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★Scottish Independence-Discursive Essay

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    Scottish Independence-Discursive Essay

    Extracts from this document…

    Introduction

    Scottish Independence – Good or Bad Scotland is at a turning point. The 300-year old Union is some say no longer fit for purpose. Some say it was never designed for the 21st century world and it is well past it’s sell by date and is holding Scotland back. The Scottish people voted to move forward, with a new, more Scottish approach from an SNP government. But many oppose these views saying that Scotland needs the rest of the UK and that the economic and social problems caused by independence would be catastrophic to the relationships between Scotland and the rest of the UK. In any case the government has published a white paper setting out a vision of independence and responsibility in the modern world. But is this idea beneficial to our country? Is Scotland ready to go it alone? Is Scotland ready to break free from the shackles of the UK? Are the Scottish people ready for independence? In this essay I will explore our options and inevitably present the information needed to make your own conclusion on Scottish independence. There are strong arguments both for and against independence. The arguments for Scottish independence are described in the next few paragraphs. …read more.

    Middle

    With independence, Scotland could join this arc of prosperity. Scotland could pursue economic policies designed specifically for our circumstances, to give us a stronger economy, better public services and a fairer society. Furthermore and probably the SNP’s biggest drive for independence is through their old motto "It’s Scotland Oil". This motto refers to the oil in the North Sea and it is said that although 90% of the North Sea Oil comes from the Scottish Sector of the continental shelf the revenue created by the selling of this oil would not benefit Scotland while it remained as part of the United Kingdom. The Continental Shelf Act 1964 and the Continental Shelf (Jurisdiction) Order 1968 defines the UK North Sea maritime area to the north of latitude 55 degrees north as being under the jurisdiction of Scots Law meaning that 90% of the UK’s oil resources were under Scottish jurisdiction,therefore proving the SNP are correct in the claim that the North Sea Oil is in fact Scotland’s Oil. On the other hand there is a substantial amount of claims and information produced by the Labour Party that clearly shows Scotland would not be able to go it alone. Labour firstly argues that the division of the UK would lead to colossal problems. …read more.

    Conclusion

    Fourthly and finally for the against independence argument is that if Scotland was to gain independence form the UK, Northern Ireland and Wales may follow suit to gain the benefits that Scotland would becoming independent. This would lead the UK to become four divided nations with different Passports, possibly currency, rules, legislation and most importantly armies. The division of the UK would also take the power and prestige of the Queen’s position and discard it, as there would have to be different rulers for each country; this is hardly going to be accepted by the Monarchy supporters. In conclusion, there are strong cases both for and against Scotland gaining it’s independence from the rest of the United Kingdom, both sides have pros and cons but most importantly both sides of the argument have their supporters and at the end of the day that is what it will all come down to when a referendum inevitably is brought up. Scotland has its own parliament so why can’t they have full separation. The north seas oil in terms of longitude and latitude belongs to Scotland so it really needs independence to reap the benefits of the sought after fossil fuel. So with this information I have divulged to you make your own decision. Scottish independence. Yes Or No? Sources http://www.snp.org/independence http://www.scottishlabour.org.uk/home http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/actionnetwork/A17359158 http://www.scottish.parliament.uk/business/index.htm TV Program Holyrood Live Kieran Tennant Higher Essay …read more.

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        Highlanders added the new essence of joy to the Christmas Celebration event at DLF Golf and Country club. A stunning and heart-grabbing performance by Highlander Girls.

      • Christmas Celebration 2017 (5)
      • Friday, December 22nd, 2017

        Christmas Celebration 2017 – Primary Wing

        Celebrating Christmas through Nativity Play

      • Christmas Carnival 2017 (21)
      • Monday, December 18th, 2017

        Christmas Carnival 2017

        Christmas Carnival   at Scottish High, Temperatures touched the chilly Fahrenheit’ of what we call the ‘full swing ‘of winters in Gurugram. However, the heat was on at Scottish High International School with its Christmas Carnival setting the tone of the season and its festivities. This year too, the Carnival began with a bang, drawing a […]

      • FDP Nursery (7)
      • Friday, December 8th, 2017

        Front Desk Programme – Nursery Wing

      • Sports day 2017 - primary wings (3)
      • Wednesday, December 6th, 2017

        Sports Day at Scottish High – Primary Wing

      • Chinmaya Bhagwad Gita Chanting Competition 2017 (1)
      • Monday, December 4th, 2017

        Highlanders made us proud by win – Chinmaya Bhagwad Gita Chanting Competition 2017

      • Thursday, November 30th, 2017

        IBDP Orientation Session 2018-20

        Dear, Parents The School management and the IBDP department welcomes you to an orientation programme for the IB enrollment.This is a short workshop to help you understand the nuances of IB and its advantages in seeking admission to prestigious universities and courses across the globe as well in India.We look forward to an interactive session […]

      • Scottish High’s under 10 girls Basketball team win the 23rd Ramjas Basketball Champions league (1)
      • Thursday, November 30th, 2017

        Scottish High’s under 10 girls Basketball team lifting the PRESTIGIOUS WINNERS TROPHY

        It was a notable moment for Scottish High’s under 10 girls Basketball team lifting the PRESTIGIOUS WINNERS TROPHY as they emerged victorious after defeating their arch rivals Shri Ram Aravali in the finals of the 23rd Ramjas Basketball Champions league held at New Delhi.

      • Self Study (1)
      • Saturday, November 25th, 2017

        IBYP self-study workshop for the parents – PYP

        IBPYP self study for parent conducted by PYP coordinator

      • story telling by Zenny Jhelumi
      • Friday, November 24th, 2017

        Story session taken by famous authors – Piotr Karski and Zenny Jhelumi – for grade 1  2

        Promoting international mindedness- Interactive storytelling session was taken by Piotr Karski author from the Poland and Zenny Jhelumi for grade 1 & 2

      • Additional Maths India topper award
      • Thursday, November 23rd, 2017

        Highlanders earn the ” Additional Maths India Topper Award ” by Cambridge International examination

        Jibitesh Saha of class X Igcse has made the school proud by securing the Additional Maths India topper award by Cambridge International Examination.  

      • Annual Day Celebrations 2017 (32)
      • Monday, November 20th, 2017

        Re Viva – The Annual Day Celebrations 2017

        The Highlanders once again enthralled the audience with their spellbinding stagecraft at the Annual Day Celebrations on 18th November 2017

      • Initials Sports Day (1)
      • Thursday, November 16th, 2017

        Initials Sports Day

      • Highlanders participated in All India Open Tennis Fiesta 2017
      • Thursday, November 9th, 2017

        Highlanders participated in All India Open Tennis Fiesta 2017

        Highlanders participated in All India Open Tennis Fiesta 2017. Praneet Kapoor was Runners-up in U-6 boys, Tripty Maheswari was Runners-up in U-10 girls and Aman Patel was 2nd Runners-up in U-8 boys

      • A bunch of laurels bagged by Highlanders
      • Monday, November 6th, 2017

        A bunch of laurels bagged by Highlanders

        Our Highlanders have won awards at ARMUN’17 Varin of XI represented as Executive Board member and designated as NSA Shivank of XI won Best Del award in AIPPM Aaliya of VIII won 1st high comm in AIPPM  Jei Sridhar of XI got high comm award in AIPPM Dhanvi & Ayra of XI received special mention […]

      • Street Play Competition in tGELF Harmony 2017
      • Monday, October 30th, 2017

        Highlanders earn the First Position in the Street Play Competition in tGELF Harmony 2017 and Best Speaker in the Debate competition

      • Food Expedition at Scottish High (7)
      • Friday, October 27th, 2017

        Food Expedition at Scottish High

        To give students a palate to explore the world of taste and nutrition, food expedition was held at Scottish High

      • Scottish High Earn- Time Shriver certificate-Unified Champion School -
      • Monday, October 16th, 2017

        Scottish High Awarded “Unified Champion School” Special Olympics

      • diwali mela (4)
      • Saturday, October 7th, 2017

        Diwali Mela 2017

        Diwali Mela at Scottish High

      • A psychology session on interdisciplinary - Expert Talk- by Alexandra Snee (1)
      • Thursday, October 5th, 2017

        A psychology session on interdisciplinary – Expert Talk- by Alexandra Snee

        Alexandra Snee visited Scottish high to deliver an expert talk on one of the topics in Psychology – Obedience. The audience was grade 11 and 12 IBDP students studying ESS, BM, Eco, Political Science and faculty members. ISC Psychology students of grade 12 were also included. This was also an interdisciplinary talk keeping in mind […]

      • Hong Kong University
      • Wednesday, October 4th, 2017

        Message from Prof John Spinks, Director- The University of Hong Kong” for Shivang – Earn the title of “President’s Scholar”

         

      • Dussehra Celebrations pic 1
      • Friday, September 29th, 2017

        Dussehra Celebrations at Scottish High

      • Rally for Rivers by Grade 5 (2)
      • Wednesday, September 27th, 2017

        Rally For Rivers – Grade v

      • Social Science Exhibition 2017
      • Saturday, September 23rd, 2017

        Social Science Exhibition 2017

        This year’s Social Science Exhibition 2017 was based on the theme of ‘Eternal Ganga’ as a means to pay homage to the holy river that purifies all evil, and to celebrate the river being accorded as a “human entity”. The exhibition was held in the school auditorium and consisted of a plethora of models and […]

      • Highlanders Secured 3rd Position in SGFI State Tennis Tournament
      • Wednesday, September 20th, 2017

        Highlanders Secured 3rd Position in SGFI State Tennis Tournament

        Agriya yadav and Kaushal Thakran have secured 3rd position in the SGFI State Tennis Tournament

      • logo
      • Sunday, September 10th, 2017

        “School Director’s Awareness Series – Security Concerns”

        Director’s Awareness Series Dear parents, Last few days have been harrowing for the education fraternity. On one hand, we have seen the demon of bullying raising its ugly head and on the other the most gruesome end to a very young life, that too in the environs of a school that is and should be […]

      • SGFI State Chess Championship.
      • Wednesday, September 6th, 2017

        SGFI State Chess Championship Selection

        Armin Kaur (III) and Kaustabh Kaushal(XI) participated in the SGFI District Chess Championship and have been selected for the SGFI State Chess Championship.

      • Print
      • Sunday, September 3rd, 2017

        Scottish High win the Roller Skating Championship

        03 September 2017  

      • EXAM Reschedule
      • Monday, August 28th, 2017

        Reschedule of 28th August Exam

      • IMG_9081
      • Thursday, August 24th, 2017

        Youth Leaders’ Summit 2017 – Ms. Mary Davis visits (CEO Special Olympics International)

      • debate
      • Monday, August 21st, 2017

        Best Team Award at Stage II of Frank Anthony Debate Competition

        Simran Kakar & Yoshita Singh have made us proud by winning the Best Team Award at Stage II of Frank Anthony Debate Competition & qualified for the All India Finals. Simran Kakar has been adjudged as the Best Speaker

      • cricket
      • Monday, August 21st, 2017

        SHIS under 17 cricket team

        SHIS under 17 cricket team has brought laurels by winning the School District Cricket Championship.

      • The 71st Independence Day
      • Wednesday, August 16th, 2017

        The 71st Independence Day

        A historical moment for us as ‘Free Nation’, when India woke under the beautiful sky of liberty and freedom. Scottish High, keeping the spirit of this great nation, salutes yet another milestone of Independence and unites once again to commemorate this glorious day- The 71st Independence Day– reminiscing the heroism and sacrifice of our patriots.

      • SHISMUN17 Second Edition
      • Saturday, August 5th, 2017

        SHISMUN’17 Second Edition

        SHISMUN’17 embodies the educational simulation of the United Nations.

      • SUDHA-GOYAL
      • Friday, August 4th, 2017

        School Director’s Awareness Series no. 06

        Dear Parents, The emotional well being of our children has always been our top priority at Scottish High International School. We are deeply concerned with the latest news regarding few online games and the effect it has had on the lives of many children across the globe. As important stakeholders to our children, it is […]

      • FDP (2)
      • Tuesday, August 1st, 2017

        Front Desk Programme – Primary Wing

      • Primary Gallery Walk (2)
      • Saturday, July 29th, 2017

        Gallery Walk – Primary Wing

      • slcinitial17 (5)
      • Saturday, July 22nd, 2017

        Gallery Walk – Initials

        Taking ownership of their learning, the Highlanders of Early Years of The Scottish High International School, Gurugram, participated in the Gallery Walk on 22nd July, 2017 with full enthusiasm. They took upon themselves to show their class, the different corners and the work displayed on the boards to their parents, surprising them with their communication […]

      • Scienceexh2017 (2)
      • Saturday, July 22nd, 2017

        Scientia Techno Palooza – Science Exhibition 2017

        Science takes a leap beyond books as Annual Science Exhibition “Scientia Techno Palooza“makes a touch down at Scottish High International School on 22nd July 2017. At Scottish High, Science is more than a syllabus as the young enthusiastic Highlanders took it to mammoth proportions by showcasing 65 participatory exhibits, constituting various innovative working models and […]

      • Nukaad Natak Kinderact (1)
      • Thursday, June 22nd, 2017

        Nukkad Natak connecting with the community – Primary Wing

        A Nukkad Natak perfomed at Galleria Market on the consumer right.  

      • 20-21June 2017 (3)
      • Wednesday, June 21st, 2017

        Workshop for teachers PYP-IB

      • shivang keetana
      • Thursday, June 1st, 2017

        Highlanders Scorch National  NCR Toppers’ List in ISC 2017

        Scottish High Flag flutters high with the Proud Highlanders Keerthana Srikanth ranked ALL INDIA SECOND POSITION HOLDER and DELHI NCR TOPPER with an astounding 397/400 i.e. 99.25% and Shivang Singh being ranked SECOND TOPPER IN DELHI NCR with395/400 i.e. 98.75%. The two Highlanders scored a Perfect 100% in Physics, Economics, ICT & Mathematics, respectively. The […]

      • University_of_Cambridge_coat_of_arms_official.svg
      • Friday, May 19th, 2017

        IGCSE Results 2016-17

        The highlanders have again made us proud by scoring perfect scores in IGCSE results 2017. Jibitesh Saha and Srijan Saxena have scored prefect 7*. Total A*and A : 98. Congratulations to all the achievers.

      • Ranveer Singh Saini won Gold at Special Olympics Golf Masters 2017
      • Saturday, April 29th, 2017

        Highlander Ranveer Singh Saini won Gold at Special Olympics Golf Masters 2017

        Ranveer Saini participated in the Special Olympics Golf Masters – 2017 tournament held from 16 April to 22 April 2017 at Macau. Over 100 golfers competed from across the world including USA, UK, Finland, Australia, South Korea, HongKong, Sweden, South Africa among others. He played 2 rounds of Golf in a 36 hole tournament at […]

      • library week (1)
      • Tuesday, March 28th, 2017

        Library Week 2017 – Primary Wing

        Students participated in many learning engagement.

      • orientation
      • Monday, March 27th, 2017

        AT HOME” Orientation 2017-18 – Tuesday 28th March’17

        AT HOME” Orientation 2017-18 for Initial School & Primary School – Tuesday 28th March’17 Initials Orientation Presentation  – Click here to download A Ready Reckoner for the parents of Initial Chapter – Click here to download Primary Orientation Presentation – Click here to download  

      • 5A 24
      • Monday, March 27th, 2017

        Graduation Ceremony- Grade V

      • world down syndrome day 2017 (6)
      • Tuesday, March 21st, 2017

        World Down Syndrome day Celebration 2017

      • SAIBSA (South Asia International Baccalaureate School Association) at Scottish High (5)
      • Sunday, March 5th, 2017

        SAIBSA (South Asia International Baccalaureate School Association) at Scottish High

        SAIBSA held at Scottish High to share the best practices among the educators all over India

      • DSC00823
      • Monday, February 20th, 2017

        The BHIM AWARD, has been confered to our student Ranveer Singh Saini

        It is a proud moment for Scottish High that the Highest Sports Award of the State, the BHIM AWARD,  has been confered to our student Ranveer Singh Saini  by the Hon’ble Governor of Haryana today.

      • Blooddona2017 (4)
      • Tuesday, February 14th, 2017

        Blood Donation Camp – PYP

      • A Choice Of IGCSE
      • Tuesday, December 27th, 2016

        Circular – A choice of IGCSE (Cambridge Secondary 1) Curriculum

        Dear Parents, You will be glad to know that in the coming session 2017-18 onwards we shall provide our dear students with one more option of curriculum choice in the middle years. After graduating from class V, students will now have a choice of IGCSE (Cambridge Secondary 1) curriculum or the current ICSE curriculum from […]

      • Cambridge Secondary 1 - Orientation 3
      • Monday, December 26th, 2016

        Cambridge Secondary 1 – Orientation

        An Orientation for the parents of grade V was conducted on Dec 24, 2016 with the aim of making the parents familiar with the Cambridge Secondary 1 Curriculum and also with the changes, the child will go through during the transition from Primary Years to Middle School. Cambridge Secondary 1 – Orientation PPT  – Click here to […]

      • KINDERACT CLUB (11)
      • Friday, December 9th, 2016

        Kinderact Club Live Healthy Breathe Healthy Marathon

      • Haryana Swarna Jyanti launch at Tau Devi Lal stadium
      • Tuesday, November 1st, 2016

        Haryana Swarna Jyanti launch at Tau Devi Lal stadium

        Ranveer Saini was felicitated along with other Olympians Ms. Sakshi Malik , Mr. Vijender Singh and Ms. Deepa malik in the Prime Minister’s function of Haryana Swarn Jyanti launch at Tau Devi Lal stadium on November 01, 2016.

