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Essay Structuring Guide

Aug 14, 2018

Even when students decided on a topic, they may still have a hard time getting down to the actual writing because their heads at this stage are full of unconnected ideas. Therefore, the best way of structuring them and thus achieving a perfectly organized paper is brainstorming. The thing that makes it highly effective is the fact that you actually know how to organize essential ideas in a manner that the reader can understand. Apart from being a framework that helps make the paper content stand out, an essay structure is also a right way of reaching out to your audience.

Most students do not know what a proper structure of an essay looks like, which is why their writing skills leave a lot to be desired. The major problem they usually face is related to having too much poorly structured information in their papers. Which is why learning how to structure it can help them organize their ideas efficiently and make their essay easy to follow. Being able to come up with a proper structure can also be a solution to your instructor’s challenging requirements.

Essay Paragraphs – the Structure

Nearly all students are aware of the so-called ‘five-paragraph structure,’ which is the first thing their tutors introduce them to when teaching the basics of essay writing. Though being a basic structure, it is rarely used in colleges or universities where all papers commonly comprise three paragraphs, i.e., the introduction, body, and conclusion.

Each student should know that the basic essay structure is the same for all essay types, be it persuasive, narrative or descriptive papers. A poorly structured essay will, therefore, hardly impress your instructor and you may even end up losing valuable grades. Good essay papers should read like a remarkable story and have a proper introduction, main body and conclusion. This example of a good standard structure:

  • Introduction ( 1 paragraph).
  • The main body ( any number of paragraphs depending on the required number of pages, i.e., three or more sections).
  • Conclusion (1 paragraph).

Essay Introduction

Being the first paragraph of your essay, the introduction lets the reader know about its topic, as well as your viewpoint regarding it. The opening should contain the thesis statement which can be two to three sentences long, comprising a summary of the main points and/or arguments presented in the essay. The manner in which you write your introduction will help the reader decide whether they would like to proceed with reading the paper or just stop right there. Therefore, knowing the type of audience you are writing for is vital because that way you will be able to come up with a compelling thesis statement that will grab their attention immediately.

Essay Body Paragraphs Structure

If the student chooses to go with the five-paragraph structure, they need to make sure that there are three body paragraphs in their paper. If it is a college or university student who has been assigned to come up with an essay containing five or more pages, then the number of paragraphs can be correspondingly higher.

The paragraphs between the introduction and conclusion are what is commonly referred to as the main body of the essay. You are supposed to make sure that you divide your main body into structural segments, such as subheadings and paragraphs so that it does not look so clustered and confusing to the reader. To achieve this, one should keep in mind a few simple rules, such as:

  • Each subheading and paragraph should present a new point, topic, subject, or idea.
  • Your argument should be supported by evidence, e.g., examples, data, facts, etc.
  • A quick conclusion needs to be drawn.
  • This part should keep the reader interested, so make sure that you do not drag one point for too long and include quotes wherever applicable.
  • And remember – you can always seek essay help to ensure that your main content is structured correctly and well-presented.

The second paragraph of an essay is where you make a smooth transition from the topic introduced in the first body paragraph, thus making it easier for the reader to follow your key ideas. The seamless transition concept is also applicable to all your remaining paragraphs; however, each point or idea should be supported with evidence, e.g., examples, research results or statistical data. Keep in mind that it is not merely your writing skills that your professor is testing, but rather logical thinking, as well as your ability to create a meaningful and persuasive argument that will help you draw a definitive conclusion.

Essay Conclusion Paragraph

The conclusion is the last paragraph of the essay, which provides the reader with a summary of the main points presented in your work. You shouldn’t introduce any new ideas here but rather restate the thesis statement in such a way as to avoid repetition and to induce boredom in your audience. A well-written conclusion will leave the reader with the best impression of your paper, so do not try to rush things up because you may end up ruining your entire essay. It is a good idea to come up with a rough draft of the last paragraph, which will let you iron out any remaining inconsistencies and repetitions in the final product.

The structure of an essay is an effective way of communication with the reader, showing how well the student understands the topic and requirements of the assignment, as well as their ability to raise an argument and reach a conclusion.

