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★Essay on conservation of energy

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Union of Concerned Scientists

Union of Concerned Scientists

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Benefits of Renewable Energy Use

Wind turbines and solar panels are an increasingly common sight. But why? What are the benefits of renewable energies—and how do they improve our health, environment, and economy?

This page explores the many positive impacts of clean energy, including the benefits of wind ,  solar ,  geothermal ,  hydroelectric , and  biomass . For more information on their negative impacts—including effective solutions to avoid, minimize, or mitigate—see our page on  The Environmental Impacts of Renewable Energy Technologies .

Less global warming

Human activity is overloading our atmosphere with carbon dioxide and other  global warming emissions . These gases act like a blanket, trapping heat. The result is a web of  significant and harmful impacts , from stronger, more frequent storms, to drought, sea level rise, and extinction.

In the United States, about 29 percent of global warming emissions come from our electricity sector. Most of those emissions come from fossil fuels like coal and natural gas [ 1 ,  2 ].

What is CO2e?

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most prevalent greenhouse gas, but other air pollutants—such as methane—also cause global warming. Different energy sources produce different amounts of these pollutants. To make comparisons easier, we use a carbon dioxide equivalent, or CO2e—the amount of carbon dioxide required to produce an equivalent amount of warming.

In contrast, most renewable energy sources produce little to no global warming emissions. Even when including “life cycle” emissions of clean energy (ie, the emissions from each stage of a technology’s life—manufacturing, installation, operation, decommissioning), the global warming emissions associated with renewable energy are minimal [ 3 ].

The comparison becomes clear when you look at the numbers. Burning natural gas for electricity releases between 0.6 and 2 pounds of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour (CO2E/kWh); coal emits between 1.4 and 3.6 pounds of CO2E/kWh.  Wind , on the other hand, is responsible for only 0.02 to 0.04 pounds of CO2E/kWh on a life-cycle basis;  solar  0.07 to 0.2;  geothermal  0.1 to 0.2; and  hydroelectric  between 0.1 and 0.5.

Renewable electricity generation from  biomass  can have a wide range of global warming emissions depending on the resource and whether or not it is sustainably sourced and harvested.

Different sources of energy produce different amounts of heat-trapping gases. As shown in this chart, renewable energies tend to have much lower emissions than other sources, such as natural gas or coal.
Source: IPCC, 2011 Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (Chapter 9).

Increasing the supply of renewable energy would allow us to replace carbon-intensive energy sources and significantly reduce US global warming emissions.

For example, a 2009 UCS analysis found that a 25 percent by 2025 national renewable electricity standard would lower power plant CO2 emissions 277 million metric tons annually by 2025—the equivalent of the annual output from 70 typical (600 MW) new coal plants [ 4 ].

In addition, a ground-breaking study by the US Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) explored the feasibility of generating 80 percent of the country’s electricity from renewable sources by 2050. They found that renewable energy could help reduce the electricity sector’s emissions by approximately 81 percent [ 5 ].

Improved public health

The air and water pollution emitted by coal and natural gas plants is linked with breathing problems, neurological damage, heart attacks, cancer, premature death, and a host of other serious problems. The pollution affects everyone: one Harvard University study estimated the life cycle costs and public health effects of coal to be an estimated $74.6 billion every year. That’s equivalent to 4.36 cents per kilowatt-hour of electricity produced—about one-third of the average electricity rate for a typical US home [ 6 ].

Most of these negative health impacts come from air and water pollution that clean energy technologies simply don’t produce. Wind, solar, and hydroelectric systems generate electricity with no associated air pollution emissions. Geothermal and  biomass   systems emit some air pollutants, though total air emissions are generally much lower than those of coal- and natural gas-fired power plants.

In addition, wind and solar energy require essentially no water to operate and thus do not pollute water resources or strain supplies by competing with agriculture, drinking water, or other important water needs. In contrast, fossil fuels can have a  significant impact on water resources : both coal mining and natural gas drilling can pollute sources of drinking water, and all thermal power plants, including those powered by coal, gas, and oil, withdraw and consume water for cooling. 

Biomass and geothermal power plants, like coal- and natural gas-fired power plants, may require water for cooling. Hydroelectric power plants can disrupt river ecosystems both upstream and downstream from the dam. However, NREL’s 80-percent-by-2050 renewable energy study, which included biomass and geothermal, found that total water consumption and withdrawal would decrease significantly in a future with high renewables [ 7 ].

Inexhaustible energy

Photo: Diliff/Wikimedia Commons

Strong winds, sunny skies, abundant plant matter, heat from the earth, and fast-moving water can each provide a vast and constantly replenished supply of energy. A relatively small fraction of US electricity currently comes from these sources, but that could change: studies have repeatedly shown that renewable energy can provide a significant share of future electricity needs, even after accounting for potential constraints [ 9 ].

In fact, a major government-sponsored study found that clean energy could contribute somewhere between three and 80 times its 2013 levels, depending on assumptions [8]. And the previously mentioned NREL study found that renewable energy could comfortably provide up to 80 percent of US electricity by 2050.

Jobs and other economic benefits

Two energy workers on a roof

Two energy workers installing solar panels.
Photo: Dennis Schroeder / NREL

Compared with fossil fuel technologies, which are typically mechanized and capital intensive, the renewable energy industry is more labor intensive. Solar panels need humans to install them; wind farms need technicians for maintenance.

This means that, on average, more jobs are created for each unit of electricity generated from renewable sources than from fossil fuels.

Renewable energy already supports thousands of jobs in the United States. In 2016, the wind energy industry directly employed over 100,000 full-time-equivalent employees in a variety of capacities, including manufacturing, project development, construction and turbine installation, operations and maintenance, transportation and logistics, and financial, legal, and consulting services [ 10 ]. More than 500 factories in the United States manufacture parts for wind turbines, and wind power project installations in 2016 alone represented $13.0 billion in investments [ 11 ].

Other renewable energy technologies employ even more workers. In 2016, the solar industry employed more than 260,000 people, including jobs in solar installation, manufacturing, and sales, a 25% increase over 2015 [ 12 ]. The hydroelectric power industry employed approximately 66,000 people in 2017 [ 13 ]; the geothermal industry employed 5,800 people [ 14] .

Increased support for renewable energy could create even more jobs. The 2009 Union of Concerned Scientists study of a 25-percent-by-2025 renewable energy standard found that such a policy would create more than three times as many jobs (more than 200,000) as producing an equivalent amount of electricity from fossil fuels [ 15 ]. 

In contrast, the entire coal industry employed 160,000 people in 2016 [ 26 ].

In addition to the jobs directly created in the renewable energy industry, growth in clean energy can create positive economic “ripple” effects. For example, industries in the renewable energy supply chain will benefit, and unrelated local businesses will benefit from increased household and business incomes [ 16 ].

Listen to energy expert Paula Garcia talk about renewable energy progress in the US on the Got Science? Podcast:

In English:

En español:

Local governments also benefit from clean energy, most often in the form of property and income taxes and other payments from renewable energy project owners. Owners of the land on which wind projects are built often receive lease payments ranging from $3,000 to $6,000 per megawatt of installed capacity, as well as payments for power line easements and road rights-of-way. They may also earn royalties based on the project’s annual revenues. Farmers and rural landowners can generate new sources of supplemental income by producing feedstocks for biomass power facilities.

UCS analysis found that a 25-by-2025 national renewable electricity standard would stimulate $263.4 billion in new capital investment for renewable energy technologies, $13.5 billion in new landowner income from? biomass production and/or wind land lease payments, and $11.5 billion in new property tax revenue for local communities [ 17 ].

Stable energy prices

Renewable energy is providing affordable electricity across the country right now, and can help stabilize energy prices in the future.

Although renewable facilities require upfront investments to build, they can then operate at very low cost (for most clean energy technologies, the “fuel” is free). As a result, renewable energy prices can be very stable over time.

Moreover, the costs of renewable energy technologies have declined steadily, and are projected to drop even more. For example, the average price to install solar dropped more than 70 percent between 2010 and 2017 [ 20 ]. The cost of generating electricity from wind dropped 66 percent between 2009 and 2016 [ 21 ]. Costs will likely decline even further as markets mature and companies increasingly take advantage of economies of scale.

In contrast, fossil fuel prices can vary dramatically and are prone to substantial price swings. For example, there was a rapid increase in US coal prices due to rising global demand before 2008, then a rapid fall after 2008 when global demands declined [ 23 ]. Likewise, natural gas prices have fluctuated greatly since 2000 [ 25 ].

Source: Energy Information Administration (EIA). 2013. Coal news and markets report .

Using more renewable energy can lower the prices of and demand for natural gas and coal by increasing competition and diversifying our energy supplies. And an increased reliance on renewable energy can help protect consumers when fossil fuel prices spike. 

Reliability and resilience

 Wind and solar are less prone to large-scale failure because they are distributed and modular. Distributed systems are spread out over a large geographical area, so a severe weather event in one location will not cut off power to an entire region. Modular systems are composed of numerous individual wind turbines or solar arrays. Even if some of the equipment in the system is damaged, the rest can typically continue to operate.

For example, Hurricane Sandy damaged fossil fuel-dominated electric generation and distribution systems in New York and New Jersey and left millions of people without power. In contrast, renewable energy projects in the Northeast weathered Hurricane Sandy with minimal damage or disruption [ 25 ]. 

Water scarcity is another risk for non-renewable power plants. Coal, nuclear, and many natural gas plants depend on having sufficient water for cooling, which means that severe droughts and heat waves can put electricity generation at risk. Wind and solar photovoltaic systems do not require water to generate electricity and can operate reliably in conditions that may otherwise require closing a fossil fuel-powered plant. (For more information, see  How it Works: Water for Electricity .)  

The risk of disruptive events will also increase in the future as droughts, heat waves, more intense storms, and increasingly severe wildfires become more frequent due to global warming—increasing the need for resilient, clean technologies.

Learn more:

  • Barriers to Renewable Energy
  • Blog series:  Clean Energy Momentum

References:

[1] Environmental Protection Agency. 2017. Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2015.

[2] Energy Information Agency (EIA). 2017.  How much of the U.S. carbon dioxide emissions are associated with electricity generation?

[3] Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). 2011.  IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation . Prepared by Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [O. Edenhofer, R. Pichs-Madruga, Y. Sokona, K. Seyboth, P. Matschoss, S. Kadner, T. Zwickel, P. Eickemeier, G. Hansen, S. Schlömer, C. von Stechow (eds)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 1075 pp. (Chapter 9).

[4] Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS). 2009.  Clean Power Green Jobs .

[5] National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). 2012.  Renewable Electricity Futures Study . Volume 1, pg. 210.

[6] Epstein, P.R.,J. J. Buonocore, K. Eckerle, M. Hendryx, B. M. Stout III, R. Heinberg, R. W. Clapp, B. May, N. L. Reinhart, M. M. Ahern, S. K. Doshi, and L. Glustrom. 2011. Full cost accounting for the life cycle of coal in “Ecological Economics Reviews.” Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1219: 73–98.

[7]  Renewable Electricity Futures Study . 2012.

[8] NREL. 2016.  Estimating Renewable Energy Economic Potential in the United States: Methodology and Initial Results .

[9]  Renewable Electricity Futures Study . 2012.

IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation . Prepared by Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2011.

UCS. 2009.  Climate 2030: A national blueprint for a clean energy economy .

[10] American Wind Energy Association (AWEA). 2017. AWEA U.S. Wind Industry Annual Market Report: Year Ending 2016. Washington, D.C.: American Wind Energy Association.

 [11] Wiser, Ryan, and Mark Bolinger. 2017. 2016 Wind Technologies Market Report. U.S. Department of Energy.

[12] The Solar Foundation. 2017. National Solar Jobs Census 2016.

[13] Navigant Consulting. 2009.  Job Creation Opportunities in Hydropower .

[14] Geothermal Energy Association. 2010.  Green Jobs through Geothermal Energy .

[15] UCS. 2009.  Clean Power Green Jobs .

[16] Environmental Protection Agency. 2010.  Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy: A Resource for States . Chapter 5.

[17] UCS. 2009.  Clean Power Green Jobs .

[18] Deyette, J., and B. Freese. 2010.  Burning coal, burning cash: Ranking the states that import the most coal . Cambridge, MA: Union of Concerned Scientists.

[20] SEIA. 2017. Solar Market Insight Report 2017 Q2.

[21] AWEA. 2017. AWEA U.S. Wind Industry Annual Market Report: Year Ending 2016. Washington, D.C.: American Wind Energy Association.

[22] UCS. 2009.  Clean Power Green Jobs .

[23] UCS. 2011.  A Risky Proposition: The financial hazards of new investments in coal plants .

[24] EIA. 2013.  U.S. Natural Gas Wellhead Price .

[25] Unger, David J. 2012.  Are renewables stormproof? Hurricane Sandy tests solar, wind . The Christian Science Monitor. November 19.

[26] Department of Energy. 2017 U.S. Energy and Employment Report

Last revised date: December 20, 2017

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★Compare and Contrast Essay Topics: 135 Fresh Ideas




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  3. Top 100 Great Compare And Contrast Essay Topics

Top 100 Great Compare And Contrast Essay Topics

Oct 16, 2017
Essay writing tips

Top 100 Great Compare And Contrast Essay Topics

Writing a compare and contrast essay can be challenging for first-year college students. Writing a paper like this requires you to inspect two or more subjects for similarities or differences. Compare and contrast essays are not a basis for answering a specific question. Nor are they used for solidifying an opinionated argument. Your goal is to create analogies for the purpose of explanation or clarification. To write an essay in this format, you need to sharpen up your critical thinking skills.

Choose your writer

compare and contrast essay

Finding The Right Sources

When writing an academic piece that aims to compare and contrast more elements together, it is important to do so in a manner that sparks interest and keeps the audience tuned in. Nonetheless, it is important to remain consistent since creative and objective pieces will tackle the issue in different ways. Similar to an argumentative essay the objective approach seeks to elaborate using accurate facts backed up by solid evidence.

Choosing a topic is a crucial stage. The best way to choose an appropriate topic is searching for credible references that come from primary or secondary sources respectively. These are usually accredited sources that date back to a minimum of five years, however, this may vary depending on the topic of discussion. Keep in mind that your reading list will form the backbone of the essay, thus to help give you a better idea of where to start looking here’s a short list of options:

  • Textbooks
  • Books
  • Documentaries
  • Academic journals
  • Scientific magazines
  • Newspapers
  • Official reports

Tips On How To Write A Compare And Contrast Essay

Regardless the topic or style that students choose to use when tackling such an assignment, it is vital to adhere to the traditional structure of an academic paper.

compare and contras essay writing tips

Introduction
It is best to grab the reader’s attention right from the start by using an interesting source as the foundation of your argument. This will help outline what the topic is about and guide the discussion into the right direction through the thesis statement.

Developing your arguments
As previously mentioned thorough research will allow one to create a minimum of three claims. Each should have its own individual supporting argument as to highlight these points in their respective paragraph.

Refuting opponent’s arguments
A solid viewpoint is capable of disproving the opponent’s arguments by using facts and logic. Thus, it is important to be aware of what the opposition might say while conducting research, so one is well prepared. Try to make note of at least two opposing views what could potentially come up as preparation.

Conclusion
Restate your thesis statement and stress why your side is right once again.

Finding Great Topics To Write About

Don’t limit yourself to topics that you already know inside-out. Compare and contrast essay writing can be exciting if you use it to discover something new. To find appropriate compare and essay topics to write about, you must engage in critical and analytical thought. You will need to find a topic that is not too broad or too narrow. Otherwise, you risk wasting your time and effort.

One of the most time-effective methods when teachers do not provide you with a list of topics is to go through various types of reading material, such as:

  • Newspapers
    Using these types of sources as reading material is often highly recommended due to the fact that they tackle ongoing world events as well as the latest innovations in different spheres. Thus, one may choose to find an expert opinion or even bias information and use it to strengthen or prove a point.

  • News channels
    Quite often various news channels offer a summary of all the major events that took place that day. This segments usually takes about half an hour of your time but can be used as a primary source if referenced properly.

  • Magazines/Journals
    If economics, religions or politics are not exactly what you enjoy exploring as academic topics, then it is best to have a look at sports magazines, fashion journals, etc.

  • Internet
    As one of the most easily accessible sources, it also represents one of the greatest sources of inspiration. Keep in mind to double check the credibility of the sources before using them.
    Other means to stay in touch with global events is by attending various seminars, conferences or meetings and participate in the discussions carried out there.

Look for topics that are interesting and inspiring for you. As a comic book fan, I would love to read an essay about Superman versus his alter-ego Clark Kent. Superman is from a different planet. Unlike other superheroes, he doesn’t wear a mask because his true identity is Superman. He puts on a mask only when he becomes Clark Kent because that’s the only way he can blend in with our society. This is a great topic with many parallels in our modern world.

Here are 100 good compare and contrast essay topics for your mind to feast on:

  • Spotify vs Apple Music
  • Cats vs Dogs
  • Typhoon vs Hurricane
  • AT&T vs Verizon
  • Lion vs Tiger
  • Resume vs CV
  • Leasing vs Buying a car
  • Star Wars vs Star Trek
  • Coyote vs Wolf
  • Fascism vs Communism
  • iPhone SE vs iPhone 6
  • Coke vs Pepsi
  • Fiction vs Nonfiction
  • Plant Cell vs Animal Cell
  • Analogy vs Metaphor
  • Hobbes vs Locke
  • Tea vs Coffe
  • Expectations vs Reality
  • Apple vs Microsoft
  • Gandalf vs Dumbledore
  • Boys vs Girls
  • Stocks vs Bonds
  • High School vs College
  • South Korea vs North Korea
  • Stalin vs Hitler
  • Safari vs Chrome
  • Ants vs Termites
  • Kosher vs Halal
  • Hydrogen Bomb vs Nuclear Bomb
  • Facebook vs Twitter
  • Bachelor of Arts vs Bachelor of Science
  • Nike vs Under Armour
  • Shareholder vs Stakeholder
  • Head of state vs Head of government
  • Alligator vs Crocodile
  • Fruits vs Vegetables
  • Greek vs Roman Gods
  • Dusk vs Dawn
  • Game of Thrones book vs Show
  • Wage vs Salary
  • MMA vs Boxing
  • Soy Milk vs Milk
  • Mozart vs Beethoven
  • Pretty vs Beautiful
  • Football vs Soccer
  • Vampires vs Werewolves
  • Iron Man vs Hulk
  • Brain vs Heart
  • Toads vs Frogs
  • Closed vs Open headphones
  • Thunder vs Lightning
  • Monopoly vs Oligopoly
  • Summer vs Winter
  • Michael Jackson vs Elvis Presley
  • Renting vs Owning
  • Newton vs Einstein
  • Cowboys vs Indians
  • Baroque vs Renaissance
  • Jefferson vs Adams
  • Childhood vs Adulthood
  • American Idol vs The Voice
  • Nuclear Power vs Solar Power
  • Poor people vs Rich people
  • Coffee vs Energy Drink
  • Family vs Friends
  • Soviet vs American system
  • Tom Sawyer vs Huckleberry Finn
  • Watercolor vs Oil
  • Red vs White
  • Offence vs Defense
  • Rap vs Pop
  • Cash vs Credit Cards
  • Motorcycle vs Bicycle
  • Racism vs Sexism
  • Chamberlain vs Churchill
  • Recycling vs Landfill
  • Roman Empire vs British Empire
  • Letters vs Emails
  • Drama vs Comedy
  • Jazz vs Classical Music
  • 1984 vs Fahrenheit 451
  • Living in City vs Country
  • Juice vs Water
  • Books vs E-Books
  • Diesel vs Petroleum
  • Public vs Private transportation
  • Living at home vs Living on campus
  • Truth vs Lie
  • Real World vs Virtual World
  • Greek Philosophy vs Roman Philosophy
  • North vs South before the War
  • Harry Potter: The book vs Movie
  • Antique vs New
  • Home Education vs Traditional Education
  • Thor vs Loki: friends of enemies (according to the movie)
  • KFC vs McDonald’s
  • Online dating vs Real-life relations
  • Modern Dance vs Ballroom dancing
  • Being a freelancer vs Working in an office
  • City vs Country lifestyle

We hope that this article has given you an idea of how to choose a compare and contrast essay topic. Did you find our list useful? Have you decided to use one of our topics in your essay? Let us know in the comments section below!
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by

Melissa Kelly
Updated September 24, 2018

Compare and contrast essays are taught in school for many reasons. For one thing, they are relatively easy to teach, understand, and format. Students can typically understand the structure with just a short amount of instruction. In addition, these essays allow students develop critical thinking skills to approach a variety of topics.

Brainstorming Tip

One fun way to get students started brainstorming their compare and contrast essays is to create a Venn diagram , where the overlapping sections of the circle contain similarities and the non-overlapping areas contain the differing traits.

Following is a list of 101 topics for compare and contrast essays that you are welcome to use in your classroom. As you look through the list you will see that some items are academic in nature while others are included for interest-building and fun writing activities.

  1. Apple vs. Microsoft
  2. Coke vs Pepsi
  3. Renaissance Art vs. Baroque Art
  4. Antebellum Era vs. Reconstruction Era in American History
  5. Childhood vs. Adulthood
  6. Star Wars vs. Star Trek
  7. Biology vs. Chemistry
  8. Astrology vs. Astronomy
  9. American Government vs. British Government (or any world government)
  10. Fruits vs. Vegetables
  11. Dogs vs. Cats
  12. Ego vs. Superego
  13. Christianity vs. Judaism (or any world religion )
  14. Republican vs. Democrat
  15. Monarchy vs. Presidency
  16. US President vs. UK Prime Minister
  17. Jazz vs. Classical Music
  18. Red vs. White (or any two colors)
  19. Soccer vs. Football
  20. North vs. South Before the Civil War
  21. New England Colonies vs. Middle Colonies OR vs. Southern Colonies
  22. Cash vs. Credit Cards
  23. Sam vs. Frodo Baggins
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  18. . Go on vacation vs. Staycation
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Choosing The Best Compare Contrast Essay Topics For College

College essays can take many different flavors. You may be asked to writer persuasively, argumentatively or in any other similar field. This cornucopia of choice is excellent for becoming a well rounded writer and a student who is able to think on his or her feet.

One of the more common essay types is the compare and contrast. Most things that are different have at least a few things in common and even things that appear identical on the surface must differ in some ways. Here are some things to keep in mind as you search for a topic:

Know the audience

The topic that would work well for a room full of your peers might not be appreciated as much by your professor or your parents or anyone else. Sometime this is just a matter of differing tastes, other times, you may have such an unpopular opinion that your readers would simply be outraged by the connections you make.

Have a good grasp of current events

Picking topics is always easier when you know what is going on in the world. Read newspapers online and follow informative blogs. You will learn things that help you to think outside of the box and write outside of it too.

Read widely

Newspapers are a good start but it’s a good idea to expand way beyond that. Look at fiction, try picking up another language and consuming literature from the related culture. Your ideas will be very different as a result.

Consider the following ideas for a start:

  1. How has this decade been different from and similar to the one that preceded it?
  2. Create a secure comparison between murder and the consumption of meat
  3. How is religion comparable to the use of alcohol or other drugs?
  4. What makes the entrepreneurial path different from the traditional 9 to 5 route?
  5. How did the character of Atticus Finch change between ‘To Kill A mockingbird’ and ‘Go Set a Watchman’
  6. How has the concept of childhood evolved or stagnated over the past century?
  7. Can the use of cannabis be compared to that of prescription drugs?
  8. Can the use of social media be successfully contrasted with roman games or are they too similar?
  9. How does the death penalty stack up against concerted efforts at rehabilitation?
  10. Does the music industry of today stack up well against that of previous generations?

 

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★Primary &amp

Secondary source

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Document that discusses information originally presented elsewhere
For Wikipedia’s policy on the use of secondary sources, see WP:SECONDARY .
Not to be confused with Secondary sector .

Scipione Amati ‘s History of the Kingdom of Voxu (1615) an example of a secondary source.

In scholarship , a secondary source [1] [2] is a document or recording that relates or discusses information originally presented elsewhere. A secondary source contrasts with a primary source , which is an original source of the information being discussed; a primary source can be a person with direct knowledge of a situation, or a document created by such a person.

A secondary source is one that gives information about a primary source. In this source, the original information is selected, modified and arranged in a suitable format. Secondary sources involve generalization, analysis, interpretation, or evaluation of the original information.

The most accurate classification for any given source is not always obvious. Primary and secondary are relative terms, and some sources may be classified as primary or secondary, depending on how they are used. [3] [4] [5] [6] A third level, the tertiary source , such as an encyclopedia or dictionary, resembles a secondary source in that it contains analysis, but attempts to provide a broad introductory overview of a topic. [1] [7]

Contents

  • 1 Classification
  • 2 Science, technology, and medicine
    • 2.1 Library and information science
    • 2.2 Maths
    • 2.3 Humanities and history
      • 2.3.1 Law
      • 2.3.2 Family history
      • 2.3.3 Autobiographies
  • 3 See also
  • 4 References
  • 5 Further reading

Classification[ edit ]

Information can be taken from a wide variety of objects, but this classification system is only useful for a class of sources that are called symbolic sources. [8] Symbolic sources are sources that are intended to communicate information to someone. [8] Common symbolic sources include written documents such as letters and notes, but not, for example, bits of broken pottery and scraps of food excavated from a midden , regardless of how much information can be extracted from an ancient trash heap, or how little can be extracted from a written document. [8]

Many sources can be considered either primary or secondary, depending on the context in which they are used. [9] Moreover, the distinction between primary and secondary sources is subjective and contextual, [10] so that precise definitions are difficult to make. [11] For example, if a historical text discusses old documents to derive a new historical conclusion, it is considered to be a primary source for the new conclusion, but a secondary source of information found in the old documents.[ citation needed ] Other examples in which a source can be both primary and secondary include an obituary [12] or a survey of several volumes of a journal counting the frequency of articles on a certain topic. [12]

Whether a source is regarded as primary or secondary in a given context may change, depending upon the present state of knowledge within the field. [13] For example, if a document refers to the contents of a previous but undiscovered letter, that document may be considered “primary”, since it is the closest known thing to an original source, but if the letter is later found, it may then be considered “secondary”. [14]

Attempts to map or model scientific and scholarly communication need the concepts of primary, secondary and further “levels”. One such model is the UNISIST model of information dissemination. Within such a model these concepts are defined in relation to each other, and the acceptance of this way of defining the concepts are connected to the acceptance of the model.