      • International Robotronics Competition
      • Wednesday, October 19th, 2016

        International Robotronics Competition School League

        Our Junior Robotics teams have won 1st & 2nd Team Prize in International Robotronics Competition School League held at Lotus Valley international School.

      • Topper IGCSE Combined Sciences
      • Wednesday, October 19th, 2016

        Topper IGCSE Combined Sciences

        Keisha Mathews of SHIS has topped the country in IGCSE Combined Sciences.

      • Haryana Equestrian Sports Association Event
      • Wednesday, October 19th, 2016

        Haryana Equestrian Sports Association Event

        Ranvijay Saini of grade three won 2 gold and a bronze medal, while Nripesh Mehlawat of grade nine won 3 gold medals in three respective events organised by Haryana Equestrian Sports Association.

      • swimming-championship
      • Wednesday, October 12th, 2016

        Won Medals in Pathways Invitational Swimming Championship

        Highlanders have won 3 silver and 10 bronze in the Pathways Invitational Swimming Championship.

      • Inter School Tennis Championship
      • Saturday, October 8th, 2016

        Won Pathways Inter School Tennis Championship

        Primary highlanders have made us proud by winning the Pathways Inter School Tennis Championship in both boys and girls under 10 age category.

      • Gold Medal In Haryana State Shooting Championship
      • Friday, October 7th, 2016

        Gold Medal in Haryana State Shooting Championship

        Rakshit Jaiswal has won 1 gold and I silver in Haryana state shooting championship.

      • Interschool Swimming Competition For Primary
      • Saturday, October 1st, 2016

        Interschool Swimming Competition for Primary

        Our highlanders won 11 Gold, 9 Silver and 17 Bronze medals in Interschool Swimming competition for Primary held at GD Goenka World School.

      • IMG-20160904-WA0001 comp
      • Monday, September 5th, 2016

        Haryana State Soccer Team has won the National Championship of SSPF  Sports Authority of India

        Haryana State Soccer Team has won the National Championship of SSPF & Sports Authority of India. The State team comprised of TEN champion Highlanders who got this glory to the State. Congratulations to the players and coaches.The names of the players are as follows – Varin Agarwal, Ishaan Yadav, Aryan Dhoot, Samridh Anand, Sunny Singh, […]

      • SHIS Won Inter School Basketball Girls Tournament
      • Saturday, August 27th, 2016

        SHIS won Inter School Basketball Girls Tournament

        Under 10 team of SHIS has won the Inter School Basketball Girls Tournament for Primary section conducted by DPS International, Gurgaon. Arushi Bist was declared best defender.

      • Boys Under 17 School District Tennis Championship
      • Friday, August 26th, 2016

        Boys Under 17 School District Tennis Championship

        Highlanders Samarth, Nischay, Tarang and Yugansh have won the Second position in the Under 17 School District Tennis Championship.

      • Friday, August 26th, 2016

        Boys – Under 14 School District Tennis Championship

        Highlanders Agriya Yadav, Kabir Singh, Saman Jain, Kaushal and Rahul Dang have secured the Second position in the Under 14 School District Tennis Championship.

      • Friday, August 26th, 2016

        Under 19 – Girls School District Tennis Championship

        Highlanders Mahika Rathod, Diya Shukla and Khyati M Srivastava have made us proud by winning First position in the Under 19 Girls School District Tennis Championship and will now play at State level.

      • 5
      • Friday, August 5th, 2016

        Young Indian Sports Star Award 2016

        Ranveer Saini has been felicitated with the Indian Achievers Award by Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shashtri’s son Mr. Sunil Shashtri and Mr Antony Member of Parliament at India Habitat Centre.

      • School District Cricket Competition
      • Friday, August 5th, 2016

        School District Cricket Competition

        Scottish High under 14 school cricket team has made us proud by winning the School District Cricket Competition and has also qualified for the State Championship.

      • School District Soccer Championship
      • Friday, August 5th, 2016

        School District Soccer Championship

        Scottish High under 14, under 17 and under 19 soccer teams have won the school district soccer championship in all the three categories and have qualified for the state championship.

      • Friday, August 5th, 2016

        IIMUN Conference

        Scottish High has won the best delegation award at the IIMUN Conference held at Suncity World School. Akriti Gupta, Parwaz Gill & Gayatri Kashyap were declared the best delegates.

      • All India Frank Anthony Debate Competition 2016 -
      • Friday, July 15th, 2016

        All India Frank Anthony Debate Competition 2016

        Our highlanders Shivang Singh & Vitasta Singh have won the prestigious All India Frank Anthony Debate Competition regional round in Category 1 and in Category 2, Niharika Mehrotra has been adjudged first runners up speaker. Both teams qualify for second round.

      • Monday, July 4th, 2016

        IRC Open League’16

        IRC Open League’16 – Team1-Arnav, Maanas and Shiven of grade VII won 1st position and sponsored trip for China and team 2 – Nirbhay,Harshit and Vaibhav of grade VII won 3rd position.

      • Tuesday, June 28th, 2016

        India Finals of Compudon Season

        Srijan Saxena of X IGCSE has secured Second Position in India Finals of Compudon Season VI. He was awarded a Laptop, Certificate and Medal for the same.

      • Tuesday, April 26th, 2016

        Initial School Orientation 2016

        Ready Reckoner 2016 Initials At Home session 2016-17

      • Tuesday, April 26th, 2016

        Primary School Orientation 2016

        Primary Parent Orientation for session 2016-17

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    Every child is a gift of God. Scottish High International School believes in giving equal opportunities to all children without discrimination and favouritism. Therefore, it admits, differently privileged children and tries to integrate them with the mainstream under the care of specially trained professionals, speech and occupational therapists in a fully equipped Integrated Studies Department. […]

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    The unique thing about Scottish High is that it has a cosmopolitan culture. Special efforts are made to sensitize the children as well as the teachers to deal with cases undergoing such transitions wherein a child has to cope with the climatic change and huge cultural barriers. However at Scottish High, adjustments are easier because […]

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    Accounting graduate cover letter

    Accounting graduate cover letter

    This free sample cover letter for an accounting graduate has an accompanying accounting graduate resume to help you put together a winning job application.

    Joseph Maradona
    4/12 Milan Ave
    Victor Harbour SA 5211
    M: 0400 222 333
    E: [email protected]


    [date]

    Dear Sir or Madam

    Re: Graduate Accountant position

    I am writing to apply for the advertised Graduate Accountant position. I am a recent Bachelor of Commerce graduate with a major in Accounting, seeking the opportunity to implement my knowledge and skills and make a contribution to your organisation.

    I have experience in all of the areas encompassed by this role through both work and study, including accounts payable, accounts receivable, bank account reconciliations, statutory account preparation and tax compliance, including BAS, GST, payroll tax and budgets.

    In addition, I bring a wealth of other essential skills and qualities that I have developed through study and various work experience: teamwork and communication, time management, attention to detail, presentation skills, customer service and the ability to meet deadlines.

    During my university studies I demonstrated my ability and energy in maintaining accounting-related employment while studying full time. I believe that with my positive attitude and strong work ethic, I would be a great fit for the advertised position.

    You will find me to be a positive, motivated and hard-working person who is keen to learn and contribute. Given the opportunity, I would apply myself with enthusiasm to all tasks, ensuring that I get the job done accurately and efficiently.

    My resume is attached, and I look forward to being able to discuss the position with you further.

    Kind regards

    [Sign here]

    Joseph Maradona

    + View complete template or

    Subscribe to get this template for free!

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    Published on Jan 31, 2015

    Useful materials for cover letter writing:

    • coverletter123.com/free-28-cover-letter-samples
    • coverletter123.com/29-tips-secrets-to-write-successful-cover-letter
    • coverletter123.com/free-32-resumes-samples
    • coverletter123.com/free-ebook-90-interview-questions-and-answers
    • coverletter123.com/top-12-secrets-to-win-every-job-interviews
    • coverletter123.com/top-8-interview-thank-you-letter-samples

    Job levels related: administrator, advisor, analyst, assistant, associate, clerk, consultant, coordinator, controller, engineer, executive, manager, officer, representative, specialist, supervisor, support, vp, director, leader, technician, entry level, senior , junior…

    The above cover letters can be used for fields such as: accounting, administrative, advertising, agency, agile, apartment, application, architecture, asset, assistant, audit, auto, automotive, b2b, bakery, band, bank, banquet, bar, benefits, beverage, billing, brand, budget, building, business, cafe, call center, car, catering, channel, clinic, commercial, communications, community, construction, consulting, content, creative, crm, customer relations, customer service, data, database, delivery, design, digital marketing, distribution, ecommerce, education, electrical, energy, engineering, environmental, equipment, erp, events, exhibition, export, f&b, facilities, factory, fashion, finance, fmcg, food industry, fundraising, furniture, gallery, golf, grants, grocery, gym, healthcare, help desk, hospital, hospitality, hotel, housekeeping, housing, hr, hse, hvac, ict, import, infrastructure, innovation, insurance, interactive, interior design, international, internet, inventory, investment, it, jewelry, kitchen, lab, leasing, legal, logistics, maintenance, manufacturing, market, marketing, materials, media, merchandising, mining, mortgage, music, network, new car, ngo, nhs, non profit, non technical, oem, office, offshore, oil and gas, operations, outbound, outlet, overseas, parts, payroll, pharmaceutical, pharmacy, plant, procurement, product, production, project, property, purchasing, quality assurance, r&d, real estate, records, recruiting, release, research, reservations, restaurant, retail, safety, dogcare manager, salon, security, service, shipping, social media, software, sourcing, spa, staffing, store, studio, supply chain, systems, technical, technology, telecom, telecommunications, tour, tourism, training, transportation, travel, vehicle, wealth, web, wedding, wine…

    Other topics:
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    ★THESIS TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP, ENGAGEMENT, AND …

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    Feature

    How to Apply Transformational Leadership at Your Company

    Transformational leadership is only one style of management, but it has the potential to empower your workforce to do more than you thought possible.

    Thank you

    Your message has been sent.

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    There was an error emailing this page.

    Rich Hein

    By Rich Hein

    Senior Managing Editor,

    CIO |

    To be a leader and manager you need to have a solid understanding of things such as project management, organizational skills, managing employees and monitoring their performance, but even masters of these skills aren’t necessarily transformational leaders. These skills are simply the foundation on which a transformational leader is most effective.

    Some people are just born with leaderships skills and the rest of us have to work at it. You’ve seen them before–the charismatic leaders who have a way of motivating the people around them. They instill a feeling that we are all accountable and that if one of us fails, we all fail.

    Transformational Leadership Image

    These leaders are on a mission to effect positive change for both the organization and the people they work with, and their energy and passion help fuel cohesion among peers and team members, allowing them to larger than the sum of their parts. They challenge long-held assumptions and don’t accept answers like, “because this is the way we’ve always done it.”

    [ Beware the 9 warning signs of bad IT architecture and see why these 10 old-school IT principles still rule . | Sign up for CIO newsletters . ]

    What Is Transformational Leadership?

    Transformational problems are the critical issues a company or organization faces. Most times they relate to attitudes, behaviors and culture. They are rooted in the core and can be difficult to pinpoint without deep analysis.

    “Woodrow Wilson called for leaders who, by boldly interpreting the nation’s conscience, could lift a people out of their everyday selves. That people can be lifted into their better selves is the secret of transforming leadership,” – James MacGregor Burns .

    James MacGregor Burns is credited with creating the concept of transformational leadership in 1978. He was a presidential biographer and a leadership expert who focused mainly on the improvement of management principles and procedures.

    Burns said that a transformational leader needs to have a solid understanding of the necessary goals to be successful and be articulate in explaining those goals and the method to which they are to be achieved.

    [ Looking to upgrade your career in tech? This comprehensive online course teaches you how. ]

    “Change doesn’t really happen at a company; it happens with people, so in order to lead change you have to know how to lead people,” says Pamela Rucker , chairwoman of the CIO Executive Council’s Executive Women in IT.

    Transformational leaders are described as charismatic, enthusiastic, optimistic, passionate and sometimes visionary, giving them the ability to change long-held perceptions and beliefs. Those traits can spread like a wildfire; when they do, leaders and workers can engage more effectively allowing real transformation to take place.

    Leadership Styles

    Kevin Ford co-author of the upcoming book, “The Leadership Triangle” and CIO of Tag Consulting says he believes there are three kinds of successful leadership styles and that each one has its own place depending on the challenges you are facing:

    • Tactical: These leaders are solving pretty straight-forward problems. “Tactical issues are solved by expertise. Tactical challenges are the daily bread of the operations-oriented manager,” writes Ford in The Leadership Triangle.
    • Strategic: These leaders are working towards the future with a vision. “Visionaries are different in that they tend to be creative or generative in their approach. They have the ability to see the future and predict specific trends,” says Ford.
    • Transformational: This leader is a facilitator who doesn’t make decisions or establish strategic plans but, instead, facilitates a series of conversations among key stakeholders. “Transformational leaders are driven by a strong set of values and a sense of mission. Often times the strategic leader will have a vision but can’t execute it because they can’t deal with the transformative issues. A transformational leader has a more generalized vision, that’s one of the common good or what’s in the best interests of the stakeholders there.

    The big difference, according to Ford, “is that the transformational leader doesn’t always know where things are going to wind up, only that it will be better than where we are today.” There is a time and place for each style, Ford says, but when companies are looking for a turnaround or to keep from getting left behind many times a transformational leader is what they are looking for.

    What Embodies a Transformational Leader?

    What qualities should a transformational leader possess? Here are thoughts from experts on the topic.

    “If you want to transform something, you have to know what it is and not just the technology that supports it. You need to have a vision of where you want to go and be able to communicate it,” says Rucker.

    In order to be transformative, according to Rucker, you need to have diversity of thought. You have to make sure that all the key stakeholders are represented in any decision that you make. You shouldn’t just have your own team coming up with ideas on what they think they know about the projects, the company or the industry. You have to honestly care about what these people [peers and stakeholders] want and need in order to make sure those needs are adequately represented and that every solution you provide has been vetted.

    You need purposefully find good people with different perspectives who will shake things up and bring in new ideas. You can’t come up with all the ideas yourself. Find a way to look for experts in whatever you are trying to achieve, you have to challenge long-term assumptions people may have,” says Rucker.

    “A transformational leader has to be strategic from a planning and objective setting perspective, a strong communicator that can be trusted so that by extension people are willing to ‘get on the bus’, and both be passionate & focused in order to drive change from inception to a successful conclusion, “says Greg Stewart , vice president and CIO of Enerflex.

    “Some people see a transformational leader as someone who comes in and radically changes everything and I don’t see it that way,” says Jeffrey S. Shipley, vice president and CIO at Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Kansas City.

    “I see it as more of a mentoring or coaching role. It’s about motivation, empowerment and morale of the employees. You have to take the time to individualize, be the role model and understand people and how they think. You need to challenge long-term assumptions and beliefs and think about things a different way,” Shipley says.

    “Transformational leadership, as we understand it, is mobilizing people to the common good. The ability to create a safe place to have conversations and voice ideas is very important. Ethics, morality and integrity are a huge part of transformational leadership, even if it’s not in the best interest of self. The transformational leader needs to build trust and that can’t be done in the short-term, it can only be done in the long-term. Anyone can be a transformational leader; it’s all contextual and it’s all driven by scale,” says Ford.

    For a look at how to draw out your transformational leadership qualities in your resume, see ” IT resume makeover: Highlighting transformational leadership .”

    5 Things You Need to Facilitate Transformation

    1. Intellectual Stimulation

    By rocking the boat and asking questions, transformational leaders are always challenging the status quo and aren’t afraid of failure. They foster an environment where it’s safe to have conversations, be creative and voice ideas, a place where all team members feel valued. They challenge cultural norms and work to inspire passion with their teams and peers. As Rucker puts it, they are adept at, “turning me moments into we moments.”

    Shipley says that managers who have a command-and-control style of leadership can get a lot accomplished, but, he says, they achieve short-term. You can have great success but you can’t maintain long-term success that way.”

    A better approach, Shipley says, is to guide your team, but let them solve the problem on their own.

    2. Individualized Consideration

    Is the golden rule flawed? Maybe not but consider this: Don’t treat people how you want to be treated, treat them the way they want to be treated. People are different and what motivates and excites you is different from your peers and coworkers. “You have to learn to adapt your style to accommodate the skills and people on your team,” says Rucker.

    3. Inspirational Motivation

    Know where you want to go and create a vision or strategy to get there and then articulate, with optimism and passion, your vision to show them how all this matters in the big picture. “It’s really the meaning behind why you’re doing the job you’re doing that’s so important to communicate to people. I take great pride in understanding my employees and what motivates them,” says Shipley. He offers this analogy:

    Two guys are digging a ditch, so I asked one of them, “What are you doing?” He says digging a ditch, what’s it look like I’m doing? I asked the other guy the same question and he says, “I’m building a hospital.”

