of the group and forming new social relationships within the group [30] . This comparison level is influenced by previous relationships and membership in different groups. Those individuals who have experienced positive rewards with few costs in previous relationships and groups will have a higher comparison level than a person who experienced more negative costs and fewer rewards in previous relationships and group memberships. According to the social exchange theory , group membership will be more satisfying to a new prospective member if the group’s outcomes, in terms of costs and rewards, are above the individual’s comparison level. As well, group membership will be unsatisfying to a new member if the outcomes are below the individual’s comparison level [30] .

Comparison level only predicts how satisfied a new member will be with the social relationships within the group [31] . To determine whether people will actually join or leave a group, the value of other, alternative groups needs to be taken into account [31] . This is called the comparison level for alternatives. This comparison level for alternatives is the standard by which an individual will evaluate the quality of the group in comparison to other groups the individual has the opportunity to join. Thiabaut and Kelley stated that the “comparison level for alternatives can be defined informally as the lowest level of outcomes a member will accept in the light of available alternative opportunities” (p. 21) [32] .

Joining and leaving groups is ultimately depends on the comparison level for alternatives, whereas member satisfaction within a group depends on the comparison level [31] . To summarize, if membership in the group is above the comparison level for alternatives and above the comparison level, the membership within the group will be satisfying and an individual will be more likely to join the group. If membership in the group is above the comparison level for alternatives but below the comparison level, membership will be not be satisfactory; however, the individual will likely join the group since no other desirable options are available. When group membership is below the comparison level for alternatives but above the comparison level, membership is satisfying but an individual will be unlikely to join. If group membership is below both the comparison and alternative comparison levels, membership will be dissatisfying and the individual will be less likely to join the group.

Types of groups[ edit ]

Groups can vary drastically from one another. For example, three best friends who interact every day as well as a collection of people watching a movie in a theater both constitute a group. Past research has identified four basic types of groups which include, but are not limited to: primary groups, social groups, collective groups, and categories [33] . It is important to define these four types of groups because they are intuitive to most lay people. For example, in an experiment [34] , participants were asked to sort a number of groups into categories based on their own criteria. Examples of groups to be sorted were a sports team, a family, women, and people at a bus stop. It was found that participants consistently sorted groups into four categories: intimacy groups, task groups, loose associations, and social categories. These categories are conceptually similar to the four basic types to be discussed. Therefore, it seems that individuals intuitively define aggregations of individuals in this way.

Primary groups[ edit ]

Primary groups are characterized by relatively small, long-lasting groups of individuals who share personally meaningful relationships. Since these groups often interact face-to-face, they know each other very well and are unified. Individuals that are a part of primary groups consider the group to be an important part of their lives. Consequently, members strongly identify with their group, even without regular meetings [35] . Cooley [36] believed that primary groups were essential for integrating individuals into their society since this is often their first experience with a group. For example, individuals are born into a primary group, their family, which creates a foundation for them to base their future relationships. Individuals can be born into a primary group; however, primary groups can also form when individuals interact for extended periods of time in meaningful ways [37] . Examples of primary groups include family, close friends, and gangs.

Social groups[ edit ]

A social group is characterized by a formally organized group of individuals who are not as emotionally involved with each other as those in a primary group. These groups tend to be larger, with shorter memberships compared to primary groups [38] . Further, social groups do not have as stable memberships, since members are able to leave their social group and join new groups. The goals of social groups are often task-oriented as opposed to relationship-oriented [39] Examples of social groups include coworkers, clubs, and sports teams.

Collectives[ edit ]

Collectives are characterized by large groups of individuals who display similar actions or outlooks. They are loosely formed, spontaneous, and brief [40] . Examples of collectives include a flash mob, an audience at a movie, and a crowd watching a building burn.

Categories[ edit ]

Categories are characterized by a collection of individuals who are similar in some way [41] . Categories become groups when their similarities have social implications. For example, when people treat others differently because of their race, this creates groups of different races [42] . For this reason, categories can appear to be higher in entitativity and essentialism than primary, social, and collective groups. Entitativity is defined by Campbell [43] as the extent to which collections of individuals are perceived to be a group. The degree of entitativity that a group has is influenced by whether a collection of individuals experience the same fate, display similarities, and are close in proximity. If individuals believe that a group is high in entitativity, then they are likely to believe that the group has unchanging characteristics that are essential to the group, known as essentialism [44] . Examples of categories are New Yorkers, gamblers, and women.

Group membership and social identity[ edit ]

The social group is a critical source of information about individual identity. [45] An individual’s identity (or self-concept) has two components: personal identity and social identity (or collective self). One’s personal identity is defined by more idiosyncratic, individual qualities and attributes. [2] In contrast, one’s social identity is defined by his or her group membership, and the general characteristics (or prototypes) that define the group and differentiate it from others. [2] We naturally make comparisons between our own group and other groups, but we do not necessarily make objective comparisons. Instead, we make evaluations that are self-enhancing, emphasizing the positive qualities of our own group (see ingroup bias ). [2] In this way, these comparisons give us a distinct and valued social identity that benefits our self-esteem. Our social identity and group membership also satisfies a need to belong. [46] Of course, individuals belong to multiple groups. Therefore, one’s social identity can have several, qualitatively distinct parts (for example, one’s ethnic identity, religious identity, and political identity). [47]

Optimal distinctiveness theory suggests that individuals have a desire to be similar to others, but also a desire to differentiate themselves, ultimately seeking some balance of these two desires (to obtain optimal distinctiveness). [48] For example, one might imagine a young teenager in the United States who tries to balance these desires, not wanting to be ‘just like everyone else,’ but also wanting to ‘fit in’ and be similar to others. One’s collective self may offer a balance between these two desires. [2] That is, to be similar to others (those who you share group membership with), but also to be different from others (those who are outside of your group).

Group cohesion[ edit ]

Main article: Group cohesiveness

In the social sciences, group cohesion refers to the processes that keep members of a social group connected. [4] Terms such as attraction, solidarity, and morale are often used to describe group cohesion. [4] It is thought to be one of the most important characteristics of a group, and has been linked to group performance, [49] intergroup conflict [50] and therapeutic change. [51]

Group cohesion, as a scientifically studied property of groups, is commonly associated with Kurt Lewin and his student, Leon Festinger . Lewin defined group cohesion as the willingness of individuals to stick together, and believed that without cohesiveness a group could not exist. [4] As an extension of Lewin’s work, Festinger (along with Stanley Schachter and Kurt Back) described cohesion as, “the total field of forces which act on members to remain in the group” (Festinger, Schachter, & Back, 1950, p. 37). [4] Later, this definition was modified to describe the forces acting on individual members to remain in the group, termed attraction to the group. [4] Since then, several models for understanding the concept of group cohesion have been developed, including Albert Carron’s hierarchical model [52] and several bi-dimensional models (vertical v. horizontal cohesion, task v. social cohesion, belongingness and morale, and personal v. social attraction). Before Lewin and Festinger, there were, of course, descriptions of a very similar group property. For example, Emile Durkheim described two forms of solidarity (mechanical and organic), which created a sense of collective conscious and an emotion-based sense of community. [53]

Black sheep effect[ edit ]

Beliefs within the ingroup are based on how individuals in the group see their other members. Individuals tend to upgrade likeable in-group members and deviate from unlikeable group members, making them a separate outgroup. This is called the black sheep effect. [54] The way a person judges socially desirable and socially undesirable individuals depends upon whether they are part of the ingroup or outgroup.

This phenomenon has been later accounted for by subjective group dynamics theory. [55] According to this theory, people derogate socially undesirable (deviant) ingroup members relative to outgroup members, because they give a bad image of the ingroup and jeopardize people’s social identity.

In more recent studies, Marques and colleagues [56] have shown that this occurs more strongly with regard to ingroup full members than other members. Whereas new members of a group must prove themselves to the full members to become accepted, full members have undergone socialization and are already accepted within the group. They have more privilege than newcomers but more responsibility to help the group achieve its goals. Marginal members were once full members but lost membership because they failed to live up to the group’s expectations. They can rejoin the group if they go through re-socialization. Therefore, full members’ behavior is paramount to define the ingroup’s image.

Bogart and Ryan surveyed the development of new members’ stereotypes about in-groups and out-groups during socialization. Results showed that the new members judged themselves as consistent with the stereotypes of their in-groups, even when they had recently committed to join those groups or existed as marginal members. They also tended to judge the group as a whole in an increasingly less positive manner after they became full members. [57] However, there is no evidence that this affects the way they are judged by other members. Nevertheless, depending on the self-esteem of an individual, members of the in-group may experience different private beliefs about the group’s activities but will publicly express the opposite—that they actually share these beliefs. One member may not personally agree with something the group does, but to avoid the black sheep effect, they will publicly agree with the group and keep the private beliefs to themselves. If the person is privately self-aware , he or she is more likely to comply with the group even if they possibly have their own beliefs about the situation. [58]

In situations of hazing within fraternities and sororities on college campuses, pledges may encounter this type of situation and may outwardly comply with the tasks they are forced to do regardless of their personal feelings about the Greek institution they are joining. This is done in an effort to avoid becoming an outcast of the group. [57] Outcasts who behave in a way that might jeopardize the group tend to be treated more harshly than the likeable ones in a group, creating a black sheep effect. Full members of a fraternity might treat the incoming new members harshly, causing the pledges to decide if they approve of the situation and if they will voice their disagreeing opinions about it.