Some other modern languages use more than one word for the English word “source”. German usually uses Sekundärliteratur (“secondary literature”) for secondary sources for historical facts, leaving Sekundärquelle (“secondary source”) to historiography . A Sekundärquelle is a source which can tell about a lost Primärquelle (“primary source”), such as a letter quoting from minutes which are no longer known to exist, and so cannot be consulted by the historian.

Science, technology, and medicine[ edit ]

In general, secondary sources are self-described as review articles or meta-analysis .

Primary source materials are typically defined as “original research papers written by the scientists who actually conducted the study.” An example of primary source material is the Purpose, Methods, Results, Conclusions sections of a research paper (in IMRAD style) in a scientific journal by the authors who conducted the study. [15] In some fields, a secondary source may include a summary of the literature in the Introduction of a scientific paper, a description of what is known about a disease or treatment in a chapter in a reference book, or a synthesis written to review available literature. [15] A survey of previous work in the field in a primary peer-reviewed source is secondary source information. This allows secondary sourcing of recent findings in areas where full review articles have not yet been published.

A book review that contains the judgment of the reviewer about the book is a primary source for the reviewer’s opinion, and a secondary source for the contents of the book. [16] [17] A summary of the book within a review is a secondary source.

Library and information science[ edit ]

In library and information sciences , secondary sources are generally regarded as those sources that summarize or add commentary to primary sources in the context of the particular information or idea under study. [1] [2]

Maths[ edit ]

An important use of secondary sources in the field of mathematics has been to make difficult mathematical ideas and proofs from primary sources more accessible to the public; [18] in other sciences tertiary sources are expected to fulfill the introductory role.

Humanities and history[ edit ]

Secondary sources in history and humanities are usually books or scholarly journals , from the perspective of a later interpreter, especially by a later scholar. In the humanities, a peer reviewed article is always a secondary source.
The delineation of sources as primary and secondary first arose in the field of historiography , as historians attempted to identify and classify the sources of historical writing. In scholarly writing, an important objective of classifying sources is to determine the independence and reliability of sources. [19] In original scholarly writing, historians rely on primary sources, read in the context of the scholarly interpretations. [20]

Following the Rankean model established by German scholarship in the 19th century, historians use archives of primary sources. [21] Most undergraduate research projects rely on secondary source material, with perhaps snippets of primary sources. [22]

Law[ edit ]

In the legal field, source classification is important because the persuasiveness of a source usually depends upon its history. Primary sources may include cases, constitutions, statutes, administrative regulations, and other sources of binding legal authority, while secondary legal sources may include books, the headnotes of case reports, articles, and encyclopedias. [23] Legal writers usually prefer to cite primary sources because only primary sources are authoritative and precedential , while secondary sources are only persuasive at best. [24]

Family history[ edit ]

“A secondary source is a record or statement of an event or circumstance made by a non-eyewitness or by someone not closely connected with the event or circumstances, recorded or stated verbally either at or sometime after the event, or by an eye-witness at a time after the event when the fallibility of memory is an important factor.” [25] Consequently, according to this definition, a first-hand account written long after the event “when the fallibility of memory is an important factor” is a secondary source, even though it may be the first published description of that event.

Autobiographies[ edit ]

An autobiography can be a secondary source in history or the humanities when used for information about topics other than its subject. For example, many first hand accounts of events in World War I written in the post-war years were influenced by the then prevailing perception of the war which was significantly different from contemporary opinion. [26]

See also[ edit ]

  • Original research

References[ edit ]

  1. ^ a b c ” Primary, secondary and tertiary sources “. University Libraries, University of Maryland.
  2. ^ a b ” Secondary sources “. James Cook University.
  3. ^ ” Primary and secondary sources “. Ithaca College Library.
  4. ^ Kragh, Helge (1989), An Introduction to the Historiography of Science , Cambridge University Press, p. 121, ISBN   0-521-38921-6 , [T]he distinction is not a sharp one. Since a source is only a source in a specific historical context, the same source object can be both a primary or secondary source according to what it is used for.

  5. ^ Delgadillo, Roberto; Lynch, Beverly (1999), “Future Historians: Their Quest for Information” , College & Research Libraries: 245–259, at 253, [T]he same document can be a primary or a secondary source depending on the particular analysis the historian is doing,
  6. ^ Monagahn, E.J.; Hartman, D.K. (2001), “Historical research in literacy” , Reading Online, 4 (11), [A] source may be primary or secondary, depending on what the researcher is looking for.
  7. ^ Richard Veit and Christopher Gould, Writing, Reading, and Research (8th ed. 2009) p 335
  8. ^ a b c Kragh, Helge (1989-11-24). An Introduction to the Historiography of Science . Cambridge University Press. p. 121. ISBN   9780521389211 .
  9. ^ Kragh 1989 , p. 121.
  10. ^ Dalton & Charnigo 2004 , p. 419 n.18.
  11. ^ Delgadillo & Lynch 1999 , p. 253.
  12. ^ a b Duffin, Jacalyn (1999), History of Medicine: A Scandalously Short Introduction , University of Toronto Press, p. 366, ISBN   0-8020-7912-1
  13. ^ Henige, David (1986), “Primary Source by Primary Source? On the Role of Epidemics in New World Depopulation”, Ethnohistory, Duke University Press, 33 (3): 292–312, at 292, doi : 10.2307/481816 , JSTOR   481816 , [T]he term ‘primary’ inevitably carries a relative meaning insofar as it defines those pieces of information that stand in closest relationship to an event or process in the present state of our knowledge. Indeed, in most instances the very nature of a primary source tells us that it is actually derivative.…[H]istorians have no choice but to regard certain of the available sources as ‘primary’ since they are as near to truly original sources as they can now secure.
  14. ^ Henige 1986 , p. 292.
  15. ^ a b Garrard, Judith (2010). Health Sciences Literature Review Made Easy . Jones & Bartlett Publishers. ISBN   978-1-4496-1868-1 . Retrieved 16 September 2012.
  16. ^ Princeton (2011). “Book reviews” . Scholarly definition document. Princeton. Retrieved September 22, 2011.
  17. ^ Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (2011). “Book reviews” . Scholarly definition document. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Archived from the original on September 10, 2011. Retrieved September 22, 2011.
  18. ^ Edwards, H.M. (2001), Riemann’s Zeta Function , Mineola, New York: Courier Dover Publications, p. xi, ISBN   0-486-41740-9 , The purpose of a secondary source is to make the primary sources accessible to you. If you can read and understand the primary sources without reading this book, more power to you. If you read this book without reading the primary sources you are like a man who carries a sack lunch to a banquet
  19. ^ Helge (1989), p. 121.
  20. ^ Cipolla (1992), Between Two Cultures: An Introduction to Economic History , W.W. Norton & Co., ISBN   978-0-393-30816-7
  21. ^ Frederick C. Beiser (2011). The German Historicist Tradition . Oxford U.P. p. 254.
  22. ^ Charles Camic; Neil Gross; Michele Lamont (2011). Social Knowledge in the Making . U. of Chicago Press. p. 107.
  23. ^ Bouchoux, Deborah E. (2000), Cite Checker: A Hands-On Guide to Learning Citation Form , Thomson Delmar Learning, p. 45, ISBN   0-7668-1893-4
  24. ^ Bouchoux 2000 , p. 45.
  25. ^ Harland, p. 39
  26. ^ Holmes, particularly the introduction

Further reading[ edit ]

  • Jules R. Benjamin , A Student’s Guide to History (2013) ISBN   9781457621444
  • Edward H. Carr , What is History? (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2001) ISBN   9780333977019
  • Wood Gray , Historian’s handbook, a key to the study and writing of history (Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press, 1991, ©1964) ISBN   9780881336269
  • Derek Harland , A Basic Course in Genealogy: Volume two, Research Procedure and Evaluation of Evidence (Bookcraft Inc, 1958) WorldCat record
  • Richard Holmes , Tommy (HarperCollins, 2004) ISBN   9780007137510
  • Martha C. Howell and Walter Prevenier , From Reliable Sources: An Introduction to Historical Methods (2001) ISBN   9780801435737
  • Richard A. Marius and Melvin E. Page , A Short Guide to Writing About History (8th Edition) (2012) ISBN   9780205118601
  • Hayden White , Metahistory: the historical imagination in nineteenth-century Europe (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1973) ISBN   9780801814693

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      Freakonomics: What Went Right? Responding to Wrong-Headed Attacks

      by Stephen J. Dubner

      Warning: what follows is a horribly long, inside-baseball post that most people will likely have little interest in reading, and which I had little interest in writing. But it did need to be written. Apologies for the length and the indulgence; we will soon return to our regular programming.

      *     *     * 

      I. Going on the attack is generally more fun, profitable, and attention-getting than playing defense. Politicians know this; athletes know it; even academics know it. Or perhaps I should say that especially academics know it?

      Given the nature of the Freakonomics work that Steve Levitt and I do, we get our fair share of critiques. Some are ideological or political; others are emotional.

      We generally look over such critiques to see if they contain worthwhile feedback, or point to an error in need of correction. But for the most part, we tend to not reply to critiques. It seems only fair to let critics have their say (as writers, we’ve already had ours). Furthermore, spending one’s time responding to wayward attacks is the kind of chore you’d rather skip in order to get on with your work.

      But occasionally an attack is so spectacularly ridiculous, so riddled with errors and mangled logic, that it’s worth addressing.

      The following essay responds to two such attacks. The first one was relatively minor, a recent blog post written by a Yale professor. The second was more substantial, an essay by a pair of statisticians in American Scientist. Feel free to skip ahead to that one (at section III below), or buckle up for the whole bumpy ride.

      *     *     *

      II. On Jan. 27, an assistant professor of political science and economics at Yale named Chris Blattman published on his blog a post called “ Do the big newspaper blogs plagiarize ?” It began:

      I regularly read at least two big blogs run by newspapers — Freakonomics at the NY Times and Ideas Market at WSJ. They find a wonderful sampling of things across the web.

      What’s interesting: they seldom say where they find their material. The bloggy custom of hat tipping is nearly absent. Once in a while Freakonomics gives a blog hat tip, but (oddly) they never actually hyperlink. …

      Impolite? Yes. Nefarious. Possibly. Plagiarizing? I’d ding my students if they did this so regularly and egregiously.

      At first, I thought the post was a joke. In fact, I only knew Blattman’s name via numerous posts and links on our blog . So I looked up Blattman’s e-mail address and sent him a note with the subject line “was that a joke?”:

      the thing you wrote about the freakonomics blog, I mean. fwiw, we haven’t been on NYT for a year (and even when we were, we were hardly “run by” the paper)

      but I’d argue we are borderline zealous about attribution, linking, and hat-tipping. I’d invite you to actually read our last 100 posts, or last 1,000, and tell me if you really believe in what you just wrote. especially compared to the general esthetic of many blogs which routinely reprint entire articles and hijack photos with neither attribution nor payment.

      Blattman promptly replied:

      Hi Stephen

      Well, I could be mistaken, but to use myself as an example (and this is not a self-interested search for blog traffic–especially since my post might up ending traffic from the blogs I discussed), I can say that a quick search done right now shows a h/t to me once in each of December and November of 2011, but not a hyperlink. My point was simply that this practice is uncommon and, to some, impolite. 

      Actually, what drew my attention was a switch, perhaps a year or two back. One of the  first times I was linked from Freakonomics, there was a hyperlink, which I noticed only because of the surge in traffic. But I seem to recall that hyperlink was actually removed later that day, and then later mentions didn’t have the hyperlink, just the name. This is what made me think it was more of a deliberate policy.

      Now it was my turn to reply:

      Chris, 

      I’m sorry but I think you are wrong on just about every front here. 

      Here’s what you wrote in your post:

      + Your headline is “Do the big newspaper blogs plagiarize?” First of all, as I wrote in my first e-mail, we are not “a big newspaper blog.” Second of all: do you know what plagiarizing is? Is that what you’re charging us with? Even I don’t think so but for some reason, that’s the word you chose in your headline, so … what say you?

      + You then wrote: “What’s interesting: they seldom say where they find their material. The bloggy custom of hat tipping is nearly absent. Once in a while Freakonomics gives a blog hat tip, but (oddly) they never actually hyperlink.” Hard to believe, but it appears that just about everything in this paragraph is wrong. We “seldom say where” we “find our material”? Please, go look at any selection of Freakonomics posts and tell me that this is even remotely true. Or just search for “ blattman ” and look at the most recent posts. There are links; there are explanations; there are excerpts; and there are hat tips. In fact, I’d argue that our blog adheres more to the rules of journalistic attribution than a) the vast majority of blogs; and b) a lot of mainstream news sources. Furthermore, you write that “the bloggy custom of hat tipping is nearly absent.” “Nearly absent”? Are you serious? You do know that “HT” stands for “Hat tip,” right? Again, please look at our posts and tell me we don’t hat tip — including to you! Maybe you are unhappy that our hat tips sometimes aren’t linked to the blog of the tipper? I agree it’s probably better to do so than not do so, and I’m sure we are very inconsistent, but the tone and content of your post imply a far more serious set of charges that I would argue are at least 99% wrong.

      Furthermore, to charge someone in a headline with plagiarizing, and then to defend that post in a followup e-mail with “Well, I could be mistaken, but to use myself as an example …” and “I seem to recall that hyperlink was actually removed” strikes me as an astronomically weak argument. We don’t routinely remove links, or even edit posts unless an error is found, because we believe in the established rules of journalism and publishing, and those rules generally forbid messing with things once they’ve been published unless explaining to the reader why it’s been done. So as for a “deliberate policy” — well, our deliberate policy is to conduct ourselves with a considered appreciation for where ideas come from, to describe them well and accurately, and to expect others to do the same. Why you decided to single us out for behavior that we don’t practice is beyond me but suffice it to say I’ll be happy to not hat tip you in the future, or link to you, or ever mention your name. 

      Sincerely,

      SJD

      Blattman’s response:

      Hi Stephen

      The continued association to the Times was my mistake, which I’ll correct. The plagiarization charge was a cheap shot in your instance, and I will fix this as well. I think it applies more to the ideas market blog than Freakonomics, because you are right in that you hat tip. N
      onetheless, as I mentioned in the post and my last email, what seemed unusual to me about the Freakonomics blog in particular is that it seldom hyperlinks its HTs. This doesn’t mean you deserve to get lumped with those that are more egregious, but the practice might be something to reconsider. In any case, I’m sorry this escalated. It’s my fault, for taking the charge too far, and a product of hasty and sometimes thoughtless blogging.

      Chris

      Blattman had graciously apologized and promised to amend his post but I was still worked up, I must admit, at how wrong and facile and flip-floppy this argument was, especially coming from a professor at Yale. Perhaps I am naïve about modern standards in the academic community? Is it okay to toss off a false and inflammatory charge and, if you happen to get caught, mumble an apology and chalk it up to haste?

      So I wrote back:

      explanation and apology accepted and we will try to do better at creating *linked hat tips*. am still a bit astonished, however, that the issue of *linked hat tips* could provoke such a broadly erroneous charge, especially from an academic. oh well. thnx, sjd

      Soon after, Blattman published another post on his blog, headlined “ More on yesterday’s cheap shot @freakonomics and @WSJIdeasMarket .” He writes:

      First, lest anyone mistake this blog for a quality news and analysis outlet, let me remind everyone I blog hurriedly in my nearly non-existent spare time, and do not think much before I write. For if I did, there would not be a blog post every day.

      My first thought was this: it is of zero interest to me whether a man named Chris Blattman is able to produce a blog post every day – unless or until his daily quota results in a false accusation against me.

      I was also surprised to see a Yale professor admit that he doesn’t “think much before I write,” especially when he’s writing about the writing habits of people who do.

      Here’s more:

      Nonetheless, there is thoughtless and then there is reckless. Sometimes I am the latter. …

      Why spend more blog space on such frivolous things? No good reason. On this occasion, I started it and I should fess up when I overstate myself, or falsely accuse.

      Also, I have an overdeveloped sense of justice, which often pushes me in the right direction, but sometimes leads me along silly and fruitless paths, such as accosting strangers on New York City sidewalks for littering, or (more successfully) trying to bring order to Dubai airport lines when hundreds of people are jumping queues during a 4am rush.

      I will admit: I still get a great sense of satisfaction from the memory of hundreds of people from as many nations meekly looking ashamed and falling back into line.

      The arc of Blattman’s two posts strikes me as remarkable. He begins by wrongly accusing us of plagiarism and lesser sins, and writes that “I’d ding my students if they did this.” Then, when confronted with some facts, he freely admits his errors. But then, in his follow-up apology post, he explains that while he indeed may be guilty of having filed false charges, the fault can be traced to his acute moral sense. This is a man who travels the world cleaning up other people’s messes — at 4 a.m., no less!

      My advice to people like Chris Blattman is simple: if you want to leave the world neater, try starting fewer messes yourself! Rather than shouting “plagiarism” in a crowded blogosphere, you could send an e-mail saying, “Hey Dubner, it sure would be nice if you linked to my blog every time you hat-tip me.”

      But that would have deprived Blattman content for a blog post. As I wrote above, the incentives to attack in public are strong, no matter how wrong-headed the attack may be. This is similar to the strong incentives that lead people to predict the future . Wrong predictions are usually forgotten and barely ever punished — but on the off chance that you do successfully predict a rare event, the bragging rights last forever.

      *     *     *

      III. The Jan.-Feb. 2012 issue of American Scientist includes an article headlined “ Freakonomics: What Went Wrong ?” It was written by a pair of statisticians named Andrew Gelman and Kaiser Fung . They damn us with a bit of faint praise, including this:

      The word “freakonomics” has come to stand for a light-hearted and contrarian, yet rigorous and quantitative, way of looking at the world.

      But make no mistake: Gelman-Fung come to bury, not to praise. Their central charge: 

      In our analysis of the Freakonomics approach, we encountered a range of avoidable mistakes, from back-of-the-envelope analyses gone wrong to unexamined assumptions to an uncritical reliance on the work of Levitt’s friends and colleagues. 

      I’ll give Gelman-Fung credit: they certainly spent more time on their attack than did Blattman. But it doesn’t seem to have helped much. Let’s look at the evidence. 

      1. Their first example of a “mistake” concerns a May, 2005, Slate column we wrote about the economist Emily Oster ’s research on the “missing women” phenomenon in Asia. Her paper, “Hepatitis B and the Case of the Missing Women,” was about to be published in the Aug. 2005 issue of the Journal of Political Economy . At the time, Levitt was the editor of JPE, and Oster’s paper had been favorably peer-reviewed.

      Oster argued that women with Hepatitis B tend to give birth to many more boys than girls; therefore, a significant number of the approximately 100 million missing females might have been lost due to this virus rather than the previously argued explanations that included female infanticide and sex-selective mistreatment.

      Other scholars, however, countered that Oster’s conclusion was faulty. Indeed, it turned out they were right, and she was wrong. Oster did what an academic (or anyone) should do when presented with a possible error: she investigated, considered the new evidence, and corrected her earlier argument. Her follow-up paper was called “ Hepatitis B Does Not Explain Male-Biased Sex Ratios in China .”

      Levitt subsequently wrote a Freakonomics blog post about the Oster affair, headlined “ An Academic Does the Right Thing .” He detailed the error, the new data, etc.; he wrote:

      I have great admiration for her doing this. I know a lot of people who wouldn’t have done the same thing. They wouldn’t have undertaken a study that could show their biggest result was wrong, and if they found a negative result, the
      y would try to bury it.

      Also, hats off to Justin Lahart at the Wall Street Journal who wrote this article on the topic. Here are the key papers .

      What do Gelman-Fung make of this exchange? 

      Monica Das Gupta is a World Bank researcher who, along with others in her field, has attributed the abnormally high ratio of boy-to-girl births in Asian countries to a preference for sons, which manifests in selective abortion and, possibly, infanticide. … In a follow-up blog post, Levitt applauded Oster for bravery in admitting her mistake, but he never credited Das Gupta for her superior work. Our point is not that Das Gupta had to be right and Oster wrong, but that Levitt and Dubner, in their celebration of economics and economists, suspended their critical thinking.

      In other words, Gelman-Fung are distressed that, in a blog post that Steve Levitt wrote about Emily Oster’s admission of error, he did not specifically name one of Oster’s critics — even though, in that post, Levitt linked both to the relevant Journal article and a secondary Journal article listing the “key papers” on the topic, both of which spelled out Das Gupta’s involvement.

      Seriously? This amounts to a “suspension of critical thinking”? I’m sorry, but I can’t give Gelman-Fung any points for this one.

       

      2. Gelman-Fung take issue with a column we wrote in the New York Times in 2006 called “ A Star Is Made .” It concerned the research of K. Anders Ericsson, a psychologist at Florida State University whom we’ve written about several times . The column argued that “the trait we commonly call talent is highly overrated.” Here are Gelman-Fung:

      It begins with the startling observation that elite soccer players in Europe are much more likely to be born in the first three months of the year. The theory: Since youth soccer leagues are organized into age groups with a cutoff birth date of December 31, coaches naturally favor the older kids within each age group, who have had more playing time. So far, so good. But this leads to an eye-catching piece of wisdom: The fact that so many World Cup players have early birthdays, [Dubner and Levitt] write,

      may be bad news if you are a rabid soccer mom or dad whose child was born in the wrong month. But keep practicing: a child conceived on this Sunday in early May would probably be born by next February, giving you a considerably better chance of watching the 2030 World Cup from the family section.

      Perhaps readers are not meant to take these statements seriously. But when we do, we find that they violate some basic statistical concepts. Despite its implied statistical significance, the size of the birthday effect is very small.

      The authors acknowledge as much three years later when they revisit the subject in SuperFreakonomics. They consider the chances that a boy in the United States will make baseball’s major leagues, noting that July 31 is the cutoff birth date for most U.S. youth leagues and that a boy born in the United States in August has better chances than one born in July. But, they go on to mention, being born male is “infinitely more important than timing an August delivery date.” What’s more, having a major-league player as a father makes a boy “eight hundred times more likely to play in the majors than a random boy,” they write.

      So here’s what we seem to have done:

      • We wrote a 2006 Times column that explored a surprising birthdate bulge among high-level sports rosters and the bulge’s relevance to professional accomplishment (a topic expanded upon in Malcolm Gladwell’s 2008 book Outliers , and elsewhere); and then:
      • We ourselves expanded on this idea in our 2009 book SuperFreakonomics , again describing the birthdate-bulge effect and noting that, as significant as this timing effect may be, in the realm of sport at least it seems to be overwhelmed by hereditary and/or environmental factors.

      I fail to see an error here other than our inability to write in a 2006 magazine column what we were able to write in a 2009 book. Do you?

       

      3. Gelman-Fung take issue with what we’ve written about the perils of drunk walking:

      In SuperFreakonomics, Levitt and Dubner use a back-of-the-envelope calculation to make the contrarian claim that driving drunk is safer than walking drunk, an oversimplified argument that was picked apart by bloggers. The problem with this argument, and others like it, lies in the assumption that the driver and the walker are the same type of person, making the same kinds of choices, except for their choice of transportation. Such all-else-equal thinking is a common statistical fallacy. In fact, driver and walker are likely to differ in many ways other than their mode of travel. What seem like natural calculations are stymied by the impracticality, in real life, of changing one variable while leaving all other variables constant.

      There is some validity to this criticism. We tried to make clear in the book, and in a subsequent Freakonomics Radio segment , that we had to make certain assumptions in this analysis. While there is a lot of good data on drunk driving (and driving in general), there is much less on walking, and especially drunk walking.

      So, as Gelman-Fung rightly note, there is no way to know if, for instance, “the driver and walker are the same type of person.”

      There’s also the fact that a drunk walker is likely to travel a much shorter distance than a drunk driver. (That’s why we offered a per-mile analysis rather than a time-based analysis.) Most important, we made clear that a drunk driver poses a danger to other people while that is much less true of a drunk walker (although wandering into a roadway while drunk can certainly pose a danger to others). 

      Gelman-Fung write that our argument was “picked apart by bloggers.” Their American Scientist article includes only a cursory bibliography and no footnotes or endnotes, nor do Gelman-Fung cite any specific sources in this case, so it’s unclear who those bloggers were and what they picked apart.

      That said, I agree we should have done a better job spelling out these assumptions and caveats. But to me the big picture is clear. Even though we don’t know much about the overlap between drunk drivers and drunk walkers, and even though it’s obvious that drunk walkers travel shorter distances than drunk drivers, the raw numbers a
      re compelling:

      • In 2009, there were 33,808 traffic fatalities in the U.S.;
      • Of these, 17,640 were driving a vehicle;
      • Of these 17,640 drivers, 7,281 (41.3%) were drunk (BAC = .08+);
      • Of the 33,808 total fatalities, 4,092 (12.1%) were pedestrians (including children).
      • Of these pedestrians, 1,408 were drunk (BAC = .08+), representing 34.4% of all pedestrians. If you factor out pedestrian fatalities for victims 13 and younger, the drunk walkers constitute 36.5% of pedestrian fatalities. Also worth noting, however: in the case of 237 of those pedestrian fatalities, the driver was also drunk.

      So, while our methodology is hardly foolproof, I’d hope that most people would appreciate the baseline argument here: drunk walking is a dangerous activity that has been largely overlooked and, therefore, was worth writing about.

      For what it’s worth, those are two of the key criteria that go into determining what Levitt and I write: overlooked and worth writing about.

      Furthermore, it should be said: just because we have identified drunk walking as a real danger, we have repeatedly made clear that we do not in any way encourage drunk driving. Still, some people feel that talking about drunk walking misses a larger problem. For instance, our recent radio piece on drunk walking provoked some interesting pushback from pro-bicycle and anti-car quarters, who feel that pedestrians, drunk or otherwise, are the innocent bystanders of a car-mad society.

        

      4. Gelman-Fung write about a section in SuperFreakonomics describing an effort to identify potential terrorists via U.K. banking data. Levitt did this analysis in collaboration with a U.K. bank-fraud expert whom we call Ian Horsley (his real identity had to be protected).