    It’s getting into the minds of the people so that they understand that whatever task they’re doing, they’re not doing that task, they’re a part of something larger “They aren’t digging a ditch or writing that code; they are transforming the way healthcare is delivered in this country,” says Shipley.

    4. Idealized Influence

    “Divorced from ethics, leadership is reduced to management and politics to mere technique,” writes Burns.

    Transformational leadership requires decision-making that works towards the greater good. You need to be a mentor of sorts and lead by example. “Values-based leadership is necessary for driving sustainable change as this ensures that the results achieved are underpinned with a strong moral and ethical foundation, thus they can also stand up to any scrutiny or resistance to change,” says Stewart.

    5. Perseverance Through Conflict

    Experts agree that transformational change will create conflict. You’re going to have people fight and/or ignore you. “You have to master the role by figuring out how you’re going to get all these people to work with you. Doing that will change the position you have into the power you need to change the company,” says Rucker.

    Are you ready to take up the mantle of the transformational leader? You don’t have to be the boss to do so. “Anyone can be a transformational leader, it’s all contextual and it’s all driven by scale,” says Ford.

    Rich Hein is a senior writer for CIO.com. He covers IT careers. Follow everything from CIO.com on Twitter @CIOonline , on Facebook, and on Google + .

    Next read this:

    • 7 habits of highly effective digital leaders

    • 20 ways to kill your IT career (without knowing it)

    • 16 time-saving tips for IT leaders

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    Related:

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    Rich Hein is senior managing editor for CIO.com. He covers IT careers and leadership topics.

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    Feature

    How to Apply Transformational Leadership at Your Company

    Transformational leadership is only one style of management, but it has the potential to empower your workforce to do more than you thought possible.

    Thank you

    Your message has been sent.

    Sorry

    There was an error emailing this page.

    Rich Hein

    By Rich Hein

    Senior Managing Editor,

    CIO |

    To be a leader and manager you need to have a solid understanding of things such as project management, organizational skills, managing employees and monitoring their performance, but even masters of these skills aren’t necessarily transformational leaders. These skills are simply the foundation on which a transformational leader is most effective.

    Some people are just born with leaderships skills and the rest of us have to work at it. You’ve seen them before–the charismatic leaders who have a way of motivating the people around them. They instill a feeling that we are all accountable and that if one of us fails, we all fail.

    Transformational Leadership Image

    These leaders are on a mission to effect positive change for both the organization and the people they work with, and their energy and passion help fuel cohesion among peers and team members, allowing them to larger than the sum of their parts. They challenge long-held assumptions and don’t accept answers like, “because this is the way we’ve always done it.”

    [ Beware the 9 warning signs of bad IT architecture and see why these 10 old-school IT principles still rule . | Sign up for CIO newsletters . ]

    What Is Transformational Leadership?

    Transformational problems are the critical issues a company or organization faces. Most times they relate to attitudes, behaviors and culture. They are rooted in the core and can be difficult to pinpoint without deep analysis.

    “Woodrow Wilson called for leaders who, by boldly interpreting the nation’s conscience, could lift a people out of their everyday selves. That people can be lifted into their better selves is the secret of transforming leadership,” – James MacGregor Burns .

    James MacGregor Burns is credited with creating the concept of transformational leadership in 1978. He was a presidential biographer and a leadership expert who focused mainly on the improvement of management principles and procedures.

    Burns said that a transformational leader needs to have a solid understanding of the necessary goals to be successful and be articulate in explaining those goals and the method to which they are to be achieved.

    [ Looking to upgrade your career in tech? This comprehensive online course teaches you how. ]

    “Change doesn’t really happen at a company; it happens with people, so in order to lead change you have to know how to lead people,” says Pamela Rucker , chairwoman of the CIO Executive Council’s Executive Women in IT.

    Transformational leaders are described as charismatic, enthusiastic, optimistic, passionate and sometimes visionary, giving them the ability to change long-held perceptions and beliefs. Those traits can spread like a wildfire; when they do, leaders and workers can engage more effectively allowing real transformation to take place.

    Leadership Styles

    Kevin Ford co-author of the upcoming book, “The Leadership Triangle” and CIO of Tag Consulting says he believes there are three kinds of successful leadership styles and that each one has its own place depending on the challenges you are facing:

    • Tactical: These leaders are solving pretty straight-forward problems. “Tactical issues are solved by expertise. Tactical challenges are the daily bread of the operations-oriented manager,” writes Ford in The Leadership Triangle.
    • Strategic: These leaders are working towards the future with a vision. “Visionaries are different in that they tend to be creative or generative in their approach. They have the ability to see the future and predict specific trends,” says Ford.
    • Transformational: This leader is a facilitator who doesn’t make decisions or establish strategic plans but, instead, facilitates a series of conversations among key stakeholders. “Transformational leaders are driven by a strong set of values and a sense of mission. Often times the strategic leader will have a vision but can’t execute it because they can’t deal with the transformative issues. A transformational leader has a more generalized vision, that’s one of the common good or what’s in the best interests of the stakeholders there.

    The big difference, according to Ford, “is that the transformational leader doesn’t always know where things are going to wind up, only that it will be better than where we are today.” There is a time and place for each style, Ford says, but when companies are looking for a turnaround or to keep from getting left behind many times a transformational leader is what they are looking for.

    What Embodies a Transformational Leader?

    What qualities should a transformational leader possess? Here are thoughts from experts on the topic.

    “If you want to transform something, you have to know what it is and not just the technology that supports it. You need to have a vision of where you want to go and be able to communicate it,” says Rucker.

    In order to be transformative, according to Rucker, you need to have diversity of thought. You have to make sure that all the key stakeholders are represented in any decision that you make. You shouldn’t just have your own team coming up with ideas on what they think they know about the projects, the company or the industry. You have to honestly care about what these people [peers and stakeholders] want and need in order to make sure those needs are adequately represented and that every solution you provide has been vetted.

    You need purposefully find good people with different perspectives who will shake things up and bring in new ideas. You can’t come up with all the ideas yourself. Find a way to look for experts in whatever you are trying to achieve, you have to challenge long-term assumptions people may have,” says Rucker.

    “A transformational leader has to be strategic from a planning and objective setting perspective, a strong communicator that can be trusted so that by extension people are willing to ‘get on the bus’, and both be passionate & focused in order to drive change from inception to a successful conclusion, “says Greg Stewart , vice president and CIO of Enerflex.

    “Some people see a transformational leader as someone who comes in and radically changes everything and I don’t see it that way,” says Jeffrey S. Shipley, vice president and CIO at Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Kansas City.

    “I see it as more of a mentoring or coaching role. It’s about motivation, empowerment and morale of the employees. You have to take the time to individualize, be the role model and understand people and how they think. You need to challenge long-term assumptions and beliefs and think about things a different way,” Shipley says.

    “Transformational leadership, as we understand it, is mobilizing people to the common good. The ability to create a safe place to have conversations and voice ideas is very important. Ethics, morality and integrity are a huge part of transformational leadership, even if it’s not in the best interest of self. The transformational leader needs to build trust and that can’t be done in the short-term, it can only be done in the long-term. Anyone can be a transformational leader; it’s all contextual and it’s all driven by scale,” says Ford.

    For a look at how to draw out your transformational leadership qualities in your resume, see ” IT resume makeover: Highlighting transformational leadership .”

    5 Things You Need to Facilitate Transformation

    1. Intellectual Stimulation

    By rocking the boat and asking questions, transformational leaders are always challenging the status quo and aren’t afraid of failure. They foster an environment where it’s safe to have conversations, be creative and voice ideas, a place where all team members feel valued. They challenge cultural norms and work to inspire passion with their teams and peers. As Rucker puts it, they are adept at, “turning me moments into we moments.”

    Shipley says that managers who have a command-and-control style of leadership can get a lot accomplished, but, he says, they achieve short-term. You can have great success but you can’t maintain long-term success that way.”

    A better approach, Shipley says, is to guide your team, but let them solve the problem on their own.

    2. Individualized Consideration

    Is the golden rule flawed? Maybe not but consider this: Don’t treat people how you want to be treated, treat them the way they want to be treated. People are different and what motivates and excites you is different from your peers and coworkers. “You have to learn to adapt your style to accommodate the skills and people on your team,” says Rucker.

    3. Inspirational Motivation

    Know where you want to go and create a vision or strategy to get there and then articulate, with optimism and passion, your vision to show them how all this matters in the big picture. “It’s really the meaning behind why you’re doing the job you’re doing that’s so important to communicate to people. I take great pride in understanding my employees and what motivates them,” says Shipley. He offers this analogy:

    Two guys are digging a ditch, so I asked one of them, “What are you doing?” He says digging a ditch, what’s it look like I’m doing? I asked the other guy the same question and he says, “I’m building a hospital.”

    It’s getting into the minds of the people so that they understand that whatever task they’re doing, they’re not doing that task, they’re a part of something larger “They aren’t digging a ditch or writing that code; they are transforming the way healthcare is delivered in this country,” says Shipley.

    4. Idealized Influence

    “Divorced from ethics, leadership is reduced to management and politics to mere technique,” writes Burns.

    Transformational leadership requires decision-making that works towards the greater good. You need to be a mentor of sorts and lead by example. “Values-based leadership is necessary for driving sustainable change as this ensures that the results achieved are underpinned with a strong moral and ethical foundation, thus they can also stand up to any scrutiny or resistance to change,” says Stewart.

    5. Perseverance Through Conflict

    Experts agree that transformational change will create conflict. You’re going to have people fight and/or ignore you. “You have to master the role by figuring out how you’re going to get all these people to work with you. Doing that will change the position you have into the power you need to change the company,” says Rucker.

    Are you ready to take up the mantle of the transformational leader? You don’t have to be the boss to do so. “Anyone can be a transformational leader, it’s all contextual and it’s all driven by scale,” says Ford.

    Rich Hein is a senior writer for CIO.com. He covers IT careers. Follow everything from CIO.com on Twitter @CIOonline , on Facebook, and on Google + .

    Next read this:

    • 7 habits of highly effective digital leaders

    • 20 ways to kill your IT career (without knowing it)

    • 16 time-saving tips for IT leaders

    • CIO resumes: 6 best practices and 4 strong examples

    • Why IT-business alignment still fails

    • Top 12 ITSM tools for 2018

    • 6 most-dreaded IT projects

    • CIO playbook: 10 tips for leading IT in the digital era

    • 15 ways to advance your IT career

    • 7 habits of highly effective digital transformations

    Related:

    • Careers
    • Innovation
    • Relationship Building and Networking
    • CIO Role
    • IT Strategy
    • IT Leadership

    Rich Hein is senior managing editor for CIO.com. He covers IT careers and leadership topics.

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     Press Releases

    Press Release

    Brooklyn Public Library’s PowerUP! Business Plan Competition Awards Top Prize to Direct Bus Service from Nearby Cities to NYC’s Outer Boroughs

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    Tuesday, December 12, 2017

    More Than $30,000 Awarded to Local Entrepreneurs Including Greeting Cards for the LGBTQ Community and An App to Match Veterans with Employers

    Brooklyn, NY—Brooklyn Public Library’s 14th annual PowerUP! Business Plan Competition awarded more than $30,000 to aspiring entrepreneurs at an awards ceremony Monday evening. A $15,000 prize was awarded to first-place winner Jared Moldonado, founder of Catch-A-Ride, a bus service which will connect Brooklyn to cities in the northeast such as Boston, Philadelphia, and Washington, D.C.

    A judging panel of business owners, nonprofit leaders and academics selected Catch-a-Ride from a field of 66 entries and 12 finalists. The runners-up were Joshua Bloodworth and Victor Hunt for Paragon, an online marketplace to connect building managers with contractors to compare and track bids, and Michele Weisman for Meet the Writers, a program to bring authors and illustrators into underserved schools. Each runner-up received a $5,000 prize, while five other participants received $1,000 merit awards.

    The 2017 participants came from every zip code in the borough. Over 75 percent were women; 80 percent identified as a minority. While many participants had college degrees, only half had entrepreneurial experience.

    “Brooklyn is home to many innovative entrepreneurs, and BPL is proud to have helped over 100 of them launch businesses around the borough,” said Brooklyn Public Library President and CEO Linda E. Johnson. “We congratulate all of the PowerUP participants tonight for their tremendous commitment and hard work.”

    Since its founding in 2003, the PowerUP! contest has provided a total of more than $350,000 to over 125 entrepreneurs. Many successful Brooklyn businesses launched with help from PowerUP! including Bogota Latin Bistro, Dog Parker, Argyle Yarn Shop, Tinsel & Twine Events, and Greenlight Bookstore. 

    “The Power Up! Awards are a great resource to help aspiring young entrepreneurs who have an enormous impact on Brooklyn’s economy,” said Brooklyn Chamber of Commerce President and CEO Andrew Hoan. “As someone who leads a business advocacy organization, and served as a Power UP! juror, I have personally witnessed success stories of small businesses who have benefitted from start-up initiatives such as this. Kudos to Linda Johnson and the leadership at Brooklyn Public Library for offering this wonderful opportunity to the Brooklyn community.”

    All participants attended classes on subjects like marketing, business finance and the utilization of library resources. They also received one-on-one business plan assistance from successful entrepreneurs and business experts. 

    “Dime congratulates both the winners of the PowerUP! Business Plan Competition and every applicant who participated in this program that is committed to helping local entrepreneurs succeed,” said Kenneth J. Mahon, President and Chief Executive Officer of Dime Community Bank. “Dime recognizes the important role that entrepreneurs and small businesses play in the economic development of our communities and we stand ready to support them to grow and prosper.”

    In addition to the winners, the PowerUP! finalists included:

    Merit Awards:

    •    Rebecca Bishop for Out of the Closet cards, sophisticated greeting cards for the LGBTQ market to celebrate special occasions in their lives.

    •    Barika Edwards and Marie Roker Jones for OweYaa, a veteran and women-owned business app to match veterans and military spouses with employers.

    •    Chris Egervary and Hannah Gall for Spent Granola Bar, a snack that uses healthy natural ingredients and spent grain, a nutritious byproduct from the beer brewing process.

    •    Noel Gaskin and Xavier Stewart for NOLOGO backpacks, safe, ergonomically correct load-bearing storage to wear in the form of reconfigurable backpacks.

    •    Natasha Gaspard for Mane Moves Media, providing narrative-based lifestyle video content to brands looking to reach the natural hair care market.

    Honorable Mentions:

    •    Matt Curinga, Loreto Dumitrescu, David Frackman, Cynthia Yahia for Zero Day Camp, providing computer science and robotics education for children in the Crown Heights/Prospect Heights community through summer camps, afterschool sessions and school year mini-camps.

    •    Valerie Gurzenda for Pocketship, an e-commerce clothing shop which features women’s clothes with discreet pockets for phones, keys, and more.

    •    Sergei Levashkin and Galina Shelomentseva for Child Care Match, an online platform that connects child care providers with customers, education professionals and vendors in one convenient, unified space.

    •    Angeles Mojica for Dig It, a sustainable garden and landscape design company.

    The awards ceremony was catered by PowerUP alumni: Island Pops, Tamra Teahouse, Jest Green, Bogota Latin Bistro and Soul Sister Quisine.

    Brooklyn Public Library is grateful to the 2017 PowerUP! Business Plan Competition sponsors: Lead Sponsor Dime Community Bank, additional program support provided by Con Edison, Signature Bank, Ridgewood Savings Bank and M&T Bank. The PowerUP! reception is made possible through the generosity of ReferenceUSA from Infogroup.

    ###

    About Brooklyn Public Library 

    Brooklyn Public Library (BPL) is an independent library system for the 2.5 million residents of Brooklyn. It is the fifth largest library system in the United States with 60 neighborhood libraries located throughout the borough. BPL offers free programs and services for all ages and stages of life, including a large selection of books in more than 30 languages, author talks, literacy programs and public computers. BPL’s eResources, such as eBooks and eVideos, catalog information and free homework help, are available to customers of all ages 24 hours a day at our website:  http://www.bklynlibrary.org /.

     

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    ★How to Start a College Essay Perfectly


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    How do I write a good essay about myself?

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    10 Answers

    J. M. MacLellan

    J. M. MacLellan , Teenager, Homeschooler, Writer, Proud Dog Owner

    Originally Answered: How do I write an essay about myself?

    Personal essay? Cool! Let’s do this…

    So, start with outlining what you need for your essay – you usually have your five basic paragraphs. The introduction, the three body paragraphs, and the conclusion.

    What reaallyyyyy helps in writing an essay and I have found highly useful over years of writing is starting with an outline, which looks like this…

    Thesis: (your introductory sentence)

    1.(your first body paragraph’s topic)

    a. supporting detail

    b. supporting detail

    c. supporting detail

    2. (your second body paragraph’s topic)

    a. supporting detail

    b. supporting detail

    c. supporting detail

    3. (your third body paragraph’s topic)

    a. supporting detail

    b. supporting detail

    c. supporting detail

    Conclusion: (wrapping your essay up)

    And now we get to the good stuff – writing the actual essay.