Group influence on individual behaviour[ edit ]

Individual behaviour is influenced by the presence of others. [45] For example, studies have found that individuals work harder and faster when others are present (see social facilitation ), and that an individual’s performance is reduced when others in the situation create distraction or conflict. [45] Groups also influence individual’s decision-making processes. These include decisions related to ingroup bias , persuasion (see Asch conformity experiments ), obedience (see Milgram Experiment ), and groupthink . There are both positive and negative implications of group influence on individual behaviour. This type of influence is often useful in the context of work settings, team sports, and political activism. However, the influence of groups on the individual can also generate extremely negative behaviours, evident in Nazi Germany, the My Lai Massacre , and in the Abu Ghraib prison (also see Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse ). [59]

Group structure[ edit ]

A group’s structure is the internal framework that defines members’ relations to one another over time. [60] Frequently studied elements of group structure include roles, norms, values, communication patterns, and status differentials. [61] Group structure has also been defined as the underlying pattern of roles, norms, and networks of relations among members that define and organize the group. [62]

Roles can be defined as a tendency to behave, contribute and interrelate with others in a particular way. Roles may be assigned formally, but more often are defined through the process of role differentiation. [63] Role differentiation is the degree to which different group members have specialized functions. A group with a high level of role differentiation would be categorized as having many different roles that are specialized and narrowly defined. [62] A key role in a group is the leader, but there are other important roles as well, including task roles, relationship roles, and individual roles. [62] Functional (task) roles are generally defined in relation to the tasks the team is expected to perform. [64] Individuals engaged in task roles focus on the goals of the group and on enabling the work that members do; examples of task roles include coordinator, recorder, critic, or technician. [62] A group member engaged in a relationship role (or socioemotional role) is focused on maintaining the interpersonal and emotional needs of the groups’ members; examples of relationship role include encourager, harmonizer, or compromiser. [62]

Norms are the informal rules that groups adopt to regulate members’ behaviour. Norms refer to what should be done and represent value judgments about appropriate behaviour in social situations. Although they are infrequently written down or even discussed, norms have powerful influence on group behaviour. [65] They are a fundamental aspect of group structure as they provide direction and motivation, and organize the social interactions of members. [62] Norms are said to be emergent, as they develop gradually throughout interactions between group members. [62] While many norms are widespread throughout society, groups may develop their own norms that members must learn when they join the group. There are various types of norms, including: prescriptive, proscriptive, descriptive, and injunctive. [62]

  • Prescriptive Norms: the socially appropriate way to respond in a social situation, or what group members are supposed to do (e.g. saying thank you after someone does a favour for you)
  • Proscriptive Norms: actions that group members should not do; prohibitive (e.g. not belching in public)
  • Descriptive Norms: describe what people usually do (e.g. clapping after a speech)
  • Injunctive Norms: describe behaviours that people ought to do; more evaluative in nature than a descriptive norm

Intermember Relations are the connections among the members of a group, or the social network within a group. Group members are linked to one another at varying levels. Examining the intermember relations of a group can highlight a group’s density (how many members are linked to one another), or the degree centrality of members (number of ties between members). [62] Analysing the intermember relations aspect of a group can highlight the degree centrality of each member in the group, which can lead to a better understanding of the roles of certain group (e.g. an individual who is a ‘go-between’ in a group will have closer ties to numerous group members which can aid in communication, etc.). [62]

Values are goals or ideas that serve as guiding principles for the group. [66] Like norms, values may be communicated either explicitly or on an ad hoc basis. Values can serve as a rallying point for the team. However, some values (such as conformity) can also be dysfunction and lead to poor decisions by the team.

Communication patterns describe the flow of information within the group and they are typically described as either centralized or decentralized. With a centralized pattern, communications tend to flow from one source to all group members. Centralized communications allow standardization of information, but may restrict the free flow of information. Decentralized communications make it easy to share information directly between group members. When decentralized, communications tend to flow more freely, but the delivery of information may not be as fast or accurate as with centralized communications. Another potential downside of decentralized communications is the sheer volume of information that can be generated, particularly with electronic media.

Status differentials are the relative differences in status among group members. When a group is first formed the members may all be on an equal level, but over time certain members may acquire status and authority within the group; this can create what is known as a pecking order within a group. [62] Status can be determined by a variety of factors and characteristics, including specific status characteristics (e.g. task-specific behavioural and personal characteristics, such as experience) or diffuse status characteristics (e.g. age, race, ethnicity). [62] It is important that other group members perceive an individual’s status to be warranted and deserved, as otherwise they may not have authority within the group. [62] Status differentials may affect the relative amount of pay among group members and they may also affect the group’s tolerance to violation of group norms (e.g. people with higher status may be given more freedom to violate group norms).

Group performance[ edit ]

Forsyth suggests that while many daily tasks undertaken by individuals could be performed in isolation, the preference is to perform with other people. [62]

Social facilitation and performance gains[ edit ]

In a study of dynamogenic stimulation for the purpose of explaining pacemaking and competition in 1898, Norman Triplett theorized that “the bodily presence of another rider is a stimulus to the racer in arousing the competitive instinct…”. [67] This dynamogenic factor is believed to have laid the groundwork for what is now known as social facilitation—an “improvement in task performance that occurs when people work in the presence of other people”. [62]

Further to Triplett’s observation, in 1920, Floyd Allport found that although people in groups were more productive than individuals, the quality of their product/effort was inferior. [62]

In 1965, Robert Zajonc expanded the study of arousal response (originated by Triplett) with further research in the area of social facilitation. In his study, Zajonc considered two experimental paradigms. In the first—audience effects—Zajonc observed behaviour in the presence of passive spectators, and the second—co-action effects—he examined behaviour in the presence of another individual engaged in the same activity. [68]

Zajonc observed two categories of behaviours—dominant responses to tasks that are easier to learn and which dominate other potential responses and nondominant responses to tasks that are less likely to be performed. In his Theory of Social Facilitation, Zajonc concluded that in the presence of others, when action is required, depending on the task requirement, either social facilitation or social interference will impact the outcome of the task. If social facilitation occurs, the task will have required a dominant response from the individual resulting in better performance in the presence of others, whereas if social interference occurs the task will have elicited a nondominant response from the individual resulting in subpar performance of the task. [62]

Several theories analysing performance gains in groups via drive, motivational, cognitive and personality processes, explain why social facilitation occurs.

Zajonc hypothesized that compresence (the state of responding in the presence of others) elevates an individual’s drive level which in turn triggers social facilitation when tasks are simple and easy to execute, but impedes performance when tasks are challenging. [62]

Nickolas Cottrell, 1972, proposed the evaluation apprehension model whereby he suggested people associate social situations with an evaluative process. Cottrell argued this situation is met with apprehension and it is this motivational response, not arousal/elevated drive, that is responsible for increased productivity on simple tasks and decreased productivity on complex tasks in the presence of others. [62]

In The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life (1959), Erving Goffman assumes that individuals can control how they are perceived by others. He suggests that people fear being perceived as having negative, undesirable qualities and characteristics by other people, and that it is this fear that compels individuals to portray a positive self-presentation/social image of themselves. In relation to performance gains, Goffman’s self-presentation theory predicts, in situations where they may be evaluated, individuals will consequently increase their efforts in order to project/preserve/maintain a positive image. [62]

Distraction-conflict theory contends that when a person is working in the presence of other people, an interference effect occurs splitting the individual’s attention between the task and the other person. On simple tasks, where the individual is not challenged by the task, the interference effect is negligible and performance, therefore, is facilitated. On more complex tasks, where drive is not strong enough to effectively compete against the effects of distraction, there is no performance gain. The Stroop task ( Stroop effect ) demonstrated that, by narrowing a person’s focus of attention on certain tasks, distractions can improve performance. [62]

Social orientation theory considers the way a person approaches social situations. It predicts that self-confident individuals with a positive outlook will show performance gains through social facilitation, whereas a self-conscious individual approaching social situations with apprehension is less likely to perform well due to social interference effects. [62]

Intergroup dynamics[ edit ]

Intergroup dynamics refers to the behavioural and psychological relationship between two or more groups. This includes perceptions, attitudes, opinions, and behaviours towards one’s own group, as well as those towards another group. In some cases, intergroup dynamics is prosocial, positive, and beneficial (for example, when multiple research teams work together to accomplish a task or goal). In other cases, intergroup dynamics can create conflict. For example, Fischer & Ferlie found initially positive dynamics between a clinical institution and its external authorities dramatically changed to a ‘hot’ and intractable conflict when authorities interfered with its embedded clinical model. [69] Similarly, underlying the 1999 Columbine High School shooting in Littleton, Colorado , United States, intergroup dynamics played a significant role in Eric Harris’ and Dylan Klebold ’s decision to kill a teacher and 14 students (including themselves). [59]

Intergroup conflict[ edit ]

According to social identity theory , intergroup conflict starts with a process of comparison between individuals in one group (the ingroup) to those of another group (the outgroup). [70] This comparison process is not unbiased and objective. Instead, it is a mechanism for enhancing one’s self-esteem. [2] In the process of such comparisons, an individual tends to:

  • favour the ingroup over the outgroup
  • exaggerate and overgeneralize the differences between the ingroup and the outgroup (to enhance group distinctiveness)
  • minimize the perception of differences between ingroup members
  • remember more detailed and positive information about the ingroup, and more negative information about the outgroup [71]

Even without any intergroup interaction (as in the minimal group paradigm ), individuals begin to show favouritism towards their own group, and negative reactions towards the outgroup. [71] This conflict can result in prejudice, stereotypes , and discrimination . Intergroup conflict can be highly competitive, especially for social groups with a long history of conflict (for example, the 1994 Rwandan Genocide , rooted in group conflict between the ethnic Hutu and Tutsi). [2] In contrast, intergroup competition can sometimes be relatively harmless, particularly in situations where there is little history of conflict (for example, between students of different universities) leading to relatively harmless generalizations and mild competitive behaviours. [2] Intergroup conflict is commonly recognized amidst racial, ethnic, religious, and political groups.

The formation of intergroup conflict was investigated in a popular series of studies by Muzafer Sherif and colleagues in 1961, called the Robbers Cave Experiment . [72] The Robbers Cave Experiment was later used to support realistic conflict theory . [73] Other prominent theories relating to intergroup conflict include social dominance theory , and social-/ self-categorization theory .

Intergroup conflict reduction[ edit ]

There have been several strategies developed for reducing the tension, bias, prejudice, and conflict between social groups. These include the contact hypothesis, the jigsaw classroom, and several categorization-based strategies.