      This portion of Gelman-Fung’s essay is so error-ridden and deprived of logic that it’s hard to decipher. So let me back up and explain what they’re actually writing about.

      The SuperFreakonomics section in question begins with a discussion of how forensic analysis of this sort is particularly challenging when you’re dealing with a relatively small amount of wrongdoing within a large population. As we write:

      When data have been used in the past to identify wrongdoing — like the cheating schoolteachers and collusive sumo wrestlers we wrote about in Freakonomics — there was a relatively high prevalence of fraud among a targeted population. But in this case, the population was gigantic (Horsley’s bank alone had many millions of customers) while the number of potential terrorists was very small.

      We then discuss the sad fact that even if you could create an algorithm that identified potential terrorists at a 99 percent accuracy rate, this still wouldn’t be acceptable: 

      We’ll assume the United Kingdom has 500 terrorists. The algorithm would correctly identify 495 of them, or 99 percent. But there are roughly 50 million adults in the United Kingdom who have nothing to do with terrorism, and the algorithm would also wrongly identify 1 percent of them, or 500,000 people. At the end of the day, this wonderful, 99-percent-accurate algorithm spits out too many false positives — half a million people who would be rightly indignant when they were hauled in by the authorities on suspicion of terrorism.

      Nor, of course, could the authorities handle the workload. 

      This is a common problem in health care. A review of a recent cancer-screening trial showed that 50 percent of the 68,000 participants got at least 1 false-positive result after undergoing 14 tests. …

      We then describe how Horsley and Levitt created a smaller, tighter algorithm, built on a variety of metrics concerning the banking habits of customers of Horsley’s own bank, which wound up having significant predictive power:

      Starting with a database of millions of bank customers, Horsley was able to generate a list of about 30 highly suspicious individuals. According to his rather conservative estimate, at least 5 of those 30 are almost certainly involved in terrorist activities. Five out of 30 isn’t perfect — the algorithm misses many terrorists and still falsely identifies some innocents — but it sure beats 495 out of 500,495.

      Maybe you think that identifying only five terrorists out of a potential 500 isn’t worthwhile. But keep in mind these data were drawn solely from Horsely’s own bank. The idea was to create an algorithmic model that could be shared with other banks and institutions to ultimately cast a wider net.

      Here, then, is how Gelman-Fung, critique this section of the book:

      The straw man [Levitt and Dubner] employ—a hypothetical algorithm boasting 99-percent accuracy—would indeed, if it exists, wrongfully accuse half a million people out of the 50 million adults in the United Kingdom. …

      But in the course of this absorbing narrative, readers may well miss the spot where Horsley’s algorithm also strikes out. The casual computation keeps under wraps the rate at which it fails at catching terrorists: With 500 terrorists at large (the authors’ supposition), the “great” algorithm finds only five of them. Levitt and Dubner acknowledge that “five out of 30 isn’t perfect,” but had they noticed the magnitude of false negatives generated by Horsley’s secret recipe, and the grave consequences of such errors, they might have stopped short of hailing his story. The maligned straw-man algorithm, by contrast, would have correctly identified 495 of 500 terrorists.

      I don’t understand how Gelman-Fung conclude that we “[kept] under wraps the rate at which [the algorithm] fails.” I literally don’t understand it. Are they reading the same thing that we wrote – the same thing that you just read above?

      But more bizarrely, they seem to extol the “maligned straw-man algorithm” which “would have correctly identified 495 of 500 terrorists.”

      Yes, it would have correctly identified 495 of 500 terrorists – at a cost of rounding up an additional 500,000 law-abiding citizens!

      In accusing us of failing to understand the tradeoff of false positives versus false negatives, it seems as if Gelman-Fung simply don’t care about the tradeoff of false positives versus false negatives. Are they advocating the British authorities round up entire neighborhoods throughout the country in order to extract 500 potential bad guys? If so, then their comprehension of democratic society is perhaps even worse than their comprehension of what we have written.

      In the end, Levitt and Horsley turned over their results to MI5. Given the nature of this project, we can’t say any more than that. But imagine if, instead of producing a list with 30 names on it, 5 of whom were quite possibly terrorists, Gelman-Fung would apparently prefer that Levitt and Horsley had strolled into MI5 with a list of half a million names. Here, there are probably 500 bad guys on this list. Good luck. That meeting wouldn’t have likely lasted long.

        

      5. Strangely enough, Gelman-Fung don’t write about a mistake we once made that I’d consider more substantial that those they include.

      In Freakonomics, we wrote about th
      e author and civil-rights activist Stetson Kennedy – who had infiltrated the Ku Klux Klan in the 1940’s in an attempt to break it up. We based our account on interviews with Kennedy in his home, his own published and unpublished works, and several other Klan histories. After our book’s publication, we were presented with unpublished evidence arguing that Kennedy had significantly embellished his role in infiltrating the Klan, and that his portrayal of said role was inaccurate. We then sought out further historical evidence and presented it to Kennedy, again in person, in order that he might rebut it. No satisfying rebuttal was forthcoming. Then, with a heavy heart, we wrote a 2006 New York Times column presenting evidence of Kennedy’s embellishments. I say “with a heavy heart” because it is of course no fun to admit you’ve been had (our column was headlined “Hoodwinked?”); but also because Kennedy was a national treasure (he died last year ), a man on the right side of many good fights, and exposing him was therefore an unsavory task. 

      But: because our original writing had perpetuated an error that occurred in many books and other historical portrayals, we felt compelled to correct it, and we did, as publicly as we knew how.

      Why did Gelman-Fung omit this story?

      Perhaps they reasoned that readers of their essay might conclude that we do approach our work with the utmost appreciation for accuracy and legitimacy, and are willing to explain in the New York Times when we’ve been had. Which, of course, might lead that same reader to conclude that the “mistakes” Gelman-Fung point out are in fact not mistakes at all.

      Nor do Gelman-Fung mention our Freakonomics Radio, produced in collaboration with American Public Media and WNYC . I don’t know whether this means they found it faultless, were unaware of its existence, or neither. In any case, the radio project represents the majority of our new content over the past two years, with more than 60 podcasts and 10 hour-long radio shows to date.  If you believe Gelman-Fung’s claims and doubt that our work is intellectually honest and rigorous, I’d invite you to take a look at our radio archives , which include complete transcripts and links to supporting material.

       

      *     *     *

       

      6. Gelman-Fung conclude their essay by offering some advice “for the would-be pop-statistics writer,” using what Levitt and I have done “wrong” as a cautionary tale.

      In this section, Gelman-Fung offer plenty of practical advice about writing in general. My only objection is that whenever they write specifically about us and our work, it becomes clear that they don’t know what they’re talking about. Which leads them to use exceedingly weasely language to promote their argument. For instance:

      Although there’s no way we can be sure, perhaps, in some of the cases described above, there was a breakdown in the division of labor when it came to investigating technical points. 

      Although there’s no way we can be sure, perhaps, in some of the cases described above …”?! 

      It is hard to imagine writing a sentence that hedges more. Years ago, I taught a freshman comp class at Columbia, called “Logic and Rhetoric.” It encouraged young writers to concentrate on those two essential elements of worthwhile writing: the logic (and accompanying ideas, facts, examples, etc.) and the rhetoric (clear, crisp, transparently honest communication). I think I learned as much about writing that year as I taught about writing. That said, I would occasionally come across a student’s sentence like the one above that Gelman-Fung wrote. I’d explain to its author why it was so bad: with rhetoric as contorted and sketchy as that, a reader has every right to distrust whatever “logic” you’re about to unload. Language and rhetoric are inextricably bound up with each other; the failure of one contributes to a failure in the other. When I read that Gelman-Fung sentence, it seems to me that what they are really saying is: We don’t actually know what we’re talking about when we talk about how Levitt and Dubner work, and we’re certainly not going to go to the trouble to do any original reporting or even fact-checking, but in the interest of attacking a ripe target like Freakonomics, let’s make some assumptions and worry later about the facts …

      When they turn their attention specifically to SuperFreakonomics, Gelman-Fung write:

      Success comes at a cost: The constraints of producing continuous content for a blog or website and meeting publisher’s deadlines may have adverse effects on accuracy.

      That might seem a sensible argument — unless the exact opposite is true. No one holds a gun to our head to write anything. Most of what we write on our blog is a natural continuation of what we’ve already written or a casual version of what we’re working on next. Furthermore: we, not our publisher, set the deadline for our second book. Nor did we rush it. Indeed, we address the timing at the very beginning of SuperFreakonomics

      As profitable as it might have been to pump out a quick follow-up – think “Freakonomics for Dummies” or “Chicken Soup for the Freakonomics Soul” – we wanted to wait until we had done enough research that we couldn’t help but write it all down. So here we finally are, more than four years later …

      Did Gelman-Fung simply fail to read the book they decided to trash? I wouldn’t have thought so, but they also write this:

      The strongest parts of the original Freakonomics book revolved around Levitt’s own peer-reviewed research. In contrast … SuperFreakonomics relies heavily on anecdotes, gee-whiz technology reporting and work by Levitt’s friends and colleagues.

      This is grotesquely wrong. Here’s how:

      1. “Relies heavily on anecdotes?” Simply not true. I’d love Gelman-Fung to provide a list so that I could refute it. Do we tell stories? Yes. Are the stories generally a) backed by data; and b) illustrative of a larger point we’re making? Also yes.
      2. “Gee-whiz technology reporting”? By this Gelman-Fung may be referring to our controversial chapter about global warming, which indeed discussed a variety of technological solutions. But how do we rely on “gee-whiz” reporting? Having read their essay, I am not sure that Gelman-Fung actually understand what reporting is, and they certainly don’t seem to have done much for the essay. Rather, they interpret (quite sloppily) what they have read in our books, look around to see what some bloggers have to say, and make a bunch of claims that you couldn’t get away with in an op-ed for a second-rate newspaper.

      Our books, meanwhile, feature a good deal of original reporting in addition to the writing based on empirical analysis. SuperFreakonomics alone reflects hundr
      eds of interviews and reporting trips to, among other places: London and elsewhere in the U.K. (for the terrorism project described in Chapter 2); Washington, D.C. (for the medical-informatics system known as Azyxxi in Chapter 2); Bellevue, Wash. (the anti-hurricane measures and anti-global warming measures in Chapters 4 and 5); Grand Rapids, Mich. (the inefficiency of chemotherapy, Chapter 2); New Haven (the monkey experiments in the Epilogue); an undisclosed location in the northeast (for the car-seat crash tests we commissioned, as described in Chapter 4); and Queens, N.Y. (for the Kitty Genovese story, as described in Chapter 3.) Granted, that last trip was only a subway ride for me — but reporting is reporting, and Gelman-Fung’s inability to recognize and acknowledge it strikes me as a great deficit.

      Finally, Gelman-Fung argue that SuperFreakonomics, unlike Freakonomics, featured the research of Levitt’s “friends and colleagues” rather than Levitt himself. This is one of their largest assumptions, and perhaps their faultiest as well. I cannot say for certain how they came to this conclusion but I do have a guess.

      Our books feature stories that include a combination of reporting, data analysis, and character-based narrative. The characters we’ve written about — the sociologist Sudhir Venkatesh, the economist John List, the U.K. fraud officer Ian Horsley, etc. – are often co-authors with Levitt on academic papers. While writing about the analysis and/or investigations that Levitt and/or I have done, we tend to focus on these co-authors rather than insert ourselves as protagonists in the narrative.

      Why? It is a way to both share credit and to not be constantly thumping one’s own chest. (The irony is that Chris Blattman accuses us of spreading too little credit, while Gelman-Fung interpret our credit-spreading as having failed to do original work.) In both Freakonomics and SuperFreakonomics, we devote a lot of space (and effort) to writing an endnotes section that fully explains our sources and methodologies. In SuperFreakonomics, the endnotes section ran about 12,700 words, about the length of a book chapter. 

      Here, drawn from those SuperFreakonomics endnotes, are some of the original Levitt research around which the book was built:

      Steven D. Levitt and Jack Porter, “ How Dangerous Are Drinking Drivers? ” Journal of Political Economy 109, no. 6 (2001).

      Steven D. Levitt and Sudhir Alladi Venkatesh, “ An Empirical Analysis of Street-Level Prostitution ,” working paper.

      Ilyana Kuziemko and Steven D. Levitt, “ An Empirical Analysis of Imprisoning Drug Offenders ,” Journal of Public Economics 88 (2004). 

      Steven D. Levitt and Chad Syverson, “ Antitrust Implications of Outcomes When Home Sellers Use Flat-Fee Real Estate Agents ,” Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Affairs, 2008.

      Roland G. Fryer, Steven D. Levitt, and John A. List, “ Exploring the Impact of Financial Incentives on Stereotype Threat: Evidence from a Pilot Study ,” AEA Papers and Proceedings 98, no. 2 (2008).

      Mark Duggan and Steven D. Levitt, “Assessing Differences in Skill Across Emergency Room Physicians,” working paper.

      “Identifying Terrorists Using Banking Data,” Steven D. Levitt and A. Danger Powers, working paper.

      Steven D. Levitt and Matthew Gentzkow, “Measuring the Impact of TV’s Introduction on Crime,” working paper.

      Steven D. Levitt, “ The Effect of Prison Population Size on Crime Rates: Evidence from Prison Overcrowding Litigation ,” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 11, no. 2 (May 1996).

      Steven D. Levitt and John A. List, “ What Do Laboratory Experiments Measuring Social Preferences Tell Us About the Real World ,” Journal of Economic Perspectives 21, no. 2 (2007).

      Levitt and List, “Viewpoint: On the Generalizability of Lab Behaviour to the Field ,” Canadian Journal of Economics 40, no. 2 (May 2007).

      Levitt and List, “ Homo Economicus Evolves ,” Science, February 15, 2008.

      Levitt, List, and David Reiley, “ What Happens in the Field Stays in the Field: Professionals Do Not Play Minimax in Laboratory Experiments ,” Econometrica (forthcoming, 2009)

      Levitt and List, “ Field Experiments in Economics: The Past, the Present, and the Future, ” European Economic Review (forthcoming, 2009).

      Steven D. Levitt and Jack Porter, “ Sample Selection in the Estimation of Air Bag and Seat Belt Effectiveness ,” The Review of Economics and Statistics 83, no. 4 (November 2001).

      Steven D. Levitt, “ Evidence That Seat Belts Are as Effective as Child Safety Seats in Preventing Death for Children ,” The Review of Economics and Statistics 90, no. 1 (February 2008).

      Levitt and Joseph J. Doyle, “ Evaluating the Effectiveness of Child Safety Seats and Seat Belts in Protecting Children from Injury ,” Economic Inquiry, forthcoming.

      Ian Ayres and Steven D. Levitt, “ Measuring Positive Externalities from Unobservable Victim Precaution: An Empirical Analysis of LoJack ,” Quarterly Journal of Economics 113, no. 8 (February 1998).

      Given these citations, how can one justify what Gelman-Fung wrote about SuperFreakonomics? If I had to guess I’d say that either a) they were wed to the anti-Freakonomics argument they’d embarked on and were unwilling to let facts stand in the way; or b) they simply failed to read the endnotes. They would hardly be the first people to fail to read a book’s endnotes – but, given the fact that they are launching a scholarly attack published in a journal like American Scientist, one might have expected otherwise.

      *     *     *

      7. Finally: it is true, as Gelman-Fung write, that we sometimes feature the work of researchers we’ve come to know. (We also write about lots and lots of people we don’t know at all. Furthermore, Andrew Gelman himself has turned up on our blog several few times – and as he has made clear, he is plainly not our friend.)

      Gelman-Fung present this “friend and colleague” idea as an argument that we favor or feature the work of certain scholars because we happen to know them. There is indeed an arrow to be drawn between what we write and whom we know – but Gelman-Fung have the arrow traveling in the wrong direction.

      < p>It isn’t that we necessarily write about friends’ and colleagues’ work simply because we know them; it’s that we sometimes become friends and colleagues with people who do interesting work.

      And I’d be surprised if Gelman and Fung didn’t do exactly the same thing. Isn’t that the point of living a life of the mind – to seek out the most fascinating, energetic, right-minded thinkers you can find and spend your time learning from them and with them? 

      Indeed, if you take a look at Gelman’s blog , you’ll find he consistently references and praises the work of certain scholars whom he seems to admire. One of them, as it happens, is Chris Blattman . And Blattman, on his blog, seems to admire Gelman as well .

      So Gelman and Blattman seem to like each other’s work, and I’m happy for that. If they are real friends in real life, so much the better. That’s how things work. But having one set of rules for yourself and another set for the people you choose to attack is neither good logic nor good rhetoric.

      Another scholar who often appears on Gelman’s blog is Dan Kahan , a professor of law and psychology at Yale. Kahan is a leader of the Cultural Cognition Project , a scholarly group that explores how people’s underlying beliefs and biases color their rational assessment of important topics like climate change and nuclear power. 

      I interviewed Kahan for a recent Freakonomics Radio podcast called “ The Truth Is Out There … Isn’t It ?” It’s about how even smart people – in fact, especially smart people – tend to seek out information that confirms their ideological or moral views rather than honestly assessing the evidence.

      In the podcast, I describe some interesting research Kahan and others had done on the perceived risks of climate change.

      DUBNER: [Ellen] Peters and Kahan found that high scientific literacy and numeracy were not correlated with a greater fear of climate change. Instead, the more you knew, the more likely you were to hold an extreme view in one direction or the other — that is, to be either very, very worried about the risks of climate change or to be almost not worried at all. In this case, more knowledge led to … more extremism! Why on earth would that be? Dan Kahan has a theory. He thinks that our individual beliefs on hot-button issues like this have less to do with what we know than with who we know.

      We then hear from Kahan:

      KAHAN: My activities as a consumer, my activities as a voter, they’re just not consequential enough to count. But my views on climate change will have an impact on me in my life. If I go out of the studio here over to campus at Yale, and I start telling people that climate change is a hoax – these are colleagues of mine, the people in my community—that’s going to have an impact on me; they’re going to form a certain kind of view of me because of the significance of climate change in our society, probably a negative one. Now, if I live, I don’t know, in Sarah Palin’s Alaska, or something, and I take the position that climate change is real, and I start saying that, I could have the same problem. My life won’t go as well. People who are science literate are even better at figuring that out, even better at finding information that’s going to help them form, maintain a view that’s consistent with the one that’s dominant within their cultural group.  

      I found this observation fascinating. It’s a striking example of what Danny Kahneman calls being “ blind to our blindness ” — that is, how our biases lead us to form conclusions that we think are rational but in fact are merely extensions of our preexisting beliefs.

      Were Gelman-Fung blind to their blindness? Did they come to believe, for whatever personal or professional reasons, that Levitt’s and my work was in need of attack, and did they then set out to gather evidence that seemed to support their bias?

      Or, put more colloquially: once they’d picked up a hammer, did everything look like a nail?

      I can certainly understand why Freakonomics is an appealing target for someone like Gelman-Fung. As I noted earlier, there are strong incentives to attack, particularly in the public sphere, where one can get a ton of attention in a blink by assailing the reputation of someone who’s been plugging away for years. Whether in the academy, the media, the political arena, or elsewhere, public discourse these days often seems little more than a tit-for-tat game in which you wait for someone or something to achieve a certain momentum and then shout as loudly as you can that it’s “wrong!” Or, in written form: Epic fail.

      That is generally not what Levitt and I try to do in our Freakonomics work. There are a lot of different ways to explore and explain how the world works, and to resort so easily to attack mode seems to strike me as both counterproductive and exhausting.

      To be fair, I’m guessing that even Andrew Gelman and Kaiser Fung and Chris Blattman would agree with me on this point. A shouting match can be fun to watch once in a while, but the world is more interesting than that, or at least it should be. 


      Elias


      I think Blattman is right. A proper h/t is not just a name, but a link to the blog in which you found out about the story.

      Michael


      Agreed!

      Just listing the blog or author’s name without a link to the specific article is like only listing the publication name in a citation in a research paper. The reader shouldn’t have to use a card catalog or google to discover the real source.

      And link to the specific article, not to the blog’s front page.

      With the narrow exception of when you’re discussing spam, sites that promote hate or other such nonsense.

      frankenduf


      it appears, then, that the correct critique is ur too sensitive!?

      164


      Many of the commenters seem to be coming from the other blogs along with their thumbs up or down attacks. Keep up the good work Freakonomics and don’t let the negative comments get you down.

      Brett


      Blattman makes a good point overall, and later apologized for his overstep, and you respond with this? Seriously, please lose the ego.

      Also, the Gelman and friends critique can be read as a narrow one — the specific cases they cite and that you respond to — or as a broad one: your egos and insularity prevent you from seeing the bigger picture, while you dismiss all criticism as being emotional, political, or ideological. This post kind of confirms all of that.

      Myles


      No, Blattman makes a poor point overall. He accuses the Freakonomics blog of plagiarism, a serious charge to level at a professional journalist. His point in the original post, failing to give due credit, is verifiably wrong. Then, instead of fully and publicly admitting his error in attacking the integrity of the blog he attempts to turn it into an example of his moral acumen.

      Gelman & Co. make a similar attack to the integrity of the work of Levitt and Dubner. The accusations amount to sacrificing quality work in favor of profit, the use of sloppy calculations and arguments in lieu of substantive evidence and a general disregard for proper citation. And let’s not forget the charge of cronyism. All of these amount to an attack on the character of the authors, an assault on their integrity masquerading as a criticism of the actual work done. The Gelman critique can be read as a narrow one; it can also be read as the broadest of salvos, cherry picking examples to make a violent point.

      Integrity is not something to be taken lightly. It is significantly more fragile and more valuable than all the ego in the world, especially when one’s profession (and this is true of all professions) is based on the professionals underlying integrity.

      Read more…

      Elias


      If you look at, for example, the Yale policies on plagiarism, Blattman’s accusation stands (http://yalecollege.yale.edu/content/cheating-plagiarism-and-documentation). It is not , perhaps, the same as Dubner’s understanding of what constitutes plagiarism; this is a fair point. It’s certainly different than the idea of plagiarism as simple “copy/paste.”

      “Plagiarism is the use of someone else’s work, words, or ideas as if they were your own. Thus most forms of cheating on examinations are plagiarism; but we usually apply the word to papers rather than to examinations.

      If you use a source for a paper, you must acknowledge it[…] What counts as a source varies greatly depending on the assignment, but the list certainly includes readings, lectures, Web sites, conversations, interviews, and other students’ papers. Every academic discipline has its own conventions for acknowledging sources.”

      I think that simply citing a Website without a link does not actually fulfill internet standards for acknowledging sources.

      Read more…

      Nick Davis


      Thought I’d check Twitter (how do I hyperlink to that?) before falling asleep…fifteen minutes later here I am responding to this exhaustive/exhausting blog post. It was like a detective novel written by a neurotic brain surgeon. I really quite enjoyed it.

      The overarching analysis that making attacks is simpler, more invigorating and more attention-grabbing than making defences is nice, although on this occasion an impassioned defence definitely won the day. Is there such thing as an impassioned attack? I’m not so sure. Aggressive, zealous…yes, but maybe the beauty of making a defence is that passion is mostly reserved for, and most evident when, your integrity or whatever is in question. Oh, I think I may have rambled a little. Goodnight from Melbourne.

      Shayna


      Dubner – just want to commend you on your strong rebuttal. I agree that it is bothersome and time consuming to respond to criticism. However, in this case, I am glad you did.

      Tristan


      I remember when I first read the Gelman-Fung article, it seemed to be one of the longer and better researched pieces critiquing the unique perspective that Freakonomics (both the books and blog) take. But it soon became obvious that it was filled with both factual and logical errors. I actually came away from that article with more respect for the work Dubner and Levitt – if that’s the strongest criticism that can be brought, and it’s so weak, that must mean that the authors of freakonomics have really done a good job.

      Erik


      Heh, I like it. But what first pulled me in was the odd conclusion you make here:

      “But occasionally an attack is so spectacularly ridiculous, so riddled with errors and mangled logic, that it’s worth addressing.”

      So…the poorer the attack, the more it needs rebuttal? I’d think it would be the other way around.

      RJ Roy


      The problem is that in terms of more “technical” fields like science or politics, poorer attacks are often easier for the typical person to understand (not to mention quicker to put out). This means that it’s easier for the false idea to grab root.

      And it’s often much easier to respond to poor attacks, especially if you can point right back to the work they are attacking. Responding to the well written attacks on Emily Oster’s paper, for example, required a more through review of the research material, whereas Stephen Dubner needed only to quote things he and his colleagues already said.

      Søren


      Take away #1: Don’t let your inner tabloid edit and title your blog posts.

      Take away #2: Don’t let your inner apologetic answer when confronted with your own writing.

      Mitch


      While it seems like your critics have overstepped their bounds and made things too personal, I think you do a disservice to yourself and your work with parts of this post. Was it really necessary to make a silly attack on Ezra Klein like that, with the gross generalization that “he too seems to be in the business of attacking at any cost?” Your work with Levitt has been wonderful, but it’s important to acknowledge and accept some of the critiques about the importance and validity of the major assumptions behind it, especially since you and the media tend to paraphrase it with these “wild” one sentence questions and headlines. Is it possible that you are blind to some of your own blindness?

      Jonathan


      Well Gelman has responded to Dubner’s criticism. Enjoy!

      http://andrewgelman.com/2012/03/a-kaleidoscope-of-responses-to-dubners-criticisms-of-our-criticisms-of-freaknomics/

      Joe J


      “I was also surprised to see a Yale professor admit that he doesn’t “think much before I write,””
      Which surprises you, that he doesn’t think before he writes, or that he admitted it.?

      My own bias (yes, we all have one) is that I’d be surprised he admitted it, not that he doesn’t think.

      People swept up in their own ” overdeveloped sense of justice”, often don’t let minor things like truth or reality get in the way of their crusade. I have found that charistic, does go along with some professors, again my own bias.

      Tonya Riney


      Horribly long. Not horribly boring, and incites critical thinking. Excellent!