    In the introduction, tell your reader what you’re going to be talking about. Make sure to start off hooking the reader’s attention – I won’t tell you what to write because this is your own personal essay here! 🙂

    In the first body paragraph, start with the basics about yourself. Maybe talk about what you look like, where you live, and how old you are.

    In the second paragraph, go a little deeper. Maybe you can talk about your hobbies and interests and what extracurricular activities you’re currently taking.

    In the third, go even deeper – the reader feels they know you well now, so perhaps share your hopes and dreams for the future, such as what you want to be, where you want to live, etc.

    Finally, in the conclusion, give a quick summary of what you just said – not so descriptive that it feels repetitive, but a nice wrap-up of your paper. End with a strong, final sentence.

    After you’re done, EDIT!!! I cannot stress how important this is. Read your essay a couple times over, smoothing out sentences and catching typos. Make sure your essay is 12 pt. Times New Roman with 1″ margins – this is the typical format for an essay and teachers will like to see this. Also, maybe add in MLA format – you know, your name, teacher’s name, class name, date…

    Note that this is only the basics, and you can expand on what I said. Since this is a personal essay, make it personal! The body paragraphs could really be about anything. This is just a general idea of what to do.

    Best of luck, and hope this helps! 🙂

    Hadmat Singh Rajput

    Hadmat Singh Rajput , Got A in almost every essay I submitted in my school years.

    Lets see,

    • Be yourself.
    • Be homest.
    • Write about things you love/hate.
    • What are some things that make you unique?
    • How do you want other people to feel about yourself?
    • Dont brag too much.
    • Dont be harsh about your qualities and personality, also.
    • Be confident.

    Remember, you and only you know yourself better than anyone in this whole world so write whatever you feel about yourself.

    Sara Canaday

    Sara Canaday , Academic Writers (2015-present)

    Originally Answered: How do I write an essay about myself?

    When students are asked to write an essay about themselves, a majority of them never take it seriously. Students are often guilty of assuming they know themselves or that such an essay should never be given to college students. However, some come to learn, albeit the hard way, the importance of writing such an essay.

    Essays about oneself are indeed important and are indeed applicable in real life. For example, a student who is applying for a scholarship can be asked to describe themselves and explain why they should be given a chance. Other instances include when one is applying for college as well as when applying for a job. The main point here is, writing an assignment about yourself is just as important as writing a persuasive or an argumentative essay.

    How to Write Body Paragraphs for an Essay about Myself

    After the introduction, the next part involves supporting your angle or the aspect of your life you decided to focus on. In all essay writing exercises, this part is always crucial and often determines whether after capturing the attention of your audience, the writer will be able to maintain their attention. It is, therefore, essential for writers to ensure they are detailed and precisely stick to their thesis or focus. Therefore, when asked to write an essay, especially a personal essay, it is important for the writer to focus on a particular aspect which will guide or dictate the flow of the entire essay.

    Here are tips on how to write body paragraphs for an essay about myself:

    • Make use of topic sentences. Each paragraph should start with an argument that seeks to support the thesis statement.
    • Make your body paragraphs detailed. While describing yourself, make sure you are detailed and never leave the reader guessing.
    • Make use of examples. If, for example, you decided to focus on some of your high school swimming competitions, it is important to give specific examples and take your readership through one scene or competition. These help your essay and makes it possible for the audience to identify with your personal struggles or achievements.

    Jessica Larson

    Jessica Larson , studied at The Ohio State University

    While its fine to mention rough times or personal weaknesses, some things are better left unsaid. A run-in with the law or a battle with a serious mental illness is generally not the kinds of things you want to talk about in your essay. Always try to use negative characteristics or events to highlight your good points. For example, if one of your parents abandoned your family and you had to become a caretaker to your younger siblings, you can talk about how that experience made you more mature, responsible, and compassionate. But focus more on the outcome than the bad experience. The more skilled you are as a writer, the better youll do at turning negatives into positives. Don’t forget to proofread your essay. Supreme essay guys can help you with it. So you can give them a try. Good luck!

    Russell John Torres

    Russell John Torres

    We have gathered several life hints that can help every student to prepare for writing an essay on yourself. First of all, you should try to focus on your personal life experience. People would like to learn about the things you have gone through instead of some imaginative things.

    Even though the essay about you should be focused on your name and deeds, do not start writing with the trivial phrases introducing yourself. It is still better to put an intriguing question which requires an answer in the end or begin with an interesting fact/quote/joke. It’s really helps to get your readers easily hooked to your essay.

    Dont type the words you dont know – your Word will most probably fix all your grammar mistakes, but you need to know what every word means when you use it in the essay about yourself. Choose synonyms to make your text richer, but replace difficult terms with simpler words.

    When you compose an essay about your life, you dont have to sound trivial. Use statistics and interesting facts to begin your paper.

    The last thing you can do is to check your paper if the spelling is correct, your grammar and punctuation errors. You can ask help from Cheapest Essay .

    J. M. Forth

    J. M. Forth , taught writing workshops

    The content of your essay should be determined by who will be reading it. Always write for your audience.

    If you’re writing a personal essay for a college application, then Jessica’s answer would be relevant, as you want to shy away from heavier topics and make sure to stay positive.

    However, if you have the ability to discuss more serious hardships in a humorous, self-deprecating, positive way, don’t discount that approach.

    Choose to begin writing about a topic that has essentially shaped you. What has happened in your life that made you who you are today? What is a memory that stands out in your mind, that you could describe down to the weather and what you were wearing that day?

    When approaching this, keep in mind that good nonfiction uses the same techniques that fiction does. Don’t be afraid to use vivid descriptions, dialogue, and pay attention to your use of POV and tense. Approach this like you would a story. Although you should have a clear beginning and ending, this is not a standard 5 paragraph essay— that will get you nowhere. This is an opportunity to showcase your writing skill as well as your personality.

    Norman Vincent Diagan

    Norman Vincent Diagan , Consultant at Hingyon, Ifugao

    Writing an essay about yourself is the easiest…..as no one can ever….question youre life……because its yours n o one can ever…..take that away from….you…the little moments you treasure the values you have learned the skills you have acquired, the knowledge you have compiled all throughout…..and no one can ever take that away from you……you are you…and writing an essay about you could lean out and inspire other people especially when you write about struggles…how you ovwrcame them…how you stand tall amidst youre challenge.

    Geoffrey Brickley

    Geoffrey Brickley

    Originally Answered: How do I write an essay about myself?

    First of all, you have to decide how personal. J. M. MacLellan has the main technical points. A personal essay for creative writing, or your own benefit, has more latitude than a personal essay for a college entrance or scholarship. For a creative writing class you can get as personal as you are comfortable with being.

    However, in either case you want a focal point for your essay. A purpose. You need to decide what that is. For now, call it a theme. Think of an event that changed you, that affected where you are now. It could be chance, it could be hard work, it could be something dark you rose above to get where you are. You are going to tell a narrative of how that happened and what it means.

    Picturing the Personal Essay: A Visual Guide

    There are some visual guides there for different types of reflections. I tend toward a narrative with a lift. This is your stereotypical novel narrative in micro. You want to build information, tension, importance, seriousness, etc until the reveal. At the reveal, you are at the apex of the narrative, you put everything out there that needs to be known (and nothing else – if it’s fluff, don’t use it).

    I have written one in picture mode, a reflection inward. There are these and more at that link. They don’t tell you what to write, just how to picture the narrative following inside your essay.

    Always know where you start and where you are going. Know your opening and ending before you start. You have to know where you are going so you can go directly there, otherwise you can wander aimlessly.

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    How to Start a College Essay Perfectly

    Posted by Dr. Anna Wulick | May 4, 2018 8:30:00 AM

    College Essays

     

    If you’ve been sitting in front of a blank screen, unsure of exactly how to start a personal statement for college, then believe me—I feel your pain. A great college essay introduction is key to making your essay stand out, so there’s a lot of pressure to get it right.

    Luckily, being able to craft the perfect beginning for your admissions essay is just like many other writing skills—something you can get better at with practice and by learning from examples. 

    In this article, I’ll walk you through exactly how to start a college essay. We’ll cover what makes a great personal statement introduction and how the first part of your essay should be structured. We’ll also look at several great examples of essay beginnings and explain why they work, how they work, and what you can learn from them.

     

    What Is the College Essay Introduction For?

    Before we talk about how to start a college essay, let’s discuss the role of the introduction. Just as your college essay is your chance to introduce yourself to the admissions office of your target college, your essay’s beginning is your chance to introduce your writing.

     

    Wait, Back Up—Why Do Colleges Want Personal Statements?

    In general, college essays make it easier to get to know the parts of you not in your transcript —these include your personality, outlook on life, passions, and experiences.

    You’re not writing for yourself but for a very specific kind of reader. Picture it: your audience is an admissions officer who has read thousands and thousands of essays. This person is disposed to be friendly and curious, but if she hasn’t already seen it all she’s probably seen a good portion of it.

    Your essay’s job is to entertain and impress this person, and to make you memorable so you don’t merely blend into the sea of other personal statements. Like all attempts at charm, you must be slightly bold and out of the ordinary—but you must also stay away from crossing the line into offensiveness or bad taste. 

     

    What Role Does the Introduction Play in a College Essay?

    The personal statement introduction is basically the wriggly worm that baits the hook to catch your reader. It’s vital to grab attention from the get-go—the more awake and eager your audience is, the more likely it is that what you say will really land.

    How do you go about crafting an introduction that successfully hooks your reader? Let’s talk about how to structure the beginning of your college essay.

     

    Teenagers hard at work on their college applications.

     

    How to Structure a Personal Statement Introduction

    To see how the introduction fits into an essay, let’s look at the big structural picture first and then zoom in.

     

    College Essay Structure Overview

    Even though they’re called essays, personal statements are really more like a mix of a short story and a philosophy or psychology class that’s all about you.

    Usually, how this translates is that you start with a really good (and very short) story about something arresting, unusual, or important that happened to you. This is not to say that the story has to be about something important or unusual in the grand scheme of things—it just has to be  a moment that stands out to you as defining in some way, or an explanation of why you are the way you are . You then pivot to an explanation of why this story is an accurate illustration of one of your core qualities, values, or beliefs.

    The story typically comes in the first half of the essay, and the insightful explanation comes second —but, of course, all rules were made to be broken, and some great essays flip this more traditional order.

     

    College Essay Introduction Components

    Now, let’s zero in on the first part of the college essay. What are the ingredients of a great personal statement introduction? I’ll list them here and then dissect them one by one in the next section:

    • A killer first sentence: This hook grabs your readers’ attention and whets their appetite for your story.
    • A vivid, detailed story that illustrates your eventual insight: To make up for how short your story will be, you must insert effective sensory information to immerse the reader.
    • An insightful pivot toward the greater point you’re making in your essay: This vital piece of the essay connects the short story part to the part where you explain what the experience has taught you about yourself, how you’ve matured, and how it has ultimately shaped you as a person.

     

    You’ve got your reader’s attention when you see its furry ears extended … No, wait. Squirrel. You’ve got your squirrel’s attention.

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    How to Write a College Essay Introduction

    Here’s a weird secret that’s true for most written work: just because it’ll end up at the beginning doesn’t mean you have to write it first. For example, in this case, you can’t know what your killer first sentence will be until you’ve figured out the following details:

    • The story you want to tell
    • The point you want that story to make
    • The trait/maturity level/background about you that your essay will reveal

    So my suggestion is to work in reverse order! Writing your essay will be much easier if you can figure out the entirety of it first and then go back and work out exactly how it should start.

    This means that before you can craft your ideal first sentence, the way the short story experience of your life will play out on the page, and the perfect pivoting moment that transitions from your story to your insight, you must work out a general idea about which life event you will share and what you expect that life event to demonstrate to the reader about you and the kind of person you are.

    If you’re having trouble coming up with a topic, check out our guide on  brainstorming college essay ideas . It might also be helpful to read our guides to specific application essays, such as  picking your best Common App prompt and  writing a perfect University of California personal statement .

    In the next sections of this article, I’ll talk about how to work backwards on the introduction, moving from bigger to smaller elements: starting with the first section of the essay in general and then honing your pivot sentence and your first sentence.

     

     Don’t get too excited about working in reverse—not all activities are safe to do backwards. ( Jackie /Flickr)

     

    How to Write the First Section of Your College Essay

    In a 500-word essay, this section will take up about the first half of the essay and will mostly consist of a brief story that illuminates a key experience, an important character trait, a moment of transition or transformation, or a step toward maturity.

    Once you’ve figured out your topic and zeroed in on the experience you want to highlight in the beginning of your essay, here are 2 great approaches to making it into a story:

    • Talking it out, storyteller style (while recording yourself): Imagine that you’re sitting with a group of people at a campfire, or that you’re stuck on a long flight sitting next to someone you want to befriend. Now tell that story. What does someone who doesn’t know you need to know in order for the story to make sense? What details do you need to provide to put them in the story with you? What background information do they need in order to understand the stakes or importance of the story?
    • Record yourself telling your story to friends and then chatting about it: What do they need clarified? What questions do they have? Which parts of your story didn’t make sense or follow logically for them? Do they want to know more, or less? Is part of your story interesting to them but not interesting to you? Is a piece of your story secretly boring, even though you think it’s interesting?

    Later, as you listen to the recorded story to try to get a sense of how to write it, you can also get a sense of the tone with which you want to tell your story. Are you being funny as you talk? Sad? Trying to shock, surprise, or astound your audience? The way you most naturally tell your story is the way you should write it.

    After you’ve done this storyteller exercise, write down the salient points of what you learned. What is the story your essay will tell? What is the point about your life, point of view, or personality it will make? What tone will you tell it with? Sketch out a detailed outline so that you can start filling in the pieces as we work through how to write the introductory sections.

     

    Baron Munchausen didn’t know whether to tell his story sad that his horse had been cut in half, or delighted by knowing what would happen if half a horse drank from a fountain.

     

    How to Write the First Sentence of Your College Essay

    In general, your essay’s first sentence should be either a mini-cliffhanger that sets up a situation the reader would like to see resolved, or really lush scene-setting that situates your audience in a place and time they can readily visualize. The former builds expectations and evokes curiosity, and the latter stimulates the imagination and creates a connection with the author. In both cases, you hit your goal of greater reader engagement.

    Now, I’m going to show you how these principles work for all types of first sentences, whether in college essays or in famous works of fiction.

     

    First Sentence Idea 1: Line of Quoted Direct Speech

    “Mum, I’m gay.” ( Ahmad Ashraf ’17 for Connecticut College )

    The experience of coming out is raw and emotional, and the issue of LGBTQ rights is an important facet of modern life. This three-word sentence immediately sums up an enormous background of the personal and political.

    “You can handle it, Matt,” said Mr. Wolf, my fourth-grade band teacher, as he lifted the heavy tuba and put it into my arms. ( Matt Coppo ’07 for Hamilton College )

    This sentence conjures up a funny image—we can immediately picture the larger adult standing next to a little kid holding a giant tuba. It also does a little play on words: “handle it” can refer to both the literal tuba Matt is being asked to hold and the figurative stress of playing the instrument.

     

    First Sentence Idea 2: Punchy Short Sentence With One Grabby Detail

    I live alone—I always have since elementary school. ( Kevin Zevallos ’16 for Connecticut College )

    This opener definitely makes us want to know more. Why was he alone? Where were the protective grown-ups who surround most kids? How on earth could a little kid of 8-10 years old survive on his own?

    I have old hands. ( First line from a student in Stanford’s class of 2012 )

    There’s nothing but questions here. What are “old” hands? Are they old-looking? Arthritic? How has having these hands affected the author?

    There was no possibility of taking a walk that day. (Charlotte Bronte, Jane Eyre)

    There’s immediately a feeling of disappointment and the stifled desire for action here. Who wanted to go for a walk? And why was this person being prevented from going?

     

    First Sentence Idea 3: Lyrical, Adjective-Rich Description of a Setting

    We met for lunch at El Burrito Mexicano, a tiny Mexican lunch counter under the Red Line “El” tracks. ( Ted Mullin ’06 for Carleton College )

    Look at how much specificity this sentence packs in less than 20 words. Each noun and adjective is chosen for its ability to convey yet another detail. “Tiny” instead of “small” gives readers a sense of being uncomfortably close to other people and sitting at tables that don’t quite have enough room for the plates. “Counter” instead of “restaurant” lets us immediately picture this work surface, the server standing behind it, and the general atmosphere. “Under the tracks” is a location deeply associated with being run down, borderline seedy, and maybe even dangerous.

    Maybe it’s because I live in Rhinelander, Wisconsin, where Brett Favre draws more of a crowd on Sunday than any religious service, cheese is a staple food, it’s sub-zero during global warming, current “fashions” come three years after they’ve hit it big with the rest of the world, and where all children by the age of ten can use a 12-gauge like it’s their job. ( Riley Smith ’12 for Hamilton College )

    This sentence manages to hit every stereotype about Wisconsin held by outsiders—football, cheese, polar winters, backwardness, and guns—and this piling on gives us a good sense of place while also creating enough hyperbole to be funny. At the same time, the sentence raises the tantalizing question: maybe what is because of Wisconsin?