Contact hypothesis (intergroup contact theory)[ edit ]

In 1954, Gordon Allport suggested that by promoting contact between groups, prejudice can be reduced. [74] Further, he suggested four optimal conditions for contact: equal status between the groups in the situation; common goals; intergroup cooperation; and the support of authorities, law, or customs. [75] Since then, over 500 studies have been done on prejudice reduction under variations of the contact hypothesis, and a meta-analytic review suggests overall support for its efficacy. [75] In some cases, even without the four optimal conditions outlined by Allport, prejudice between groups can be reduced. [75]

Superordinate identities[ edit ]

Under the contact hypothesis, several models have been developed. A number of these models utilize a superordinate identity to reduce prejudice. That is, a more broadly defined, ‘umbrella’ group/identity that includes the groups that are in conflict. By emphasizing this superordinate identity, individuals in both subgroups can share a common social identity. [76] For example, if there is conflict between White, Black, and Latino students in a high school, one might try to emphasize the ‘high school’ group/identity that students share to reduce conflict between the groups. Models utilizing superordinate identities include the common ingroup identity model, the ingroup projection model, the mutual intergroup differentiation model, and the ingroup identity model. [76] Similarly, “recategorization” is a broader term used by Gaertner et al. to describe the strategies aforementioned. [71]

Interdependence[ edit ]

There are also techniques for reducing prejudice that utilize interdependence between two or more groups. That is, members across groups have to rely on one another to accomplish some goal or task. In the Robbers Cave Experiment , Sherif used this strategy to reduce conflict between groups. [71] Elliot Aronson ’s Jigsaw Classroom also uses this strategy of interdependence. [77] In 1971, thick racial tensions were abounding in Austin, Texas. Aronson was brought in to examine the nature of this tension within schools, and to devise a strategy for reducing it (so to improve the process of school integration, mandated under Brown v. Board of Education in 1954). Despite strong evidence for the effectiveness of the jigsaw classroom, the strategy was not widely used (arguably because of strong attitudes existing outside of the schools, which still resisted the notion that racial and ethnic minority groups are equal to Whites and, similarly, should be integrated into schools).

Selected academic journals[ edit ]

  • Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
  • Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice
  • Small Group Research
  • Group Analysis
  • International Journal of Group Psychotherapy
  • The Journal for Specialists in Group Work
  • Social Work With Groups
  • International Journal on Minority and Group Rights
  • Group Facilitation: A Research and Applications Journal

See also[ edit ]

  • Cog’s ladder
  • Collaboration
  • Collaborative method
  • Decision downloading
  • Entitativity
  • Facilitator
  • Group narcissism
  • Interpersonal relationships
  • Maintenance actions
  • Organization climate
  • Out-group homogeneity
  • Small-group communication
  • Social psychology
  • Social psychology (sociology)
  • Social tuning
  • Team effectiveness
  • Team-based learning

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[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]

Authority control Edit this at Wikidata
  • GND : 4022392-9
  • NDL : 00944915
  1. ^ Cooley, Charles (1909). social organization: a study of the larger mind. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.
  2. ^ Forsyth, D. R. (2006). Group dynamics. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
  3. ^ Campbell, D. T. (1958). “Common fate, similarity, and other indices of the status of aggregates of persons as social entities”. Systems Research and Behavioural Science. 3 (1): 14-25. doi : 10.1002/bs.3830030103 .
  4. ^ Haslam, N; Rothschild, L; Ernst, D (2002). “Are essentialist beliefs associated with prejudice?”. British Journal of Social Psychology. 41 (1): 87-100.
  5. ^ Lickel, B; Hamilton, D. L.; Wieczorkowska, G; Lewis, A; Sherman, S. J.; Uhles, A. N. (2000). “Varieties of groups and the perception of group entitativity”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 78: 223-246.

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      U.S.

      The End of Men

      Earlier this year, women became the majority of the workforce for the first time in U.S. history. Most managers are now women too. And for every two men who get a college degree this year, three women will do the same. For years, women’s progress has been cast as a struggle for equality. But what if equality isn’t the end point? What if modern, postindustrial society is simply better suited to women? A report on the unprecedented role reversal now under way— and its vast cultural consequences

      Hanna Rosin

      John Ritter

      In the 1970s the biologist Ronald Ericsson came up with a way to separate sperm carrying the male-producing Y chromosome from those carrying the X. He sent the two kinds of sperm swimming down a glass tube through ever-thicker albumin barriers. The sperm with the X chromosome had a larger head and a longer tail, and so, he figured, they would get bogged down in the viscous liquid. The sperm with the Y chromosome were leaner and faster and could swim down to the bottom of the tube more efficiently. Ericsson had grown up on a ranch in South Dakota, where he’d developed an Old West, cowboy swagger. The process, he said, was like “cutting out cattle at the gate.” The cattle left flailing behind the gate were of course the X’s, which seemed to please him. He would sometimes demonstrate the process using cartilage from a bull’s penis as a pointer.

      In the late 1970s, Ericsson leased the method to clinics around the U.S., calling it the first scientifically proven method for choosing the sex of a child. Instead of a lab coat, he wore cowboy boots and a cowboy hat, and doled out his version of cowboy poetry. (People magazine once suggested a TV miniseries based on his life called Cowboy in the Lab.) The right prescription for life, he would say, was “breakfast at five-thirty, on the saddle by six, no room for Mr. Limp Wrist.” In 1979, he loaned out his ranch as the backdrop for the iconic “Marlboro Country” ads because he believed in the campaign’s central image—“a guy riding on his horse along the river, no bureaucrats, no lawyers,” he recalled when I spoke to him this spring. “He’s the boss.” (The photographers took some 6,500 pictures, a pictorial record of the frontier that Ericsson still takes great pride in.)


      Video: In this family feud, Hanna Rosin and her daughter, Noa, debate the superiority of women with Rosin’s son, Jacob, and husband, Slate editor David Plotz

      Feminists of the era did not take kindly to Ericsson and his Marlboro Man veneer. To them, the lab cowboy and his sperminator portended a dystopia of mass-produced boys. “You have to be concerned about the future of all women,” Roberta Steinbacher, a nun-turned-social-psychologist, said in a 1984 People profile of Ericsson . “There’s no question that there exists a universal preference for sons.” Steinbacher went on to complain about women becoming locked in as “second-class citizens” while men continued to dominate positions of control and influence. “I think women have to ask themselves, ‘Where does this stop?’” she said. “A lot of us wouldn’t be here right now if these practices had been in effect years ago.”

      Ericsson, now 74, laughed when I read him these quotes from his old antagonist. Seldom has it been so easy to prove a dire prediction wrong. In the ’90s, when Ericsson looked into the numbers for the two dozen or so clinics that use his process, he discovered, to his surprise, that couples were requesting more girls than boys, a gap that has persisted, even though Ericsson advertises the method as more effective for producing boys. In some clinics, Ericsson has said, the ratio is now as high as 2 to 1. Polling data on American sex preference is sparse, and does not show a clear preference for girls. But the picture from the doctor’s office unambiguously does. A newer method for sperm selection, called MicroSort , is currently completing Food and Drug Administration clinical trials. The girl requests for that method run at about 75 percent.

      Even more unsettling for Ericsson, it has become clear that in choosing the sex of the next generation, he is no longer the boss. “It’s the women who are driving all the decisions,” he says—a change the MicroSort spokespeople I met with also mentioned. At first, Ericsson says, women who called his clinics would apologize and shyly explain that they already had two boys. “Now they just call and [say] outright, ‘I want a girl.’ These mothers look at their lives and think their daughters will have a bright future their mother and grandmother didn’t have, brighter than their sons, even, so why wouldn’t you choose a girl?”

      Why wouldn’t you choose a girl? That such a statement should be so casually uttered by an old cowboy like Ericsson—or by anyone, for that matter—is monumental. For nearly as long as civilization has existed, patriarchy—enforced through the rights of the firstborn son—has been the organizing principle, with few exceptions. Men in ancient Greece tied off their left testicle in an effort to produce male heirs; women have killed themselves (or been killed) for failing to bear sons. In her iconic 1949 book, TheSecond Sex, the French feminist Simone de Beauvoir suggested that women so detested their own “feminine condition” that they regarded their newborn daughters with irritation and disgust. Now the centuries-old preference for sons is eroding—or even reversing. “Women of our generation want daughters precisely because we like who we are,” breezes one woman in Cookie magazine. Even Ericsson, the stubborn old goat, can sigh and mark the passing of an era. “Did male dominance exist? Of course it existed. But it seems to be gone now. And the era of the firstborn son is totally gone.”

      Ericsson’s extended family is as good an illustration of the rapidly shifting landscape as any other. His 26-year-old granddaughter—“tall, slender, brighter than hell, with a take-no-prisoners personality”—is a biochemist and works on genetic sequencing. His niece studied civil engineering at the University of Southern California. His grandsons, he says, are bright and handsome, but in school “their eyes glaze over. I have to tell ’em: ‘Just don’t screw up and crash your pickup truck and get some girl pregnant and ruin your life.’” Recently Ericsson joked with the old boys at his elementary-school reunion that he was going to have a sex-change operation. “Women live longer than men. They do better in this economy. More of ’em graduate from college. They go into space and do everything men do, and sometimes they do it a whole lot better. I mean, hell, get out of the way—these females are going to leave us males in the dust.”

      Man has been the dominant sex since, well, the dawn of mankind. But for the first time in human history, that is changing—and with shocking speed. Cultural and economic changes always reinforce each other. And the global economy is evolving in a way that is eroding the historical preference for male children, worldwide. Over several centuries, South Korea, for instance, constructed one of the most rigid patriarchal societies in the world. Many wives who failed to produce male heirs were abused and treated as domestic servants; some families prayed to spirits to kill off girl children. Then, in the 1970s and ’80s, the government embraced an industrial revolution and encouraged women to enter the labor force. Women moved to the city and went to college. They advanced rapidly, from industrial jobs to clerical jobs to professional work. The traditional order began to crumble soon after. In 1990, the country’s laws were revised so that women could keep custody of their children after a divorce and inherit property. In 2005, the court ruled that women could register children under their own names. As recently as 1985, about half of all women in a national survey said they “must have a son.” That percentage fell slowly until 1991 and then plummeted to just over 15 percent by 2003. Male preference in South Korea “is over,” says Monica Das Gupta, a demographer and Asia expert at the World Bank. “It happened so fast. It’s hard to believe it, but it is.” The same shift is now beginning in other rapidly industrializing countries such as India and China.