The citation or bibliography is an integral part of an essay structure that comes after the conclusion and states all the material that you have referenced. If your paper has direct quotes, paraphrased quotes or content from other sources, citations are essential and should, therefore, not be left out. Keep in mind that unless you add proper citations, you can get penalized for plagiarism or even lose grades for submitting a poorly referenced essay. If a specific format is stated in your instructor’s requirements, you need to make sure that you painstakingly adhere to it because failure to do so may entail very unpleasant consequences. In case no format has been specified, just pick any commonly accepted one that you find easy-to-use and format your paper accordingly.

How you structure your essay determines the manner (or sequence) in which you would like the audience to receive information contained therein. Depending on an essay type, the format of the body paragraphs may differ; however, the overall layout remains the same at all times. Please, see below for a standard essay structure (citations included):

  • Introduction
  • Body Paragraphs
  • Conclusion
  • Bibliography/Citation

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Not all students are good at writing, so whenever you’re in a pinch, our professional experts can always come to your rescue. If you don’t have enough time, lack the skills and have no clue how to follow the standard essay structure, you can always turn to a professional writing service for help. Actually, getting help is perfectly OK, and it does not reflect negatively on your abilities or intelligence. The thing is that students need to take care of lots of things during their academic life, which leaves them with little or no time at all for their papers. As a result, they write their essays in a hurry and end up getting poor grades.

So, why risk bad grades? Just get in touch with our professional academic service and let seasoned professionals take the load off your mind! You can rest assured that you will get a properly structured and well-researched paper written to the highest academic standards.

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Essay planning and structure

It is really important to plan your essay before you begin writing. Planning will save you time later. It is also essential that you have a starting point to plan from, even if it is in a very rough form.

The obvious place to start is at the assignment question itself. From the question you can develop your answer in the form of a thesis statement . From there you can decide what your essay’s subtopics will be and what you want to say about them. After you have a basic idea of what you want to talk about, you can begin to write the essay.

However, when writing an essay, it can also be difficult to come up with a point of view early on. Therefore, instead of developing a thesis statement first, you may choose to read up on the assignment question and make notes on relevant concepts, theories, and studies. Once you have these notes and can develop a summary of the issues, it should be much easier to write a thesis statement.

For more information on analysing the assignment question and planning your essay, see planning assignments .

Essay structure

All essays share the same basic structure, although they may differ in content and style. The essence of an essay is an opinion, expressed as a thesis statement or proposition, and a logical sequence of arguments and information organised in support of the proposition.

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★Essay: Confederate Memorialization and the Problems of Moral …

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Importance of Moral Education: Essay, Article, Short Note
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Importance of Moral Education: Essay, Article, Short Note

Piyush Pranjal
September 19, 2017

Table of Contents

Importance of Moral Education: Essay, Article, Short Note

4.6 (91.47%) 361 votes


Importance of Moral Education: Essay, Article, Short Note

Introduction (Essay on Moral Education)

Morality is one of the fundamental aspects of human life and society. It is this moral code that allows people to trust each other, cooperate and form a culture and community with a common set of values and beliefs. Going by the definition, morality is defined as “Principles concerning the distinction between right and wrong or good and bad behavior”. In this modern day and age with rising uncertainty and crime rate, a serious contemplation is required over the kind of education and values being instilled into children and teens.

Importance of Moral Education: Essay, Article, Short Note

Importance of Moral Education: Essay, Article, Short Note

History of moral education

Ever since the beginning of civilization moral teachings and ethical values have been a major part of the education system. Teaching virtues of moral values like honesty, responsibility, and respect for others, was the founding base for the education system. The idea is to develop a system to instill these virtues into children so that they can go on to become productive members of society and contribute towards the common good. In those early days, teaching morality was one of the main objectives of schools. In India, we had “gurukul system” where the students were supposed to live in gurukuls along with their gurus (teachers) and learn to live an ideal life while also acquiring knowledge and relevant skills. Our history is the proof that such a system was indeed very effective and it contributed a lot towards societal advancements in those days.