    High, high above the North Pole, on the first day of 1969, two professors of English Literature approached each other at a combined velocity of 1200 miles per hour. (David Lodge, Changing Places)

    This sentence is structured in the highly specific style of a math problem, which makes it funny. However, at the heart of this sentence lies a mystery that grabs the reader’s interest: why on earth would these two people be doing this?

     

    First Sentence Idea 4: Counterintuitive Statement 

    To avoid falling into generalities with this one, make sure you’re really creating an argument or debate with your counterintuitive sentence. If no one would argue with what you’ve said, then you aren’t making an argument. (“The world is a wonderful place” and “Life is worth living” don’t make the cut.)

    If string theory is really true, then the entire world is made up of strings, and I cannot tie a single one. ( Joanna ’18 for Johns Hopkins University )

    There’s a great switch here from the sub-microscopic strings that make up string theory to the actual physical strings you can tie in real life. This sentence hints that the rest of the essay will continue playing with linked, albeit not typically connected, concepts.

    All children, except one, grow up. (J. M. Barrie, Peter Pan)

    In just six words, this sentence upends everything we think we know about what happens to human beings.

     

    First Sentence Idea 5: The End—Making the Rest of the Essay a Flashback

    I’ve recently come to the realization that community service just isn’t for me. ( Kyla ’19 for Johns Hopkins University )

    This seems pretty bold—aren’t we supposed to be super into community service? Is this person about to declare herself to be totally selfish and uncaring about the less fortunate? We want to know the story that would lead someone to this kind of conclusion.

    Many years later, as he faced the firing squad, Colonel Aureliano Buendía was to remember that distant afternoon when his father took him to discover ice. (Gabriel García Márquez, One Hundred Years of Solitude)

    So many amazing details here. Why is the Colonel being executed? What does “discovering” ice entail? How does he go from ice-discoverer to military commander of some sort to someone condemned to capital punishment?

     

    First Sentence Idea 6: Direct Question to the Reader

    To work well, your question should be especially specific, come out of left field, or pose a surprising hypothetical.

    How does an agnostic Jew living in the Diaspora connect to Israel? ( Essay #3 from Carleton College’s sample essays )

    This is a thorny opening, raising questions about the difference between being an ethnic Jew and practicing the religion of Judaism, and the obligations of Jews who live outside of Israel to those who live in Israel and vice versa. There’s a lot of meat to this question, setting up a philosophically interesting, politically important, and personally meaningful essay.

    While traveling through the daily path of life, have you ever stumbled upon a hidden pocket of the universe? ( First line from a student in Stanford’s class of 2012 )

    There’s a dreamy and sci-fi element to this first sentence, as it tries to find the sublime (“the universe”) inside the prosaic (“daily path of life”).

     

    First Sentence Idea 7: Lesson You Learned From the Story You’re Telling

    One way to think about how to do this kind of opening sentence well is to model it on the morals that ended each  Aesop’s fable . The lesson you learned should be slightly surprising (not necessarily intuitive) and something that someone else might disagree with.

    Perhaps it wasn’t wise to chew and swallow a handful of sand the day I was given my first sandbox, but it seemed like a good idea at the time. ( Meagan Spooner ’07 for Hamilton College )

    The best part of this hilarious sentence is that even in retrospect, eating a handful of sand is only possibly an unwise idea—a qualifier achieved through that great “perhaps.” So does that mean it was wise in at least some way to eat the sand? The reader wants to know more.

    All happy families are alike; each unhappy family is unhappy in its own way. (Leo Tolstoy, Anna Karenina)

    This immediately sets readers to mentally flip through every unhappy family they’ve ever known to double-check the narrator’s assertion. Did he draw the right conclusion here? How did he come to this realization? The implication that he will tell us all about some dysfunctional drama also has a rubbernecking draw.

     

    body_wrightplane.jpgNow go! And let your first sentences soar like the Wright Brothers’ first airplane!

     

    How to Write a Pivot Sentence in Your College Essay

    This is the place in your essay where you go from small to big—from the life experience you describe in detail to the bigger point this experience illustrates about your world and yourself.

    Typically, the pivot sentence will come at the end of your introductory section, about halfway through the essay. I say sentence, but this section could be more than one sentence (though ideally no longer than two or three).

    So how do you make the turn? Usually you indicate in your pivot sentence itself that you are moving from one part of the essay to another. This is called signposting, and it’s a great way to keep readers updated on where they are in the flow of the essay and your argument. 

    Here are three ways to do this, with real-life examples from college essays published by colleges.

     

    Pivot Idea 1: Expand the Time Frame

    In this pivot, you gesture out from the specific experience you describe to the overarching realization you had during it. Think of helper phrases such as “that was the moment I realized” and “never again would I.”

    Suddenly, two things simultaneously clicked. One was the lock on the door. (I actually succeeded in springing it.) The other was the realization that I’d been in this type of situation before. In fact, I’d been born into this type of situation. ( Stephen ’19 for Johns Hopkins University )

    This is a pretty great pivot, neatly connecting the story Stephen’s been telling (about having to break into a car on a volunteering trip) and his general reliance on his own resourcefulness and ability to roll with whatever life throws at him. It’s a double bonus that he accomplishes the pivot with a play on the word “click,” which here means both the literal clicking of the car door latch and the figurative clicking his brain does. Note also how the pivot crystallizes the moment of epiphany through the word “suddenly,” which implies instant insight.

    But in that moment I realized that the self-deprecating jokes were there for a reason. When attempting to climb the mountain of comedic success, I didn’t just fall and then continue on my journey, but I fell so many times that I befriended the ground and realized that the middle of the metaphorical mountain made for a better campsite. Not because I had let my failures get the best of me, but because I had learned to make the best of my failures. ( Rachel Schwartzbaum ’19 for Connecticut College )

    This pivot similarly focuses on a “that moment” of illuminated clarity. In this case, it broadens Rachel’s experience of stage fright before her standup comedy sets to the way she has more generally not allowed failures to stop her progress—and has instead been able to use them as learning experiences. Not only does she describe her humor as “self-deprecating,” but she also demonstrates what she means with that great “befriended the ground” line.

    It was on this first educational assignment that I realized how much could be accomplished through an animal education program—more, in some cases, than the aggregate efforts of all of the rehabilitators. I found that I had been naive in my assumption that most people knew as much about wildlife as I did, and that they shared my respect for animals. ( J.P. Maloney ’07 for Hamilton College )

    This is another classically constructed pivot, as J.P. segues from his negative expectations about using a rehabilitated wild owl as an educational animal to his understanding of how much this kind of education could contribute to forming future environmentalists and nature lovers. The widening of scope happens at once as we go from a highly specific “first educational assignment” to the more general realization that “much” could be accomplished through these kinds of programs.

     

    Pivot Idea 2: Link the Described Experience With Others

    In this pivot, you draw a parallel between the life event that you’ve been describing in your very short story and other events that were similar in some significant way. Helpful phrases include “now I see how x is really just one of the many x’s I have faced,” “in a way, x is a good example of the x-like situations I see daily,” and “and from then on every time I …”

    This state of discovery is something I strive for on a daily basis. My goal is to make all the ideas in my mind fit together like the gears of a Swiss watch. Whether it’s learning a new concept in linear algebra, talking to someone about a programming problem, or simply zoning out while I read, there is always some part of my day that pushes me towards this place of cohesion: an idea that binds together some set of the unsolved mysteries in my mind. ( Aubrey Anderson ’19 for Tufts University )

    After cataloging and detailing the many interesting thoughts that flow through her brain in a specific hour, Aubrey uses the pivot to explain that this is what every waking hour is like for her “on a daily basis.” She loves learning different things and finds a variety of fields fascinating. And her pivot lets us know that her example is a demonstration of how her mind works generally.

    This was the first time I’ve been to New Mexico since he died. Our return brought so much back for me. I remembered all the times we’d visited when I was younger, certain events highlighted by the things we did: Dad haggling with the jewelry sellers, his minute examination of pots at a trading post, the affection he had for chilies. I was scared that my love for the place would be tainted by his death, diminished without him there as my guide. That fear was part of what kept my mother and me away for so long. Once there, though, I was relieved to realize that Albuquerque still brings me closer to my father. ( Essay #1 from Carleton College’s sample essays )

    In this pivot, one very painful experience of visiting a place filled with sorrowful memories is used as a way to think about “all the other times” the author had been to New Mexico. The previously described trip after the father’s death pivots into a sense of the continuity of memory. Even though he is no longer there to “guide,” the author’s love for the place itself remains.

     

    Pivot Idea 3: Extract and Underline a Trait or Value

    In this type of pivot, you use the experience you’ve described to demonstrate its importance in developing or zooming in on one key attribute. Here are some ways to think about making this transition: “I could not have done it without characteristic y, which has helped me through many other difficult moments,” or “this is how I came to appreciate the importance of value z, both in myself and in those around me.”

    My true reward of having Stanley is that he opened the door to the world of botany. I would never have invested so much time learning about the molecular structure or chemical balance of plants if not for taking care of him. ( Michaela ’19 for Johns Hopkins University )

    In this tongue-in-cheek essay in which Michaela writes about Stanley, a beloved cactus, as if “he” has human qualities and is her child, the pivot explains what makes this plant so meaningful to its owner. Without having to “take care of him,” Michaela “would never have invested so much time learning” about plant biology. She has a deep affinity for the natural sciences and attributes her interest at least partly to her cactus.

    By leaving me free to make mistakes and chase wild dreams, my father was always able to help ground me back in reality. Personal responsibilities, priorities and commitments are all values that are etched into my mind, just as they are within my father’s. ( Olivia Rabbitt ’16 for Connecticut College )

    In Olivia’s essay about her father’s role in her life, the pivot discusses his importance by explaining his deep impact on her values. Olivia has spent the story part of her essay describing her father’s background and their relationship. Now, she is free to show how without his influence, she would not be so strongly committed to “personal responsibilities, priorities and commitments.”

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    body_parkour-1A great pivot is like great parkour—sharp, fast, and coming on a slightly unexpected curve. ( Peter Waterman /Flickr)

     

    College Essay Introduction Examples

    We’ve collected many  examples of college essays published by colleges and offered a breakdown of how several of them are put together . Now, let’s check out a couple of examples of actual college essay beginnings to show you how and why they work.

     

    Sample Intro 1

    A blue seventh place athletic ribbon hangs from my mantel. Every day, as I walk into my living room, the award mockingly congratulates me as I smile. Ironically, the blue seventh place ribbon resembles the first place ribbon in color; so, if I just cover up the tip of the seven, I may convince myself that I championed the fourth heat. But, I never dare to wipe away the memory of my seventh place swim; I need that daily reminder of my imperfection. I need that seventh place.

    Two years ago, I joined the no-cut swim team. That winter, my coach unexpectedly assigned me to swim the 500 freestyle. After stressing for hours about swimming 20 laps in a competition, I mounted the blocks, took my mark, and swam. Around lap 14, I looked around at the other lanes and did not see anyone. “I must be winning!” I thought to myself. However, as I finally completed my race and lifted my arms up in victory to the eager applause of the fans, I looked up at the score board. I had finished my race in last place. In fact, I left the pool two minutes after the second-to-last competitor, who now stood with her friends, wearing all her clothes.

    (From “The Unathletic Department” by Meghan ’17 for Johns Hopkins University )

     

    Why Intro Sample 1 Works

    Here are some of the main reasons that this essay’s introduction is super effective.

     

    #1: It’s Got a Great First Sentence

    The sentence is short but still does some scene setting with the descriptive “blue” and the location “from my mantel.” It introduces a funny element with “seventh place”—why would that bad of a showing even get a ribbon? It dangles information just out of reach, making the reader want to know more: what was this an award for? Why does this definitively non-winning ribbon hang in such a prominent place of pride?

     

    #2: It Has Lots of Detail

    In the intro, we get physical actions: “cover up the tip,” “mounted the blocks,” “looked around at the other lanes,” “lifted my arms up,” and “stood with her friends, wearing all her clothes.” We also get words conveying emotion: “mockingly congratulates me as I smile,” “unexpectedly assigned,” and “stressing for hours.” Finally, we get descriptive specificity in the precise word choice: “from my mantel” and “my living room” instead of simply “in my house,” and “lap 14” instead of “toward the end of the race.”

     

    #3: It Explains the Stakes

    Even though everyone can imagine the lap pool, not everyone knows exactly what the “500 freestyle” race is. Meghan elegantly explains the difficulty by describing herself freaking out over “swimming 20 laps in a competition,” which helps us to picture the swimmer going back and forth many times.

     

    #4: It Has Great Storytelling

    We basically get a sports commentary play-by-play here. Even though we already know the conclusion—Meghan came in 7th—she still builds suspense by narrating the race from her point of view as she was swimming it. She’s nervous for a while, and then she starts the race.

    Close to the end, she starts to think everything is going well (“I looked around at the other lanes and did not see anyone. ‘I must be winning!’ I thought to myself.”). Everything builds to an expected moment of great triumph (“I finally completed my race and lifted my arms up in victory to the eager applause of the fans”) but ends in total defeat (“I had finished my race in last place”).

    Not only that, but the mildly clichéd sports hype is hilariously undercut by reality (“I left the pool two minutes after the second-to-last competitor, who now stood with her friends, wearing all her clothes”).

     

    #5: It Uses a Pivot Sentence

    This essay uses the time expansion method of pivoting: “But, I never dare to wipe away the memory of my seventh place swim; I need that daily reminder of my imperfection. I need that seventh place.” Coming last in the race was something that happened once, but the award is now an everyday experience of humility.

    The rest of the essay explores what it means for Meghan to constantly see this reminder of failure and to transform it into a sense of acceptance of her imperfections. Notice also that in this essay, the pivot comes before the main story, helping us “hear” the narrative in the way she wants us to.

     

    Sample Intro 2 

    “Biogeochemical. It’s a word, I promise!” There are shrieks and shouts in protest and support. Unacceptable insults are thrown, degrees and qualifications are questioned, I think even a piece of my grandmother’s famously flakey parantha whizzes past my ear. Everyone is too lazy to take out a dictionary (or even their phones) to look it up, so we just hash it out. And then, I am crowned the victor, a true success in the Merchant household. But it is fleeting, as the small, glossy, plastic tiles, perfectly connected to form my winning word, are snatched out from under me and thrown in a pile with all the disgraced, “unwinning” tiles as we mix for our next game of Bananagrams. It’s a similar donnybrook, this time ending with my father arguing that it is okay to use “Rambo” as a word (it totally is not).

    Words and communicating have always been of tremendous importance in my life: from silly games like Bananagrams and our road-trip favorite “word game,” to stunted communication between opposing grandparents, each speaking a different Indian language; from trying to understand the cheesemonger behind the counter with a deep southern drawl (I just want some Camembert!), to shaping a script to make people laugh.

    Words are moving and changing; they have influence and substance.

    From an  Essay by Shaan Merchant ‘19 for Tufts University

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    Why Intro Sample 2 Works

    Let’s take a look at what qualities make this essay’s introduction particularly memorable.

     

    #1: It’s Got a Great First Sentence

    With the first sentence, we are immediately thrust into the middle of the action—into an exciting part of an argument about whether “biogeochemical” is really a word. We’re also immediately challenged. Is this a word? Have I ever heard it before? Does a scientific neologism count as a word?

     

    #2: It Shows Rather Than Tells

    Since the whole essay is going to be about words, it makes sense for Shaan to demonstrate his comfort with all different kinds of language:

    • Complex, elevated vocabulary, such as “biogeochemical” and “donnybrook”
    • Foreign words, such as “parantha” and “Camembert”
    • Colorful descriptive words, such as “shrieks and shouts,” “famously flakey, “whizzes past,” and “hash it out”
    • “Fake” words, such as “unwinning” and “Rambo”

    What’s great is that Shaan is able to seamlessly mix the different tones and registers these words imply, going from cerebral to funny and back again.

     

    #3: It Uses a Pivot Sentence

    This essay uses the value-extraction style of pivot: “Words and communicating have always been of tremendous importance in my life.” After we see an experience linking Shaan’s clear love of his family with an interest in word games, he clarifies that this is exactly what the essay will be about—using a very straightforward pivoting sentence.

     

    #4: It Piles On Examples to Avoid Vagueness

    The danger of this kind of pivot sentence is slipping into vague, uninformative statements, such as “I love words.” To avoid making a generalization the tells us nothing, the essay builds a list of examples of times when Shaan saw the way that words connect people: games (“Bananagrams and our road-trip favorite ‘word game,’”), his mixed-language family (“grandparents, each speaking a different Indian language”), encounters with strangers (“from trying to understand the cheesemonger”), and finally the more active experience of performing (“shaping a script to make people laugh”).

    But the essay stops short of giving so many examples that the reader drowns. I’d say three to five examples is a good range—as long as they’re all different kinds of the same thing.

     

    body_keys-2.jpgSeveral keys offer a good chance of unlocking a door; a giant pile of keys is its own unsolvable maze.

      

    The Bottom Line: How to Start a College Essay 

    The college essay introduction should hook your reader and make her want to know more and read more.

    Good personal statement introductions will contain the following features:

    • A killer first line
    • A detailed description of an experience from your life
    • A pivot to the bigger picture, in which you explain why and how this experience has shaped you, your point of view, and/or your values.