      Up to a point, the reasons behind this shift are obvious. As thinking and communicating have come to eclipse physical strength and stamina as the keys to economic success, those societies that take advantage of the talents of all their adults, not just half of them, have pulled away from the rest. And because geopolitics and global culture are, ultimately, Darwinian, other societies either follow suit or end up marginalized. In 2006, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development devised the Gender, Institutions and Development Database, which measures the economic and political power of women in 162 countries. With few exceptions, the greater the power of women, the greater the country’s economic success. Aid agencies have started to recognize this relationship and have pushed to institute political quotas in about 100 countries, essentially forcing women into power in an effort to improve those countries’ fortunes. In some war-torn states, women are stepping in as a sort of maternal rescue team. Liberia’s president, Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, portrayed her country as a sick child in need of her care during her campaign five years ago. Postgenocide Rwanda elected to heal itself by becoming the first country with a majority of women in parliament.

      In feminist circles, these social, political, and economic changes are always cast as a slow, arduous form of catch-up in a continuing struggle for female equality. But in the U.S., the world’s most advanced economy, something much more remarkable seems to be happening. American parents are beginning to choose to have girls over boys. As they imagine the pride of watching a child grow and develop and succeed as an adult, it is more often a girl that they see in their mind’s eye.

      What if the modern, postindustrial economy is simply more congenial to women than to men? For a long time, evolutionary psychologists have claimed that we are all imprinted with adaptive imperatives from a distant past: men are faster and stronger and hardwired to fight for scarce resources, and that shows up now as a drive to win on Wall Street; women are programmed to find good providers and to care for their offspring, and that is manifested in more- nurturing and more-flexible behavior, ordaining them to domesticity. This kind of thinking frames our sense of the natural order. But what if men and women were fulfilling not biological imperatives but social roles, based on what was more efficient throughout a long era of human history? What if that era has now come to an end? More to the point, what if the economics of the new era are better suited to women?

      Once you open your eyes to this possibility, the evidence is all around you. It can be found, most immediately, in the wreckage of the Great Recession, in which three-quarters of the 8 million jobs lost were lost by men. The worst-hit industries were overwhelmingly male and deeply identified with macho: construction, manufacturing, high finance. Some of these jobs will come back, but the overall pattern of dislocation is neither temporary nor random. The recession merely revealed—and accelerated—a profound economic shift that has been going on for at least 30 years, and in some respects even longer.

      Earlier this year, for the first time in American history, the balance of the workforce tipped toward women, who now hold a majority of the nation’s jobs. The working class, which has long defined our notions of masculinity, is slowly turning into a matriarchy, with men increasingly absent from the home and women making all the decisions. Women dominate today’s colleges and professional schools—for every two men who will receive a B.A. this year, three women will do the same. Of the 15 job categories projected to grow the most in the next decade in the U.S., all but two are occupied primarily by women. Indeed, the U.S. economy is in some ways becoming a kind of traveling sisterhood: upper-class women leave home and enter the workforce, creating domestic jobs for other women to fill.

      The postindustrial economy is indifferent to men’s size and strength. The attributes that are most valuable today—social intelligence, open communication, the ability to sit still and focus—are, at a minimum, not predominantly male. In fact, the opposite may be true. Women in poor parts of India are learning English faster than men to meet the demands of new global call centers. Women own more than 40 percent of private businesses in China, where a red Ferrari is the new status symbol for female entrepreneurs. Last year, Iceland elected Prime Minister Johanna Sigurdardottir, the world’s first openly lesbian head of state, who campaigned explicitly against the male elite she claimed had destroyed the nation’s banking system, and who vowed to end the “age of testosterone.”

      Yes, the U.S. still has a wage gap, one that can be convincingly explained—at least in part—by discrimination. Yes, women still do most of the child care. And yes, the upper reaches of society are still dominated by men. But given the power of the forces pushing at the economy, this setup feels like the last gasp of a dying age rather than the permanent establishment. Dozens of college women I interviewed for this story assumed that they very well might be the ones working while their husbands stayed at home, either looking for work or minding the children. Guys, one senior remarked to me, “are the new ball and chain.” It may be happening slowly and unevenly, but it’s unmistakably happening: in the long view, the modern economy is becoming a place where women hold the cards.

      In his final book, The Bachelors’ Ball , published in 2007, the sociologist Pierre Bourdieu describes the changing gender dynamics of Béarn, the region in southwestern France where he grew up. The eldest sons once held the privileges of patrimonial loyalty and filial inheritance in Béarn. But over the decades, changing economic forces turned those privileges into curses. Although the land no longer produced the impressive income it once had, the men felt obligated to tend it. Meanwhile, modern women shunned farm life, lured away by jobs and adventure in the city. They occasionally returned for the traditional balls, but the men who awaited them had lost their prestige and become unmarriageable. This is the image that keeps recurring to me, one that Bourdieu describes in his book: at the bachelors’ ball, the men, self-conscious about their diminished status, stand stiffly, their hands by their sides, as the women twirl away.

      The role reversal that’s under way between American men and women shows up most obviously and painfully in the working class. In recent years, male support groups have sprung up throughout the Rust Belt and in other places where the postindustrial economy has turned traditional family roles upside down. Some groups help men cope with unemployment, and others help them reconnect with their alienated families. Mustafaa El-Scari, a teacher and social worker, leads some of these groups in Kansas City. El-Scari has studied the sociology of men and boys set adrift, and he considers it his special gift to get them to open up and reflect on their new condition. The day I visited one of his classes, earlier this year, he was facing a particularly resistant crowd.

      None of the 30 or so men sitting in a classroom at a downtown Kansas City school have come for voluntary adult enrichment. Having failed to pay their child support, they were given the choice by a judge to go to jail or attend a weekly class on fathering, which to them seemed the better deal. This week’s lesson, from a workbook called Quenching the Father Thirst , was supposed to involve writing a letter to a hypothetical estranged 14-year-old daughter named Crystal, whose father left her when she was a baby. But El-Scari has his own idea about how to get through to this barely awake, skeptical crew, and letters to Crystal have nothing to do with it.

      Like them, he explains, he grew up watching Bill Cosby living behind his metaphorical “white picket fence”—one man, one woman, and a bunch of happy kids. “Well, that check bounced a long time ago,” he says. “Let’s see,” he continues, reading from a worksheet. What are the four kinds of paternal authority? Moral, emotional, social, and physical. “But you ain’t none of those in that house. All you are is a paycheck, and now you ain’t even that. And if you try to exercise your authority, she’ll call 911. How does that make you feel? You’re supposed to be the authority, and she says, ‘Get out of the house, bitch.’ She’s calling you ‘bitch’!”

      The men are black and white, their ages ranging from about 20 to 40. A couple look like they might have spent a night or two on the streets, but the rest look like they work, or used to. Now they have put down their sodas, and El-Scari has their attention, so he gets a little more philosophical. “Who’s doing what?” he asks them. “What is our role? Everyone’s telling us we’re supposed to be the head of a nuclear family, so you feel like you got robbed. It’s toxic, and poisonous, and it’s setting us up for failure.” He writes on the board: $85,000. “This is her salary.” Then: $12,000. “This is your salary. Who’s the damn man? Who’s the man now?” A murmur rises. “That’s right. She’s the man.”

      Judging by the men I spoke with afterward, El-Scari seemed to have pegged his audience perfectly. Darren Henderson was making $33 an hour laying sheet metal, until the real-estate crisis hit and he lost his job. Then he lost his duplex—“there’s my little piece of the American dream”—then his car. And then he fell behind on his child-support payments. “They make it like I’m just sitting around,” he said, “but I’m not.” As proof of his efforts, he took out a new commercial driver’s permit and a bartending license, and then threw them down on the ground like jokers, for all the use they’d been. His daughter’s mother had a $50,000-a-year job and was getting her master’s degree in social work. He’d just signed up for food stamps, which is just about the only social-welfare program a man can easily access. Recently she’d seen him waiting at the bus stop. “Looked me in the eye,” he recalled, “and just drove on by.”

      The men in that room, almost without exception, were casualties of the end of the manufacturing era. Most of them had continued to work with their hands even as demand for manual labor was declining. Since 2000, manufacturing has lost almost 6 million jobs, more than a third of its total workforce, and has taken in few young workers. The housing bubble masked this new reality for a while, creating work in construction and related industries. Many of the men I spoke with had worked as electricians or builders; one had been a successful real-estate agent. Now those jobs are gone too. Henderson spent his days shuttling between unemployment offices and job interviews, wondering what his daughter might be doing at any given moment. In 1950, roughly one in 20 men of prime working age, like Henderson, was not working; today that ratio is about one in five, the highest ever recorded.

      Men dominate just two of the 15 job categories projected to grow the most over the next decade: janitor and computer engineer. Women have everything else—nursing, home health assistance, child care, food preparation. Many of the new jobs, says Heather Boushey of the Center for American Progress, “replace the things that women used to do in the home for free.” None is especially high-paying. But the steady accumulation of these jobs adds up to an economy that, for the working class, has become more amenable to women than to men.

      The list of growing jobs is heavy on nurturing professions, in which women, ironically, seem to benefit from old stereotypes and habits. Theoretically, there is no reason men should not be qualified. But they have proved remarkably unable to adapt. Over the course of the past century, feminism has pushed women to do things once considered against their nature—first enter the workforce as singles, then continue to work while married, then work even with small children at home. Many professions that started out as the province of men are now filled mostly with women—secretary and teacher come to mind. Yet I’m not aware of any that have gone the opposite way. Nursing schools have tried hard to recruit men in the past few years, with minimal success. Teaching schools, eager to recruit male role models, are having a similarly hard time. The range of acceptable masculine roles has changed comparatively little, and has perhaps even narrowed as men have shied away from some careers women have entered. As Jessica Grose wrote in Slate , men seem “fixed in cultural aspic.” And with each passing day, they lag further behind.

      As we recover from the Great Recession, some traditionally male jobs will return—men are almost always harder-hit than women in economic downturns because construction and manufacturing are more cyclical than service industries—but that won’t change the long-term trend. When we look back on this period, argues Jamie Ladge, a business professor at Northeastern University, we will see it as a “turning point for women in the workforce.”