      Miss Steak


      This was one Freakonomics piece that was FULL of flaws:

      Nightclubs as Research Labs

      Jared


      While you make some reasonable points, you do your cause significant disservice with your tone and the personal attacks. Gelman and Fung (claim to have) found some problems with the science and tried to explain how they might have happened and suggested some possible remedies. OK, you disagree with some/all of the claims and the explanation. Fine. But there’s no need to paint Gelman & Fung as out to get you, resorting first to attack mode, or blind to their own motives. Gelman goes out of his way at every turn to say that he is a fan and that he appreciates much of the Freakonomics work. He’s also willing to allow for the possibility that he’s wrong and that he could learn from you. You might learn to do the same. Isn’t it at least possible that you yourself are blind to your blindness? I think there would be tremendous value to all parties in having an actual discussion with them, privately, instead of one-off journal articles or a blog fight where the tendency is to talk past one another.

      Read more…

      CM


      I like this: “Gelman-Fang may be referring to our controversial chapter about global warming…”

      They may be and they are! Having read their criticism, they are not circumspect about this. It’s interesting that you don’t respond to that criticism at all and then weasel around with rhetoric like this. What would you think if one of your students was so indirect?

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      Freakonomics : A Rogue Economist Explores the Hidden Side of Everything
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      Author Info:

      Stephen J. Dubner


      Ever had the sensation of staring at a print by M. C. Escher and
      thinking that if you could just look at it from the right angle you’d be
      able to see behind the surface to the trick? Well, the same is certainly
      true for economics, where the most powerful economist in the world, Fed
      Chairman Alan Greenspan, is notorious for speaking impenetrable
      gobbledygook and Harry Truman famously asked for a one-handed economist
      because: All my economists say, “on the one hand…on the other hand’.
      Economics presents us with vast arrays of numbers, often contradictory,
      even self-contradictory and always confusing. What the renowned young
      economist Steven D. Leavitt offers us is unique angles for seeing inside
      some of those numbers and, perhaps, making some sense of them. This is necessarily a hit-or-miss business–for instance, his attempted correlation of Roe v. Wade to the decline in crime seems a big miss –but the hits are more frequent and even the misses force us to think them through.

      Most will be familiar with Mr, Leavitt’s work through the series of essays he’s co-written–or inspired? or whatever–with Stephen Dubner. Having run in the NY Times Magazine they’ve generated big, and worthy, buzz and this book followed. As interesting as the topics they cover are, there’s something disconcerting about the manner in which their material is presented. Are the two men actually co-authors, or is Mr. Dubner writing pieces in Mr. Leavitt’s voice because he can make them more accessible to a general readership or has the time to do so or both? If you’ve not read their work this may seem a minor point, but it’s actually quite distracting and detracts from the book significantly, though not fatally. indeed, the book remains enjoyable and the essay on how the cheating in sumo wrestling relates to cheating by teachers to improve their students’ standardized test scores is worth the price of admission all by itself.

      (Reviewed:)

      Grade: (A-)


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      Websites:

      See also:

      Economics

      Stephen Dubner Links:

          -BLOG: Freakonomics

          -AUTHOR SITE: Stephen Dubner

          -Steven D. Leavitt (Professor Department of Economics University of Chicago )

          -EXCERPT: What Do Schoolteachers and Sumo Wrestlers Have in Common? from Freakonomics

          -ESSAY: Abortion, and how it cut crime (Steven Levitt, 6/26/05, Times of London)

          -ESSAY: Monkey Business (STEPHEN J. DUBNER and STEVEN D. LEVITT, 6/05/05, NY Times Magazine)

          -ESSAY: The Search for 100 Million Missing Women : An economics detective story. (Stephen J. Dubner and Steven D. Levitt, May 24, 2005, Slate)

          -ESSAY: Trading Up : Where do baby names come from? (Steven D. Levitt and Stephen J. Dubner, April 12, 2005, Slate)

          -ESSAY: A Roshanda by Any Other Name : How do babies with super-black names fare? (Steven D. Levitt and Stephen J. Dubner, April 11, 2005, Slate)

          -PROFILE: Toward a Unified Theory of Black America (STEPHEN J. DUBNER , 3/20/05, NY Times Magazine)

          -ESSAY: What the Bagel Man Saw (STEPHEN J. DUBNER and STEVEN D. LEVITT, June 6, 2004, NY Times Magazine)

          -ESSAY: Why Drug Dealers Live With Their Moms : If you had a job paying $3.30 an hour, you’d be bunking at home too. (Steven D. Levitt and Stephen J. Dubner, April 24, 2005, LA Times)

          -TRIBUTE: Stephen Dubner recalls the cardinal as a peacemaker — between him and his mom. (STEPHEN J. DUBNER, May 5, 2000, New York)

          -AUDIO REPORT: Conversion: In the first of a two-part series, our reporter, Stephen Dubner, himself a convert and author of the book TURBULENT SOULS, looks at the experience of John Curry, principal of a school for at-risk students in New York. (Stephen J. Dubner, 11/20/00, Religion & Ethics)

          -EXCERPT: Chapter One of Confessions of a Hero-Worshiper: Finding Franco Harris by Stephen J. Dubner

          -REVIEW: of The Exes By Pagan Kennedy (Stephen J. Dubner, NY Times Book Review)

          -REVIEW: of THERE ONCE WAS A WORLD: A Nine-Hundred-Year Chronicle of the Shtetl of Eishyshok By Yaffa Eliach (Stephen J. Dubner, NY Times Book Review)

          -REVIEW: of HEART OF A SOLDIER: A Story of Love, Heroism, and September 11th By James B. Stewart (Stephen J. Dubner, NY Times Book Review)

          -AUDIO INTERVIEW: ‘Freakonomics’: Musings of a ‘Rogue Economist’ (Scott Simon, April 9, 2005, Weekend Edition)

          -CHAT: ‘Freakonomics’ — A New York Times Writer and a Rogue Economist Explore the Hidden Side of Everything (Stephen Dubner, June 8, 2005, Washington Post)

          -AUDIO INTERVIEW: Notes on “Confessions of a Hero Worshipper” (Bill Littlefield, 1/25/2003, Only a Game)

          -INTERVIEW: Q & A with Stephen Dubner : Author of Turbulent Souls: A Catholic Son’s Return to his Jewish Family (HalfJew.com)

          -PROFILE: ‘It’s not like I go looking for trouble’ : The offbeat take of ‘Freakonomics’ author Steven Levitt (May 11, 2005, AP)

          -PROFILE: Odd numbers (Tim Harford, April 22 2005, Financial Times)

          -ESSAY: When Numbers
      Solve a Mystery : Meet the economist who figured out that legal abortion was behind dropping crime rates. (STEVEN E. LANDSBURG, April 13, 2005, Opinion Journal)

          -ESSAY: The Miracle That Wasn’t (JOHN TIERNEY, 4/16/05, NY Times)

          -ESSAY: Pre-emptive Executions? : The notion that legalizing abortion drives down crime rates is logically flawed and morally repugnant. (Steve Sailer, 5/09/05, American Conservative)

          -ESSAY: A good book errs on link between abortion, crime rate (THOMAS ROESER, 5/14/05, Chicago Sun-Times)

          -ARCHIVES: “Stephen J. Dubner (New York Magazine)

          -REVIEW ARCHIVE: Freakonomics: A Rogue Economist Explores the Hidden Side of Everything By Steven D. Levitt and Stephen J. Dubner (MetaCritic)

          -REVIEW ARCHIVE: freakonomics (Reviews of Books)

          -REVIEW: of FREAKONOMICS: A Rogue Economist Explores the Hidden Side of Everything By Steven D. Levitt and Stephen J. Dubner (Jim Holt, NY Times)

          -REVIEW: of Freakonomics (Gregg Easterbrook, Washington Post)

          -REVIEW: of Freakonomics (The Economist)

          -REVIEW ESSAY: The Freakonomics of Race and IQ (Steve Sailer, April 25, 2005, V-Dare)

          -REVIEW: of Freakonomics (Dean Barnett, Weekly Standard)

          -REVIEW: of Freakonomics (Justin Fox, Fortune)

          -REVIEW: of Freakonomics (Andrew Leanord, Salon)

          -REVIEW: of Freakonomics (John Coleman, Townhall)

          -REVIEW: of Confessions of a Hero-Worshiper: Finding Franco Harris By Stephen J. Dubner (FRED WAITZKIN, NY Times Book Review)

          -REVIEW: of Confessions of a Hero-Worshiper (Todd Leopold, CNN)
      -REVIEW: of TURBULENT SOULS: A Catholic Son’s Return
      to His Jewish Family By Stephen J. Dubner (JONATHAN WILSON, NY Times Book Review)

          -REVIEW: of TURBULENT SOULS: A Catholic Son’s Return
      to His Jewish Family By Stephen J. Dubner (JULIE SALAMON, NY Times)

          -REVIEW: of Turbulent Souls (LORE DICKSTEIN, Forward)

      Book-related and General Links:

          -ESSAY: Hoodwinked? (STEPHEN J. DUBNER and STEVEN D. LEVITT, 1/08/06, NY Times)

          -INTERVIEW:
      Why bagels could hold the key to human behaviour : Sumo wrestlers, Chicago school teachers, drug dealers who live with their mothers and even the humble bagel – rogue economist Steven Levitt says it’s the little things in life that help explain the way the world works. (Gary Younge, June 21, 2005, The Guardian)

          ‘Freakonomics’ Abortion Research Is Faulted by a Pair of Economists (JON E. HILSENRATH, November 28, 2005, THE WALL STREET JOURNAL)

          -ESSAY: The Original Freakonomics (Max Borders, 6/03/05, Tech Central Station)

          -ESSAY:
      Life after birth : Everyone blames the parents – but some scientists say parenting has zero impact on how kids turn out (Emily Wilson, April 13, 2005, The Guardian)

      Copyright 1998-2015 Orrin Judd

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      Essay

      literature
      Written By:

      • The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica
      See Article History

      Essay, an analytic , interpretative, or critical literary composition usually much shorter and less systematic and formal than a dissertation or thesis and usually dealing with its subject from a limited and often personal point of view.

      Read More on This Topic

      Read More default image

      nonfictional prose: The essay

      In modern literatures, the category of nonfictional prose that probably ranks as the most important both in the quantity and in the quality of its practitioners is the essay.

      Some early treatises—such as those of Cicero on the pleasantness of old age or on the art of “divination,” Seneca on anger or clemency , and Plutarch on the passing of oracles—presage to a certain degree the form and tone of the essay, but not until the late 16th century was the flexible and deliberately nonchalant and versatile form of the essay perfected by the French writer Michel de Montaigne . Choosing the name essai to emphasize that his compositions were attempts or endeavours, a groping toward the expression of his personal thoughts and experiences, Montaigne used the essay as a means of self-discovery. His Essais , published in their final form in 1588, are still considered among the finest of their kind. Later writers who most nearly recall the charm of Montaigne include, in England, Robert Burton , though his whimsicality is more erudite , Sir Thomas Browne , and Laurence Sterne , and in France, with more self-consciousness and pose, André Gide and Jean Cocteau .

      At the beginning of the 17th century, social manners, the cultivation of politeness, and the training of an accomplished gentleman became the theme of many essayists. This theme was first exploited by the Italian Baldassare Castiglione in his Il libro del cortegiano (1528; The Book of the Courtier ). The influence of the essay and of genres allied to it, such as maxims, portraits, and sketches, proved second to none in molding the behavior of the cultured classes, first in Italy, then in France, and, through French influence, in most of Europe in the 17th century. Among those who pursued this theme was the 17th-century Spanish Jesuit Baltasar Gracián in his essays on the art of worldly wisdom.

      Keener political awareness in the 18th century, the age of Enlightenment , made the essay an all-important vehicle for the criticism of society and religion. Because of its flexibility, its brevity , and its potential both for ambiguity and for allusions to current events and conditions, it was an ideal tool for philosophical reformers. The Federalist Papers in America and the tracts of the French Revolutionaries are among the countless examples of attempts during this period to improve the human condition through the essay.

      The genre also became the favoured tool of traditionalists of the 18th and 19th centuries, such as Edmund Burke and Samuel Taylor Coleridge , who looked to the short, provocative essay as the most potent means of educating the masses. Essays such as Paul Elmer More’s long series of Shelburne Essays (published between 1904 and 1935), T.S. Eliot ’s After Strange Gods (1934) and Notes Towards the Definition of Culture (1948), and others that attempted to reinterpret and redefine culture , established the genre as the most fitting to express the genteel tradition at odds with the democracy of the new world.

      Whereas in several countries the essay became the chosen vehicle of literary and social criticism, in other countries the genre became semipolitical, earnestly nationalistic, and often polemical, playful, or bitter. Essayists such as Robert Louis Stevenson and Willa Cather wrote with grace on several lighter subjects, and many writers—including Virginia Woolf , Edmund Wilson , and Charles du Bos—mastered the essay as a form of literary criticism .

      Learn More in these related Britannica articles:

      • nonfictional prose: The essay
        In modern literatures, the category of nonfictional prose that probably ranks as the most important both in the quantity and in the quality of its practitioners is the essay.…
      • Eugenio de Santa Cruz y Espejo, Francisco Javier

        Latin American literature: The modern essay
        All of this literary production was accompanied by a strong essayistic tradition whose main topic was the distinctiveness of Latin American culture and, within that culture, the individual cultures of the various countries. Many of the poets and fiction writers mentioned before also wrote…
      • Copernicus, Nicolaus: heliocentric system

        English literature: Effect of religion and science on early Stuart prose
        The Essays are masterworks in the new Stuart genre of the prose of leisure, the reflectively aphoristic prose piece in imitation of the Essays of Michel de Montaigne. Lesser collections were published by Sir William Cornwallis (1600–01), Owen Felltham (1623), and Ben Jonson (Timber; or, Discoveries,…
      • Eugenio de Santa Cruz y Espejo, Francisco Javier

        Latin American literature: Romanticism
        These brief, descriptive essays depicted the lives of rural folk, or of poor urban dwellers, whose traditional customs differed from the modern ways of those writing them. A uniquely Peruvian version was created by Ricardo Palma, whose sketches are often brief narratives that he called tradiciones. Volumes of…
      • Sima Qian, detail, ink and colour on silk; in the National Palace Museum, Taipei.

        Chinese literature: Prose
        …first example of the well-developed essay, however, is found neither in the Mencius nor in the Zhuangzi but in the Mozi, attributed to Mo Di, or Mozi, a predecessor of Mencius and Zhuangzi, whose singular attainments in logic made him a forceful preacher. His recorded sermons are characterized by simplicity…

      More About Essay

      12 references found in Britannica articles

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        • major treatment
          • In nonfictional prose: The essay
        • style and themes
          • In literature: The scope of literature

        contributions of

          • Camus
            • In Albert Camus: Early years
          • Montaigne
            • In Michel de Montaigne: The Essays
          • Plutarch
            • In Plutarch
          • Stevenson
            • In Robert Louis Stevenson: Early life
          • Valéry
            • In Paul Valéry

          development in

            • China
              • In Chinese literature: Prose
              • In Chinese literature: Classical literature
            • England
              • In English literature: Effect of religion and science on early Stuart prose

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            49
            • Owlcation »
            • Academia »
            • Online Learning

            Online vs. Traditional Education

            Updated on December 13, 2017

            mdgardner profile image
            Martin D Gardner

            more

            Contact Author
            Source

            The job market has become much more competitive in the last few years. As companies cut back on labor to stay in business, education has become extremely important for employees who want to be more competitive in their current positions or want to transition into a new career. The level of competition for good jobs has made obtaining a certification or degree an absolute necessity. More people are returning to school than ever before. Many are choosing to obtain degrees online while others are returning to the campus to further their education. So which option is better? Let’s explore the pros and cons of both.

            Trends in Education

            Education has become one of the fastest growing “businesses” in recent years. It seems like there is a new commercial every week for a new online university, technical, or school of business. Online education has become more popular in today’s fast paced society. Online courses allow students to take courses from different states and even from different countries. I personally received my MPA from Troy University (Alabama) from the comfort of my home in Virginia. Some schools offer in-class courses, online courses, or hybrid courses. Hybrid courses are both in-class and online. These courses often have online classes one week and in-class sessions the next week. Some schools offer hybrid programs which include a mix of in-class courses, online courses, and hybrid classes. More Traditional schools or so called “brick and mortar” institutions are offering more online courses in response to the surge of online universities. I was a little resistant to online courses. However, my job and family responsibilities made it a necessity to take online courses and it turned out to be the best option for me.

            The Case for Traditional Education

            The traditional college experience consists of attending classes in person on a campus. Younger students who are attending college for the first time could benefit from the traditional learning environment. Younger students may need more guidance and more direct contact with professors and academic advisors. Traditional classes may also be a better fit for students with limited resources and limited computer access. If you’re living on campus, it only makes sense to take classes on campus.

            For the more “mature” student, the traditional educational setting in the classroom may be a more comfortable fit. This option may also be better if the student is returning to school for the first time in many years. Although this is not always the case, older students tend to be a little less tech savvy and might prefer a more traditional setting.

            Students who value the campus experience may also find the traditional campus atmosphere more desirable than just an online experience. There are more opportunities to engage in student activities such as fraternities/sororities as well as concerts and sporting events that typically occur on campus.

            The classroom setting is also the most appropriate setting for technical or trade schools. Education on campus is also needed in professions that specifically require “hands on” training in laboratories, clinics, and shops. These schools consist of but are not limited to the following areas of study:

            Automobile Mechanic/Technician

            Computer Science/ Engineering

            Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning Technician (HVAC)

            Welder/ Machinist

            Nursing/ Medical Professions

            Chef/ Food Service

            The Case for Online Education

            Online education, also referred to as distance learning involves taking courses over the internet as opposed to in the classroom setting. Online education has become more popular in recent years. This popularity is largely due to the flexibility and convenience that an online educational experience provides. Online education provides an opportunity to take classes from the convenience of home. In addition, online education provides more flexibility by allowing students to work at their own pace without the confines of a strict class schedule.

            Online classes tend to be more beneficial for students who work full-time and have additional family responsibilities. Online course assignments can be completed at work (don’t tell my boss), home, or anywhere you can carry your laptop. This form of learning makes it ideal for students on the go.

            In addition to flexibly and convenience, online courses can also be more cost effective. Classes are taken online so there is no need to drive to class. This saves gas as well as additional wear and tear on your vehicle. Each school is different so you may be required to take certain tests in person at “proctor” sites. These sites are approved by the university and work directly with the school to ensure that students are taking tests as instructed (i.e., no books, notes, etc).

            Online schools are also ideal for students in the military or have jobs that require frequent travel. Courses can be taken from anywhere in the world. When I was at Troy University, I took classes with students in Alabama, Florida, and Georgia. It was really interesting to interact with students from all over the country. I have listed a few pros and cons of online education and the traditional campus experience.

            Advantages of Online Education

            1. More flexibility for students who work full-time

            2. The ability to complete assignments at times when it is most convenient

            3. The ability to obtain a degree from a school in another state without moving

            4. This form of education is ideal for military students

            5. Less Travel

            Disadvantages of Online Education

            1. Less direct contact with students and professors

            2. Limited opportunities for student and campus activities

            3. Subject to “technical difficulties” and software crashes

            Advantages of Traditional Education

            1. Direct contact with teachers, students, and advisors

            2. More access to campus activities

            3. More suitable for hands on training

            Disadvantages of Traditional Education

            1. Less flexibility in class scheduling

            2. Less cost effective

            3. More travel to and from class

            Source

            Despite the surge in online universities, I believe there is more than enough room for both options. The key is to find the best fit for your personal needs. Education has proven to be the key to success and it really doesn’t matter which method you choose. There is nothing like the campus experience. However, there is no disputing the flexibility and convenience of distance learning.

            Which form of education do you prefer?

            © 2013 Martin D Gardner

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            Comments


            • profile image

              Scott Hanna 

              2 weeks ago

              I think I prefer online learning. First time. Only time will tell!!!

            • mdgardner profile imageAUTHOR

              Martin D Gardner 

              6 weeks ago from Virginia Beach

              I haven’t been up here in a while but I appreciate the comments and feedback. Thanks.

            • profile image

              Cheryl Collins 

              6 weeks ago

              Online learning is something new for me to participate in. I look forward to this new adventure.

            • profile image

              Cindy Kneiss 

              2 months ago

              On-line is new to me, but wish it had been more available back in 70’s and 80’s.

            • profile image

              David Watts 

              2 months ago

              Nothing new, we are all looking for what can fit into our schedule, our pocketbook and correctly gets the job done. With good value. Blessings.

            • profile image

              belicia okwuonyechie 

              5 months ago

              I love this article it is amazing and so help ful

            • profile image

              Ray Bennet 

              8 months ago

              Remote courses have existed for a good 40 years or so with the Open University. The big difference now with the Internet is that the communication can be instantly two way and in real time.

              So yes, online courses are definitely the future. Maybe with the pressure on costs and the high fees being charged universities will be forced to become "summer schools" for their undergraduates, with most of the teaching taking place online and remote.

              Raymond Bennet,

              https://okessay.co.uk/

            • profile image

              Memez Virus 

              17 months ago

              Good job.

              Read More.

            • profile image

              joe 

              19 months ago

              hi. i like this article. very helpful

            • hiichichi profile image

              Chichi 

              19 months ago

              For me I prefer online cos more than half of my day is spent online. Almost all my daily engagements are online. On campus couldn’t have been better for me.

              Nice job.

            • mdgardner profile imageAUTHOR

              Martin D Gardner 

              20 months ago from Virginia Beach

              Thanks for the positive feedback. Both options provide great benefits. I’m noticing the hybrid classes are becoming more popular as well.

            • profile image

              Jack Berghorst 

              20 months ago

              good article. I’m happy that I have been able to do both. Campus living was great, but at this stage in my life, online is perfect.

            • profile image

              Kris Maldarelli 

              21 months ago

              As an instructor both online and onsite, I prefer teaching onsite, but love the flexibility of online learning as a student.

            • profile image

              Leesa Johnson 

              21 months ago

              Nice information. In competitive days online education plays an important role in human life because they can learn many skills online from experts. A traditional method of teaching also important because students can directly connect with teachers, students, and advisors.

            • mdgardner profile imageAUTHOR

              Martin D Gardner 

              3 years ago from Virginia Beach

              Good point. Online classes come in handy when it’s 3-4 inches of snow on the ground. Thanks for stopping by.

            • DebraHargrove profile image

              Debra Hargrove 

              3 years ago from North Carolina

              Your hub is very useful. Now that the weather is getting colder it’s a good time to look into something meaningful to do indoors while waiting for spring.

            • robertkbrown profile image

              robertkbrown 

              3 years ago

              It was nice reading your article 🙂 I have been planning on getting a California contractors license ( http://www.freedombusinessschool.com/scripts/prodL… ) . The thing is , I have been busy with work and distance education; and online learning is the only option I have. I was confused with which option should I choose. Your article has helped me to reach a final decision.

            • MaharshiRudra profile image

              Maharshi Rudra 

              3 years ago from India

              On Campus learning… it’s like main pillar of society.

            • mdgardner profile imageAUTHOR

              Martin D Gardner 

              3 years ago from Virginia Beach

              Rakim congrats on your graduation and thanks for the comments. Online education is definitely on the rise in our fast paced paced society.

            • Rakim Cheeks profile image

              Rakim Cheeks 

              3 years ago

              Great hub! I recently graduated from college last December! And I have to say I got a chance to experience a traditional education and a online education. To be Frank, both were great assets for me. However, if I had to choose one, I’d probably go with the online education because I’ll be able to commuicate with most of my classmates, and engage in online discussions. Not to mention, more online courses are increasing in today’s society. Again, outstanding Hub Mr. Gardner

            • profile image

              Emma Emily 

              3 years ago

              Thanks a lot

            • mdgardner profile imageAUTHOR

              Martin D Gardner 

              3 years ago from Virginia Beach

              Dhimanreena thanks for stopping by and the kind comment.

            • dhimanreena profile image

              Reena Dhiman 

              3 years ago

              Thanks for a great hub. Both education type have distinct benefits. Online education is cheap & easy as compare to traditional education. But some people want learning via online due to their job for which online education is best.

            • profile image

              Shivani Tiwari 

              4 years ago

              online education is very good for those who are not bookworms and want to gain knowledge with creativity and intereset very flexible less time consuming

            • mdgardner profile imageAUTHOR

              Martin D Gardner 

              4 years ago from Virginia Beach

              Thanks for reading and commenting. I was a little nervous about online education but it ended up being the best choice once I became too busy to attend classes.

            • bestonlineschools profile image

              Best Online Schools 

              4 years ago from UK

              It is true as Melinda pointed out that online schooling requires more handwork, more reading plus self-discipline among others. But at the end of the day online schooling is worth it as per my experience.

            • profile image

              Inspire, Motivate and Engage 

              4 years ago

              Really insightful, thank you for sharing. You raise some very interesting pros and cons for online versus traditional education. We have also written about the benefits of online education here ‘tinyurl.com/benefitsofelearning’. I hope you find it as an interesting read.

            • profile image

              Lisa 

              4 years ago

              Online education has many advantages like what you wrote in this article. However, not all education can be done online. For example, part of healthcare courses can be done online. But students must take clinical training to understand what they learned in a real life. I recently wrote an article about how to choose the right online sonography program, you may have interest in it: http://www.ultrasoundtechniciancenter.org/online-s…

              Good feedback is welcome! Thanks for sharing.

            • mdgardner profile imageAUTHOR

              Martin D Gardner 

              4 years ago from Virginia Beach

              Thanks for the feedback FullofLoveSites. Melinda I agree discipline is the key especially for online courses.

            • Melinda Longoria profile image

              Melinda Longoria, MSM 

              4 years ago from Garland, Texas

              I obtained two of three of my degrees online. Quite a few of my professors stated during orientation that their online format was more difficult than traditional classes because they expected more of students who took online courses. Knowing the difference between the two, I would agree with this statement. I found that a lot more reading and self discipline is required for the online classes.

            • FullOfLoveSites profile image

              FullOfLoveSites 

              4 years ago from United States

              To me traditional education is better, but I also agree with the benefits of online education especially to those working students or stay-at-home parents who still aim to get a degree. Very helpful and interesting hub, thanks for posting. 🙂

            • mdgardner profile imageAUTHOR

              Martin D Gardner 

              4 years ago from Virginia Beach

              Thanks. I’m glad you found it helpful.