    You don’t have to write the introduction first, and you certainly don’t have to write your first sentence firstInstead, start by developing your story by telling it out loud to a friend. You can then work on your first sentence and your pivot.

    The first sentence should either be short, punchy, and carry some ambiguity or questions, or be a detailed and beautiful description setting an easily pictured scene. The pivot, on the other hand, should answer the question, “How does the story you’ve told connect to a larger truth or insight about you?”

     

    What’s Next?

    Wondering what to make of the Common Application essay prompts? We have the  complete list of this year’s Common App prompts with explanations of what each is asking as well as a  guide to picking the Common App prompt that’s perfect for you .

    Thinking of applying to the University of California system? Check out our  detailed guide on how to approach their essay prompts and craft your ideal UC essay .

    If you’re in the middle of the essay-writing process, you’ll want to see our suggestions on what essay pitfalls to avoid .

    Working on the rest of your college application? Read what admissions officers wish applicants knew before applying .

     

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    • Home Essay/Articles Essay : Today’s Students Tomorrow’s Nation Builders

      Essay : Today’s Students Tomorrow’s Nation Builders
      Wednesday, 18 July 2012 10:06


      Today’s Students Tomorrow’s Nation Builders

      The backbone of any strong nation is its students. Students who are the youth of a country help the nation in times of emergency, drought, floods or any type of riots. Students, by virtue for their energy, are best suited for tough jobs for building the foundation of a nation. They can undergo any type of sacrifice. Students have a fund of immense knowledge which if channelised in proper direction can prove to be of great help and value. Whenever the honour and freedom of a nation is facing danger, it is students who come to the fore front and protect it at the cost of their lives. 
      Students are full of energy and have sufficient time for their studies. Student life is not very long. As such, it becomes the duty of students to acquire as much information and knowledge as possible during this short period. Only them, they can prove themselves to be the true and proud sons of their motherland. Students have to build a high quality character during their studies because a nation is known by the character of its citizens. The moral character has gone downwards during about three hundred years of foreign rule. Students must learn from the very beginning of their education life the lessons of self reliance and sacrifice & sympathy towards the causes of nation building. Even in the classroom, they should live with love and co-operate with their class fellows. 
      A nation with indisciplined youth is always in the danger of extinction and can never prosper. Indiscipline can play havoc with the social life of a nation. 
      Today’s students will be tomorrow’s citizens. As such, if our students today start learning and following a disciplined life, then tomorrow they will be matured and disciplined citizens of the nation. These students can pave the way for building a strong and progressive nation in future. The will be responsible and honourable leaders in assemblies and parliament. Such disciplined students will not indulge in public property damage, burning of buses and killing of innocent people. 
      Disciplined students become literate citizens of a nation. They understand the dirty play of politics. They know how to keep religion away from politics. They will be proved to be best voters because they know the misue of various issues by political parties to win votes. Students should also try to follow the path of non-violence because violence leads to terrorism and loss of public property. Students should participate in reforming and contributing towards political stability but not at the cost of their routine studies. It is first education. Which is essential for them to help do something for nation building. They have to prepare themselves today for the bright future of the nation. 
      Today’s students should equip themselves both mentally and physically so as to make themselves strong foundation of a great nation tomorrow. They can build the best work force for the upliftment of the country. Today’s students will be required to tale place of present leaders who are going to retire in future. Moreover, today’s student will be the best judges to analyse the problems of future. Students have contributed to check price-rise, un-employment and unnecessary reservation. They have the capacity to spread the message of co-operation and sportsmanship as they learn the same while playing in the sports and games at various levels of education. 
      Students also learn the whole nation’s diversified cultures, people, languages and ways of living under different environments. As such, these students will be best agents of national unity and integration. Students learn to adjust themselves to new conditions under various hardships and, therefore, they can play better a role towards nation building.
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      Pakistan Today

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        October 12, 2018
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      Role of students in society

      by PakistanToday , (Last Updated September 20, 2012)

      Society is a group of people who commonly share values, requirements and interests. Student is an important pillar in building and educated society as education is the basis for living in a world community as trade, industry, economic or political.
      For the prosperity and betterment of a society, the foremost role of student is to gather knowledge and wisdom and must not waste his/her precious time carelessly. He must submit himself to the rules of discipline to build a civilized society. They must realize their roles and duties towards a cultured society. They must develop habits of self-reliance and try not to use unfair means in every aspect. A student can understand and help common people to understand their rights. He is expected to be well informed as well as balanced in his views. He must know that he is prepared to offer his co-operation and services for the well being of the society. As he is conscious of right and wrong, good and bad; he will not follow another man dictates blindly. Student must contribute himself for improvement, judge and act for a civilized society. They may stand for the strength of will, truthfulness, high sense of duty and honor, spirit of service and sacrifice. A student must know his talent and utilize it in a right manner. Material consideration and getting fame should not move him from the right path.
      If we had a look on history, we see that students played vital role during struggle for independence. But unfortunately, now-a-days students waste their time and attention in pursuits, as education is only away to get academic degrees. Today the behavior of students is very casual, which if not diverted into a healthy channel could take shape of destruction. Students of today are leaders of tomorrow so they should perform their tasks for the goodness of their society and ultimately for their beloved homeland
      MARIA AHMED
      Islamabad

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      6 Comments

      1. darya khan said:

        such a niceee…..

      2. farrukh sultan said:

        MashAllah such a nice views…..Farrukh sultan

        • Mahum said:

          yeah ur ryte farukh… 🙂

      3. suadah said:

        beautiful article …….

      4. khan said:

        very nice.a comprehensive article

      5. Aziz said:

        V. True nice and extremely good

      Comments are closed.

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      Series:
      Skills for a Changing World

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      Op-Ed

      What is the role of teachers in preparing future generations?









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        Editors Note:

        The following essay comes from ” Meaningful education in times of uncertainty ,” a collection of essays from the Center for Universal Education and top thought leaders in the fields of learning, innovation, and technology.

        cue-essay-collection-cover In September 2015, the U.N. General Assembly approved the Sustainable Development Goals that included one all-encompassing goal on education, SDG-4, which demands primary and secondary inclusive quality education for all by 2030.

        This is a very ambitious goal. In many parts of the developing world, too many are left behind by not having access to school or learning the basics. Of the 121 million out-of-school children and adolescents in low- and middle-income countries, one-sixth of children did not complete primary school and one-third of adolescents did not complete lower secondary. Thirty percent of countries still do not have gender parity in primary and 50 percent do not have it in secondary.

        Worst of all, 250 million children cannot read, write, or do basic arithmetic, although many of them have been in school for some years. “Schooling Ain’t Learning” states the subtitle of the excellent book from Lant Pritchett, “ The Rebirth of Education ,” which analyzes the challenges the developing world faces to ensure improvements in literacy and numeracy. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has described it as the Global Learning Crisis.

        Author

        Claudia Costin

        Claudia Costin

        Visiting Professor of Practice in Education – Harvard Graduate School of Education

        Former Secretary of Education – Municipality of Rio de Janeiro


        ClaudiaCostin

        To make matters worse, the demand for skills is migrating to non-routine cognitive and interpersonal skills, since many jobs are being lost to automation . Curricula in schools do not normally consider this change and education systems do not have the tools to address these more sophisticated skills.

        Globalization has made these changes present in almost every country, adding to existing inequalities and contributing to the intergenerational transmission of poverty. In many low-income, and even middle-income countries, certified teachers (i.e. teachers who have received the formal education required by the country’s regulations) lack knowledge in some subjects such as mathematics, physics, and chemistry, lack adequate quantities of textbooks, and connectivity (and sometimes even electricity) is rare in school buildings. Yet, even in these cases, the demand for higher-level thinking skills is present in the labor market, imposing a double-challenge over an already overburdened school system.

        In this context, what should be the role of the teacher? It would be easy to respond that if the basics do not exist, we should not expect anything more than the basics, thus allowing the next generation of students to be unskilled and unprepared for the future ahead.

        In this short essay, I try to state the opposite: It is possible, with the appropriate support, to expect teachers to help students to be active citizens and professionals in these times of uncertainty.

        The path to scale 21st century education in countries with struggling education ecosystems

        These countries cannot make their school systems progress step-by-step, first covering the last mile in access, then promoting the outdated model of quality education for all, and finally ensuring that the system incorporates the development of a new set of skills. They will have to leapfrog and learn from countries that have previously improved their education systems.

        For this to be feasible, some initial deficiencies will need to be addressed, such as a precarious pre-service and in-service education and inefficient teachers’ hiring processes. Pre-service education in the developing world tends to overemphasize the theory, at the expense of the practice of education. A curriculum reform in the tertiary institutions that prepare future teachers would be more than welcome. Only through a solid reflection on a teacher’s everyday practice could we advance towards a model where they could be seen less as a mere class provider and more as a mediator in the process of skills development—literacy and numeracy, higher order cognitive skills, or social and emotional skills. These skills are better developed through interactions, not speeches or copying from a blackboard, as most teachers do. Facilitating a class where consistent participation is expected is extremely difficult for novice teachers that were themselves taught through pedagogies that don’t demand students’ engagement.

        Last year, the OECD delivered an interesting report on the strategies mathematics teachers from participating countries in PISA 2012 used to deliver their instruction.4 The report grouped the strategies into three categories: active learning, where the emphasis is on promoting student engagement in their own learning, with support of ICT and lots of teamwork; cognitive activation, where students are challenged into a process that develops higher order thinking skills, especially problem solving and critical thinking; and teacher-directed instruction, that relies on the teacher ability to deliver good classes. According to the report, the strategies are not mutually exclusive, which demand the instructor a constant change in roles, to adjust to the kind of instruction being implemented.

        Pre-service education and hiring processes in the developing world should prepare professionals that are ready to manage these more sophisticated roles as they deal with their daily teaching of classes.

        In addition to this important transformation, professional development should incorporate the notion that, in addition to being a mediator, a teacher is part of a team and teaching is not an isolated work. Teachers need to learn to collaborate, co-create, plan classes, and monitor their work together. This could be in the school they are working or within a school system. Good initiatives of pairing struggling schools with better performing ones in the same area—thus dealing with the same student population—have shown promising results globally.

        The real challenge is that before the profession becomes more attractive, and the pre-service education more effective, these countries need to deal with a current cohort of teachers that often lack the skills and repertoire to face this complex reality. In these cases, a blend of more scripted teaching strategies with space for experimentation and support for innovation have shown to be effective. Studies have shown that unskilled teachers benefit greatly from additional support such as pre-formatted class plans, digital classes, and more detailed textbooks.

        Despite this, learning—through collaboration or professional development courses—how to deliver classes that are more engaging and allow for the student’s space to develop higher order thinking skills, is feasible even under these difficult circumstances. It just demands more structured professional development and better-prepared instructors to address these teachers’ needs.

        This demands mentoring and class observations, together with structured materials to support initial efforts from the novice teacher to prepare meaningful class-plans and deliver them. It also requires some additional time if the classes are—as in some developing countries—too short or based on a curriculum overloaded with unnecessary content.

        Building Global Citizens at Uncertain Times

        The demands put on schools are not restricted to preparing students for the increasing demands of the labor market. A child needs to grow to be an informed member of the society in which they live and to have the knowledge and capabilities to participate. In addition to acquiring basic cognitive and social and emotional skills, a solid Global Citizenship curriculum should be introduced in the school system even in the developing world. Understanding how his or her own country is organized, and how it connects to a globalized world, will be of great value for the student.

        To foster the skills needed to become a global citizen, we should develop these skills in a structured way in the teachers’ workforce. This means in-service education through collaboration and group-discussions on empathy, cultural appreciation, ethnic and gender identities, and general knowledge of current world affairs and challenges. A teacher that believes she is part of humanity and not just of a region or a country tends to foster the same perception in her students.

        Ultimately, if we want students to become citizens, we need to give them a voice. Very often, in school systems, we treat teenagers as children and don’t trust them to be responsible for their own student lives and choices. This means we must trust them to take part in important decisions about the school curriculum and we must discuss their behavior issues with them directly—not their parents. This would also require allowing some space for them to make mistakes and learning to correct them effectively. A global citizen, it must be understood, is first a citizen in his own school, community, and country. If we truly want to prepare them to become informed and active members in their countries, it is important to give them some space to exercise choices and activism at an early stage.

        In Rio de Janeiro, where I was municipal secretary of education, we introduced a mandatory assignment at the beginning of 7th grade, for the adolescents to state in a structured way the life project—that meant putting their dreams into words and learning to plan their future lives. They did it at the beginning of the school year, in an activity conducted with the support of 9th graders that were trained specifically for the task. Only after the whole class arrived at an acceptable proposition for each kid did the teachers enter the classroom, at which point each student could choose a mentor teacher to continue discussing their projects. The results were impressive for both students and instructors.

        Using Technology to Leapfrog

        Although it might seem utopic, education in low- and middle-income countries can benefit from modern technology even when the basics are lacking, if a more contextualized approach to including such tools in the classroom is taken, as a support to teachers not as an additional subject.

        In China, for example, the Ministry of Education offers schools options to use digital classes. In Rio de Janeiro, when I was secretary, we took a similar approach: offering all teachers the use of digital classes prepared by trained instructors. The use of the platform has shown positive impacts on learning. Yet to take full advantage of this tool, connectivity needs to exist. In the absence of this, pen-drives or offline options were provided. Using technology for remedial education was and is still done, even when connectivity is not available.

        Other possibilities are the broadcasting of classes to support instruction where specific teachers are not available. An interesting example of this innovative practice was highlighted in the Millions Learning report from the Center for Universal Education at Brookings. The school system in the state of Amazonas in Brazil had the challenge of providing physics and chemistry classes in the Amazon jungle for high school students. The solution was to enlist a teacher to broadcast classes and provide schools with a generalist teacher to ensure class participation and student engagement.

        The use of technology in these examples show the possible advantages of bringing resources and a knowledge base that is not yet available in every classroom. On the other hand, the fact that in the education ecosystem it exists somewhere and may be mobilized is of great help and doesn’t give teachers the sense of disempowerment, since it is prepared by teachers from within the Amazonas system or by members of the community and not by a distant company located in another country.

        Conclusions

        The SDG-4 demands an organized effort to ensure that every child and adolescent in the world has the means to complete quality primary and secondary school, as well as develop skills to live a healthy and productive life. Unfortunately, as uncertainty grows, this task seems almost impossible—even in high-income countries—as more complex skills are demanded by employers and globalization requiring individuals who understand the challenges the planet is facing and that can operate in different geographies.

        What should be the role of teachers, in such an environment, especially in low- and middle-income countries? This is the question I have tried to answer here, providing some clues of what could be done to ensure that the United Nation’s goal can actually produce a more educated global society, and that a better world might emerge.

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        Teacher Moulay Ismael Lamrani poses for a picture with his class in the Oudaya primary school in Rabat, September 15, 2015, at the start of the new school year in Morocco. Nearly three years after Taliban gunmen shot Pakistani schoolgirl Malala Yousafzai, the teenage activist last week urged world leaders gathered in New York to help millions more children go to school. World Teachers Day falls on 5 October, a Unesco initiative highlighting the work of educators struggling to teach children amid intimidation in Pakistan, conflict in Syria or poverty in Vietnam. Even so, there have been some improvements: the number of children not attending primary school has plummeted to an estimated 57 million worldwide in 2015, the U.N. says, down from 100 million 15 years ago. Reuters photographers have documented learning around the world, from well-resourced schools to pupils crammed into corridors in the Philippines, on boats in Brazil or in crowded classrooms in Burundi. REUTERS/Youssef BoudlalPICTURE 41 OF 47 FOR WIDER IMAGE STORY "SCHOOLS AROUND THE WORLD"SEARCH "EDUCATORS SCHOOLS" FOR ALL IMAGES - GF10000226475

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        e-Prospectus

        Leiden University

        Elective: Nationalism and Nation-Building in the Twentieth Century

        Course description Elective: Nationalism and Nation-Building in the Twentieth Century
        Year:2017-2018
        Catalog number:5182KEL39
        Teacher(s):
        • Dr. H.J. Storm
        Language:English
        Blackboard:Yes
        EC:10
        Level:300
        Period:

        Semester 2,
        Block III, IV

        Hours of study:

        24:00 hrs

        Lectures24:00 hrs
        Practical work0:00 hrs
        Tutoring0:00 hrs
        Examination0:00 hrs
        Other0:00 hrs
        • No Elective choice
        • No Contractonderwijs
        • No Exchange
        • No Study Abroad
        • No Evening course
        • No A la Carte
        • No Honours Class

        Admission requirements

        This course is only available for second year students in the BA International Studies.
        The number of participants is limited to 25.

        Description

        Currently the world is divided into nation-states. However, the nation-state only came into being some two hundred years ago and in 1945 the majority of the world’s population still lived in multi-ethnic empires. But why did the nation-state become the dominant form of statehood? In this course we will primarily focus on the way the nation-building process stimulated people to identify with the (new) nation-state. This happened through the introduction of national symbols, holidays and monuments, the extension of primary education, the introduction of military service et cetera. However, this was not only a top-down process led by political elites. All kinds of more banal objects, activities and places were also increasingly associated with the nation, such as Swiss watches, Argentinian tangos and Irish pubs. Although these historical processes have been extensively studied on a national level, it is also clear that they were part of a global trend and that many similarities can be detected. This course, therefore, has an outspoken comparative perspective.
        During the course we will first study some more theoretical perspectives and then analyse the historical evolution of nationalism and the nation-building process in the various parts of the globe (the Americas, Europe, Asia and Africa). During the second part of the course the students will have to present the (preliminary) results of their own investigations based on a substantial amount of secondary studies on a very concrete topic, which they can choose freely (after consultation with the instructor).