      The economic and cultural power shift from men to women would be hugely significant even if it never extended beyond working-class America. But women are also starting to dominate middle management, and a surprising number of professional careers as well. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, women now hold 51.4 percent of managerial and professional jobs—up from 26.1 percent in 1980. They make up 54 percent of all accountants and hold about half of all banking and insurance jobs. About a third of America’s physicians are now women, as are 45 percent of associates in law firms—and both those percentages are rising fast. A white-collar economy values raw intellectual horsepower, which men and women have in equal amounts. It also requires communication skills and social intelligence, areas in which women, according to many studies, have a slight edge. Perhaps most important—for better or worse—it increasingly requires formal education credentials, which women are more prone to acquire, particularly early in adulthood. Just about the only professions in which women still make up a relatively small minority of newly minted workers are engineering and those calling on a hard-science background, and even in those areas, women have made strong gains since the 1970s.

      Office work has been steadily adapting to women—and in turn being reshaped by them—for 30 years or more. Joel Garreau picks up on this phenomenon in his 1991 book, Edge City , which explores the rise of suburbs that are home to giant swaths of office space along with the usual houses and malls. Companies began moving out of the city in search not only of lower rent but also of the “best educated, most conscientious, most stable workers.” They found their brightest prospects among “underemployed females living in middle-class communities on the fringe of the old urban areas.” As Garreau chronicles the rise of suburban office parks, he places special emphasis on 1978, the peak year for women entering the workforce. When brawn was off the list of job requirements, women often measured up better than men. They were smart, dutiful, and, as long as employers could make the jobs more convenient for them, more reliable. The 1999 movie Office Space was maybe the first to capture how alien and dispiriting the office park can be for men. Disgusted by their jobs and their boss, Peter and his two friends embezzle money and start sleeping through their alarm clocks. At the movie’s end, a male co-worker burns down the office park, and Peter abandons desk work for a job in construction.

      Near the top of the jobs pyramid, of course, the upward march of women stalls. Prominent female CEOs, past and present, are so rare that they count as minor celebrities, and most of us can tick off their names just from occasionally reading the business pages: Meg Whitman at eBay, Carly Fiorina at Hewlett-Packard, Anne Mulcahy and Ursula Burns at Xerox, Indra Nooyi at PepsiCo; the accomplishment is considered so extraordinary that Whitman and Fiorina are using it as the basis for political campaigns. Only 3 percent of Fortune 500 CEOs are women, and the number has never risen much above that.

      But even the way this issue is now framed reveals that men’s hold on power in elite circles may be loosening. In business circles, the lack of women at the top is described as a “brain drain” and a crisis of “talent retention.” And while female CEOs may be rare in America’s largest companies, they are highly prized: last year, they outearned their male counterparts by 43 percent, on average, and received bigger raises.

      Even around the delicate question of working mothers, the terms of the conversation are shifting. Last year, in a story about breast-feeding, I complained about how the early years of child rearing keep women out of power positions. But the term mommy track is slowly morphing into the gender-neutral flex time, reflecting changes in the workforce. For recent college graduates of both sexes, flexible arrangements are at the top of the list of workplace demands, according to a study published last year in the Harvard Business Review. And companies eager to attract and retain talented workers and managers are responding. The consulting firm Deloitte, for instance, started what’s now considered the model program, called Mass Career Customization, which allows employees to adjust their hours depending on their life stage. The program, Deloitte’s Web site explains, solves “a complex issue—one that can no longer be classified as a woman’s issue.”

      “Women are knocking on the door of leadership at the very moment when their talents are especially well matched with the requirements of the day,” writes David Gergen in the introduction to Enlightened Power: How Women Are Transforming the Practice of Leadership . What are these talents? Once it was thought that leaders should be aggressive and competitive, and that men are naturally more of both. But psychological research has complicated this picture. In lab studies that simulate negotiations, men and women are just about equally assertive and competitive, with slight variations. Men tend to assert themselves in a controlling manner, while women tend to take into account the rights of others, but both styles are equally effective, write the psychologists Alice Eagly and Linda Carli, in their 2007 book, Through the Labyrinth .

      Over the years, researchers have sometimes exaggerated these differences and described the particular talents of women in crude gender stereotypes: women as more empathetic, as better consensus-seekers and better lateral thinkers; women as bringing a superior moral sensibility to bear on a cutthroat business world. In the ’90s, this field of feminist business theory seemed to be forcing the point. But after the latest financial crisis, these ideas have more resonance. Researchers have started looking into the relationship between testosterone and excessive risk, and wondering if groups of men, in some basic hormonal way, spur each other to make reckless decisions. The picture emerging is a mirror image of the traditional gender map: men and markets on the side of the irrational and overemotional, and women on the side of the cool and levelheaded.

      We don’t yet know with certainty whether testosterone strongly influences business decision-making. But the perception of the ideal business leader is starting to shift. The old model of command and control, with one leader holding all the decision-making power, is considered hidebound. The new model is sometimes called “post-heroic,” or “transformational” in the words of the historian and leadership expert James MacGregor Burns. The aim is to behave like a good coach, and channel your charisma to motivate others to be hardworking and creative. The model is not explicitly defined as feminist, but it echoes literature about male-female differences. A program at Columbia Business School, for example, teaches sensitive leadership and social intelligence, including better reading of facial expressions and body language. “We never explicitly say, ‘Develop your feminine side,’ but it’s clear that’s what we’re advocating,” says Jamie Ladge.

      A 2008 study attempted to quantify the effect of this more-feminine management style. Researchers at Columbia Business School and the University of Maryland analyzed data on the top 1,500 U.S. companies from 1992 to 2006 to determine the relationship between firm performance and female participation in senior management. Firms that had women in top positions performed better, and this was especially true if the firm pursued what the researchers called an “innovation intensive strategy,” in which, they argued, “creativity and collaboration may be especially important”—an apt description of the future economy.

      It could be that women boost corporate performance, or it could be that better-performing firms have the luxury of recruiting and keeping high-potential women. But the association is clear: innovative, successful firms are the ones that promote women. The same Columbia-Maryland study ranked America’s industries by the proportion of firms that employed female executives, and the bottom of the list reads like the ghosts of the economy past: shipbuilding, real estate, coal, steelworks, machinery.


      If you really want to see where the world is headed, of course, looking at the current workforce can get you only so far. To see the future—of the workforce, the economy, and the culture—you need to spend some time at America’s colleges and professional schools, where a quiet revolution is under way. More than ever, college is the gateway to economic success, a necessary precondition for moving into the upper-middle class—and increasingly even the middle class. It’s this broad, striving middle class that defines our society. And demographically, we can see with absolute clarity that in the coming decades the middle class will be dominated by women.

      We’ve all heard about the collegiate gender gap. But the implications of that gap have not yet been fully digested. Women now earn 60 percent of master’s degrees, about half of all law and medical degrees, and 42 percent of all M.B.A.s. Most important, women earn almost 60 percent of all bachelor’s degrees—the minimum requirement, in most cases, for an affluent life. In a stark reversal since the 1970s, men are now more likely than women to hold only a high-school diploma. “One would think that if men were acting in a rational way, they would be getting the education they need to get along out there,” says Tom Mortenson, a senior scholar at the Pell Institute for the Study of Opportunity in Higher Education. “But they are just failing to adapt.”

      This spring, I visited a few schools around Kansas City to get a feel for the gender dynamics of higher education. I started at the downtown campus of Metropolitan Community College. Metropolitan is the kind of place where people go to learn practical job skills and keep current with the changing economy, and as in most community colleges these days, men were conspicuously absent. One afternoon, in the basement cafeteria of a nearly windowless brick building, several women were trying to keep their eyes on their biology textbook and ignore the text messages from their babysitters. Another crew was outside the ladies’ room, braiding each other’s hair. One woman, still in her medical-assistant scrubs, looked like she was about to fall asleep in the elevator between the first and fourth floors.

      When Bernard Franklin took over as campus president in 2005, he looked around and told his staff early on that their new priority was to “recruit more boys.” He set up mentoring programs and men-only study groups and student associations. He made a special effort to bond with male students, who liked to call him “Suit.” “It upset some of my feminists,” he recalls. Yet, a few years later, the tidal wave of women continues to wash through the school—they now make up about 70 percent of its students. They come to train to be nurses and teachers—African American women, usually a few years older than traditional college students, and lately, working-class white women from the suburbs seeking a cheap way to earn a credential. As for the men? Well, little has changed. “I recall one guy who was really smart,” one of the school’s counselors told me. “But he was reading at a sixth-grade level and felt embarrassed in front of the women. He had to hide his books from his friends, who would tease him when he studied. Then came the excuses. ‘It’s spring, gotta play ball.’ ‘It’s winter, too cold.’ He didn’t make it.”

      It makes some economic sense that women attend community colleges—and in fact, all colleges—in greater numbers than men. Women ages 25 to 34 with only a high-school diploma currently have a median income of $25,474, while men in the same position earn $32,469. But it makes sense only up to a point. The well-paid lifetime union job has been disappearing for at least 30 years. Kansas City, for example, has shifted from steel manufacturing to pharmaceuticals and information technologies. “The economy isn’t as friendly to men as it once was,” says Jacqueline King, of the American Council on Education. “You would think men and women would go to these colleges at the same rate.” But they don’t.

      In 2005, King’s group conducted a survey of lower-income adults in college. Men, it turned out, had a harder time committing to school, even when they desperately needed to retool. They tended to start out behind academically, and many felt intimidated by the schoolwork. They reported feeling isolated and were much worse at seeking out fellow students, study groups, or counselors to help them adjust. Mothers going back to school described themselves as good role models for their children. Fathers worried that they were abrogating their responsibilities as breadwinner.

      The student gender gap started to feel like a crisis to some people in higher-education circles in the mid-2000s, when it began showing up not just in community and liberal-arts colleges but in the flagship public universities—the UCs and the SUNYs and the UNCs. Like many of those schools, the University of Missouri at Kansas City, a full research university with more than 13,000 students, is now tipping toward 60 percent women, a level many admissions officers worry could permanently shift the atmosphere and reputation of a school. In February, I visited with Ashley Burress, UMKC’s student-body president. (The other three student-government officers this school year were also women.) Burress, a cute, short, African American 24-year-old grad student who is getting a doctor-of-pharmacy degree, had many of the same complaints I heard from other young women. Guys high-five each other when they get a C, while girls beat themselves up over a B-minus. Guys play video games in each other’s rooms, while girls crowd the study hall. Girls get their degrees with no drama, while guys seem always in danger of drifting away. “In 2012, I will be Dr. Burress,” she said. “Will I have to deal with guys who don’t even have a bachelor’s degree? I would like to date, but I’m putting myself in a really small pool.”