            • profile image

              Salman Hussain 

              4 years ago

              Thanks for your valuable advise I definitely go with to get education through Online due to my job and family look after my job

            • mdgardner profile imageAUTHOR

              Martin D Gardner 

              5 years ago from Virginia Beach

              Thanks. Yes the personal connection is not the same when taking classes online.

            • breathing profile image

              Sajib 

              5 years ago from Bangladesh

              I prefer on campus education than online education. I think education is not about to learn or gather only the textbook knowledge. It’s about to communicate the others, discuss, group work etc. Online education means distance education. At present it significantly spread all over the world. It has some good result too. Many students doing well in the job sector who get knowledge form online. But I like campus education. It helps a student to build up his or her mental and physical strength besides textbook knowledge. Nice hub. Thanks.

            • mdgardner profile imageAUTHOR

              Martin D Gardner 

              5 years ago from Virginia Beach

              Thanks. I’m new as well and still learning.

            • Schoolmom24 profile image

              Schoolmom24 

              5 years ago from Oregon

              Great job with this hub. It’s true, it really depends on the individual and what those needs\desires are. Today, my guess is that online degrees are a lot less expensive and quicker than attending a four year college! And so many have to pay student loans for years and years. Not sure if our kids could go to college without a scholarship…Anyway, you presented both sides well, voted up! I’m new here and hope you’ll stop by! 🙂

            • Natya Sri profile image

              Natya Sri 

              5 years ago

              thanks for the good information good luck to you

            • mdgardner profile imageAUTHOR

              Martin D Gardner 

              5 years ago from Virginia Beach

              Thanks and good luck to you.

            • sminut13 profile image

              sminut13 

              5 years ago from singapore

              Thanks for sharing this informative hub. I agree with the earlier post in that doing online courses definitely need lots of self-discipline. I tried to do an online free course, just to improve something of myself and I’m just too lazy hehe But it’s also partly due to the poor internet connection at my place. Hopefully, after my holiday, I can continue it where I stay and complete it. Thanks once again.

            • profile image

              RoseP28 

              5 years ago

              Excellent job on your comparison. I am almost finished with an online program myself and it can definitely be rewarding but certainly requires a great deal of self-discipline as mentioned. It is not for everyone but you can get hands-on experience depending on the program your school has. Although you do not have the face-to-face interaction, you still do have a lot of involvement with your professors and other students through discussion forums, online class projects, and weekly assignments depending on how each class is set up. I highly recommend them for people who are motivated enough to complete the program but are unable to attend traditional classes. Thank you for your great insight on options to get an education.

            • cozytown profile image

              cozytown 

              5 years ago from Mechanicville, NY

              Great job. I have found that online education takes a great deal of self-discipline to complete the classes. The open-ended classes where you have to complete the work … whenever are truly difficult. Stick with the ones with deadlines and more structure and things will be a lot easier.

            • MsDora profile image

              Dora Weithers 

              5 years ago from The Caribbean

              Great job of comparing distance learning with traditional classes. I fully agree with your conclusion. Welcome to HubPages, and I’m honored to follow you.

            • toptenreview profile image

              Tre Griffey 

              5 years ago from Utah, USA

              I think that traditional education is better. I’m always so skeptical of doing classes online. I think that I won’t learn what I need to and then I’ll have problems on test or even in the future.

            • mdgardner profile imageAUTHOR

              Martin D Gardner 

              5 years ago from Virginia Beach

              Thanks!

            • epbooks profile image

              Elizabeth Parker 

              5 years ago from Las Vegas, NV

              I actually love writing, so it didn’t bother me too badly, (thankfully)!

            • mdgardner profile imageAUTHOR

              Martin D Gardner 

              5 years ago from Virginia Beach

              Thanks for your input and the welcome. I agree online courses are much harder than people think. I would much rather be in class instead of writing out everything to get credit for participation.

            • epbooks profile image

              Elizabeth Parker 

              5 years ago from Las Vegas, NV

              Since I wanted to get my Bachelors when I was in my late thirties, I was too busy to attend school at a campus, so I chose University of Phoenix online. I loved it. I think there’s a common misconception that online school is easier, however, in a way, it’s just as hard, if not more difficult because there is a ton of writing involved versus in classroom participation, which I was never fond of! Great explanation in this hub. voted up and welcome to hubpages!

            • profile image

              ignugent17 

              5 years ago

              I think I will always like traditional education. We can do things online but I still need to be with people to discuss things face to face. 🙂

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            Unique and Traditional Compare and Contrast Essay Topics




            Table of Contents

            Unique and Traditional Compare and Contrast Essay Topics
            How to define a compare and contrast paper
            Basic functions
            Effective steps to write the best paper
            What is a correct structure?
            Key points to consider
            Do’s and Don’ts
            What are widespread mistakes to avoid?
            How to pick perfect compare and contrast essay topics?
            Traditional compare and contrast essay topics
            Excellent topics for college students
            What are easy topics for your compare and contrast essay?
            Good topics for everyone

            What are interesting compare and contrast essay topics?
            Funny compare and contrast essay topics
            What are controversial essay topics?
            Technological compare and contrast essay topics
            What are general essay topics?
            Compare and contrast essay topics on biology
            Topics on IT and computers
            Compare and contrast essay topics on management
            What are essay topics on marketing?
            Compare and contrast essay topics on art
            What are high school essay topics?
            What are middle school compare and contrast essay topics?
            What are essay topics for 6th grade?

            Unique and Traditional Compare and Contrast Essay Topics

            College and school students often write compare and contrast papers. The main purpose of this academic assignment is to demonstrate your ability to analyze two distinct subjects, such as art, music, public education, government, and determine their differences and similarities. The contrasting element highlights differences, while the comparing aspect emphasizes similarities. You can use different approaches to write this paper. Choosing great and interesting compare and contrast essay topics is an important step that you should take at the very beginning.

            How to define a compare and contrast paper

            This type of essay contrasts dissimilar objects or compares similar things to inform people who read it about both pros and cons. This is what allows them to make a more informed choice. You can focus your piece of writing on both differences and similarities or decide to show either similar or different aspects.

            Basic functions

            This assignment helps the targeted audience reach critical decisions. You can choose common or rare objects, events, issues, and people. When people read your essay, they start weighing all factors before making a final decision and coming up with their personal conclusions. They become more cognizant of discussed matters.

            Effective steps to write the best paper

            Decide on the objects that you will discuss, such as living at home alone or with a family, day or night time, etc. Ensure that they have different and similar qualities to get enough information to analyze and discuss in your academic paper. Create a detailed outline of your future essay . Sketch out major points and their supporting facts that you will discuss and follow this plan when writing every section.

            Pick the most effective organizational structure that you will use. There are several approaches that you can use when constructing the main body of your paper, including:

            • Focusing on similarities before switching to differences (arranging point-by-point);
            • Focusing on one item before moving onto the other one (considering the same set of traits or arranging all ideas by a block).

            Take a short break before proofreading your essay.

            What is a correct structure?

            To submit a paper of a high quality and earn good grades, it’s necessary to draft its introduction, conclusion, and body paragraphs.

            It should start with the introduction that explains the ideas that you want to compare and contrast, and its basic goal is to grab people’s attention to make them want to read more. Include a catchy hook to stimulate their engagement and interest. Make this paragraph original and appealing to readers and finish it with your thesis that represents a major argument of your writing.

            In body paragraphs, you should demonstrate specific points, use solid evidence to support all ideas, and make a detailed analysis that your readers will follow. Avoid choosing too many points at once. Pick the most valuable ones to elaborate them and end every paragraph with a concluding sentence that shows its main idea.

            In the conclusion, sum up all differences and similarities. Point readers’ attention to a major point and leave a lasting impression to finish your compare and contrast paper successfully.

            Key points to consider

            The most important rule for every student when completing this academic assignment is to focus on all small and big details. The things that you decide to compare and contrast should be common. Brainstorm interesting topics, take your fresh look at them and talk with parents or other people to come up with a unique perspective.

            Another key to writing a winning compare and contrast essay is to stick to the best structure because all teachers pay attention to it. Consider your targeted audience and address the subject important to them. Create a brief outline of the things that you will compare and contrast in your essay and ensure that it has a practical value.

            Do’s and Don’ts

            • Start every academic paper with clear definitions of every object that you want to compare and contrast;
            • Research your chosen topic before you start looking for similar and different qualities (use relevant and updated data);
            • Follow specific structure, start every section with a general idea, and introduce supporting information to offer your valuable conclusion;
            • Focus on coherence of all paragraphs and transitions because they should link together logically.

            What are the things that you should avoid?

            • Don’t combine a few organizational structures in one essay (pick a single structure and stick to it throughout your piece of writing);
            • Don’t forget to use special transition words (they not only improve the flow of your paper but also have an extra role of indicating that you want to switch from one idea to another);
            • Don’t be subjective or don’t have any personal preference for any of your chosen subjects because you must stay objective and base all important conclusions on existing data, not emotions or feelings;
            • Don’t ignore basic academic writing rules or requirements (ensure that you write your paper in a formal style, avoid any controversial language or slang, and look for grammar, spelling, and punctuation mistakes to earn high grades).
            Get My Academic Paper Done!

            What are widespread mistakes to avoid?

            There are certain things that should be avoided to submit an excellent compare and contrast paper, including:

            • Starting it with no clear idea or topic in your mind (it’s necessary to decide if you’ll focus on differences or similarities of your chosen items before you create an effective outline and start writing the first draft);
            • Choosing widely discussed and general compare and contrast topics because it will be quite hard to write an original and interesting essay;
            • Using different tables or charts in your piece of writing (although you may find it easier to complete this assignment after organizing all similarities and differences into some graphic structure, it’s not the best solution);
            • Picking two equally beneficial, useful, or good objects to compare and contrast in your essay because you will fail to submit a strong draft.

            How to pick perfect compare and contrast essay topics?

            The key secret to finding interesting topics for free for your compare and contrast essay is to avoid very broad and narrow topics. Use available sources of information, such as articles. Tailor the chosen subject to your paper length. Look for something you feel passionate about, like Greek myths of English literature, and control every detail to improve its quality. Brainstorm possible compare and contrast essay topics to make your choice.

            Traditional compare and contrast essay topics

            • Qualities of bad and good teachers;
            • Public vs private colleges;
            • Being famous or being wealthy;
            • Compare your current home and a house of your dreams;
            • Traditional vs online education;
            • Decide whether Barack Obama or Thomas Jefferson was a better president;
            • Harry Potter vs The Lord of the Rings;
            • Religion or common things of Orthodox and Catholic churches;
            • Creationism vs Darwinism.

            Excellent topics for college students

            • Similarities of Donald Trump and Margaret Thatcher;
            • Facebook vs Twitter;
            • Apple vs Samsung;
            • Introverts or extroverts;
            • Oxford or Harvard;
            • Real-life or online dating;
            • EBooks or textbooks;
            • Sense and Sensibility vs Pride and Prejudice;
            • Differences between Allah’s and Jesus’s teachings.

            What are easy topics for your compare and contrast essay?

            • Working at home or in the office;
            • Common things between high schools and colleges;
            • Similarities between human beings and chimps;
            • If you choose white or black colors;
            • American and Australian English;
            • Plato and Socrates;
            • Differences and similarities between Roman & other ancient myths;
            • Sociology vs psychology;
            • TV or newspapers;
            • If you prefer Washington or England;
            • Fiction or non-fiction books.

            Good topics for everyone

            • Popularity of Pepsi and Coke;
            • Communism vs capitalism;
            • Working in a huge corporation or in startups;
            • KFC vs McDonald’s;
            • Differences between Baroque and Renaissance;
            • Burgers vs vegetarian meals;
            • The convenience of laptops and tablets;
            • Effects of printed ads and TV commercials;
            • Outdoor or video games.

            compare-and-contrast-topics

            What are interesting compare and contrast essay topics?

            • Fashion in modern times and in the past;
            • If you like summer or winter weather more;
            • Real-life theater vs movies;
            • Differences between Hinduism and Buddhism;
            • Linus or Windows;
            • Owning cats and dogs;
            • Spending your vacation on the beach or in mountains;
            • Differences between Pilates and yoga classes;
            • Marriage vs dating.

            Funny compare and contrast essay topics

            • Washing your dishes or laundry;
            • Whether you would prefer to be a dog or a cat;
            • Differences in lifestyles of the elderly or young people;
            • Selfies vs traditional photos;
            • Living in big cities vs your farm life;
            • Texting or talking to friends;
            • The importance of food and sleep;
            • Receiving and giving presents;
            • Paintings vs photos.

            What are controversial essay topics?

            • Creationism vs atheism;
            • The influential role of peers and your family;
            • Seasonal relationships vs being alone;
            • Living on campus and with parents;
            • Living in a big family vs being an only child;
            • Listening to audiobooks vs reading;
            • Plagiarizing content vs cheating on exams.

            Technological compare and contrast essay topics

            android-ios

            • IOS vs Android;
            • iPhone 5 vs iPhone 7;
            • PlayStation vs Xbox;
            • Differences between HDD & SSD;
            • Lenovo vs Samsung;
            • Honda Civic vs Toyota Corolla;
            • Real-life conversations or social media;
            • Regular driving or autopilot.

            What are general essay topics?

            • Functions of accountants in modern times & in the past;
            • Core differences in the policies of a few modern presidents;
            • High school & college experiences;
            • Japanese or American cars;
            • Whether you prefer spending your time in 5-star hotels or in the wild.

            Compare and contrast essay topics on biology

            • Bacteria or viruses;
            • Tangerines or oranges;
            • DNS sequences of humans and animals;
            • Cell replication vs cell division or mitosis;
            • Fish and humpback whales.
            Place My Order Now!

            Topics on IT and computers

            How many times did you struggle with this field? Consider these interesting suggestions:

            • Modern MacBook Air and the first Apple Macintosh 1980;
            • Differences between Windows 8 & Windows 10;
            • Similar features of iPad 3 and iPad 1;
            • Basic differences and similarities between Opera & Chrome;
            • Traditional or SSD hard drives.

            Compare and contrast essay topics on management

            • Democratic vs autocratic management styles & their effects during a crisis;
            • Tactical or strategic management;
            • Management by exception or by the objective;
            • Leadership or management;
            • Compare administration vs management.

            What are essay topics on marketing?

            • Evaluate marketing techniques in two companies;
            • Sales or marketing techniques;
            • Differences & similarities between two marketing research companies;
            • Discuss two marketing automation vendors.

            Compare and contrast essay topics on art

            • Paintings of Alberto Morocco & Pablo Picasso;
            • Settings, major themes, & plot details of two poems by Robert Frost;
            • Statues of David by Michelangelo & Bernini;
            • Music of Baroque & Renaissance;
            • Greek & Roman architecture.

            What are high school essay topics?

            marvel-vs-dc

            • Different and similar characteristics of public and private schools;
            • Whether people need to live in civil unions or official marriages;
            • Compare Christopher Columbus vs early specimen;
            • Any real government vs the student’s one;
            • Gain world power in war or using more humane methods;
            • Football clubs in the US & Europe.

            What are middle school compare and contrast essay topics?

            • Celebrating Christmas in Europe and the US;
            • Role models for adults & teenagers;
            • Long-distance trips by car or train;
            • Whether novels or poems are more fun to read;
            • Benefits of traditional learning and remote education.

            What are essay topics for 6th grade?

            • Iron Man vs Spiderman;
            • Compare Sonic & Super Mario;
            • Staying at home or playing games outside;
            • Summer vs winter sports;
            • Doing homework vs playing with friends.

            If you still have any problems with choosing the best idea for your academic assignment of this type, let our professional writers know & they will be happy to help you. What are our offered benefits? Our team of qualified & talented specialists can complete any customer order, no matter its difficulty level or urgent deadlines.

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            GI Partners Sells Plum Healthcare to Bay Bridge Capital

            • Dec 10, 2012
            • Private Equity

            GI Partners (“GI”), a leading mid-market private equity firm, announced today the sale of its portfolio company, Plum Healthcare Group, LLC (“Plum”), one of the fastest growing companies in healthcare services, to Bay Bridge Capital Partners (“Bay Bridge”).

            Plum’s current portfolio consists of 50 skilled nursing facilities and five home health and hospice agencies located in strategic geographic clusters throughout California, Utah, and Arizona. Known for its pre-eminent clinical care, Plum serves over 5,000 medically-complex patients every day. The company was acquired by GI Partners in 2006 and, during the firm’s six-years of ownership, has successfully acquired and turned around 39 skilled nursing facilities. By improving clinical quality and increasing staff across its facilities, Plum has achieved industry-leading patient outcomes and occupancy rates as well as significantly increased the mix of medically-complex residents it serves. Under GI’s stewardship, Plum has strengthened facility-level resources, clinical and administrative consulting services, and invested heavily in clinical quality and IT infrastructure. Plum has also diversified geographically by moving in to two additional states, and has developed new post-acute service lines by entering into the home health and hospice markets. As a result of these and other initiatives, Plum has grown revenue and EBITDA at a 32% and 30% compounded annual growth rate (“CAGR”), respectively, over the last five years.

            Howard Park, a Managing Director of GI Partners, said, “We are extremely pleased with everything we were able to accomplish working closely with Plum management over the past few years, despite the challenging healthcare reimbursement environment. The unique human touch Plum brings to a healthcare services business has made it a rewarding investment. Our initial investments in clinical quality, staffing, infrastructure, IT, and key personnel have really positioned Plum to generate success over the next phase of growth that they are about to embark on with Bay Bridge. We look forward to closely following their future achievements.”

            Since founding Plum in 1999, co-CEOs Mark Ballif and Paul Hubbard have been at the helm of Plum and will continue in this capacity under Bay Bridge’s ownership. Mark said, “Our partnership with GI demonstrates how investors and providers can come together to provide better patient care. We have been able to achieve outstanding performance by investing in great people and superior clinical systems. These make a huge difference in our patients’ lives.” Paul added, “GI helped us use our deep commitment to people and clinical excellence as a springboard to professionalize our unique approach and grow. It has been a pleasure to work with such fine people and thought-partners.”

            Jefferies & Company, Inc. served as lead financial advisor to GI Partners and Plum on the transaction. Edgeview Partners also served as co-advisor to Plum. Paul Hastings LLP served as legal advisor to GI Partners and Plum.

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            Nutrition Recommendations and Interventions for Diabetes

            A position statement of the American Diabetes Association

            1. American Diabetes Association

              Diabetes Care 2007 Jan; 30(suppl 1): S48S65. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc07-S048

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              A position statement of the American Diabetes Association

              • CHD, coronary heart disease
              • CKD, chronic kidney disease
              • CVD, cardiovascular disease
              • DPP, Diabetes Prevention Program
              • FDA, Food and Drug Administration
              • GDM, gestational diabetes mellitus
              • MNT, medical nutrition therapy
              • RDA, recommended dietary allowance
              • USDA, U.S. Department of Agriculture

              Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) is important in preventing diabetes, managing existing diabetes, and preventing, or at least slowing, the rate of development of diabetes complications. It is, therefore, important at all levels of diabetes prevention (see Table 1 ). MNT is also an integral component of diabetes self-management education (or training). This position statement provides evidence-based recommendations and interventions for diabetes MNT. The previous position statement with accompanying technical review was published in 2002 ( 1 ) and modified slightly in 2004 ( 2 ). This statement updates previous position statements, focuses on key references published since the year 2000, and uses grading according to the level of evidence available based on the American Diabetes Association evidence-grading system. Since overweight and obesity are closely linked to diabetes, particular attention is paid to this area of MNT.

              The goal of these recommendations is to make people with diabetes and health care providers aware of beneficial nutrition interventions. This requires the use of the best available scientific evidence while taking into account treatment goals, strategies to attain such goals, and changes individuals with diabetes are willing and able to make. Achieving nutrition-related goals requires a coordinated team effort that includes the person with diabetes and involves him or her in the decision-making process. It is recommended that a registered dietitian, knowledgeable and skilled in MNT, be the team member who plays the leading role in providing nutrition care. However, it is important that all team members, including physicians and nurses, be knowledgeable about MNT and support its implementation.

              MNT, as illustrated in Table 1 , plays a role in all three levels of diabetes-related prevention targeted by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Primary prevention interventions seek to delay or halt the development of diabetes. This involves public health measures to reduce the prevalence of obesity and includes MNT for individuals with pre-diabetes. Secondary and tertiary prevention interventions include MNT for individuals with diabetes and seek to prevent (secondary) or control (tertiary) complications of diabetes.

              GOALS OF MNT FOR PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF DIABETES

              Goals of MNT that apply to individuals at risk for diabetes or with pre-diabetes

              To decrease the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) by promoting healthy food choices and physical activity leading to moderate weight loss that is maintained.

              Goals of MNT that apply to individuals with diabetes

              1. ) Achieve and maintain

                • Blood glucose levels in the normal range or as close to normal as is safely possible

                • A lipid and lipoprotein profile that reduces the risk for vascular disease

                • Blood pressure levels in the normal range or as close to normal as is safely possible

              2. ) To prevent, or at least slow, the rate of development of the chronic complications of diabetes by modifying nutrient intake and lifestyle

              3. ) To address individual nutrition needs, taking into account personal and cultural preferences and willingness to change

              4. ) To maintain the pleasure of eating by only limiting food choices when indicated by scientific evidence

              Goals of MNT that apply to specific situations

              1. ) For youth with type 1 diabetes, youth with type 2 diabetes, pregnant and lactating women, and older adults with diabetes, to meet the nutritional needs of these unique times in the life cycle.

              2. ) For individuals treated with insulin or insulin secretagogues, to provide self-management training for safe conduct of exercise, including the prevention and treatment of hypoglycemia and diabetes treatment during acute illness.

              EFFECTIVENESS OF MNT

              Recommendations

              • Individuals who have pre-diabetes or diabetes should receive individualized MNT; such therapy is best provided by a registered dietitian familiar with the components of diabetes MNT. (B)

              • Nutrition counseling should be sensitive to the personal needs, willingness to change, and ability to make changes of the individual with pre-diabetes or diabetes. (E)

              Clinical trials/outcome studies of MNT have reported decreases in HbA1c (A1C) of ∼1% in type 1 diabetes and 1–2% in type 2 diabetes, depending on the duration of diabetes ( 3 , 4 ). Meta-analysis of studies in nondiabetic, free-living subjects and expert committees report that MNT reduces LDL cholesterol by 15–25 mg/dl ( 5 , 6 ). After initiation of MNT, improvements were apparent in 3–6 months. Meta-analysis and expert committees also support a role for lifestyle modification in treating hypertension ( 7 , 8 ).

              ENERGY BALANCE, OVERWEIGHT, AND OBESITY

              Recommendations

              • In overweight and obese insulin-resistant individuals, modest weight loss has been shown to improve insulin resistance. Thus, weight loss is recommended for all such individuals who have or are at risk for diabetes. (A)

              • Structured programs that emphasize lifestyle changes, including education, reduced energy and fat (∼30% of total energy) intake, regular physical activity, and regular participant contact, can produce long-term weight loss on the order of 5–7% of starting weight. Thus, lifestyle change should be the primary approach to weight loss. (A) (also see primary prevention section)

              • Low-carbohydrate diets (restricting total carbohydrate to <130 g/day) are not recommended in the treatment of overweight/obesity. The long-term effects of these diets are unknown and although such diets produce short-term weight loss, maintenance of weight loss is similar to that from low-fat diets and impact on CVD risk profile is uncertain. (B)

              • Physical activity and behavior modification are important components of weight loss programs and are most helpful in maintenance of weight loss. (B)

              • Weight loss medications may be considered in the treatment of overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes and can help achieve a 5–10% weight loss when combined with lifestyle modification. (B)

              • Bariatric surgery may be considered for some individuals with type 2 diabetes and BMI ≥35 kg/m2 and can result in marked improvements in glycemia. The long-term benefits and risks of bariatric surgery in individuals with pre-diabetes or diabetes continue to be studied. (B)

              The importance of controlling body weight in reducing risks related to diabetes is of great importance. Therefore, these nutrition recommendations start by considering energy balance and weight loss strategies. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute guidelines define overweight as BMI ≥25 kg/m2 and obesity as BMI ≥30 kg/m2 ( 9 ). The risk of comorbidity associated with excess adipose tissue increases with BMIs in this range and above. However, clinicians should be aware that in some Asian populations, the proportion of people at high risk of type 2 diabetes and CVD is significant at BMIs of >23 kg/m2 ( 10 ). Visceral body fat, as measured by waist circumference ≥35 inches in women and ≥40 inches in men, is used in conjunction with BMI to assess risk of type 2 diabetes and CVD ( Table 2 ) ( 9 ). Lower waist circumference cut points (≥31 inches in women, ≥35 inches in men) may be appropriate for Asian populations ( 11 ).

              Because of the effects of obesity on insulin resistance, weight loss is an important therapeutic objective for individuals with pre-diabetes or diabetes ( 12 ). However, long-term weight loss is difficult for most people to accomplish. This is probably because the central nervous system plays an important role in regulating energy intake and expenditure. Short-term studies have demonstrated that moderate weight loss (5% of body weight) in subjects with type 2 diabetes is associated with decreased insulin resistance, improved measures of glycemia and lipemia, and reduced blood pressure ( 13 ). Longer-term studies (≥52 weeks) using pharmacotherapy for weight loss in adults with type 2 diabetes produced modest reductions in weight and A1C ( 14 ), although improvement in A1C was not seen in all studies ( 15 , 16 ). Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) is a large National Institutes of Health–sponsored clinical trial designed to determine if long-term weight loss will improve glycemia and prevent cardiovascular events ( 17 ). When completed, this study should provide insight into the effects of long-term weight loss on important clinical outcomes.

              Evidence demonstrates that structured, intensive lifestyle programs involving participant education, individualized counseling, reduced dietary energy and fat (∼30% of total energy) intake, regular physical activity, and frequent participant contact are necessary to produce long-term weight loss of 5–7% of starting weight ( 1 ). The role of lifestyle modification in the management of weight and type 2 diabetes was recently reviewed ( 13 ). Although structured lifestyle programs have been effective when delivered in well-funded clinical trials, it is not clear how the results should be translated into clinical practice. Organization, delivery, and funding of lifestyle interventions are all issues that must be addressed. Third-party payers may not provide adequate benefits for sufficient MNT frequency and time to achieve weight loss goals ( 18 ).