        Additionally, the students will work through:

        • W.C. Booth, G.G. Colomb, J.W. Williams, The Craft of Research, third edition, Chicago/London: University of Chicago Press, 2008.

        Course objectives

        The elective courses for International Studies are designed to teach students how to deal with state-of-the-art literature and research questions. They are chosen to enhance the students’ learning experience by building on the interdisciplinary perspectives they have developed so far, and to introduce them to the art of academic research. They are characterised by an international or comparative approach.

        Academic skills that are trained include:
        Oral presentation skills:

        1. to explain clear and substantiated research results;
        2. to provide an answer to questions concerning (a subject) in the field covered by the course
        a. in the form of a clear and well-structured oral presentation;
        b. in agreement with the appropriate disciplinary criteria;
        c. using up-to-date presentation techniques;
        d. aimed at a specific audience;
        3. to actively participate in a discussion following the presentation.

        Collaboration skills:

        1. to be socio-communicative in collaborative situations;
        2. to provide and receive constructive criticism, and incorporate justified criticism by revising one’s own position;
        3. adhere to agreed schedules and priorities.

        Basic research skills, including heuristic skills:

        1. to collect and select academic literature using traditional and digital methods and techniques;
        2. to analyze and assess this literature with regard to quality and reliability;
        3. to formulate on this basis a sound research question;
        4. to design under supervision a research plan of limited scope, and implement it using the methods and techniques that are appropriate within the discipline involved;
        5. to formulate a substantiated conclusion.

        Written presentation skills:

        1. to explain clear and substantiated research results;
        2. to provide an answer to questions concerning (a subject) in the field covered by the course
        a. in the form of a clear and well-structured oral presentation;
        b. in agreement with the appropriate disciplinary criteria;
        c. using relevant illustration or multimedia techniques;
        d. aimed at a specific audience.

        Timetable

        The timetable is available on the BA International Studies website .

        Mode of instruction

        Seminars are held every week, with the exception of the midterm exam week. This course includes supervised research.

        Course Load

        Total course load for this course is 10 EC (1 EC = 28 hours), this equals 280 hours, broken down by:

        • Attending lectures: 2 hours per week x 12 weeks = 24 hours
        • Time for studying the compulsory literature and completing weekly assignments (8 hours per week): 96
        • Preparation for presentations: 16 hours
        • Writing the final research essay (including reading / research): 134 hours

        Assessment method

        Assessment & Weighing

        Partial gradeWeighing
        In-class participation10%
        Oral presentations20%
        Short assignments20%
        Final research essay (5000 words)50%

        End grade

        To successfully complete the course, please take note that the end grade of the course is established by determining the weighted average.

        Resit

        Students who have been active participants in class and submitted the final paper on time, but scored an overall insufficient mark, are entitled to a resit. For the resit, students are given a chance to hand in a new version of the final paper.
        In case of resubmission of the final essay (insufficient grade only) the final grade for the essay will be lowered as a consequence of the longer process of completion. The deadline for resubmission is 10 working days after receiving the grade for the final essay.

        Retaking a passing grade

        Please consult the Course and Examination Regulations 2017 – 2018 .

        Exam review

        How and when an exam review takes place will be determined by the examiner. This review will be within 30 days after official publication of exam results.

        Blackboard

        Blackboard will be used for tutorial groups. Students are requested to enroll on Blackboard for this course, but only after correct enrolment in uSis .

        Reading list

        • John Breuilly ed., The Oxford handbook of the history of nationalism (paperback edition; Oxford: Oxford University Press 2016).
        • W.C. Booth, G.G. Colomb, J.W. Williams, The Craft of Research, third edition, Chicago/London: University of Chicago Press, 2008.
          We will read some 10 chapters from Breuilly’s handbook. Other required readings, consisting of more theoretical articles or chapters, will be made available through Blackboard.

        Registration

        Enrolment through uSis is mandatory.

        General information about uSis can be found here .

        Registration Studeren à la carte and Contractonderwijs

        Not applicable.

        Contact

        Dhr. Dr. H.J. Storm

        When contacting the lecturer, please include your full name, student number and tutorial group number.

        Remarks

        The deadline for submission of the final essay is 15 June 2018.
        Passing this course is an entry requirement for the thesis and thesis seminar.

        Is part ofProgramme typeSemesterBlock
        International Studies Bachelor2III, IV

        Home Course description

        Languages

        • Nederlands
        • English

        ★Extended essay topics

        Klace Institute

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        Fifteen Extended Essay Topic Ideas In Business And Management

        Writing articles and essays are a part of the education system throughout the world. Be it school, college or post graduate studies, you are always required to write such papers. These writings are of various types and each has a different format from the other. Among the different types, exists the Extended Essay type which is a compulsory crucial component of the programme of IB Diploma. This document is like a research paper which comprises of around 4000 words. It gives the students an attractive opportunity to conduct their independent individual research on a topic in the given field of their study.

        Guidelines and format to be followed

        Such documents are supposed to be written in the way prescribed by the professor or the school. A fixed structure is given and is required to be followed. In order to write an effective research paper the following points should be covered by the student in his paper:

        • Introduction
        • Research question

          Thesis

        • Body
        • Background information

          Central arguments

        • Conclusion
        • Thesis defence

          New and unresolved questions

        • Bibliography
        • Sources which are cited in the document

        One popular field where such documents are written is the Business and Management field. To choose a topic here is the most difficult task for the student. A list of some topic ideas in this field is cited below for your help:

        • Is Herzberg’s motivation theory efficient enough to explain the improvement in productivity of ABC Ltd
        • How has the JIT production theory contributed to the improvement of the productivity in ABC Ltd
        • How has the technique of JIT method contributed to the efficiency of textile industries
        • How has the introduction of TQM method improved the quality of XYZ Ltd
        • How advantageous is the joint venture between ABC Ltd and XYZ Ltd been so far
        • Why has market capitalisation of ABD Ltd been more than of its competitor XYZ Ltd
        • How significant has the merger between ABC Ltd and XYZ Ltd acted as a growth strategy
        • Has ABC Ltd been effective enough to introduce the theory of TQM in its process
        • Has Ansoff’s Matrix helped the launch of the new product for XYZ Ltd
        • How effective has ABC Ltd been in working out its SWOT analysis
        • Has the PESTLE analysis been effective enough to increase the growth of ABC Ltd
        • Position maps
        • Break even analysis
        • Porters’ five forces
        • Position maps

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        The Complete IB Extended Essay Guide: Examples, Topics, and Ideas

        Posted by Dora Seigel | Sep 6, 2017 12:00:00 AM

        International Baccalaureate (IB)

         

        body_ibeeintroFIN

        IB students around the globe fear writing the Extended Essay, but it doesn’t have to be a source of stress! In this article, I’ll get you excited about writing your Extended Essay and provide you with the resources to get an A.    

        If you’re reading this article, I assume you’re an IB Student getting ready to write your Extended Essay. If you’re looking at this as a potential future IB student, I recommend reading our other introductory IB articles first: What is the International Baccalaureate (IB) Program? and  What is the IB Curriculum? What are IB Diploma Requirements?

         

        Why Should You Trust My Advice?

        I’m a recipient of an IB Diploma, and I happened to receive an A on my IB Extended Essay. If you don’t believe me, the proof is in the IBO pudding,

        body_ibeescore.png

        If you’re confused by what this report means, EE is short for Extended Essay, and English A1 is the subject that my Extended Essay topic coordinated with. In layman’s terms, my IB Diploma was graded during May 2010, I wrote my Extended Essay in the English A1 category, and I received a grade A. 

         

        What Is the Extended Essay?

        The IB Extended Essay (or EE) is a 4,000 word structured mini-thesis that you write under the supervision of an advisor (an IB teacher at your school), which counts towards your IB Diploma (to learn about all of the  IB diploma requirements, check out our other article) . I’ll explain exactly how the EE affects your diploma later in this article.

        For the Extended Essay, you choose a research question as a topic; this topic needs to be approved by IBO (which is not very difficult). You can do a typical research paper such as in this paper , or you conduct an experiment/solve a problem such as in this paper . Most schools allow you to pick your advisor (an IB teacher preferably at your school, although you can also get access to one at another school through the Pamoja Education ). I’ll explain how to pick your IB EE advisor below. 

        The IB Extended Essay must include: 

        • A cover page
        • An abstract (one-page synopsis of your essay)
        • A table of contents
        • The 4,000-word essay (which will range from 10-20 pages depending on whether your topic requires illustrations such as an experiment would)
        • A bibliography

        Your completed Extended Essay will then sent to the IBO to be graded (I will go into more detail on grading below). 

         

        body_ibconfused

         

        What Should You Write About in Your Extended Essay?

        You can technically write about anything, so long as the IBO approves it. However, you should choose a topic that falls into one of the IB Course Categories , (such as Theatre, Film, Spanish, French, Math, Biology, etc.) which shouldn’t be difficult because there are so many class subjects. Here is a range of sample topics with the attached extended essay: 

        • Biology:  Can One-hour-long Light Pulses Applied During the Night Shift the Phase of Circadian Rhythms in the Locomotor Activity of Siberian Hamsters?
        • Chemistry: Comparison of Iron Intake Diets in Tanzania 
        • Economics:  To What Extent are the School Uniform Providers UWCSEA operating in a Contestable Market?
        • English:  How and Why Have Sylvia Plath in The Bell Jar and Charlotte Perkins Gilman in The Yellow Wallpaper Used Inanimate Objects as Motifs for Female Madness?
        • Math:  Alhazen’s Billiard Problem
        • Visual Arts: T o What Extent has the Design of Federation Square been a Success?

        You can see from how varied the topics are that you have a lot of freedom when it comes to picking a topic. So, how do you pick when the options are limitless? I will help you with that next:

         

        body_ibeegradea

         

        6 Tips for Writing a Grade A Extended Essay

        Below are the six key tips you need to follow to write an outstanding Extended Essay.

         

        Tip #1: Write About Something You Enjoy 

        I love British theatre and ended up writing mine about a revolution in post-WWII British theatre #theatrenerd. I really encourage anyone who pursues an IB Diploma to take the Extended Essay seriously. I ended up receiving a full-tuition merit scholarship to USC’s School of Dramatic Arts program and in my interview for the scholarship, I spoke passionately about my Extended Essay. I genuinely think my Extended Essay helped me get my scholarship.   

        How do you find a topic you are passionate about? Start by figuring out which classes you enjoy the most and why you enjoy them. Do you like Math because you like to problem solve? Or do you enjoy English because you like to analyze texts?

        Once you have figured out a general subject area such as Physics, you should brainstorm more specific topics by putting pen to paper. What was your favorite chapter you learned in that class? Was it astrophysics or mechanics? What did you like about that specific chapter? Is there something you want to learn more about? I recommend spending an hour on this type of brainstorming. 

         

        Tip #2: Chose a Topic That Is Not Too Broad or Too Narrow

        This is a fine line. You need to write about something specific, but not so specific that you can’t write 4,000 words on itYou can’t write about WWII because that would be a book’s worth of material. You don’t want to write about what type of soup prisoners of war received in POW camps because you probably can’t come up with 4000 words on it. However, you could possibly write about how the conditions in German POW camps were directly affected by the Nazis successes and failures. This may be too obvious of a topic, but you get my point.

        If you’re really stuck trying to find a not too broad or narrow topic, I recommend trying to brainstorm a topic that uses a comparison. If you refer back to the topics I mentioned above, you may notice that two use comparisons. 

        • Chemistry:  Comparison of Iron Intake Diets in Tanzania 
        • English:  How and Why Have Sylvia Plath in The Bell Jar and Charlotte Perkins Gilman in The Yellow Wallpaper Used Inanimate Objects as Motifs for Female Madness?

        I also used comparison in my EE, comparing Harold Pinter’s Party Time to John Osborne’s Look Back in Anger in order to show a transition in British Theatre. Topics with comparisons of 2-3 plays/books/diets/etc. tend to be in the sweet spot of not too narrow or broad because you can analyze each portion and after doing in-depth analysis on each, you compare and explain the significance of the comparison. The key here is that the comparison needs to be significant. I compared two plays to show a transition in British Theatre.

        Comparisons are not the only way to get a grade A EE. If after brainstorming, you pick a non-comparison based topic and you are still unsure if a topic is too broad or narrow, spend 30 minutes doing some basic research and see how much material is out there. If there are over 1,000 books/articles/documentaries out there on the exact topic, it may be too broad. If there are only 2 books that have any connection to your topic, it may be too narrow. If you are still unsure, ask your advisor! Speaking of advisors:

         

        body_ibtight

        Don’t get stuck with a narrow topic!
         
         

        Tip #3: Choose an Advisor Who Is Familiar With Your Topic 

        If you are not certain of who you would like to be your advisor, I would start by creating a list of your top three choices. Next, create a list of pros and cons (I know this sounds tedious, but it really helps!).

        For example, Mr. Green is my favorite teacher, and we get along really well, but he teaches English, and I want to conduct an experiment to compare the efficiency of American Hybrid Cars to Foreign Hybrid Cars. Ms. White teaches Physics, I had her a year ago, and she liked me. She could help me design my experiment. I am going to ask Ms. White! 

        Do NOT just ask your favorite teacher to be your advisor. They may be a hindrance to you if they teach another subject. I would not suggest asking your Biology teacher to guide you in writing your English EE.

        EXCEPTION: If you have a teacher who is passionate and knowledgeable about your topic (as my English teacher was about my Theatre topic), you can ask that instructor. Consider all of your options first before you do. There was no theatre teacher at my school, so I could not find a theatre-specific advisor, but I chose the next best thing.

        Some IB high schools require your IB Extended Essay advisor to sign an Agreement Form. Make sure you ask your IB coordinator if there is any required paperwork. IBO does not require any paperwork. If your school needs a Form signed, make sure you bring it with you when you ask a teacher to be your EE advisor. 

         

        Tip #4: Choose an Advisor Who Will Push You to Be Your Best

        Some teachers may just take on students because they have to and may not be passionate about reading drafts and may not give you a lot of feedback. Choose a teacher who will take the time to read several drafts and give you extensive notes. I would not have gotten my A without being pushed to make the draft better.

        Ask a teacher that you have experience with through class or an extracurricular activity. Do not ask a teacher that you have no connection to; a teacher who does not know you is unlikely to push you. 

        Note: The IBO only allows advisors to suggest improvements to the EE, but they may not be engaged in writing the EE. The IBO recommends that the supervisor spends approximately two to three hours in total with the candidate discussing the EE.

         

        Tip #5: Make Sure Your Essay Has a Clear Structure and Flow

        IB likes structure. Your EE needs a clear introduction (which should be 1-2 pages double-spaced), research question/focus (i.e. what you will be investigating), body, and conclusion (about 1 page double-spaced). An essay that has unclear or poor organization will be graded poorly. Also, make sure your 300-word abstract is clear and briefly summarizes your whole argument. An ambiguous abstract will make it more challenging for the reader to follow your essay’s argument and will also hurt the grading of your EE. 

        The body of your EE should make up the bulk of the essay. It should be about 8-18 pages double-spaced (again just depending on whether or not you include diagrams). Your body can be split into multiple parts. For example, if you are doing a comparison, you might have 1/3 of your body as Novel A Analysis, 1/3 as Novel B Analysis, and the last 1/3 as Comparison of Novel A and B Analysis.

        If you are conducting an experiment or analyzing data such as in this EE , your EE body will have a clear and obvious parts following the scientific method: stating the research question, discussing your method, showing the data, analyzing the data, discussing uncertainties, and drawing a conclusion/evaluating the experiment.  

         

        Tip #6: Start Writing Sooner Rather Than Later!

        You will not be able to crank out a 4,000-word essay in a week and get an A. You will be reading many, many articles (and, depending on your topic, possibly books, plays, and watching movies). Start the research possible as soon as possible. 

        Each school has a slightly different deadline for the Extended Essay. Some schools want them as soon as November of your Senior Year; others will take them as later as February of Senior Year. Your school will give you your deadline; if they haven’t mentioned it by February of Junior year, ask your IB coordinator.