      UMKC is a working- and middle-class school—the kind of place where traditional sex roles might not be anathema. Yet as I talked to students this spring, I realized how much the basic expectations for men and women had shifted. Many of the women’s mothers had established their careers later in life, sometimes after a divorce, and they had urged their daughters to get to their own careers more quickly. They would be a campus of Tracy Flicks, except that they seemed neither especially brittle nor secretly falling apart.

      Victoria, Michelle, and Erin are sorority sisters. Victoria’s mom is a part-time bartender at a hotel. Victoria is a biology major and wants to be a surgeon; soon she’ll apply to a bunch of medical schools. She doesn’t want kids for a while, because she knows she’ll “be at the hospital, like, 100 hours a week,” and when she does have kids, well, she’ll “be the hotshot surgeon, and he”—a nameless he—“will be at home playing with the kiddies.”

      Michelle, a self-described “perfectionist,” also has her life mapped out. She’s a psychology major and wants to be a family therapist. After college, she will apply to grad school and look for internships. She is well aware of the career-counseling resources on campus. And her fiancé?

      Michelle: He’s changed majors, like, 16 times. Last week he wanted to be a dentist. This week it’s environmental science.

      Erin: Did he switch again this week? When you guys have kids, he’ll definitely stay home. Seriously, what does he want to do?

      Michelle: It depends on the day of the week. Remember last year? It was bio. It really is a joke. But it’s not. It’s funny, but it’s not.

      Among traditional college students from the highest-income families, the gender gap pretty much disappears. But the story is not so simple. Wealthier students tend to go to elite private schools, and elite private schools live by their own rules. Quietly, they’ve been opening up a new frontier in affirmative action, with boys playing the role of the underprivileged applicants needing an extra boost. In 2003, a study by the economists Sandy Baum and Eban Goodstein found that among selective liberal-arts schools, being male raises the chance of college acceptance by 6.5 to 9 percentage points. Now the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights has voted to investigate what some academics have described as the “open secret” that private schools “are discriminating in admissions in order to maintain what they regard as an appropriate gender balance.”

      Jennifer Delahunty, the dean of admissions and financial aid at Kenyon College, in Ohio, let this secret out in a 2006 New York Times op-ed . Gender balance, she wrote back then, is the elephant in the room. And today, she told me, the problem hasn’t gone away. A typical female applicant, she said, manages the process herself—lines up the interviews, sets up a campus visit, requests a visit with faculty members. But the college has seen more than one male applicant “sit back on the couch, sometimes with their eyes closed, while their mom tells them where to go and what to do. Sometimes we say, ‘What a nice essay his mom wrote,’” she said, in that funny-but-not vein.

      To avoid crossing the dreaded 60 percent threshold, admissions officers have created a language to explain away the boys’ deficits: “Brain hasn’t kicked in yet.” “Slow to cook.” “Hasn’t quite peaked.” “Holistic picture.” At times Delahunty has become so worried about “overeducated females” and “undereducated males” that she jokes she is getting conspiratorial. She once called her sister, a pediatrician, to vet her latest theory: “Maybe these boys are genetically like canaries in a coal mine, absorbing so many toxins and bad things in the environment that their DNA is shifting. Maybe they’re like those frogs—they’re more vulnerable or something, so they’ve gotten deformed.”

      Clearly, some percentage of boys are just temperamentally unsuited to college, at least at age 18 or 20, but without it, they have a harder time finding their place these days. “Forty years ago, 30 years ago, if you were one of the fairly constant fraction of boys who wasn’t ready to learn in high school, there were ways for you to enter the mainstream economy,” says Henry Farber, an economist at Princeton. “When you woke up, there were jobs. There were good industrial jobs, so you could have a good industrial, blue-collar career. Now those jobs are gone.”

      Since the 1980s, as women have flooded colleges, male enrollment has grown far more slowly. And the disparities start before college. Throughout the ’90s, various authors and researchers agonized over why boys seemed to be failing at every level of education, from elementary school on up, and identified various culprits: a misguided feminism that treated normal boys as incipient harassers (Christina Hoff Sommers); different brain chemistry (Michael Gurian); a demanding, verbally focused curriculum that ignored boys’ interests (Richard Whitmire). But again, it’s not all that clear that boys have become more dysfunctional—or have changed in any way. What’s clear is that schools, like the economy, now value the self-control, focus, and verbal aptitude that seem to come more easily to young girls.

      Researchers have suggested any number of solutions. A movement is growing for more all-boys schools and classes, and for respecting the individual learning styles of boys. Some people think that boys should be able to walk around in class, or take more time on tests, or have tests and books that cater to their interests. In their desperation to reach out to boys, some colleges have formed football teams and started engineering programs. Most of these special accommodations sound very much like the kind of affirmative action proposed for women over the years—which in itself is an alarming flip.

      Whether boys have changed or not, we are well past the time to start trying some experiments. It is fabulous to see girls and young women poised for success in the coming years. But allowing generations of boys to grow up feeling rootless and obsolete is not a recipe for a peaceful future. Men have few natural support groups and little access to social welfare; the men’s-rights groups that do exist in the U.S. are taking on an angry, antiwoman edge. Marriages fall apart or never happen at all, and children are raised with no fathers. Far from being celebrated, women’s rising power is perceived as a threat.

      What would a society in which women are on top look like? We already have an inkling. This is the first time that the cohort of Americans ages 30 to 44 has more college-educated women than college-educated men, and the effects are upsetting the traditional Cleaver-family dynamics. In 1970, women contributed 2 to 6 percent of the family income. Now the typical working wife brings home 42.2 percent, and four in 10 mothers—many of them single mothers—are the primary breadwinners in their families. The whole question of whether mothers should work is moot, argues Heather Boushey of the Center for American Progress, “because they just do. This idealized family—he works, she stays home—hardly exists anymore.”

      The terms of marriage have changed radically since 1970. Typically, women’s income has been the main factor in determining whether a family moves up the class ladder or stays stagnant. And increasing numbers of women—unable to find men with a similar income and education—are forgoing marriage altogether. In 1970, 84 percent of women ages 30 to 44 were married; now 60 percent are. In 2007, among American women without a high-school diploma, 43 percent were married. And yet, for all the hand-wringing over the lonely spinster, the real loser in society—the only one to have made just slight financial gains since the 1970s—is the single man, whether poor or rich, college-educated or not. Hens rejoice; it’s the bachelor party that’s over.

      The sociologist Kathryn Edin spent five years talking with low-income mothers in the inner suburbs of Philadelphia. Many of these neighborhoods, she found, had turned into matriarchies, with women making all the decisions and dictating what the men should and should not do. “I think something feminists have missed,” Edin told me, “is how much power women have” when they’re not bound by marriage. The women, she explained, “make every important decision”—whether to have a baby, how to raise it, where to live. “It’s definitely ‘my way or the highway,’” she said. “Thirty years ago, cultural norms were such that the fathers might have said, ‘Great, catch me if you can.’ Now they are desperate to father, but they are pessimistic about whether they can meet her expectations.” The women don’t want them as husbands, and they have no steady income to provide. So what do they have?

      “Nothing,” Edin says. “They have nothing. The men were just annihilated in the recession of the ’90s, and things never got better. Now it’s just awful.”

      The situation today is not, as Edin likes to say, a “feminist nirvana.” The phenomenon of children being born to unmarried parents “has spread to barrios and trailer parks and rural areas and small towns,” Edin says, and it is creeping up the class ladder. After staying steady for a while, the portion of American children born to unmarried parents jumped to 40 percent in the past few years. Many of their mothers are struggling financially; the most successful are working and going to school and hustling to feed the children, and then falling asleep in the elevator of the community college.

      Still, they are in charge. “The family changes over the past four decades have been bad for men and bad for kids, but it’s not clear they are bad for women,” says W. Bradford Wilcox, the head of the University of Virginia’s National Marriage Project.

      Over the years, researchers have proposed different theories to explain the erosion of marriage in the lower classes: the rise of welfare, or the disappearance of work and thus of marriageable men. But Edin thinks the most compelling theory is that marriage has disappeared because women are setting the terms—and setting them too high for the men around them to reach. “I want that white-picket-fence dream,” one woman told Edin, and the men she knew just didn’t measure up, so she had become her own one-woman mother/father/nurturer/provider. The whole country’s future could look much as the present does for many lower-class African Americans: the mothers pull themselves up, but the men don’t follow. First-generation college-educated white women may join their black counterparts in a new kind of middle class, where marriage is increasingly rare.

      As the traditional order has been upended, signs of the profound disruption have popped up in odd places. Japan is in a national panic over the rise of the “herbivores,” the cohort of young men who are rejecting the hard-drinking salaryman life of their fathers and are instead gardening, organizing dessert parties, acting cartoonishly feminine, and declining to have sex. The generational young-women counterparts are known in Japan as the “carnivores,” or sometimes the “hunters.”

      American pop culture keeps producing endless variations on the omega male, who ranks even below the beta in the wolf pack. This often-unemployed, romantically challenged loser can show up as a perpetual adolescent (in Judd Apatow’s Knocked Up or The 40-Year-Old Virgin ), or a charmless misanthrope (in Noah Baumbach’s Greenberg ), or a happy couch potato (in a Bud Light commercial). He can be sweet, bitter, nostalgic, or cynical, but he cannot figure out how to be a man. “We call each other ‘man,’” says Ben Stiller’s character in Greenberg, “but it’s a joke. It’s like imitating other people.” The American male novelist, meanwhile, has lost his mojo and entirely given up on sex as a way for his characters to assert macho dominance, Katie Roiphe explains in her essay “The Naked and the Conflicted.” Instead, she writes, “the current sexual style is more childlike; innocence is more fashionable than virility, the cuddle preferable to sex.”