              Exercise and physical activity, by themselves, have only a modest weight loss effect. However, exercise and physical activity are to be encouraged because they improve insulin sensitivity independent of weight loss, acutely lower blood glucose, and are important in long-term maintenance of weight loss ( 1 ). Weight loss with behavioral therapy alone also has been modest, and behavioral approaches may be most useful as an adjunct to other weight loss strategies.

              Standard weight loss diets provide 500–1,000 fewer calories than estimated to be necessary for weight maintenance and initially result in a loss of ∼1–2 lb/week. Although many people can lose some weight (as much as 10% of initial weight in ∼6 months) with such diets, without continued support and follow-up, people usually regain the weight they have lost.

              The optimal macronutrient distribution of weight loss diets has not been established. Although low-fat diets have traditionally been promoted for weight loss, two randomized controlled trials found that subjects on low-carbohydrate diets (<130 g/day of carbohydrate) lost more weight at 6 months than subjects on low-fat diets ( 19 , 20 ). However, at 1 year, the difference in weight loss between the low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets was not significant and weight loss was modest with both diets. Changes in serum triglyceride and HDL cholesterol were more favorable with the low-carbohydrate diets. In one study, those subjects with type 2 diabetes demonstrated a greater decrease in A1C with a low-carbohydrate diet than with a low-fat diet ( 20 ). A recent meta-analysis showed that at 6 months, low-carbohydrate diets were associated with greater improvements in triglyceride and HDL cholesterol concentrations than low-fat diets; however, LDL cholesterol was significantly higher on the low-carbohydrate diets ( 21 ). Further research is needed to determine the long-term efficacy and safety of low-carbohydrate diets ( 13 ). The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for carbohydrate (130 g/day) is an average minimum requirement and is lower than most individuals consume ( 22 ). Therefore, low-carbohydrate diets (restricting total carbohydrate to <130 g/day) are not recommended. An important reason for not recommending low-carbohydrate diets is that they eliminate many foods that are important sources of energy, fiber, vitamins, and minerals and are important in dietary palatability.

              Meal replacements (liquid or solid prepackaged) provide a defined amount of energy, often as a formula product. Use of meal replacements once or twice daily to replace a usual meal can result in significant weight loss. Meal replacements are an important part of the Look AHEAD weight loss intervention ( 17 ). However, meal replacement therapy must be continued indefinitely if weight loss is to be maintained.

              Very-low-calorie diets provide ≤800 calories daily and produce substantial weight loss and rapid improvements in glycemia and lipemia in individuals with type 2 diabetes. When very-low-calorie diets are stopped and self-selected meals are reintroduced, weight regain is common. Thus, very-low-calorie diets appear to have limited utility in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and should only be considered in conjunction with a structured weight loss program.

              The available data suggest that weight loss medications may be useful in the treatment of overweight individuals with and at risk for type 2 diabetes and can help achieve a 5–10% weight loss when combined with lifestyle change ( 14 ). According to their labels, these medications should only be used in people with diabetes who have BMI >27.0 kg/m2.

              Gastric reduction surgery can be an effective weight loss treatment for obesity and may be considered in people with diabetes who have BMI ≥35 kg/m2. A meta-analysis of studies of bariatric surgery reported that 77% of individuals with type 2 diabetes had complete resolution of diabetes (normalization of blood glucose levels in the absence of medications), and diabetes was resolved or improved in 86% ( 23 ). In the Swedish Obese Subjects study, a 10-year follow-up of individuals undergoing bariatric surgery, 36% of subjects with diabetes had resolution of diabetes compared with 13% of matched control subjects ( 24 ). All cardiovascular risk factors except hypercholesterolemia improved in the surgical patients.

              NUTRITION RECOMMENDATIONS AND INTERVENTIONS FOR THE PREVENTION OF DIABETES (PRIMARY PREVENTION)

              Recommendations

              • Among individuals at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes, structured programs that emphasize lifestyle changes that include moderate weight loss (7% body weight) and regular physical activity (150 min/week), with dietary strategies (such as reduced intake of fat) to reduce calories, can reduce the risk for developing diabetes and are therefore recommended. (A)

              • Individuals at high risk for type 2 diabetes should be encouraged to achieve the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) recommendation for dietary fiber (14 g fiber/1,000 kcal) and foods containing whole grains (one-half of grain intake). (B)

              • There is not sufficient, consistent information to conclude that low–glycemic load diets reduce the risk for diabetes. Nevertheless, low–glycemic index foods that are rich in fiber and other important nutrients are to be encouraged. (E)

              • Observational studies report that moderate alcohol intake may reduce the risk for diabetes, but the data do not support recommending alcohol consumption to individuals at risk of diabetes. (B)

              • No nutrition recommendation can be made for preventing type 1 diabetes. (E)

              • Although there are insufficient data at present to warrant any specific recommendations for prevention of type 2 diabetes in youth, it is reasonable to apply approaches demonstrated to be effective in adults, as long as nutritional needs for normal growth and development are maintained. (E)

              The importance of preventing type 2 diabetes is highlighted by the substantial worldwide increase in the prevalence of diabetes in recent years. Genetic susceptibility appears to play a powerful role in the occurrence of type 2 diabetes. However, given that population gene pools shift very slowly over time, the current epidemic of diabetes likely reflects changes in lifestyle leading to diabetes. Lifestyle changes characterized by increased energy intake and decreased physical activity appear to have together promoted overweight and obesity, which are strong risk factors for diabetes.

              Several studies have demonstrated the potential for moderate, sustained weight loss to substantially reduce the risk for type 2 diabetes, regardless of whether weight loss was achieved by lifestyle changes alone or with adjunctive therapies such as medication or bariatric surgery (see energy balance section) ( 1 ). Moreover, both moderate-intensity and vigorous exercise can improve insulin sensitivity, independent of weight loss, and reduce risk for type 2 diabetes ( 1 ).

              Clinical trial data from both the Finnish Diabetes Prevention study ( 25 ) and the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) in the U.S ( 26 ) strongly support the potential for moderate weight loss to reduce the risk for type 2 diabetes. The lifestyle intervention in both trials emphasized lifestyle changes that included moderate weight loss (7% of body weight) and regular physical activity (150 min/week), with dietary strategies to reduce intake of fat and calories. In the DPP, subjects in the lifestyle intervention group reported dietary fat intakes of ∼34% of energy at baseline and 28% of energy after 1 year of intervention ( 27 ). A majority of subjects in the lifestyle intervention group met the physical activity goal of 150 min/week of moderate physical activity ( 26 , 28 ). In addition to preventing diabetes, the DPP lifestyle intervention improved several CVD risk factors, including dsylipidemia, hypertension, and inflammatory markers ( 29 , 30 ). The DPP analysis indicated that lifestyle intervention was cost-effective ( 31 ), but other analyses suggest that the expected costs needed to be reduced ( 32 ).

              Both the Finnish Diabetes Prevention study and the DPP focused on reduced intake of calories (using reduced dietary fat as a dietary intervention). Of note, reduced intake of fat, particularly saturated fat, may reduce risk for diabetes by producing an energy-independent improvement in insulin resistance ( 1 , 33 , 34 ), as well as by promoting weight loss. However, it is possible that reduction in other macronutrients would also be effective.

              Several studies have provided evidence for reduced risk of diabetes with increased intake of whole grains and dietary fiber ( 1 , 35 – 37 ). Whole grain–containing foods have been associated with improved insulin sensitivity, independent of body weight, and dietary fiber has been associated with improved insulin sensitivity and improved ability to secrete insulin adequately to overcome insulin resistance ( 38 ). There is debate as to the potential role of low–glycemic index and –glycemic load diets in prevention of type 2 diabetes. Although some studies have demonstrated an association between glycemic load and risk for diabetes, other studies have been unable to confirm this relationship, and a recent report showed no association of glycemic index/glycemic load with insulin sensitivity ( 39 ).

              Thus, there is not sufficient, consistent information to conclude that low–glycemic load diets reduce risk for diabetes. Prospective randomized clinical trials will be necessary to resolve this issue. Nevertheless, low–glycemic index foods that are rich in fiber and other important nutrients are to be encouraged. A 2004 American Diabetes Association statement reviewed this issue in depth ( 40 ), and issues related to the role of glycemic index and glycemic load in diabetes management are addressed in more detail in the carbohydrate section of this document.

              Observational studies suggest a U- or J-shaped association between moderate consumption of alcohol (one to three drinks [15–45 g alcohol] per day) and decreased risk of type 2 diabetes ( 41 , 42 ), coronary heart disease (CHD) ( 42 , 43 ), and stroke ( 44 ). However, heavy consumption of alcohol (greater than three drinks per day), may be associated with increased incidence of diabetes ( 42 ). If alcohol is consumed, recommendations from the 2005 USDA Dietary Guidelines for Americans suggest no more than one drink per day for women and two drinks per day for men ( 45 ).

              Although selected micronutrients may affect glucose and insulin metabolism, to date, there are no convincing data that document their role in the development of diabetes.

              Diabetes in youth

              No nutrition recommendations can be made for the prevention of type 1 diabetes at this time ( 1 ). Increasing overweight and obesity in youth appears to be related to the increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes, particularly in minority adolescents. Although there are insufficient data at present to warrant any specific recommendations for the prevention of type 2 diabetes in youth, interventions similar to those shown to be effective for prevention of type 2 diabetes in adults (lifestyle changes including reduced energy intake and regular physical activity) are likely to be beneficial. Clinical trials of such interventions are ongoing in children.

              NUTRITION RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DIABETES (SECONDARY PREVENTION)

              Carbohydrate in diabetes management

              Recommendations

              • A dietary pattern that includes carbohydrate from fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, and low-fat milk is encouraged for good health. (B)

              • Low-carbohydrate diets, restricting total carbohydrate to <130 g/day, are not recommended in the management of diabetes. (E)

              • Monitoring carbohydrate, whether by carbohydrate counting, exchanges, or experienced-based estimation remains a key strategy in achieving glycemic control. (A)

              • The use of glycemic index and load may provide a modest additional benefit over that observed when total carbohydrate is considered alone. (B)

              • Sucrose-containing foods can be substituted for other carbohydrates in the meal plan or, if added to the meal plan, covered with insulin or other glucose-lowering medications. Care should be taken to avoid excess energy intake. (A)

              • As for the general population, people with diabetes are encouraged to consume a variety of fiber-containing foods. However, evidence is lacking to recommend a higher fiber intake for people with diabetes than for the population as a whole. (B)

              • Sugar alcohols and nonnutritive sweeteners are safe when consumed within the daily intake levels established by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (A)

              Control of blood glucose in an effort to achieve normal or near-normal levels is a primary goal of diabetes management. Food and nutrition interventions that reduce postprandial blood glucose excursions are important in this regard, since dietary carbohydrate is the major determinant of postprandial glucose levels. Low-carbohydrate diets might seem to be a logical approach to lowering postprandial glucose. However, foods that contain carbohydrate are important sources of energy, fiber, vitamins, and minerals and are important in dietary palatability. Therefore, these foods are important components of the diet for individuals with diabetes. Issues related to carbohydrate and glycemia have previously been extensively reviewed in American Diabetes Association reports and nutrition recommendations for the general public ( 1 , 2 , 22 , 40 , 45 ).

              Blood glucose concentration following a meal is primarily determined by the rate of appearance of glucose in the blood stream (digestion and absorption) and its clearance from the circulation ( 40 ). Insulin secretory response normally maintains blood glucose in a narrow range, but in individuals with diabetes, defects in insulin action, insulin secretion, or both impair regulation of postprandial glucose in response to dietary carbohydrate. Both the quantity and the type or source of carbohydrates found in foods influence postprandial glucose levels.

              Amount and type of carbohydrate.

              A 2004 ADA statement addressed the effects of the amount and type of carbohydrate in diabetes management ( 40 ). As noted previously, the RDA for carbohydrate (130 g/day) is an average minimum requirement ( 22 ). Although there are no trials specifically in patients with diabetes, diets restricting total carbohydrate to <130 g/day are not recommended in the management of diabetes. However, 1-year follow-up data from a small weight-loss trial ( 20 ) indicate, among the subset with diabetes, that the reduction in fasting glucose was 21 mg/dl (1.17 mmol/l) and 28 mg/dl (1.55 mmol/l) for the low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets, respectively, with no significant difference for change in A1C levels. The 1-year follow-up data also indicate that the macronutrient composition of the treatment groups only differed with respect to carbohydrate intake (mean intake of 230 vs. 120 g). Thus, questions about the long-term effects on intake and metabolism, as well as safety, need further research.

              The amount of carbohydrate ingested is usually the primary determinant of postprandial response, but the type of carbohydrate also affects this response. Intrinsic variables that influence the effect of carbohydrate-containing foods on blood glucose response include the specific type of food ingested, type of starch (amylose versus amylopectin), style of preparation (cooking method and time, amount of heat or moisture used), ripeness, and degree of processing. Extrinsic variables that may influence glucose response include fasting or preprandial blood glucose level, macronutrient distribution of the meal in which the food is consumed, available insulin, and degree of insulin resistance.

              The glycemic index of foods was developed to compare the postprandial responses to constant amounts of different carbohydrate-containing foods ( 46 ). The glycemic index of a food is the increase above fasting in the blood glucose area over 2 h after ingestion of a constant amount of that food (usually a 50-g carbohydrate portion) divided by the response to a reference food (usually glucose or white bread). The glycemic loads of foods, meals, and diets are calculated by multiplying the glycemic index of the constituent foods by the amounts of carbohydrate in each food and then totaling the values for all foods. Foods with low glycemic indexes include oats, barley, bulgur, beans, lentils, legumes, pasta, pumpernickel (coarse rye) bread, apples, oranges, milk, yogurt, and ice cream. Fiber, fructose, lactose, and fat are dietary constituents that tend to lower glycemic response. Potential methodological problems with the glycemic index have been noted ( 47 ).

              Several randomized clinical trials have reported that low–glycemic index diets reduce glycemia in diabetic subjects, but other clinical trials have not confirmed this effect ( 40 ). Moreover, the variability in responses to specific carbohydrate-containing food is a concern ( 48 ). Nevertheless, a recent meta-analysis of low–glycemic index diet trials in diabetic subjects showed that such diets produced a 0.4% decrement in A1C when compared with high–glycemic index diets ( 49 ). However, it appears that most individuals already consume a moderate–glycemic index diet ( 39 , 50 ). Thus, it appears that in individuals consuming a high–glycemic index diet, low–glycemic index diets can produce a modest benefit in controlling postprandial hyperglycemia.

              In diabetes management, it is important to match doses of insulin and insulin secretagogues to the carbohydrate content of meals. A variety of methods can be used to estimate the nutrient content of meals, including carbohydrate counting, the exchange system, and experience-based estimation. By testing pre- and postprandial glucose, many individuals use experience to evaluate and achieve postprandial glucose goals with a variety of foods. To date, research has not demonstrated that one method of assessing the relationship between carbohydrate intake and blood glucose response is better than other methods.

              Fiber.

              As for the general population, people with diabetes are encouraged to choose a variety of fiber-containing foods such as legumes, fiber-rich cereals (≥5 g fiber/serving), fruits, vegetables, and whole grain products because they provide vitamins, minerals, and other substances important for good health. Moreover, there are data suggesting that consuming a high-fiber diet (∼50 g fiber/day) reduces glycemia in subjects with type 1 diabetes and glycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and lipemia in subjects with type 2 diabetes ( 1 ). Palatability, limited food choices, and gastrointestinal side effects are potential barriers to achieving such high-fiber intakes. However, increased fiber intake appears to be desirable for people with diabetes, and a first priority might be to encourage them to achieve the fiber intake goals set for the general population of 14 g/1,000 kcal ( 22 ).

              Sweeteners.

              Substantial evidence from clinical studies demonstrates that dietary sucrose does not increase glycemia more than isocaloric amounts of starch ( 1 ). Thus, intake of sucrose and sucrose-containing foods by people with diabetes does not need to be restricted because of concern about aggravating hyperglycemia. Sucrose can be substituted for other carbohydrate sources in the meal plan or, if added to the meal plan, adequately covered with insulin or another glucose-lowering medication. Additionally, intake of other nutrients ingested with sucrose, such as fat, need to be taken into account, and care should be taken to avoid excess energy intake.

              In individuals with diabetes, fructose produces a lower postprandial glucose response when it replaces sucrose or starch in the diet; however, this benefit is tempered by concern that fructose may adversely affect plasma lipids ( 1 ). Therefore, the use of added fructose as a sweetening agent in the diabetic diet is not recommended. There is, however, no reason to recommend that people with diabetes avoid naturally occurring fructose in fruits, vegetables, and other foods. Fructose from these sources usually accounts for only 3–4% of energy intake.

              Reduced calorie sweeteners approved by the FDA include sugar alcohols (polyols) such as erythritol, isomalt, lactitol, maltitol, mannitol, sorbitol, xylitol, tagatose, and hydrogenated starch hydrolysates. Studies of subjects with and without diabetes have shown that sugar alcohols produce a lower postprandial glucose response than sucrose or glucose and have lower available energy ( 1 ). Sugar alcohols contain, on average, about 2 calories/g (one-half the calories of other sweeteners such as sucrose). When calculating carbohydrate content of foods containing sugar alcohols, subtraction of half the sugar alcohol grams from total carbohydrate grams is appropriate. Use of sugar alcohols as sweeteners reduces the risk of dental caries. However, there is no evidence that the amounts of sugar alcohols likely to be consumed will reduce glycemia, energy intake, or weight. The use of sugar alcohols appears to be safe; however, they may cause diarrhea, especially in children.

              The FDA has approved five nonnutritive sweeteners for use in the U.S. These are acesulfame potassium, aspartame, neotame, saccharin, and sucralose. Before being allowed on the market, all underwent rigorous scrutiny and were shown to be safe when consumed by the public, including people with diabetes and women during pregnancy. Clinical studies involving subjects without diabetes provide no indication that nonnutritive sweeteners in foods will cause weight loss or weight gain ( 51 ).

              Resistant-starch/high-amylose foods.

              It has been proposed that foods containing resistant starch (starch physically enclosed within intact cell structures as in some legumes, starch granules as in raw potato, and retrograde amylose from plants modified by plant breeding to increase amylose content) or high-amylose foods, such as specially formulated cornstarch, may modify postprandial glycemic response, prevent hypoglycemia, and reduce hyperglycemia. However, there are no published long-term studies in subjects with diabetes to prove benefit from the use of resistant starch.

              Dietary fat and cholesterol in diabetes management

              Recommendations

              • Limit saturated fat to <7% of total calories. (A)

              • Intake of trans fat should be minimized. (E)

              • In individuals with diabetes, limit dietary cholesterol to <200 mg/day. (E)

              • Two or more servings of fish per week (with the exception of commercially fried fish filets) provide n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and are recommended. (B)

              The primary goal with respect to dietary fat in individuals with diabetes is to limit saturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol intakes so as to reduce risk for CVD. Saturated and trans fatty acids are the principal dietary determinants of plasma LDL cholesterol. In nondiabetic individuals, reducing saturated and trans fatty acids and cholesterol intakes decreases plasma total and LDL cholesterol. Reducing saturated fatty acids may also reduce HDL cholesterol. Importantly, the ratio of LDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol is not adversely affected. Studies in individuals with diabetes demonstrating the effects of specific percentages of dietary saturated and trans fatty acids and specific amounts of dietary cholesterol on plasma lipids are not available. Therefore, because of a lack of specific information, it is recommended that the dietary goals for individuals with diabetes be the same as for individuals with preexisting CVD, since the two groups appear to have equivalent cardiovascular risk. Thus, saturated fatty acids <7% of total energy, minimal intake of trans fatty acids, and cholesterol intake <200 mg daily are recommended.

              In metabolic studies in which energy intake and weight are held constant, diets low in saturated fatty acids and high in either carbohydrate or cis-monounsaturated fatty acids lowered plasma LDL cholesterol equivalently ( 1 , 52 ). The high-carbohydrate diets (∼55% of total energy from carbohydrate) increased postprandial plasma glucose, insulin, and triglycerides when compared with high–monounsaturated fat diets. However, high–monounsaturated fat diets have not been shown to improve fasting plasma glucose or A1C values. In other studies, when energy intake was reduced, the adverse effects of high-carbohydrate diets were not observed ( 53 , 54 ). Individual variability in response to high-carbohydrate diets suggests that the plasma triglyceride response to dietary modification should be monitored carefully, particularly in the absence of weight loss.

              Diets high in polyunsaturated fatty acids appear to have effects similar to monounsaturated fatty acids on plasma lipid concentrations ( 55 – 58 ). A modified Mediterranean diet, in which polyunsaturated fatty acids were substituted for monounsaturated fatty acids, reduced overall mortality in elderly Europeans by 7% ( 59 ). Very-long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplements have been shown to lower plasma triglyceride levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes who are hypertriglyceridemic. Although the accompanying small rise in plasma LDL cholesterol is of concern, an increase in HDL cholesterol may offset this concern ( 60 ). Glucose metabolism is not likely to be adversely affected. Very-long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid studies in individuals with diabetes have primarily used fish oil supplements. Consumption of ω-3 fatty acids from fish or from supplements has been shown to reduce adverse CVD outcomes, but the evidence for α-linolenic acid is sparse and inconclusive ( 61 ). In addition to providing n-3 fatty acids, fish frequently displace high–saturated fat–containing foods from the diet ( 62 ). Two or more servings of fish per week (with the exception of commercially fried fish filets) ( 63 , 64 ) can be recommended.

              Plant sterol and stanol esters block the intestinal absorption of dietary and biliary cholesterol. In the general public and in individuals with type 2 diabetes ( 65 ), intake of ∼2 g/day plant sterols and stanols has been shown to lower plasma total and LDL cholesterol. A wide range of foods and beverages are now available that contain plant sterols. If these products are used, they should displace, rather than be added to, the diet to avoid weight gain. Soft gel capsules containing plant sterols are also available.

              Protein in diabetes management

              Recommendations

              • For individuals with diabetes and normal renal function, there is insufficient evidence to suggest that usual protein intake (15–20% of energy) should be modified. (E)

              • In individuals with type 2 diabetes, ingested protein can increase insulin response without increasing plasma glucose concentrations. Therefore, protein should not be used to treat acute or prevent nighttime hypoglycemia. (A)

              • High-protein diets are not recommended as a method for weight loss at this time. The long-term effects of protein intake >20% of calories on diabetes management and its complications are unknown. Although such diets may produce short-term weight loss and improved glycemia, it has not been established that these benefits are maintained long term. (E)

              The Dietary Reference Intakes’ acceptable macronutrient distribution range for protein is 10–35% of energy intake, with 15% being the average adult intake in the U.S. and Canada ( 22 ). The RDA is 0.8 g good-quality protein · kg body wt−1 · day−1 (on average, ∼10% of calories) ( 22 ). Good-quality protein sources are defined as having high PDCAAS (protein digestibility–corrected amino acid scoring pattern) scores and provide all nine indispensable amino acids. Examples are meat, poultry, fish, eggs, milk, cheese, and soy. Sources not in the “good” category include cereals, grains, nuts, and vegetables. In meal planning, protein intake should be greater than 0.8 g · kg−1 · day−1 to account for mixed protein quality in foods.

              The dietary intake of protein for individuals with diabetes is similar to that of the general public and usually does not exceed 20% of energy intake. A number of studies in healthy individuals and in individuals with type 2 diabetes have demonstrated that glucose produced from ingested protein does not increase plasma glucose concentration but does produce increases in serum insulin responses ( 1 , 66 ). Abnormalities in protein metabolism may be caused by insulin deficiency and insulin resistance; however, these are usually corrected with good blood glucose control ( 67 ).

              Small, short-term studies in diabetes suggest that diets with protein content >20% of total energy reduce glucose and insulin concentrations, reduce appetite, and increase satiety ( 68 , 69 ). However, the effects of high-protein diets on long-term regulation of energy intake, satiety, weight, and the ability of individuals to follow such diets long term have not been adequately studied.

              Dietary protein and its relationships to hypoglycemia and nephropathy are addressed in later sections.

              Optimal mix of macronutrients

              Although numerous studies have attempted to identify the optimal mix of macronutrients for the diabetic diet, it is unlikely that one such combination of macronutrients exists. The best mix of carbohydrate, protein, and fat appears to vary depending on individual circumstances. For those individuals seeking guidance as to macronutrient distribution in healthy adults, the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) may be helpful ( 22 ). The DRI report recommends that, to meet the body’s daily nutritional needs while minimizing risk for chronic diseases, healthy adults should consume 45–65% of total energy from carbohydrate, 20–35% from fat, and 10–35% from protein. It must be clearly recognized that regardless of the macronutrient mix, total caloric intake must be appropriate to weight management goals. Additionally, the above ranges should be modified, as needed, based on the considerations noted above for each macronutrient group.

              Alcohol in diabetes management

              Recommendations

              • If adults with diabetes choose to use alcohol, daily intake should be limited to a moderate amount (one drink per day or less for women and two drinks per day or less for men). (E)

              • To reduce risk of nocturnal hypoglycemia in individuals using insulin or insulin secretagogues, alcohol should be consumed with food. (E)

              • In individuals with diabetes, moderate alcohol consumption (when ingested alone) has no acute effect on glucose and insulin concentrations but carbohydrate coingested with alcohol (as in a mixed drink) may raise blood glucose. (B)

              Abstention from alcohol should be advised for people with a history of alcohol abuse or dependence, women during pregnancy, and people with medical problems such as liver disease, pancreatitis, advanced neuropathy, or severe hypertriglyceridemia. If individuals choose to use alcohol, intake should be limited to a moderate amount (less than one drink per day for adult women and less than two drinks per day for adult men). One alcohol containing beverage is defined as 12 oz beer, 5 oz wine, or 1.5 oz distilled spirits. Each contains ∼15 g alcohol.