        Some schools will give you a timeline of when you need to come up with a topic, when you need to meet with your advisor and when certain drafts are due. Not all schools do. Ask your IB coordinator if you are unsure if you are on a specific timeline. Here is my recommended timeline, it is earlier than most schools, but it will save you so much heartache (trust me, I remember):

        • January/February of Junior Year: Come up with your final research topic (or at least top 3). 
        • February of Junior Year: Approach a teacher about being your EE advisor (if he or she says no, keep asking others until you find one – see my notes above on how to pick an EE advisor). 
        • April/May of Junior Year: Submit an outline of your EE and a bibliography of potential research sources (I recommend at least 7-10) to your EE advisor. Meet with your EE advisor to discuss your outline. 
        • Summer between Junior and Senior Year: Complete your first full draft over the summer between Junior and Senior Year! I know, I know no one wants to work during the summer, but trust me this will save you so much stress come the fall when you are busy with college applications and other IB internal assessments for your IB classes. You will want to have this first full draft done because you will want to complete a couple of draft cycles as you likely won’t be able to get everything you want to say into 4000 articulate words the first time. Try to get this first draft into the best possible shape you can, so that you do not have to work on too many revisions during the school year on top of your homework/college applications/work/extracurriculars/etc.  
        • August/September of Senior Year: Turn in your first draft of your EE to your advisor and receive feedback. Work on incorporating their feedback into your essay. If they have a lot of suggestions for improvement, ask if they will read one more draft before the final draft. 
        • September/October of Senior Year: Submit second draft of EE to your advisor (if necessary) and receive their feedback. Work on creating the best possible final draft. 
        • November-February of Senior Year: Submit two copies of your final draft to your school to be sent off to IBO. You likely will not get your grade until after you graduate. 

         

        body_ibearlybird

        The early bird DOES get the worm!

         

        How’s the Extended Essay Graded?

        Extended essays are marked by external assessors (examiners appointed by the IB) on a scale of 0 to 36. There are “general” and “subject-specific” criteria, at a ratio of 2:1 (24 possible marks for the general criteria and 12 marks for the subject-specific one). The total mark is converted into a grade from A to E, using the below parameters:

        Rubric Assessment Points Earned Descriptor Letter
        Grade 30 – 36Excellent: A
        25 – 29Good: B
        17 – 24Satisfactory: C
        9 – 16Mediocre: D
        0 – 8Elementary: E

        Here is the typical breakdown of scores (from 2008):

        % Awarded Grade

        A

        B

        C

        D

        E

        Extended Essay

        10.59%

        16.50%

        38.88%

        27.62%

        6.41%

        How Does the Extended Essay Grade Affect Your IB Diploma?

        The Extended Essay grade is combined with your TOK (Theory of Knowledge) grade to determine how many points you get towards your IB Diploma. To learn about Theory of Knowledge or how many points you need to receive your IB Diploma, read our other articles on What is the International Baccalaureate (IB) Program?  or IB Diploma Requirements . This diagram shows how the two scores are combined to determine how many points you receive for your IB diploma (3 being the most, 0 being the least). 

         

        chart.png

         

        So, let’s say you get an A on your EE and a B on TOK, you will get 3 points towards your diploma. Note: this chart is slightly outdated. Prior to the class of 2010, a diploma candidate could receive a failing grade in either the extended essay or theory of knowledge and still be awarded a diploma. However, as of 2014 (for the first examination in May 2015), a student who scores an E on either the extended essay or TOK essay will not be eligible to receive an IB diploma.

         

        Sample Extended Essays

        In case you want a little more guidance on how to get an A EE. Here are 50 Excellent (grade A) sample extended essays for your reading pleasure:  

        • Biology 1

        • Biology 2

        • Biology 3

        • Chemistry 1

        • Chemistry 2

        • Chemistry 3

        • Economics 1

        • Economics 2

        • Economics 3

        • English 1

        • English 2

        • English 3

        • English 4

        • English 5

        • English 6

        • English 7

        • English 8

        • Geography 1

        • Geography 2

        • Geography 3

        • History 1

        • History 2

        • History 3

        • History 4

        • History 5

        • ITGS 1

        • ITGS 2

        • Mathematics 1

        • Mathematics 2

        • Mathematics 3

        • Mathematics 4

        • Music 1

        • Philosophy 1

        • Philosophy 2

        • Philosophy 3

        • Philosophy 4

        • Physics 1

        • Physics 2

        • Politics 1

        • Politics 2

        • Politics 3

        • Psychology 1

        • Psychology 2

        • Psychology 3

        • Social and Cultural Anthropology 1

        • Social and Cultural Anthropology 2

        • Visual Arts 1

        • Visual Arts 2

        • Visual Arts 3

        • Visual Arts 4

        • World Religion 1

        • World Religion 2

         

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        As an SAT/ACT tutor, Dora has guided many students to test prep success. She loves watching students succeed and is committed to helping you get there. Dora received a full-tuition merit based scholarship to University of Southern California. She graduated magna cum laude and scored in the 99th percentile on the ACT. She is also passionate about acting, writing, and photography.

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          3. Personal Response to Literature Essay

          Personal Response to Literature Essay

          As with so many of my articles, this one is inspired by one of my students. More specifically, a grade 10-1 English student. And as with so many of my students who struggle to write essays, this one has fantastic ideas that are somewhat throttled by a lack of writing experience and a general sense of impatience. I can honestly understand both; however, when it comes to writing, especially writing a personal response to literature, it’s all about the prep. What you do before writing your response will ultimately make or break your essay, so it’s important to set aside your impatience and focus on the building blocks of writing a personal response. Here’s what I mean.

          First, you need to understand the question before you even read the literature.
          That’s right. The first thing you need to do is read the question. Carefully. My personal suggestion is to underline any keywords in the question. This is not just some cute trick to increase your comprehension of the question; these keywords need to be used repeatedly throughout your essay. Ultimately, you are highlighting essential vocabulary that you need to adopt in your response. You may look at sample topics in the electronic document, 2012 ELA 30-1 Diploma practice . See if you can pick out the key words in one of the provided prompts. Take a minute and do so.

          So, what did you get? Common prompts are ambition, life decisions, and adversity. You should be looking for key words similar to the ones above. Once you’ve found it, you are ready to move on to reading the literature, but please note that some prompts are expository in nature, where you need to explain the contents of a piece of literature. Others are argumentative and require a strong opinion on a given topic. Read your prompt carefully, because it can change the outcome of your essay in a big way.

          Next, you need to read the literature.
          Now that you’ve read and understand the question, you are ready to tackle the literature, be it poem, prose, or drama. Never, ever read the literature first and then read the question, simply because reading the question allows you to first comb through the literature, looking for specific examples of the key words you found in the question. See how that works? Two birds, one stone.

          Take your time when reading the literature. The examples you find here will help you form your ideas later on. You should be actively seeking to find the poet/author/writer’s opinion. Basically, ask yourself, “What is this writer trying to teach me?” The selections of literature in personal responses are tailored to the prompt, so have no worries that the prompt and the literature are unrelated; they most certainly are.

          Find a main idea, a unifying thought related to your prompt that is founded in the literature
                    Here, you want to find the author’s message and tie it to your prompt. However, you can be fairly certain that the author’s message is one of these three threads: The author is completely against the idea in the prompt, the author is on the fence about the idea in the prompt, or the author is completely supportive of the idea in the prompt. Here’s an example of a main idea: The literature presents a commentary on the dangers of ambition. Here’s another: The poem advocates ambition as a tool for self-improvement and success. Or, here’s one more; a fence sitter: The short story warns that untempered ambition can be a danger to one’s self and others; however, if tempered, ambition can be a tool for the good of society. Do you see how they change? And it’s not your opinion, here. It’s the author’s.

          Finally, you need to brainstorm your body paragraphs.
          So this is the last stage of your prep, and it’s a really valuable thing to spend time doing. If you don’t spend time brainstorming your body paragraphs, they’re going to be a mess. Remember that with any body paragraph, you need 2 things: A topic sentence and supporting details. Your topic sentence always—always!—goes at the beginning of the sentence (OK, so this can actually change, but for you, writing an essay in an hour or less, just put it at the beginning and you’ll never go wrong). It should contain your topic, ambition, decisions, adversity, etc., here, and a controlling idea, one that is supported by the literature. Ensure that you generate these controlling ideas before beginning your essay. If you like, you may write the examples you found from the text along with the personal experience to which you are connecting the idea. Easy peasy.

          The traditional order of a personal response paragraph is pretty stock-standard. Here’s the run-down: Start with your topic sentence, give the example from the literature (you can give the line number, the title of the piece, the author, etc.), and then connect the literature to an anecdote. The anecdote doesn’t have to be true, just make it believable. No one is checking facebook; don’t worry. Finally, end your paragraph with a button, a little gem of wisdom that you gleaned from the literature or your experience. There is some play in this organization, but not much. Mess around too much with it, and you’re sure to run into trouble.

          So there you have it, all stages of prepping for a personal response to literature. If you are like my student and struggle with impatience, relax, have a coffee, and take the time to write two essays: one without any prep and one with prep as I have outlined, here. See which one is better. So remember, understand your question and prompt, read the literature and look for examples of keywords from the prompt in the literature. Generate a main idea and then brainstorm your body paragraphs. There is a lot to a personal response, so please be sure to organize yourself throughout.

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          Response to Literature Essay Unit – **UPDATED**

          Response to Literature Essay Unit - **UPDATED**
          Response to Literature Essay Unit - **UPDATED**
          Response to Literature Essay Unit - **UPDATED**

          Response to Literature Essay Unit - **UPDATED**
          Response to Literature Essay Unit - **UPDATED**

          Response to Literature Essay Unit - **UPDATED**

          Subject
          English Language Arts , Literature , Writing
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          Product Description
          Thorough and challenging, this essay unit provides everything you need to teach the Literary Analysis Essay. Filled with great ideas and strong examples, this unit will be a lifesaver, providing your students with all they need and saving you e time and frustration.

          Response to Literature Essay Unit – Table of Contents

          This is the order that I teach the Response to Literature Essay. I provide Writing Vocabulary and teach the Detailed Paragraph Structure. I have students write the body paragraphs first, and then go back later to write the intro and conclusion. Along with essay assignments and mini-lessons, which also serve as handouts, I provide several PowerPoint presentations, an essay rubric, a checklist of what to turn in with the final draft, and a reflection sheet. All in all, there are 20 documents that are ready to use, or can be easily adapted for your classroom.

          This is a great resource that I use every year, and it helps to produce some excellent quality student essays.

          1. Response to Literature Essay Assignment
          2. Writing Vocabulary with Examples PPT Presentation
          3. Planning Chart for Response to Literature
          4. Mini-Lesson: Detailed Paragraph Structure and Organization
          5. Detailed Paragraph Samples – CARS and Beauty and the Beast
          6. Detailed Body Paragraph Frame
          7. Mini-Lesson: Providing Commentary
          8. Mini-Lesson: Common Commentary Mistakes
          9. Mini-Lesson: Using Text Evidence
          10. Using Text Evidence PPT Presentation
          11. Response to Literature Essay Outline
          12. Mini-Lesson: Introductions and Conclusions
          13. Mini-Lesson: Introductory Paragraphs
          14. Mini-Lesson: Detailed Paragraph Help
          15. Peer Editing – Paragraph Revision
          16. Revise Your Essay – PPT Presentation
          17. Final Draft Essay Checklist
          18. Response to Literature Rubric
          19. Choose Not to Submit Form
          20. Response to Literature Essay Reflection

          ———————————————————————————————–
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          Back to School Writing Activity – Find Your Focus

          Introduction to Close Reading for Middle and High School

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          Essay

          literature
          Written By:

          • The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica
          See Article History

          Essay, an analytic , interpretative, or critical literary composition usually much shorter and less systematic and formal than a dissertation or thesis and usually dealing with its subject from a limited and often personal point of view.

          Read More on This Topic

          Read More default image

          nonfictional prose: The essay

          In modern literatures, the category of nonfictional prose that probably ranks as the most important both in the quantity and in the quality of its practitioners is the essay.

          Some early treatises—such as those of Cicero on the pleasantness of old age or on the art of “divination,” Seneca on anger or clemency , and Plutarch on the passing of oracles—presage to a certain degree the form and tone of the essay, but not until the late 16th century was the flexible and deliberately nonchalant and versatile form of the essay perfected by the French writer Michel de Montaigne . Choosing the name essai to emphasize that his compositions were attempts or endeavours, a groping toward the expression of his personal thoughts and experiences, Montaigne used the essay as a means of self-discovery. His Essais , published in their final form in 1588, are still considered among the finest of their kind. Later writers who most nearly recall the charm of Montaigne include, in England, Robert Burton , though his whimsicality is more erudite , Sir Thomas Browne , and Laurence Sterne , and in France, with more self-consciousness and pose, André Gide and Jean Cocteau .

          At the beginning of the 17th century, social manners, the cultivation of politeness, and the training of an accomplished gentleman became the theme of many essayists. This theme was first exploited by the Italian Baldassare Castiglione in his Il libro del cortegiano (1528; The Book of the Courtier ). The influence of the essay and of genres allied to it, such as maxims, portraits, and sketches, proved second to none in molding the behavior of the cultured classes, first in Italy, then in France, and, through French influence, in most of Europe in the 17th century. Among those who pursued this theme was the 17th-century Spanish Jesuit Baltasar Gracián in his essays on the art of worldly wisdom.

          Keener political awareness in the 18th century, the age of Enlightenment , made the essay an all-important vehicle for the criticism of society and religion. Because of its flexibility, its brevity , and its potential both for ambiguity and for allusions to current events and conditions, it was an ideal tool for philosophical reformers. The Federalist Papers in America and the tracts of the French Revolutionaries are among the countless examples of attempts during this period to improve the human condition through the essay.

          The genre also became the favoured tool of traditionalists of the 18th and 19th centuries, such as Edmund Burke and Samuel Taylor Coleridge , who looked to the short, provocative essay as the most potent means of educating the masses. Essays such as Paul Elmer More’s long series of Shelburne Essays (published between 1904 and 1935), T.S. Eliot ’s After Strange Gods (1934) and Notes Towards the Definition of Culture (1948), and others that attempted to reinterpret and redefine culture , established the genre as the most fitting to express the genteel tradition at odds with the democracy of the new world.

          Whereas in several countries the essay became the chosen vehicle of literary and social criticism, in other countries the genre became semipolitical, earnestly nationalistic, and often polemical, playful, or bitter. Essayists such as Robert Louis Stevenson and Willa Cather wrote with grace on several lighter subjects, and many writers—including Virginia Woolf , Edmund Wilson , and Charles du Bos—mastered the essay as a form of literary criticism .

          Learn More in these related Britannica articles:

          • nonfictional prose: The essay
            In modern literatures, the category of nonfictional prose that probably ranks as the most important both in the quantity and in the quality of its practitioners is the essay.…
          • Eugenio de Santa Cruz y Espejo, Francisco Javier

            Latin American literature: The modern essay
            All of this literary production was accompanied by a strong essayistic tradition whose main topic was the distinctiveness of Latin American culture and, within that culture, the individual cultures of the various countries. Many of the poets and fiction writers mentioned before also wrote…
          • Copernicus, Nicolaus: heliocentric system

            English literature: Effect of religion and science on early Stuart prose
            The Essays are masterworks in the new Stuart genre of the prose of leisure, the reflectively aphoristic prose piece in imitation of the Essays of Michel de Montaigne. Lesser collections were published by Sir William Cornwallis (1600–01), Owen Felltham (1623), and Ben Jonson (Timber; or, Discoveries,…
          • Eugenio de Santa Cruz y Espejo, Francisco Javier

            Latin American literature: Romanticism
            These brief, descriptive essays depicted the lives of rural folk, or of poor urban dwellers, whose traditional customs differed from the modern ways of those writing them. A uniquely Peruvian version was created by Ricardo Palma, whose sketches are often brief narratives that he called tradiciones. Volumes of…
          • Sima Qian, detail, ink and colour on silk; in the National Palace Museum, Taipei.

            Chinese literature: Prose
            …first example of the well-developed essay, however, is found neither in the Mencius nor in the Zhuangzi but in the Mozi, attributed to Mo Di, or Mozi, a predecessor of Mencius and Zhuangzi, whose singular attainments in logic made him a forceful preacher. His recorded sermons are characterized by simplicity…

          More About Essay

          12 references found in Britannica articles

          Assorted References

            • major treatment
              • In nonfictional prose: The essay
            • style and themes
              • In literature: The scope of literature

            contributions of

              • Camus
                • In Albert Camus: Early years
              • Montaigne
                • In Michel de Montaigne: The Essays
              • Plutarch
                • In Plutarch
              • Stevenson
                • In Robert Louis Stevenson: Early life
              • Valéry
                • In Paul Valéry

              development in

                • China
                  • In Chinese literature: Prose
                  • In Chinese literature: Classical literature
                • England
                  • In English literature: Effect of religion and science on early Stuart prose

                External Websites

                • Literary Devices – Definition of Essay
                Britannica Websites
                Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.
                • essay – Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up)

                Article History

                Article Contributors


                Feedback

                Corrections? Updates? Help us improve this article!
                Contact our editors with your feedback.



                Essay
                Literature
                key people
                • Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
                • John Milton
                • Mark Twain
                • Samuel Johnson
                • Charles Dickens
                • William Blake
                • Francis Bacon
                • Voltaire
                • Jean-Jacques Rousseau
                • Virginia Woolf
                related topics
                • Causerie
                • Casual
                • Literature
                • Genre



                Related Topics
                • Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
                • Meiningen
                • Causerie
                • Federalist papers
                • Casual
                • John Milton
                • Walden
                • Literature
                • Novel
                • Children’s literature



                Similar Topics
                • Novel
                • Children’s literature
                • Dramatic literature
                • Biography
                • Folk literature
                • Short story
                • Epic
                • Romance
                • Poetry
                • Satire

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