      At the same time, a new kind of alpha female has appeared, stirring up anxiety and, occasionally, fear. The cougar trope started out as a joke about desperate older women. Now it’s gone mainstream, even in Hollywood, home to the 50-something producer with a starlet on his arm. Susan Sarandon and Demi Moore have boy toys, and Aaron Johnson, the 19-year-old star of Kick-Ass, is a proud boy toy for a woman 24 years his senior. The New York Times columnist Gail Collins recently wrote that the cougar phenomenon is beginning to look like it’s not about desperate women at all but about “desperate young American men who are latching on to an older woman who’s a good earner.” Up in the Air , a movie set against the backdrop of recession-era layoffs, hammers home its point about the shattered ego of the American man. A character played by George Clooney is called too old to be attractive by his younger female colleague and is later rejected by an older woman whom he falls in love with after she sleeps with him—and who turns out to be married. George Clooney! If the sexiest man alive can get twice rejected (and sexually played) in a movie, what hope is there for anyone else? The message to American men is summarized by the title of a recent offering from the romantic-comedy mill: She’s Out of My League .

      In fact, the more women dominate, the more they behave, fittingly, like the dominant sex. Rates of violence committed by middle-aged women have skyrocketed since the 1980s, and no one knows why. High-profile female killers have been showing up regularly in the news: Amy Bishop, the homicidal Alabama professor; Jihad Jane and her sidekick, Jihad Jamie; the latest generation of Black Widows, responsible for suicide bombings in Russia. In Roman Polanski’s The Ghost Writer , the traditional political wife is rewritten as a cold-blooded killer at the heart of an evil conspiracy. In her recent video Telephone , Lady Gaga, with her infallible radar for the cultural edge, rewrites Thelma and Louise as a story not about elusive female empowerment but about sheer, ruthless power. Instead of killing themselves, she and her girlfriend (played by Beyoncé) kill a bad boyfriend and random others in a homicidal spree and then escape in their yellow pickup truck, Gaga bragging, “We did it, Honey B.”

      The Marlboro Man, meanwhile, master of wild beast and wild country, seems too far-fetched and preposterous even for advertising. His modern equivalents are the stunted men in the Dodge Charger ad that ran during this year’s Super Bowl in February. Of all the days in the year, one might think, Super Bowl Sunday should be the one most dedicated to the cinematic celebration of macho. The men in Super Bowl ads should be throwing balls and racing motorcycles and doing whatever it is men imagine they could do all day if only women were not around to restrain them.

      Instead, four men stare into the camera, unsmiling, not moving except for tiny blinks and sways. They look like they’ve been tranquilized, like they can barely hold themselves up against the breeze. Their lips do not move, but a voice-over explains their predicament—how they’ve been beaten silent by the demands of tedious employers and enviro-fascists and women. Especially women. “I will put the seat down, I will separate the recycling, I will carry your lip balm.” This last one—lip balm—is expressed with the mildest spit of emotion, the only hint of the suppressed rage against the dominatrix. Then the commercial abruptly cuts to the fantasy, a Dodge Charger vrooming toward the camera punctuated by bold all caps: MAN’S LAST STAND. But the motto is unconvincing. After that display of muteness and passivity, you can only imagine a woman—one with shiny lips—steering the beast.

      We want to hear what you think about this article. Submit a letter to the editor or write to [email protected]

      Hanna Rosin , an Atlantic national correspondent, is the author of the book The End of Men based on her story in the July/August 2010 Atlantic.

      ★My Favorite Things. Essay

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      My Favorite Things. Essay

      689 words – 3 pages

      It is often said that the best things in life are free, I, for one, fully agree with the statement. To me, “best” does not imply the most beautiful or glamorous, or the most indulgent or heavenly, but it is those things which I held to be the most valuable and precious in my life. Most people would choose to write about their role model (usually their mother), or the sunset, or even the rain. Some would write about food, others about clothes.

      I, on the other hand, have “favourite” things of a very different kind. It might sound strange, but my favourite things are: my eyes, my nose, my mouth, my ears, and my hands. Although they are nothing out of the ordinary (no unfortunately I haven’t been blessed with aquamarine eyes, or perfectly pouting lips), these features are my favourite things because of their ability to evoke in me experience of pure, unadulterated bliss.

      Take my eyes, for instance. People say that one’s eyes are the window to one’s soul. Then I must have a fairly bleak, run-of-the mill type of soul, for what you will see when you look at my eyes are two dark-brown, round buttons. They do not exude any magnetism; neither do they give off an aura of mystery and melodrama. But, they have been the rolls with which I have been able to witness many a beautiful sunset. The sun spreads its mosaic of colour on the horizon, amidst wisps of drifting clouds, as hues of russet pink and violet glisten across the sapphire sky. Then, darkness tears the sky asunder, as day slips into night, providing a canvas for the vast constellation of stars that sparkle majestically, illuminated by the glow of the moon. Serenity fills my souls and soothes my mind as the magnificence and splendour of the sunset captives me.

      My next favourite thing is my nose, a feature that quite dominant on my visage, conspiracy exhibiting its own sense of prominence. I assume that it could serve as a rather good model to demonstrate inclined planes in a Physics practical or…

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      How To Make Your Favorite Food Essay

      by Amanda Right How to , Writing Samples




      Descriptive Essay on My Favorite Food

      How To Make Your Favorite Food Essay, customessayorder.com

      • Outline example
      • How to start
      • How to write the introduction
      • How to write the thesis statement
      • Example of the thesis statement
      • Example of the introduction
      • How to write body paragraphs
      • Example of body paragraphs
      • How to conclude
      • Example of conslusion
      • Essay revision

      Outline sample

      Descriptive Essay on my Favorite Food

      • Introduction: This will include your favorite meal, and why you love it.
      • 1st Body Paragraph: This paragraph should introduce your first reason for settling on the food as your favorite.

      “Pizza is the best delicacy in the entire world. The sensation one feels when the sauce flows off it into the mouth is the best feeling and it cannot compare to any other type of food.”

      • 2nd Body Paragraph: This section shall introduce your second reason.

      “I have amazing memories of the moments we spent with my friend Joe. He owned a pizzeria where we used to share fun eating pizza occasionally having pizza fights.”

      • 3rd Body Paragraph: This paragraph has a third and final reason.

      “Pizza was one food I used to cook with my parents growing up – it really brought us closer together.”

      • Conclusion: This is where you summarize your paper by paraphrasing your thesis statement and restating why you love the food.

      How to start

      The structure of an essay is categorized into an introduction, body paragraphs, and conclusion. The thesis statement may be the first or the final statement in the introduction that summarizes the main arguments to be discussed in the task. The paragraphs in the body are introduced using topic sentences that are discussed in detail using supporting sentences. In conclusion, the piece is summarized by restating the main highlights brought forward in the body paragraphs.

      Food is a fascinating topic to discuss owing to some reasons. The most elemental one being it is a basic need that people can naturally feel for and relate. This is because basic instincts such as hunger and emotions, including love and anger can be freely expressed and one can produce high standard papers about them in a short span. This is because the author has much of the information in their brains and as such minimal research is required on the topic.

      For example, thus far in the essay, it is highly likely that the thought of your favorite food has crossed your mind. You can comfortably describe how your favorite food feels, narrate its benefits and smell, recall how it’s prepared and you might have a craving for the meal at the moment. This is the same for students at all levels. In case you do not have adequate evidence on the matter of the type of paper you are required to write, you can collect information on the same from relevant materials.

      How to write the introduction

      An essay on any topic should be started using a brief introduction on the subject to be discussed with the audience. Similarly, a piece of food should be commenced by introducing the different type of food that will be discussed. The areas to be addressed in the section include a brief introduction into how you have developed the eating habits, the types of foods that have featured in our diets for a couple of centuries as well as the new ones. You are not only required to provide the writer with an introduction on the food that you intend to discuss but also clearly state a thesis statement of your discussion. The piece should be based on a solid idea. Having the thesis statement as the first sentence is a brilliant approach to capturing the reader’s attention as well as giving the essay a more academic and professional edge. In the first section, the student can present their opinion on the topic in a summary and maybe include a small anecdote. These are interesting approaches to ensure the reader is engrossed in your piece and follow the ideas being presented. In the body paragraphs, the essay writer should introduce the facts, logic, and ideas gathered from references. In the beginning is where the student can maintain a light and easy reading tone.

      In a nutshell, to write an introduction, make sure you are clear on what you are being asked, and what you want to say. Gather the information you want to convey, get your thesis statement prepared, and remember that you can’t make an original argument in the introduction itself.

      How to write the thesis statement

      Writing a thesis statement is as simple as choosing what the ultimate point of your research is, and putting it into words.

      Example of the thesis statement

      Pizza is such a wonderful food to eat because there are endless ways to have it; that is why it is my favorite food.

      Writing an Essay on Favorite Food, customessayorder.com

      Example of the introduction

      Pizza is such a wonderful food to eat because there are endless ways to have it; that is why it is my favorite food. Whether you are making it with someone, or know someone who can provide you with good pizza, it is never far away, and it is always good. Pizza, much like food, brings people together.

      How to write body paragraphs

      Tips on body writing

      This should commence with recognizing the type of assignment. This is because the tone in an argumentative paper is different from that in an informative one. Once you are clear on the kind of job, you can select the data and topic appropriately. The next step is to settle on the kind of food that you intend to discuss and why the issue is so important to you. It is followed by the development of an outline and lastly commences writing on your topic.

      1. One paragraph for each argument, otherwise it gets too complicated
      2. Have a topic sentence and a concluding sentence
      3. Reference the thesis statement
      4. Do your research
      5. Write clearly and coherently

      Example of body paragraphs

      1st body paragraph

      I love pizza so much purely for the tactile sensations, it gives me. Being able to enjoy vegetables, stringy melted cheese, and the liquid nature of the tomato sauce is truly divine. Pizza is one of the few dishes which combines textures and flavours in this way, which is why I enjoy it so much.

      2nd body paragraph

      I love pizza because it connects me so strongly to my memories of Joe, my friend. We used to share pizza and have pizza fights all the time when I was growing up – some of my best memories are of him, and it is a huge part of why pizza is one of my favorite things to eat.

      3rd body paragraph

      Pizza is a dish which is very easy to cook communally. It makes for a great family bonding experience, and I remember many nights spent with my family deciding what should go on the pizza, and how it should be placed. Pizza is a very communal dish, and I have a lot of happy memories from that.