              Moderate amounts of alcohol, when ingested with food, have minimal acute effects on plasma glucose and serum insulin concentrations ( 42 ). However, carbohydrate coingested with alcohol may raise blood glucose. For individuals using insulin or insulin secretagogues, alcohol should be consumed with food to avoid hypoglycemia. Evening consumption of alcohol may increase the risk of nocturnal and fasting hypoglycemia, particularly in individuals with type 1 diabetes ( 70 ). Occasional use of alcoholic beverages should be considered an addition to the regular meal plan, and no food should be omitted. Excessive amounts of alcohol (three or more drinks per day), on a consistent basis, contributes to hyperglycemia ( 42 ).

              In individuals with diabetes, light to moderate alcohol intake (one to two drinks per day; 15–30 g alcohol) is associated with a decreased risk of CVD ( 42 ). The reduction in CVD does not appear to be due to an increase in plasma HDL cholesterol. The type of alcohol-containing beverage consumed does not appear to make a difference.

              Micronutrients in diabetes management

              Recommendations

              • There is no clear evidence of benefit from vitamin or mineral supplementation in people with diabetes (compared with the general population) who do not have underlying deficiencies. (A)

              • Routine supplementation with antioxidants, such as vitamins E and C and carotene, is not advised because of lack of evidence of efficacy and concern related to long-term safety. (A)

              • Benefit from chromium supplementation in individuals with diabetes or obesity has not been clearly demonstrated and therefore can not be recommended. (E)

              Uncontrolled diabetes is often associated with micronutrient deficiencies ( 71 ). Individuals with diabetes should be aware of the importance of acquiring daily vitamin and mineral requirements from natural food sources and a balanced diet. Health care providers should focus on nutrition counseling rather than micronutrient supplementation in order to reach metabolic control of their patients. Research including long-term trials is needed to assess the safety and potentially beneficial role of chromium, magnesium, and antioxidant supplements and other complementary therapies in the management of type 2 diabetes ( 71a , 71b ). In select groups such as the elderly, pregnant or lactating women, strict vegetarians, or those on calorie-restricted diets, a multivitamin supplement may be needed ( 1 ).

              Antioxidants in diabetes management.

              Since diabetes may be a state of increased oxidative stress, there has been interest in antioxidant therapy. Unfortunately, there are no studies examining the effects of dietary intervention on circulating levels of antioxidants and inflammatory biomarkers in diabetic volunteers. The few small clinical studies involving diabetes and functional foods thought to have high antioxidant potential (e.g., tea, cocoa, coffee) are inconclusive. Clinical trial data not only indicate the lack of benefit with respect to glycemic control and progression of complications but also provide evidence of the potential harm of vitamin E, carotene, and other antioxidant supplements ( 1 , 72 , 73 ). In addition, available data do not support the use of antioxidant supplements for CVD risk reduction ( 74 ).

              Chromium, other minerals, and herbs in diabetes management.

              Chromium, potassium, magnesium, and possibly zinc deficiency may aggravate carbohydrate intolerance. Serum levels can readily detect the need for potassium or magnesium replacement, but detecting deficiency of zinc or chromium is more difficult ( 75 ). In the late 1990s, two randomized placebo-controlled studies in China found that chromium supplementation had beneficial effects on glycemia ( 76 – 78 ), but the chromium status of the study populations was not evaluated either at baseline or following supplementation. Data from recent small studies indicate that chromium supplementation may have a role in the management of glucose intolerance, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and corticosteroid-induced diabetes ( 76 – 78 ). However, other well-designed studies have failed to demonstrate any significant benefit of chromium supplementation in individuals with impaired glucose intolerance or type 2 diabetes ( 79 , 80 ). Similarly, a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials failed to demonstrate any benefit of chromium picolinate supplementation in reducing body weight ( 81 ). The FDA concluded that although a small study suggested that chromium picolinate may reduce insulin resistance, the existence of such a relationship between chromium picolinate and either insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes was uncertain ( http:/www.cfsan.fda.gov/∼dms/qhccr.html ).

              There is insufficient evidence to demonstrate efficacy of individual herbs and supplements in diabetes management ( 82 ). In addition, commercially available products are not standardized and vary in the content of active ingredients. Herbal preparations also have the potential to interact with other medications ( 83 ). Therefore, it is important that health care providers be aware when patients with diabetes are using these products and look for unusual side effects and herb-drug or herb-herb interactions

              NUTRITION INTERVENTIONS FOR SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

              Nutrition interventions for type 1 diabetes

              Recommendations

              • For individuals with type 1 diabetes, insulin therapy should be integrated into an individual’s dietary and physical activity pattern. (E)

              • Individuals using rapid-acting insulin by injection or an insulin pump should adjust the meal and snack insulin doses based on the carbohydrate content of the meals and snacks. (A)

              • For individuals using fixed daily insulin doses, carbohydrate intake on a day-to-day basis should be kept consistent with respect to time and amount. (C)

              • For planned exercise, insulin doses can be adjusted. For unplanned exercise, extra carbohydrate may be needed. (E)

              The first nutrition priority for individuals requiring insulin therapy is to integrate an insulin regimen into their lifestyle. With the many insulin options now available, an appropriate insulin regimen can usually be developed to conform to an individual’s preferred meal routine, food choices, and physical activity pattern. For individuals receiving basal-bolus insulin therapy, the total carbohydrate content of meals and snacks is the major determinant of bolus insulin doses ( 84 ). Insulin-to-carbohydrate ratios can be used to adjust mealtime insulin doses. Several methods can be used to estimate the nutrient content of meals, including carbohydrate counting, the exchange system, and experience-based estimation. The DAFNE (Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating) study ( 85 ) demonstrated that patients can learn how to use glucose testing to better match insulin to carbohydrate intake. Improvement in A1C without a significant increase in severe hypoglycemia was demonstrated, as were positive effects on quality of life, satisfaction with treatment, and psychological well-being, even though increases in the number of insulin injections and blood glucose tests were necessary.

              For planned exercise, reduction in insulin dosage is the preferred method to prevent hypoglycemia ( 86 ). For unplanned exercise, intake of additional carbohydrate is usually needed. Moderate-intensity exercise increases glucose utilization by 2–3 mg · kg−1 · min−1 above usual requirements ( 87 ). Thus, a 70-kg person would need ∼10–15 g additional carbohydrate per hour of moderate intensity physical activity. More carbohydrate is needed for intense activity.

              A 2005 American Diabetes Association statement addresses diabetes MNT for children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes ( 88 ).

              Nutrition interventions for type 2 diabetes

              Recommendations

              • Individuals with type 2 diabetes are encouraged to implement lifestyle modifications that reduce intakes of energy, saturated and trans fatty acids, cholesterol, and sodium and to increase physical activity in an effort to improve glycemia, dyslipidemia, and blood pressure. (E)

              • Plasma glucose monitoring can be used to determine whether adjustments in foods and meals will be sufficient to achieve blood glucose goals or if medication(s) needs to be combined with MNT. (E)

              Healthy lifestyle nutrition recommendations for the general public are also appropriate for individuals with type 2 diabetes. Because many individuals with type 2 diabetes are overweight and insulin resistant, MNT should emphasize lifestyle changes that result in reduced energy intake and increased energy expenditure through physical activity. Because many individuals also have dyslipidemia and hypertension, reducing saturated and trans fatty acids, cholesterol, and sodium is often desirable. Therefore, the first nutrition priority is to encourage individuals with type 2 diabetes to implement lifestyle strategies that will improve glycemia, dyslipidemia, and blood pressure.

              Although there are similarities to those above for type 1 diabetes, MNT recommendations for established type 2 diabetes differ in several aspects from both recommendations for type 1 diabetes and the prevention of diabetes. MNT progresses from prevention of overweight and obesity, to improving insulin resistance and preventing or delaying the onset of diabetes, and to contributing to improved metabolic control in those with diabetes. With established type 2 diabetes treated with fixed doses of insulin or insulin secretagogues, consistency in timing and carbohydrate content of meals is important. However, rapid-acting insulins and rapid-acting insulin secretagogues allow for more flexible food intake and lifestyle as in individuals with type 1 diabetes.

              Increased physical activity by individuals with type 2 diabetes can lead to improved glycemia, decreased insulin resistance, and a reduction in cardiovascular risk factors, independent of change in body weight. At least 150 min/week of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity, distributed over at least 3 days and with no more than 2 consecutive days without physical activity is recommended ( 89 ). Resistance training is also effective in improving glycemia and, in the absence of proliferative retinopathy, people with type 2 diabetes can be encouraged to perform resistance exercise three times a week ( 89 ).

              Nutrition interventions for pregnancy and lactation with diabetes

              Recommendations

              • Adequate energy intake that provides appropriate weight gain is recommended during pregnancy. Weight loss is not recommended; however, for overweight and obese women with GDM, modest energy and carbohydrate restriction may be appropriate. (E)

              • Ketonemia from ketoacidosis or starvation ketosis should be avoided. (C)

              • MNT for GDM focuses on food choices for appropriate weight gain, normoglycemia, and absence of ketones. (E)

              • Because GDM is a risk factor for subsequent type 2 diabetes, after delivery, lifestyle modifications aimed at reducing weight and increasing physical activity are recommended. (A)

              Prepregnancy MNT includes an individualized prenatal meal plan to optimize blood glucose control. During pregnancy, the distribution of energy and carbohydrate intake should be based on the woman’s food and eating habits and plasma glucose responses. Due to the continuous fetal draw of glucose from the mother, maintaining consistency of times and amounts of food eaten are important to avoidance of hypoglycemia. Plasma glucose monitoring and daily food records provide valuable information for insulin and meal plan adjustments.

              MNT for GDM primarily involves a carbohydrate-controlled meal plan that promotes optimal nutrition for maternal and fetal health with adequate energy for appropriate gestational weight gain, achievement and maintenance of normoglycemia, and absence of ketosis. Specific nutrition and food recommendations are determined and subsequently modified based on individual assessment and self-monitoring of blood glucose. All women with GDM should receive MNT at the time of diagnosis. A recent large clinical trial reported that treatment of GDM with nutrition therapy, blood glucose monitoring, and insulin therapy as required for glycemic control reduced serious perinatal complications without increasing the rate of cesarean delivery as compared with routine care ( 90 ). Maternal health–related quality of life was also improved.

              Hypocaloric diets in obese women with GDM can result in ketonemia and ketonuria. However, moderate caloric restriction (reduction by 30% of estimated energy needs) in obese women with GDM may improve glycemic control without ketonemia and reduce maternal weight gain. Insufficient data are available to determine how such diets affect perinatal outcomes. Daily food records, weekly weight checks, and ketone testing can be used to determine individual energy requirements and whether a woman is undereating to avoid insulin therapy.

              The amount and distribution of carbohydrate should be based on clinical outcome measures (hunger, plasma glucose levels, weight gain, ketone levels), but a minimum of 175 g carbohydrate/day should be provided ( 22 ). Carbohydrate should be distributed throughout the day in three small- to moderate-sized meals and two to four snacks. An evening snack may be needed to prevent accelerated ketosis overnight. Carbohydrate is generally less well tolerated at breakfast than at other meals.

              Regular physical activity can help lower fasting and postprandial plasma glucose concentrations and may be used as an adjunct to improve maternal glycemia. If insulin therapy is added to MNT, maintaining carbohydrate consistency at meals and snacks becomes a primary goal.

              Although most women with GDM revert to normal glucose tolerance postpartum, they are at increased risk of GDM in subsequent pregnancies and type 2 diabetes later in life. Lifestyle modifications after pregnancy aimed at reducing weight and increasing physical activity are recommended, as they reduce the risk of subsequent diabetes ( 26 , 91 ). Breast-feeding is recommended for infants of women with preexisting diabetes or GDM; however, successful lactation requires planning and coordination of care ( 92 ). In most situations, breast-feeding mothers require less insulin because of the calories expended with nursing. Lactating women have reported fluctuations in blood glucose related to nursing sessions, often requiring a snack containing carbohydrate before or during breast-feeding ( 92 ).

              Nutrition interventions for older adults with diabetes

              Recommendations

              • Obese older adults with diabetes may benefit from modest energy restriction and an increase in physical activity; energy requirement may be less than for a younger individual of a similar weight. (E)

              • A daily multivitamin supplement may be appropriate, especially for those older adults with reduced energy intake. (C)

              The American Geriatrics Society emphasizes the importance of MNT for older adults with diabetes. For obese individuals, a modest weight loss of 5–10% of body weight may be indicated ( 93 , 94 ). However, an involuntary gain or loss of >10 lb or 10% of body weight in <6 months should be addressed in the MNT evaluation ( 1 , 95 , 96 ). Physical activity is needed to attenuate loss of lean body mass that can occur with energy restriction. Exercise training can significantly reduce the decline in maximal aerobic capacity that occurs with age, improve risk factors for atherosclerosis, slow the age-related decline in lean body mass, decrease central adiposity, and improve insulin sensitivity—all potentially beneficial for the older adult with diabetes ( 89 , 97 ). However, exercise can also pose potential risks such as cardiac ischemia, musculoskeletal injuries, and hypoglycemia in patients treated with insulin or insulin secretagogues.

              NUTRITION RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CONTROLLING DIABETES COMPLICATIONS (TERTIARY PREVENTION)

              Microvascular complications

              Recommendations

              • Reduction of protein intake to 0.8–1.0 g · kg body wt−1 · day−1 in individuals with diabetes and the earlier stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and to 0.8 g · kg body wt−1 · day−1 in the later stages of CKD may improve measures of renal function (urine albumin excretion rate, glomerular filtration rate) and is recommended. (B)

              • MNT that favorably affects cardiovascular risk factors may also have a favorable effect on microvascular complications such as retinopathy and nephropathy. (C)

              Progression of diabetes complications may be modified by improving glycemic control, lowering blood pressure, and, potentially, reducing protein intake. Normal protein intake (15–20% of energy) does not appear to be associated with risk of developing diabetic nephropathy ( 1 ), but the long-term effect on development of nephropathy of dietary protein intake >20% of energy has not been determined. In several studies of subjects with diabetes and microalbuminuria, urinary albumin excretion rate and decline in glomerular filtration were favorably influenced by reduction of protein intake to 0.8–1.0 g · kg body wt−1 · day−1 (see protein in diabetes management section) ( 98 – 101 ). Although reduction of protein intake to 0.8 g · kg body wt−1 · day−1 was prescribed, subjects who were not able to achieve this level of reduction also showed improvements in renal function ( 99 , 100 ).

              In individuals with diabetes and macroalbuminuria, reducing protein from all sources to 0.8 g · kg body wt−1 · day−1 has been associated with slowing the decline in renal function ( 1 , 102 ); however, such reductions in protein need to maintain good nutritional status in patients with chronic renal failure ( 103 ). Although several studies have explored the potential benefit of plant proteins in place of animal proteins and specific animal proteins in diabetic individuals with microalbuninuria, the data are inconclusive ( 1 , 104 ).

              Observational data suggest that dyslipidemia may increase albumin excretion and the rate of progression of diabetic nephropathy ( 105 ). Elevation of plasma cholesterol in both type 1 and 2 diabetic subjects and plasma triglycerides in type 2 diabetic subjects were predictors of the need for renal replacement therapy ( 106 ). Whereas these observations do not confirm that MNT will affect diabetic nephropathy, MNT designed to reduce the risk for CVD may have favorable effects on microvascular complications of diabetes.

              Treatment and management of CVD risk

              Recommendations

              • Target A1C is as close to normal as possible without significant hypoglycemia. (B)

              • For patients with diabetes at risk for CVD, diets high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and nuts may reduce the risk. (C)

              • For patients with diabetes and symptomatic heart failure, dietary sodium intake of <2,000 mg/day may reduce symptoms. (C)

              • In normotensive and hypertensive individuals, a reduced sodium intake (e.g., 2,300 mg/day) with a diet high in fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products lowers blood pressure. (A)

              • In most individuals, a modest amount of weight loss beneficially affects blood pressure. (C)

              In the EDIC (Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications) study, the follow-up of the DCCT (Diabetes Control and Complications Trial), intensive treatment of type 1 diabetic subjects during the DCCT study period improved glycemic control and significantly reduced the risk of the combined end point of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke ( 107 ). Adjustment for A1C explained most of the treatment effect. The risk reductions obtained with improved glycemia exceeded those that have been demonstrated for other interventions such as cholesterol and blood pressure reductions. Observational data from the UKPDS suggest that CVD risk in type 2 diabetes is also proportionate to the level of A1C elevation ( 107a ).

              There are no large-scale randomized trials to guide MNT recommendations for CVD risk reduction in individuals with type 2 diabetes. However, because CVD risk factors are similar in individuals with and without diabetes, benefits observed in nutrition studies in the general population are probably applicable to individuals with diabetes. The previous section on dietary fat addresses the need to reduce intake of saturated and trans fatty acids and cholesterol.

              Hypertension, which is predictive of progression of micro- as well as macrovascular complications of diabetes, can be prevented and managed with interventions including weight loss, physical activity, moderation of alcohol intake, and diets such as DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension). The DASH diet emphasized fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products; included whole grains, poultry, fish, and nuts; and was reduced in fats, red meat, sweets, and sugar-containing beverages ( 7 , 108 , 109 ). The effects of lifestyle interventions on hypertension appear to be additive.

              Reduction in blood pressure in people with diabetes can occur with a modest amount of weight loss, although there is great variability in response ( 1 , 7 ). Regular aerobic physical activity, such as brisk walking, has an antihypertensive effect ( 7 ). Although chronic excessive alcohol intake is associated with an increased risk of hypertension, light to moderate alcohol consumption is associated with reductions in blood pressure ( 7 ).

              Heart failure and peripheral vascular disease are common in individuals with diabetes, but little is known about the role of MNT in treating these complications. Nutrition recommendations from the American College of Physicians/American Heart Association suggest moderate sodium restriction (<2,000 mg/day) for patients with structural heart disease or symptomatic heart failure ( 110 ). Alcohol intake is discouraged in patients at high risk for heart failure.

              NUTRITION INTERVENTIONS FOR ACUTE COMPLICATIONS AND SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR PATIENTS WITH COMORBIDITIES IN ACUTE AND CHONIC CARE FACILITIES

              Hypoglycemia

              Recommendations

              • Ingestion of 15–20 g glucose is the preferred treatment for hypoglycemia, although any form of carbohydrate that contains glucose may be used. (A)

              • The response to treatment of hypoglycemia should be apparent in 10–20 min; however, plasma glucose should be tested again in ∼60 min, as additional treatment may be necessary. (B)

              In individuals taking insulin or insulin secretagogues, changes in food intake, physical activity, and medication can contribute to the development of hypoglycemia. Treatment of hypoglycemia (plasma glucose <70 mg/dl) requires ingestion of glucose or glucose-containing foods. The acute glycemic response correlates better with the glucose content than with the carbohydrate content of the food ( 1 ). With insulin-induced hypoglycemia, 10 g oral glucose raises plasma glucose levels by ∼40 mg/dl over 30 min, while 20 g oral glucose raises plasma glucose levels by ∼60 mg/dl over 45 min. In each case, glucose levels often begin to fall ∼60 min after glucose ingestion ( 111 ).

              Although pure glucose may be the preferred treatment, any form of carbohydrate that contains glucose will raise blood glucose ( 111 ). Adding protein to carbohydrate does not affect the glycemic response and does not prevent subsequent hypoglycemia. Adding fat, however, may retard and then prolong the acute glycemic response. During hypoglycemia, gastric-emptying rates are twice as fast as during euglycemia and are similar for liquid and solid foods.

              Acute illness

              Recommendations

              • During acute illnesses, insulin and oral glucose-lowering medications should be continued. (A)

              • During acute illnesses, testing of plasma glucose and ketones, drinking adequate amounts of fluids, and ingesting carbohydrate are all important. (B)

              Acute illnesses can lead to the development of hyperglycemia and, in individuals with type 1 diabetes, ketoacidosis. During acute illnesses, with the usual accompanying increases in counterregulatory hormones, the need for insulin and oral glucose-lowering medications continues and often is increased. Testing plasma glucose and ketones, drinking adequate amounts of fluid, and ingesting carbohydrate, especially if plasma glucose is <100 mg/dl, are all important during acute illness. In adults, ingestion of 150–200 g carbohydrate daily (45–50 g every 3–4 h) should be sufficient to prevent starvation ketosis ( 1 ).

              Patients with diabetes in acute health care facilities

              Recommendations

              • Establishing an interdisciplinary team, implementation of MNT, and timely diabetes-specific discharge planning improves the care of patients with diabetes during and after hospitalizations. (E)

              • Hospitals should consider implementing a diabetes meal-planning system that provides consistency in the carbohydrate content of specific meals. (E)

              Hyperglycemia in hospitalized patients is common and represents an important marker of poor clinical outcome and mortality in both patients with and without diabetes ( 112 ). Optimizing glucose control in these patients is associated with better outcomes ( 113 ). An interdisciplinary team is needed to integrate MNT into the overall management plan ( 114 , 115 ). Diabetes nutrition self-management education, although potentially initiated in the hospital, is usually best provided in an outpatient or home setting where the individual with diabetes is better able to focus on learning needs ( 114 , 115 ).

              There is no single meal planning system that is ideal for hospitalized patients. However, it is suggested that hospitals consider implementing a consistent-carbohydrate diabetes meal-planning system ( 114 , 115 ). This systems uses meal plans without a specific calorie level but consistency in the carbohydrate content of meals. The carbohydrate contents of breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snacks may vary, but the day-to-day carbohydrate content of specific meals and snacks is kept constant ( 114 , 115 ). It is recommended that the term “ADA diet” no longer be used, since the ADA no longer endorses a single nutrition prescription or percentages of macronutrients.

              Special nutrition issues include liquid diets, surgical diets, catabolic illnesses, and enteral or parenteral nutrition ( 114 , 115 ). Patients requiring clear or full liquid diets should receive ∼200 g carbohydrate/day in equally divided amounts at meal and snack times. Liquids should not be sugar free. Patients require carbohydrate and calories, and sugar-free liquids do not meet these nutritional needs. For tube feedings, either a standard enteral formula (50% carbohydrate) or a lower–carbohydrate content formula (33–40% carbohydrate) may be used. Calorie needs for most patients are in the range of 25–35 kcal/kg every 24 h. Care must be taken not to overfeed patients because this can exacerbate hyperglycemia. After surgery, food intake should be initiated as quickly as possible. Progression from clear liquids to full liquids to solid foods should be completed as rapidly as tolerated.

              Patients with diabetes in long-term care facilities

              Recommendations

              • The imposition of dietary restrictions on elderly patients with diabetes in long-term care facilities is not warranted. Residents with diabetes should be served a regular menu, with consistency in the amount and timing of carbohydrate. (C)

              • An interdisciplinary team approach is necessary to integrate MNT for patients with diabetes into overall management. (E)

              • There is no evidence to support prescribing diets such as “no concentrated sweets” or “no sugar added.” (E)

              • In the institutionalized elderly, undernutrition is likely and caution should be exercised when prescribing weight loss diets. (B)

              Although the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes in elderly nursing home residents is high, not all of such individuals require pharmacologic therapy ( 115 , 116 ). Older residents with diabetes in nursing homes tend to be underweight rather than overweight ( 114 ). Low body weight has been associated with greater morbidity and mortality in this population ( 114 , 115 ). Experience has shown that residents eat better when they are given less restrictive diets ( 115 , 116 ). Specialized diabetic diets do not appear to be superior to standard diets in such settings ( 117 , 118 ). Meal plans such as no concentrated sweets, no sugar added, low sugar, and liberal diabetic diet also are no longer appropriate. These diets do not reflect current diabetes nutrition recommendations and unnecessarily restrict sucrose. (These types of diets are more likely in long-term care facilities than acute care.) Making medication changes to control glucose, lipids, and blood pressure rather than implementing food restrictions can reduce the risk of iatrogenic malnutrition. The specific nutrition interventions recommended will depend on a variety of factors, including age, life expectancy, comorbidities, and patient preferences ( 119 ).

              SUMMARY: NUTRITION RECOMMENDATIONS AND INTERVENTIONS FOR DIABETES—

              Major nutrition recommendations and interventions for diabetes are listed in Table 3 . Monitoring of metabolic parameters, including glucose, A1C, lipids, blood pressure, body weight, and renal function is essential to assess the need for changes in therapy and to ensure successful outcomes. Many aspects of MNT require additional research.

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              Table 1—

              Nutrition and MNT

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              Table 2—

              Classification of overweight and obesity by BMI, waist circumference, and associated disease risk

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              Table 3—

              Major nutrition recommendations and interventions

              Footnotes

              • Originally approved 2006.

                Writing panel: John P. Bantle (Co-Chair), Judith Wylie-Rosett (Co-Chair), Ann L. Albright, Caroline M. Apovian, Nathaniel G. Clark, Marion J. Franz, Byron J. Hoogwerf, Alice H. Lichtenstein, Elizabeth Mayer-Davis, Arshag D. Mooradian, and Madelyn L. Wheeler.

              • DIABETES CARE

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              Nutrition Recommendations and Interventions for Diabetes
              American Diabetes Association
              Diabetes Care Jan 2007, 30 (suppl 1) S48-S65; DOI: 10.2337/dc07-S048









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                • GOALS OF MNT FOR PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF DIABETES
                • EFFECTIVENESS OF MNT
                • ENERGY BALANCE, OVERWEIGHT, AND OBESITY
                • NUTRITION RECOMMENDATIONS AND INTERVENTIONS FOR THE PREVENTION OF DIABETES (PRIMARY PREVENTION)
                • NUTRITION RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DIABETES (SECONDARY PREVENTION)
                • NUTRITION INTERVENTIONS FOR SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
                • NUTRITION RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CONTROLLING DIABETES COMPLICATIONS (TERTIARY PREVENTION)
                • NUTRITION INTERVENTIONS FOR ACUTE COMPLICATIONS AND SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR PATIENTS WITH COMORBIDITIES IN ACUTE AND CHONIC CARE FACILITIES
                • SUMMARY: NUTRITION RECOMMENDATIONS AND INTERVENTIONS FOR DIABETES—
                • Footnotes
                • References
              • Figures & Tables
              • Info & Metrics
              • PDF

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              A degree in graphic design can be very rewarding and gives those with an artistic bent access to an in-demand, lucrative career field, and an online graphic design degree can help give you the edge over competition. Graphic design appeals to anyone with an interest in creative arts. It offers interesting advantages over traditional arts because technology allows images to be manipulated in ways impossible under any traditional method. Graphic design is truly the most modern of visual arts.