Present system

Moral education for children

In stark contrast, our modern education system is severely lacking moral education. This globalized system of education is now an industry. Education has become a profit making business where information is sold as knowledge. We are living in a world where people are valued solely based on a number of degrees and domain knowledge. Although it isn’t bad to prioritize knowledge and innovation, none of it can take place of moral values. Humans are social beings and as a society, we need a basic set of principles and values to be respected and followed by all. Living a healthy and fulfilling life is an art which cannot be learned without incorporating life lessons and moral values.

Problems

These are troubled times for our society. We are dealing with not just an increased crime rate and violence but also an increased rate of depression and suicidal tendencies among kids and teenagers. Lack of moral teachings is a major cause of all these problems. Schools and universities can be likened to factories churning out workforce for the ever-changing and dynamic market. Schools are no longer teaching students how to live in society, how to face problems and importance of empathy and care for others. Due to this, kids these days do not know how to deal with life problems and hardships and increasingly they are taking extreme measures. They do not know the solution to their problems and they lack the self-esteem to ask for help. It is like they are stuck in this perpetual misery.

Solution

It is still not too late. What is required is we acknowledge the problems prevailing in our society and take responsibility for it. As adults, it is our responsibility to ensure that necessary steps are taken to help and support the young generation in their life struggle. Our present education system needs a major overhaul. We need to incorporate moral education in a more effective manner and instill necessary values into kids so that they become better humans first and contribute to the society. We are already facing hard times and these steps are important to ensure that our society doesn’t fall apart. We have a rich history to learn from and we can definitely become a better society. All it requires is a little bit of effort and will to be the change for good.

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Piyush Pranjal

Piyush Pranjal

I’m a 21 year old computer geek and technologist who always sees the bright side of things and loves to explore new avenues. A college final year student who loves to read books and a passionate writer.

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Essay/

Ethics

‘Moral features are the chief dimension by which we judge’; detail from The Conversion of Saint Paul by Caravaggio 1600-1601. Photo courtesy Wikimedia

The self is moral

We tend to think that our memories determine our identity, but it’s moral character that really makes us who we are

Nina Strohminger

‘Moral features are the chief dimension by which we judge’; detail from The Conversion of Saint Paul by Caravaggio 1600-1601. Photo courtesy Wikimedia

Nina Strohminger

is a psychologist at Duke University in North Carolina.

2,600 words

Edited by
Ross Andersen

Syndicate this Essay

One morning after her accident, a woman I’ll call Kate awoke in a daze. She looked at the man next to her in bed. He resembled her husband, with the same coppery beard and freckles dusted across his shoulders. But this man was definitely not her husband.

Panicked, she packed a small bag and headed to her psychiatrist’s office. On the bus, there was a man she had been encountering with increasing frequency over the past several weeks. The man was clever, he was a spy. He always appeared in a different form: one day as a little girl in a sundress, another time as a bike courier who smirked at her knowingly. She explained these bizarre developments to her doctor, who was quickly becoming one of the last voices in this world she could trust. But as he spoke, her stomach sank with a dreaded realisation: this man, too, was an impostor.

Kate has Capgras syndrome, the unshakeable belief that someone – often a loved one, sometimes oneself – has been replaced with an exact replica. She also has Fregoli syndrome, the delusion that the same person is taking on a variety of shapes, like an actor donning an expert disguise. Capgras and Fregoli delusions offer hints about an extraordinary cognitive mechanism active in the healthy mind, a mechanism so exquisitely tuned that we are hardly ever aware of it. This mechanism ascribes to each person a unique identity, and then meticulously tracks and updates it. This mechanism is crucial to virtually every human interaction, from navigating a party to navigating a marriage. Without it, we quickly fall apart.

A classic philosophical thought experiment poses the following paradox. Imagine a ship, let’s call it the Nina, whose planks are replaced, one by one, as they age. Eventually every original part is changed, resulting in a boat made of entirely new materials. Our intuition that this is the same ship becomes problematic when the builders reassemble all the Nina’s original parts into a second ship. The Nina’s identity is tied up inextricably with her physicality.