      How to conclude

      In conclusion, you should discuss why it is your favorite food and how it is prepared. It is prudent to ensure you have enough reasons to consider concerning the food. Discuss the information you can recall in your mind and research on the areas that may be lacking to ensure that you find your favorite food comprehensively.

      1. Restate the thesis statement
      2. Make sure to reference every argument
      3. Sum everything up
      4. Don’t make any original arguments
      5. Remember that this is your last chance to impress people.

      Conclusion example

      Pizza is a wonderful food for me because of how it is prepared, and the memories I have associated with it. Pizza is such a wonderful food to eat because there are endless ways to have it; that is why it is my favorite food. My family and my friends are both involved in this section of my memories, and all together it combines to make some of my happiest memories.

      Essay revision

      Revisions is just as important a step as everything else. It should take in the whole essay, because this is your last chance to make sure that the essay will pass muster.

      1. Pay attention to the bibliography
      2. Revise once for grammar, once for formatting
      3. Remember to check that you are using the correct citation style
      4. Ask someone else to look over your essay for you
      5. Remember to check that the thesis statement makes sense.

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      ★Tuskegee airmen research paper » Projeto Criança/AIDS

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      Tuskegee Airmen essay contest

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      Tuskegee Airmen essay contest

      Calling all students 4th through 12th grade! Submit your essay for the CAF Red Tail Squadron’s annual contest saluting the Tuskegee Airmen!

      Aim High, Believe in Yourself, Use Your Brain, Be Ready to Go, Never Quit, Expect to Win

      Guidelines:

      • Study the content provided on the website about the Tuskegee Airmen and the Six Guiding Principles .
      • Using what you have learned, write an essay that describes how the Tuskegee Airmen achieved success and explain how you could use the Six Guiding Principles to achieve a goal you have set for yourself.
      • Entries must adhere to the following:
        • 4th – 5th grades 250 words
        • 6th – 8th grades 350 words
        • 9th – 12th grades 500 words
      • Footnotes, citations, endnotes and essay titles should not be considered part of the word count allotment.
      • Each entry must be an original composition written by the student.
      • Entries will be judged on overall content, including spelling, grammar and punctuation.
      • Winners will be requested to send their photograph to be featured along with their essay on the CAF Red Tail Squadron website and newsletter.
      • Entries can be submitted at any time, but must be received by February 1 for the awards given each year.
      • Prizes  will be awarded to the 1st, 2nd and 3rd place winners in each grade category.

      Put into action what you have learned about the importance of education, training and especially determination, based on the Tuskegee Airmen’s example of overcoming adversity. The essay contest is a lesson both in inspiration and finding the motivation to achieve!

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      ★Essay About Famous Person

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      Famous person essay

      Who is your favorite famous person essay

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      Go to the profile of Rogério R. Alcântara
      Rogério R. Alcântara
      An ape who happens to talk, code and tweet.

      IELTS General Writing Task 2 — Practice Draft

      Many newspapers and magazines feature stories about the private lives of famous people. We know what they eat, where they buy their clothes and who they love. We also often see pictures of them in private situations. Is it appropriate for a magazine or newspaper to give this kind of private information about people?

      A One-Sided Opinion Essay
      with a Funnel Approach Introduction


      Never before has society been so obsessed with famous people as these days. In the past, celebrities were able to separate their private lives from their public personas with some degree of success. Yet today, seemingly due to the omnipresence of the mass media joined to the ubiquity of the Internet, celebrities reach a whole new level of popularity. Such prestige, however, does not come without a price.

      News about famous people’s private lives hit the headlines almost every day. From exotic diets to gossip about love affairs, celebrities have their lives scrutinized by the mass media all the time. Not rarely, famous people struggle to put up with paparazzi, being harassed even in gloomy situations such as a funeral of a beloved one, for example.

      Ironically, what seems to fuel such obsession is precisely the thermometer of the fame; popularity. In other words, the greater the fame is the more news about their private lives will be sought after. It seems fundamental to point this out because, given the very nature of the market, to boost profit, it seems natural that the mass media, playing the market role, provides this sort of product. After all, where there is demand there will be supply, it is said.

      Hence, that the reason why the mass media features such stories stems from the natural dynamic of capitalism appears to be clear. Yet, to me, the intriguing challenge is to figure out why do people are so keen on this kind of news in the first place? Perhaps we should consider fostering an honest reflection on whether such cult of celebrity is still suitable for the society we aspire to.

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      Famous College Essay


      Famous University Essay, Famous Admissions Essay, Famous NYU Essay

      NYU received what would become the most famous college essay many years ago.

      We’ve never written about this essay on our college admissions blog before. But we figured…why not? If one were to ask us what is the most famous college essay ever written, we know the answer hands down. It’s this NYU applicant’s essay from many, many years ago. To this day, it remains well known in the highly selective college admissions community. But, today, we’d like to discuss it. Look, it’s extremely well written. Rarely — and we mean rarely — have we seen students with this kind of writing ability. Did we say rarely yet? Because we do mean rarely. And it’s quite funny. The guy can make 30-minute brownies in 20 minutes.

      And while it was a great essay at the time and the writer definitely has a sense of humor, we strongly discourage students from writing essays in this style. For one, every single admissions officer — from the ones who are first out of college to the veterans of the departments — will know from where you’re taking inspiration. Also, this essay is kind of mocking the entire college admissions process. The writer is essentially saying that he has done all of these amazing things in life and he hasn’t even yet gone to college. Sure, it’s written tongue in cheek but, at the end of the day, the essay says little about the actual applicant. Because, presumably, little or none of it is true. That’s the whole point.

      Look, this was a great essay all of those years ago. There’s a reason it’s a famous essay. What we’re saying is don’t even think about taking inspiration from it or writing anything stylistically similar because that is not a good idea for you. Here’s the essay:

      “I am a dynamic figure, often seen scaling walls and crushing ice. I have been known to remodel train stations on my lunch breaks, making them more efficient in the area of heat retention. I translate ethnic slurs for Cuban refugees, I write award-winning operas, I manage time efficiently.

      Occasionally, I tread water for three days in a row. I woo women with my sensuous and godlike trombone playing. I can pilot bicycles up severe inclines with unflagging speed, and I cook 30-minute brownies in 20 minutes.

      I am an expert in stucco, a veteran in love, and an outlaw in Peru.

      Using only a hoe and a large glass of water, I once single-handedly defended a small village in the Amazon basin from a horde of ferocious army ants. I play bluegrass cello. I was scouted by the Mets. I am the subject of numerous documentaries. When I’m bored, I build large suspension bridges in my yard. I enjoy urban hang gliding. On Wednesdays, after school, I repair electrical appliances free of charge.

      I am an abstract artist, a concrete analyst, and a ruthless bookie. Critics worldwide swoon over my original line of corduroy evening wear. I don’t perspire.

      I am a private citizen, yet I receive fan mail. I have been caller number nine and have won the weekend passes. Last summer I toured New Jersey with a traveling centrifugal force demonstration. I bat .400. My deft floral arrangements have earned me fame in international botany circles. Children trust me.

      I can hurl tennis rackets at small moving objects with deadly accuracy. I once read Paradise lost, Moby Dick, and David Copperfield in one day and still had time to refurbish an entire dining room that evening. I know the exact location of every food item in the supermarket. I have performed several covert operations for the CIA. I sleep once a week; when I do sleep, I sleep in a chair. While on vacation in Canada, I successfully negotiated with a group of terrorists who had seized a small bakery. The laws of physics do not apply to me.

      I balance, I weave, I dodge, I frolic, and my bills are all paid. On weekends, to let off steam, I participate in full-contact origami. Years ago I discovered the meaning of life, but forgot to write it down. I have made extraordinary four course meals using only a mouli and a toaster oven.

      I breed prize-winning clams. I have won bullfights in San Juan, cliff-diving competitions in Sri Lanka, and spelling bees at the Kremlin. I have played Hamlet, I have performed open-heart surgery, and I have spoken with Elvis.

      But, I have not yet gone to college.”

      What do you think about this college essay? Let us know your thoughts by posting a Comment below. We look forward to hearing from you! Oh, and if you’re a rising high school senior, now is the time when you should be working on your college essays . So contact us  today to get started!

       


      Ivy Coach Has Been Featured In

      Categories: College Essays

      Tags: Famous College Essay , Famous NYU Essay , Famous University Essay , Most Famous College Essay , Well Known College Essay

      10 Comments

      • Micah says:
        February 20, 2016 at 5:22 pm

        Was the guy accepted into the college?

        Reply

        • Ivy Coach says:
          February 22, 2016 at 1:31 am

          Yes, NYU.

          Reply

        • Mocsab says:
          December 28, 2016 at 2:43 am

          Yes, he applied to NYU for Creative Writing, they’d have to be mental not to accept this work of art

          Reply

          • Rosie says:
            January 1, 2018 at 3:12 am

            NYU doesn’t have a Creative Writing major.

            Reply

            • Ivy Coach says:
              January 2, 2018 at 4:31 pm

              That is not relevant to this student’s essay. Who said he applied (decades ago) as a creative writing major?

              Reply

      • K says:
        September 23, 2016 at 12:58 pm

        This is bold and hilarious. Good for him for taking a risk! (and it paying off)

        Reply

      • Sophia Kolak says:
        November 5, 2016 at 7:19 pm

        The essay actually does say a lot about him. It shows he is witty, cynical, funny, and creative. It also shows that he is brave, because he is not afraid to break the conventions of a typical college essay. The rest of his application would have said what clubs he was in, his grades, and the rest of the things most people talk about in their essays. I agree that it would likely be obvious if a student were to emulate this style exactly, but claiming the essay “says little about the applicant” is rather naive.

        Reply

      • Kerryb says:
        December 15, 2016 at 2:51 am

        This is a funny read, very clever and just entertaining! If you asked a college coach or anyone else if you should submit this essay, they would say no!!! Maybe he had an equally amazing gpa and perfect sat scores etc….and he had room to take a risk!

        Reply

      • KenC says:
        May 17, 2018 at 12:07 am

        The kind of essay, you would submit only as a lark to your dream school.

        Reply

      • Isaac says:
        August 7, 2018 at 3:58 am

        I can’t believe actually laughed out loud in the middle of Starbucks while reading this…

        Reply

      Leave a Reply Cancel reply

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