              Most graphic design degrees can be completed entirely online. Online graphic design degree programs are either associates or bachelors degrees. When searching for a program, it is important to find programs that are properly accredited with high rankings to ensure they meet industry quality standards.

              20 Top Schools for Graphic Design Degrees Online

              The following list of schools all offer top ranking and accredited online graphic design degree programs.

              #20 – Champlain College

              Online Bachelor’s in Software Development

              Burlington, Vermont

              Website

              Champlain College - Online Graphic Design Degree Programs
              Champlain College’s online software development degree may appeal to those interested in a graphic design online degree program.

              Undergraduate Tuition: $38,660

              Champlain College is among our top picks for online graphic design degree programs. The school offers an online bachelor’s in software development with design, structure, and web page development courses tailored to prepare students for careers in design and software development. Some of the courses offered include information systems analysis and design, introduction to computer systems, usability in website and software design, and web page development. For those interested in the design and development of software, the online bachelor’s from Champlain provides a solid foundation that expands beyond a traditional graphic design degree. Champlain also offers accredited and solid reputation with major publications like U.S. News and World Report. In fact, U.S. News ranks Champlain as the 91st best regional university in the North and the 56th best value school in the country. The online bachelor’s programs rank #148 out of more than 1,200 surveyed programs.

              #19 – Savannah College of Art and Design

              Online Bachelor’s in Graphic Design

              Savannah, Georgia

              Website

              Savannah College - Online Graphic Design Degree Programs
              Savannah College’s online bachelor’s in graphic design prepares students for MFA programs.

              Undergraduate Tuition: $35,690

              Savannah College of Art and Design offers an online bachelor’s in graphic design program designed to enhance abilities to communicate visually. This online program is accredited and designed to serve as preparation toward the pursuit of a master’s or MFA in graphic design, or closely related degree. The graphic design concentration consists of 45 hours of classes in subjects like applied principles – interactive web design, graphic design media management, introduction to graphic design, production for print and digital environments, and typography – information and media. Savannah College of Art and Design is ranked by major publications like U.S. News and World Report. In fact, the online bachelor’s programs are ranked #15 out of more than 1,200 surveyed programs.

              #18 – Southern New Hampshire University

              Online Bachelor’s in Graphic Design and Media Arts

              Manchester, New Hampshire

              Website

              Southern New Hampshire University - Online Graphic Design Degree Programs
              An online graphic design degree from Southern New Hampshire University is flexible and convenient.

              Undergraduate Tuition: $31,136

              Southern New Hampshire University offers two types of bachelor’s in graphic design and media arts. These degree programs have two concentrations designed to allow students to tailor their degree toward areas of interest. These concentrations include 3D modeling and animation and web design. Online courses and convenient scheduling allow busy and working students to earn a degree while balancing daytime obligations. Students gain 24/7 access to course content. Some of the courses offered include advanced digital graphic design for web, advanced digital imaging, digital graphic design for web, graphics and layout in print media, introduction to digital imaging, and language and practice of media arts. Southern New Hampshire is ranked by U.S. News and World Report as the 86th best regional university and 83rd best value school.

              #17 – Southeastern University

              Online Bachelor’s in Graphic Design

              Lakeland, Florida

              Website

              Southeastern University - Online Graphic Design Degree Programs
              Southeastern University’s online bachelor’s in graphic design is affordable and ranked.

              Undergraduate Tuition: $24,160

              Southeastern University’s online bachelor’s in graphic design consists of 126 credits that can be completed entirely online. Courses are taught by Southeastern’s experienced faculty who are equipped to deliver quality instruction to undergraduate students. These courses include advanced digital imaging, advanced illustration, digital layout and design, graphic design capstone, survey of western art, and typography. Students have the option of earning either a BS or BA degree in graphic design. Southeastern is accredited and ranked with major publications like U.S. News and World Report as a top regional university in the South. Affordable undergraduate programs earn the university a place on our list of top 20 online graphic degree schools.

              #16 – Berkeley College

              Online Bachelor’s in Graphic Design

              New York, New York

              Website

              Berkeley College - Online Graphic Design Degree Programs
              Berkeley College’s online bachelor’s in graphic design yields a BFA degree.

              Undergraduate Tuition: $24,050

              Berkeley College offers an online bachelor’s (BFA) in graphic design for students seeking an undergraduate degree that is both convenient and flexible. Designed for working students, courses are delivered online and taught by the same professors who instruct on campus. These courses include animation foundations, branding and information design, design and modeling, digital page layout, digital photography and creative media, graphic design principles, packaging design, and special topics in graphic design. Berkeley is accredited by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education and is authorized to issue online undergraduate degrees. Berkeley has also received recognition from major publications like U.S. News and World Report.

              #15 – Full Sail University

              Online Bachelor’s in Graphic Design

              Winter Park, Florida

              Website

              Full Sail - Online Graphic Design Degree Programs
              Full Sail’s online bachelor’s in graphic design takes 29 months to complete.

              Undergraduate Tuition: $23,116

              Full Sail University offers an affordable online bachelor’s in graphic design for working students. This completely online degree can be completed in just 29 months and is designed for busy and working students with little time during traditional classroom hours. Students take a series of online courses with content that may be accessed at all hours of the day or night. Some of the courses offered include color theory, design and art theory, digital audio and video, graphic principles, graphic web design, interactive media design and usability, media integration, and popular culture in media. Full Sail has received accreditation by the Accrediting Commission of Career Schools and Colleges (ACCSC) and is licensed by the Commission for Independent Education (CIE) through the Florida Department of Education.

              #14 – Liberty University

              Online Bachelor of Fine Arts in Graphic Design

              Lynchburg, Virginia

              Website

              Liberty University - Online Graphic Design Degree Programs
              Liberty University’s BFA in graphic design offers an internship component.

              Undergraduate Tuition: $21,292

              Liberty University’s online BFA in graphic design provides an overview of a number of design topics while focusing on digital art. Students take a series of online classes while gaining hands-on learning. The program consists of 120 total credit hours and is 100% online. Courses include digital imaging, graphic design, history of art, and introduction to graphic design. A 180-hour internship and 30-hour practicum are also required to satisfy the program stipulations. Liberty offers its students accredited programs and national recognition from major publications like U.S. News and World Report. In fact, U.S. News ranks Liberty as a top national university. The online bachelor’s programs are ranked #148 out of more than 1,200 surveyed programs.

              #13 – Academy of Art University

              Online BFA in Graphic Design

              San Francisco, California

              Website

              Academy of Art University - Online Graphic Design Degree Programs
              Academy of Art University offers an accredited online BFA in graphic design.

              Undergraduate Tuition: $21,252

              The School of Graphic Design at the Academy of Art University offers an online BFA in graphic design. This completely online program is designed for busy and working students who lack time during traditional classroom hours due to work or family obligations. The online BFA embraces a wide range of visual communications techniques designed to prepare students for careers as graphic designers. Courses emphasize critical thinking, marketing strategies, raising awareness of critical issues, and visual literacy and conceptual problem solving. The institution is accredited and ranked with major publications like U.S. News and World Report. Also, the online bachelor’s programs have earned recognition.

              #12 – Art Institute of Pittsburgh

              Online Bachelor’s in Graphic Design

              Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

              Website

              Art Institute of Pittsburgh - Online Graphic Design Degree Programs
              The online bachelor’s in graphic design from Art Institute of Pittsburgh consists of 180 credits.

              Undergraduate Tuition: $17,016

              The 180-quarter credit hour online bachelor’s in graphic design from the Art Institute of Pittsburgh is a comprehensive design and development program for working students. Students work at their own pace and follow a program designed to equip them with the necessary skills required to work as a graphic designer and artist. All classes are delivered online and include art direction, design and technology, graphic illustration, introduction to graphic design, packaging design, and web scripting. The school is accredited and has been recognized by major publications like U.S. News and World Report as a top art school.

              #11 – Independence University

              Online Bachelor’s in Graphic Arts

              Salt Lake City, Utah

              Website

              Independence University - Online Graphic Design Degree Programs
              36 months to complete – Independence University’s online graphic design degree.

              Undergraduate Tuition: $16,968

              Independence University offers an online bachelor’s in graphic arts designed for working and busy students. This entirely online program may be completed in just 36 months, depending on course load and student pace. Depending on transfer credits and your choice of electives, you may earn the degree in as little as 20 months. Courses include computer fundamentals, digital animation, graphic design, information design, logo and identity design, professional development, psychology of motivation, and web design. The university is accredited by the Accrediting Commission of Career Schools and Colleges (ACCSC). The ACCSC is a recognized accrediting agency by the United States Department of Education.

              #10 – Capella University

              Online Bachelor’s in Information Technology – Software Development

              Minneapolis, Minnesota

              Website

              Capella University - Online Graphic Design Degree Programs
              100% online – Capella’s graphic design online degree programs.

              Undergraduate Tuition: $13,998

              Capella University offers an online bachelor’s in information technology with a software development specialization. The program is 100% online and offers various software development emphases, including cloud application, mobile, programming and application, and web. Some of the courses offered include advanced database development, intermediate java programming, software construction, software database development, and software design and modeling. Capella is recognized by U.S. News and World Report as a top national university, although remains unranked. However, the school is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission and offers one of the most affordable types of graphic design degree programs on our list.

              #9 – Hodges University

              Online Bachelor’s in Digital Design and Graphics

              Naples, Florida

              Website

              Hodges University - Online Graphic Design Degree Programs
              Hodges University offers an online bachelor’s in graphic design that is affordable and accredited.

              Undergraduate Tuition: $13,700

              Hodges University offers an online bachelor’s in digital design and graphics program through their Fisher School of Technology. This completely online degree program is ideal for creative or artistic students who enjoy problem solving, communicating, and working with technology. All classes are delivered online and include topics like advanced computer applications, advertising concepts, digital illustration, introduction to graphic communication, multimedia portfolio, and visual communication and design. Hodges has received recognition from major publications like U.S. News and World Report as a top regional university in the South. Also, the university is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges to award bachelor’s and master’s degree programs.

              #8 – Herzing University

              Online Bachelor’s in Software Development

              Menomonee Falls, Wisconsin

              Website

              Herzing University - Online Graphic Design Degree Programs
              Herzing University offers 100% online, two- and three-year bachelor’s in software development degrees.

              Undergraduate Tuition: $13,390

              Herzing University’s online bachelor’s in software development is a 100% online degree program designed with the working student in mind. Students may choose from 3-year bachelor’s or 2-year software developer programs. The 3-year bachelor’s moves at a quick pace and provides students with the necessary skills required for careers as software developers and designers. Some of the required courses include advanced web development, computer networks, object-oriented programming, and visual basic. Electives that focus on development and design may be selected and help tailor the degree toward graphic design and web development. Herzing is accredited and recognized by U.S. News and World Report as a top regional university in the Midwest. The online bachelor’s programs are ranked #142 out of more than 1,200 surveyed programs.

              #7 – Franklin University

              Online Bachelor’s in Computer Science

              Columbus, Ohio

              Website

              Franklin University - Online Graphic Design Degree Programs
              Franklin University’s online bachelor’s in computer science offers design classes.

              Undergraduate Tuition: $11,881

              Franklin University’s online bachelor’s in computer science is a general computer degree that can be tailored in areas of web application, development, and design. The program may be completed entirely online and consists of a series of classes and capstone requirement. The program takes approximately four years to complete although may be earned sooner depending on student pace. Courses emphasize skills in computer architecture, coding and testing, database management, object-oriented design, and web application development. Franklin is an accredited university and has earned recognition from major publications like U.S. News and World Report, although recent rankings are not published.

              #6 – Colorado Technical University

              Online Bachelor’s in Business Administration – Digital Marketing

              Colorado Springs, Colorado

              Website

              Colorado Tech - Online Graphic Design Degree Programs
              Colorado Tech’s online BBA in digital marketing offers design and marketing classes applicable to graphic design.

              Undergraduate Tuition: $10,540

              Colorado Technical University’s online bachelor’s in business administration is a unique degree program that offers enrolled students the option of earning a specialization in digital marketing. Students take a wide range of marketing and business classes and a series of digital marketing courses. These online digital marketing classes include consumer behavior fundamentals, data analytics for digital marketing, new media marketing analysis, and search engine optimization and web design. The program requires the completion of 180 total credit hours. Colorado Tech is an accredited university. Also, major publications like U.S. News and World Report ranks the school as a top regional university in the West. The online bachelor’s programs rank #81 out of more than 1,200 surveyed programs.

              #5 – Arizona State University

              Online Bachelor’s in Software Engineering

              Tempe, Arizona

              Website

              Arizona State - Online Graphic Design Degree Programs
              ASU offers a fully accredited online software engineering program with design and development courses.

              Undergraduate Tuition: $10,370

              The Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering at Arizona State University offers an online bachelor’s in software engineering that consists of 120 credits and is fully accredited. Courses run 7.5 weeks in length and can be tailored through electives. Graphic design and development courses, along with a series of software development and engineering classes, make up the program. Some of the courses include design and analysis of data structures and algorithms, introduction to programming languages, and object-oriented programming and data structures. ASU is an accredited university that is also ranked with major publications like U.S. News and World Report. In fact, U.S. News ranks ASU as a top national institution and best value school. Also, the online bachelor’s programs are ranked #4 out of more than 1,200 surveyed programs.

              #4 – Rasmussen College

              Online Bachelor’s in Graphic Design

              Bloomington, Minnesota

              Website

              Rasmussen College - Online Graphic Design Degree Programs
              Rasmussen College’s online graphic design degree takes 18-36 months to complete.

              Undergraduate Tuition: $9,360

              Rasmussen College’s online bachelor’s in graphic design is a completely online program designed to be completed in either 18 or 36 months. To complete the degree in 18 months, students must hold an associate’s degree with transferrable credits. All classes are delivered online and are taught by Rasmussen instructors. These classes include advanced color theory, advanced digital photography, advanced user experience design, digital short film project, and the business of digital media. The program also offers two specializations: animation and motion graphics and web and interactive design. Rasmussen is an accredited institution that earns a spot on our list for offering an affordable online graphic design degree program.

              #3 – Bellevue University

              Online Bachelor’s in Graphic Design

              Bellevue, Nebraska

              Website

              Bellevue College - Online Graphic Design Degree Programs
              Bellevue’s online graphic design degree emphasizes print and web design.

              Undergraduate Tuition: $7,365

              Bellevue University offers an accredited online bachelor’s in graphic design degree that includes extensive preparation and hands-on practice in print and web design. Courses may be completed entirely online and are taught by university professors. Some of the courses offered include branding, design basics, fundamentals of print design, fundamentals of web design, identity design, problem solving and idea generation, and website development. Students must have access to specific technology requirements to complete the program. Major publications like U.S. News and World Report rank Bellevue as a top regional university in the Midwest. Also, the online bachelor’s programs rank #92 out of more than 1,200 surveyed programs.

              #2 – University of Maryland University College

              Online Bachelor’s in Graphic Communication

              Adelphi, Maryland

              Website

              University of Maryland - Online Graphic Design Degree Programs
              University of Maryland offers an online bachelor’s in graphic communication.

              Undergraduate Tuition: $7,176

              University of Maryland University College offers a uniquely designed online graphic design degree program. The online bachelor’s in graphic communication is a 120-credit hour program that emphasizes the importance of building a portfolio showcasing the skills of a graphic designer. Students master the skills and technology to compete in today’s job market. Courses are delivered conveniently online and explore topics like advanced graphic communication, digital media, graphic communication portfolio, introduction to graphic communication, motion graphics, and typography and layout. The university is accredited and recognized by major publications like U.S. News and World Report. In fact, U.S. News lists the university as a top regional institution in the North.

              #1 – Western Governors University

              Online Bachelor’s in Software Development

              Salt Lake City, Utah

              Website

              Western Governors - Online Graphic Design Degree Programs
              Western Governors University is the most affordable school on our list for online graphic design and related degree programs.

              Undergraduate Tuition: $6,070

              The most affordable online graphic design degree program on our list is the online bachelor’s in software development program at Western Governors University. The program is ideal for working students who want to enhance their skillset in software development and web design. All classes are delivered online and include network security and foundations, organizational behavior and leadership, scripting programming, software development, user interface design, web development applications, and web development foundations. Several certification options are also available. Western Governors University is a private, accredited institution ranked by major publications like U.S. News and World Report. In fact, the most recent edition of Best Colleges ranks the school as a top regional university in the West.

              Requirements of online graphic design degree programs

              Online Graphic Design Degree ProgramsThese degrees have no formal prerequisites other than the admissions requirements of their prospective schools. These requirements vary by school, but they can include a number of completed college credits, passing scores on ACT or SAT tests and passing scores on an entrance exam. Graphic design is the blending of traditional art and technology, so experience in either field will compliment the graphic artist.

              Online graphic design degree programs come with the same advantages of freedom and flexibility as other online degrees. Graphic design lends itself well to online education because most work is done on a computer anyway. Students preparing for an online program need to be aware of the limitations they face using their own computer. They will need to ensure they have a machine able to properly run the design software they will be using. Some software programs require moderate to advanced graphics capability. They should also have a scanner and printer. Some drafting may still be done by hand, and they may need to scan and upload these images.

              Additional resource: Top 10 Online Web Design Degree Programs

              GDH Staff
              January 2018

              This concludes our ranking of online graphic design degree programs.

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              Family and Social Life with a Blind Child Who Has Multiple Disabilities

              Families of children with visual impairments and additional disabilities have all the concerns other parents do, but they face a host of other challenges and issues as well. Like other parents, the parents of children with visual impairments have certain overriding concerns: How will my child succeed in school? Make friends? Have a happy and successful life? If you are a parent of a child who is visually impaired and has additional disabilities, you in all likelihood have questions, and possibly a range of powerful emotions, in addition to those experienced daily by most families.

              The often-complex needs of children with multiple disabilities can have a big impact on their families, and there is no one system of care in this country that automatically identifies what families need and immediately provides the services that fit the bill. For this reason, many families can experience a great variety of pressures. As important as it is to provide for your child who has multiple disabilities, you also need to take good care of yourself and the rest of your family too.

              Support from family, friends, doctors, religious counselors, and other families of children who are visually impaired with additional disabilities is invaluable. Agencies serving people who are visually impaired, organizations serving individuals with disabilities, physicians or pediatricians, early interventionists, and local librarians can help families in finding support groups related to their children’s disabilities. Because it can often seem as though the only person who really understands what you are experiencing is someone who has been there too, another parent, especially one who has a child older than yours and who has already been through what you are now living, may seem like a lifeline of sorts. Lifelines are important for all of us.

              As you and your child make your way through life, you may find that you and the rest of your family constantly need to adjust to new circumstances and events, as we all do. With time, persistence, and the awareness that sources of support, information, and advice are available to you, you may find that you have arrived at a promising future.

              This section provides information to help you balance the needs of your visually impaired child with multiple disabilities and family life.

              • Family Life When Your Child Has Multiple Disabilities
              • Working with Professionals: Getting Help for Your Child with Multiple Disabilities
              • Parent’s Perspective: Free Time Activities for Children Who Are Blind and Have Additional Disabilities
              • Parent’s Perspective: Becoming Part of the Community When You Are Blind or Visually Impaired
              • Mysterious Myat: Having a Child with No Diagnosis
              • A Parent’s Perspective: Man I Can Be
              • Next: Family Life

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              • Parent’s Perspective: Becoming Part of the Community When You Are Blind or Visually Impaired
              • Mysterious Myat: Having a Child with No Diagnosis
              • A Parent’s Perspective: Man I Can Be

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              • Fostering Strong, Healthy Bonds Between Siblings When One Child Has a Visual Impairment
                by Shannon Carollo on 4/9/2018
              • Everything You Need for a Memorable, Accessible Easter for a Child with a Visual Impairment
                by Shannon Carollo on 3/26/2018
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              Raising Children Network

              Teenagers, parents and family relationships

              Many people think that families become less important to children as they move into the teenage years. But your child needs your family and the support it offers as much as she did when she was younger.

              It’s true that family relationships change during adolescence. When your child was young, your role was to nurture and guide him. Now you might be finding that your relationship with your child is becoming more equal.

              Most young people and their families have some ups and downs during these years, but things usually improve by late adolescence as children become more mature. And family relationships tend to stay strong right through.

              For teenagers, parents and families are a source of care and emotional support. Families give teenagers practical, financial and material help. And most teenagers still want to spend time with their families, sharing ideas and having fun.

              It’s normal for teenagers to be moody or seem uncommunicative, but they still need you. Your child still loves you and wants you to be involved in her life, even though at times her attitude, behaviour or body language might seem to say she doesn’t.

              Family is the most important thing to me. They’re my own support system. Everybody thinks friends are more important, but they’re not. Friends are great, but they’ll come and go. Family is always there.
              – Brianna, teenager

              Why your teenage child needs you

              Adolescence can be a difficult time – your child is going through rapid physical changes as well as emotional ups and downs . Young people aren’t always sure where they fit, and they’re still trying to work it out. Adolescence can also be a time when peer influences and relationships can cause you and your child some stress.

              Supporting each other can be vital to getting through these challenges.

              During this time your family is still a secure emotional base where your child feels loved and accepted, no matter what’s going on in the rest of his life. Your family can build and support your child’s confidence , self-belief, optimism and identity.

              When your family sets rules, boundaries and standards of behaviour, you give your child a sense of consistency and predictability.

              And believe it or not, your life experiences and knowledge can be really useful to your child – she just might not always want you to know that!

              Supportive and close family relationships protect your child from  risky behaviour like alcohol and other drug use , and problems like depression . Your support and interest in what your child is doing at school can boost his desire to do well academically too.

              Strong family relationships can go a long way towards helping your child grow into a well-adjusted, considerate and caring adult.

              Building positive family relationships with teenagers: tips

              The ordinary, everyday things that families do together can help  build and sustain strong relationships with teenagers. These tips might help you and your family.

              Family meals
              Regular family meals are a great chance for everyone to chat about their day, or about interesting stuff that’s going on or coming up. If you encourage everyone to have a say, no-one will feel they’re being put on the spot to talk. Also, many families find that meals are more enjoyable when the TV isn’t invited and when mobile phones and tablets are switched off!

              Family outings
              Try setting aside time for fun family outings – you could all take turns choosing activities. A relaxing holiday or weekend away together as a family can also build togetherness. Our article on teenagers and free time has more ideas for things you can do as a family.

              One-on-one time
              One-on-one time with your child gives you the chance to stay connected and enjoy each other’s company. It can also be a chance to share thoughts and feelings. If you can, try to find opportunities for each parent to have this time with your child.

              Celebrate your child’s accomplishments
              Celebrating your child’s accomplishments, sharing his disappointments, and supporting his hobbies helps your child know you’re interested in him. You don’t have to make a big deal of this – sometimes it’s just a matter of showing up to watch your child play sport or music, or giving him a lift to extracurricular  activities.

              Family traditions
              Family traditions, routines and rituals can help you and your child set aside regular dates and special times. For example, you might have a movie night together, a favourite meal or cooking session on a particular night, a family games afternoon or an evening walk together.

              Household responsibilities
              Agreed household responsibilities give children and teenagers the sense that they’re making an important contribution to family life. These could be things like chores, shopping or helping older or younger members of the family.

              Family rules
              Agreed-on rules , limits and consequences give teenagers a sense of security, structure and predictability. They help your child know what standards apply in your family, and what will happen if she  pushes the boundaries.

              Family meetings
              Family meetings can help to solve problems . They give everyone a chance to be heard and be part of working out a solution.

              Extra support
              If you feel that your family really isn’t connecting, you might find a family counsellor or other family support service helpful.

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              Emory University

              SOC

              SOC 101

              Social Class and Family Life Essay

              Social Class and Family Life Essay – Sociology 101…


              • Emory University


              • SOC 101

              • Notes


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              Sociology 101: Introduction to Sociology
              Professor: Dr. Tracy Scott
              Department: Sociology
              Social Class and Family Life Essay
              Purpose
              :
              This paper asks you to examine concepts of social class and family life by
              thinking about your own life and informally surveying a few friends (or family
              members), and then discussing this “data” in light of the article by Annette Lareau
              (
              Invisible Inequality: Social Class and Childrearing in Black Families and White
              Families
              ). The objective of this exercise is to gain a greater understanding of social class
              and how different childrearing strategies (“cultural logics”) create advantages for children
              (or not).
              Because my family and I lived in three different continents, I was oblivious to
              culture shock and the societal significance behind skin color in relation to my own life
              experiences as a child. However, I learned that the world around me categorized people
              based on race and class rather than personal merit and individual personality. As we
              learned in class, I also became aware that it was believed that different social classes had
              distinct parenting strategies, which allowed for kids of diverse backgrounds to develop
              differently. In order to delve deeper, I analyzed my own social background along with
              three other people to examine the hidden implications behind childrearing tactics and
              social class. For my three interviewees that I surveyed, I chose to seek out people of
              different ethnicities to allow for more fair and diverse results.
              While migrating between three different continents, I spent my childhood between
              two different areas in America: Takoma Park, Maryland and Seattle, Washington. I
              attended elementary school with mostly black and Latino students from my
              neighborhood, which was classified as lower-middle class. During much of my childhood
              in Maryland, my after-school activities comprised of hanging out with the neighborhood
              kids and playing miscellaneous games and sports. On average, I would hang out with the
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              kids around my apartment five times a week and played basketball at the local courts
              three times a week.
              My parents always made sure that I was courteous and polite to elders, and it was
              rooted deeply in me to respect others. Even to this day, my parents would remind me to
              be nice to teachers and give them the respect that they deserve. There were also cultural
              notions implicated in these interactions, because teachers were highly revered and valued
              in Asia. They were considered to be knowledgeable and not to be questioned or
              challenged. However, I did not adhere to these views when I was living in Maryland
              because I saw teachers as authoritative figures that I avoided and feared when I was
              getting into trouble with my other schoolmates. Even though my parents raised me well
              and instilled good morals in me, I wanted to be accepted by my friends especially when I
              was the only Chinese kid in school, so I caused mischief and broke rules in school for
              peer approval. Oftentimes I found myself to be a scapegoat for troublemaking as a child,
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              • Fall 08

              • Sociology,
                Emory university, Annette Lareau


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