Personal identity does not work this way. As Nina-the-person ages, almost all the cells of her body get replaced, in some cases many times over. Yet we have no trouble seeing present-day Nina as the same person. Even radical physical transformations – puberty, surgery, infirmity, some future world where her consciousness is preserved on a hard drive – will not obliterate the Nina we know. The personal identity detector is not concerned with continuity of matter, but continuity of mind. As the cognitive scientist Daniel Dennett wryly observed in his essay ‘Where Am I?’ (1978), the brain is the only organ where it is preferable to be the donor than the recipient.

This distinction, between mind and body, begins early in development. In a 2012 study by Bruce Hood at the University of Bristol and colleagues, children aged five to six were shown a metal contraption, a ‘duplication device’ that creates perfect replicas of whatever you put inside. When asked to predict what would happen if a hamster were duplicated, the children said the clone would have the same physical traits as the original, but not its memories. In other words, children were locating the unique essence of the hamster in its mind.

For Nina-the-ship, no part of the vessel is especially Nina-like; her identity is distributed evenly across every atom. We might wonder whether the same applies to people – does their continued identity depend only on the total number of cognitive planks replaced? Or are some parts of the mind particularly essential to the self?

The 17th-century philosopher John Locke thought autobiographical memories were the key to identity, and it’s easy to see why: memories provide a continuous narrative of the self and they serve as a record of a person’s idiosyncratic history. But evidence in favour of the memory criterion is mixed at best. People who have lost large hunks of memory through retrograde amnesia tend to report that, while the reel of their life feels blank, their sense of self remains intact. Nor is memory deterioration from dementia a reliable predictor of feeling like a different person. Caretakers for these patients often say they can still perceive the same person persisting beneath radical memory loss. If people have an essence that lends them their identity, memory might not be the most promising candidate.

One day not too long ago, a friend came to me with a problem. His wife of many years had begun to change. Once mousy, she was now poised and assertive. Her career had been important to her, now her interests had turned inward, domestic. And while the changes were not so dramatic that they fundamentally altered the woman he had fallen in love with, he was apprehensive about the possibility.

The danger of befriending psychologists is they will use you as their test subjects: I inquired what kind of change would render her unrecognisable. My friend responded without hesitation: ‘If she stopped being kind. I would leave her immediately.’ He considered the question a few moments more. ‘And I don’t mean, if she’s in a bad mood or going through a rough time. I’m saying if she turned into a permanent bitch with no explanation. Her soul would be different.’

This encounter is instructive for a few reasons (not least of which is the intriguing term ‘permanent bitch’) but let’s start with my friend’s invocation of the soul. He is not religious and, I suspect, does not endorse the existence of a ghost in the machine. But souls are a useful construct, one we can make sense of in fiction and fantasy, and as a shorthand for describing everyday experience. The soul is an indestructible wisp of ether, present from birth and surviving our bodies after death. And each soul is one of a kind and unreplicable: it bestows upon us our unique identity. Souls are, in short, a placeholder notion for the self.

But the soul is something else, too. The soul describes a person’s moral sensibility. A flourishing soul, according to Aristotle, was one in the habit of virtuous acts. When the soul is sick, we feed it chicken soup in the form of bite-sized inspirational stories. History’s great psychopaths, its serial killers and genocidal maniacs, are seen as soulless. So are the animate creatures in popular lore: the golems, the Frankensteins, the HALs. The sentient computer who runs amok is a trope of the genre – so much so that, in his short story ‘Runaround’ (1942), Isaac Asimov felt it necessary to propose Three Laws of Robotics to specify ethical guidelines for the wayward robot. Why do we assume that a being without a soul will turn against us? On some level, we must endorse the idea that, without a soul, moral action is not possible.

And where does the soul go when we die? In Western religions, either to a place for the morally good (heaven) or the morally bad (hell). There is no afterlife for good or bad bowlers, the sharp and the dull-witted, the glamorous and the frumpy. Eastern traditions that subscribe to a belief in reincarnation specify that the soul is reincarnated according to the person’s moral behaviour (karma). It is our moral selves that survive us in death.

a world filled with more empathy and kindness would be a better place to live, but we are apparently uninterested in swallowing this solution in a pill

Recent studies by the philosopher Shaun Nichols at the University of Arizona and myself support the view that the identity-conferring part of a person is his moral capacities. One of our experiments pays homage to Locke’s thought experiment by asking subjects which of a slew of traits a person would most likely take with him if his soul moved to a new body. Moral traits were considered more likely to survive a body swap than any other type of trait, mental or physical. Interestingly, certain types of memories – those involving people – were deemed fairly likely to survive the trip. But generic episodic memories, such as one’s commute to work, were not. People are not so much concerned with memory as with memory’s ability to connect us to others and our capacity for social action.

In another study, subjects read about a patient who experiences one of a variety of cognitive impairments, including amnesia for his past life, losing the ability to recognise objects, his desires, and his moral compass. The majority of people responded that the patient was the least like himself after losing his moral faculties.

This is consistent with some of the more widely discussed case studies from the annals of neurology. Phineas Gage was a 19th-century US railroad worker who miraculously survived an explosion that saw an iron rod shoot through his skull. Previously mild-mannered and industrious, Gage emerged from the accident obstinate, capricious and foul-mouthed.  His friends were horrified and said he was ‘no longer Gage’.

Other types of brain damage might seem to threaten identity, but are far less potent. In ‘The Lost Mariner’ (1984), Oliver Sacks describes Jimmie, a man with near-total memory loss caused by Korsakoff’s syndrome, a brain disorder associated with heavy alcohol consumption. Sacks worries that his patient has become ‘de-souled’, but reconsiders when he observes how Jimmie is transported while singing hymns and taking the sacrament at Mass. He recalls the Soviet psychologist Alexander Luria’s insight: ‘A man does not consist of memory alone. He has feeling, will, sensibility, moral being… It is here… you may touch him, and see a profound change.’

I have limited my discussion here to third-person accounts: what leads us to consider another person as no longer the same. One might think that a different set of rules applies to assessments of one’s own continuity – perhaps episodic memory is paramount from this perspective. However, new research by myself and the psychologists Larisa Heiphetz and Liane Young at Boston College has found that the single most important mental trait in judging self-identity is one’s deeply held moral convictions. We are not only concerned with moral character when constructing an identity for others, but when doing so for ourselves.

In treating the sick, the use of psychopharmaceuticals is plagued by the persistent worry that these drugs will lead to a crisis of authenticity. A 2008 study by Jason Riis, then at New York University, and colleagues found that people were least willing to take psychoactive drugs that threatened their personal identity. And what drugs were those? The ones that enhanced their moral traits, of course: kindness, empathy. People were perfectly willing to take drugs that would enhance memory or wakefulness. Surely a world filled with more empathy and kindness would be a better place to live, but we are apparently uninterested in swallowing this solution in a pill which seems to threaten our authentic selves.

Organic transformations can be no less sensational. A notable example from recent memory takes place in the US TV series Breaking Bad, which tracks Walter White as he morphs from put-upon suburban chemistry teacher to ruthless tyrant kingpin of a meth empire – the eponymous ‘breaking bad’. Under his ominous nerd alter ego Heisenberg, it is all but impossible to see him as the man he once was. His increasingly distraught wife finds herself living with a stranger, and Walter confirms what the viewer already realises: ‘If you don’t know who I am, then maybe your best course would be to tread lightly.’ Meanwhile, White’s accomplice Jesse Pinkman undergoes the reverse transformation – the burnout junkie who is revealed to have a heart of gold. These sorts of twists are endlessly fascinating because they show personal transformation at its most absolute. Flipping back through the great metamorphoses of fiction and history, we discover they are predominantly moral: think of the brothers Karamazov, of Scrooge and Schindler, Don Corleone and Darth Vadar.

Why does our identity detector place so much emphasis on moral capacities? These aren’t our most distinctive features. Our faces, our fingertips, our quirks, our autobiographies: any of these would be a more reliable way of telling who’s who. Somewhat paradoxically, identity has less to do with what makes us different from other people than with our shared humanity. Consider the reason we keep track of individuals in the first place. Most animals don’t have an identity detector. Those that share our zeal for individual identification have one thing in common: they live in societies, where they must co‑operate to survive. Evolutionary biologists point out that the ability to keep track of individuals is required for reciprocal altruism and punishment to emerge. If someone breaks the rules, or helps you out of a bind, you need to be able to remember who did this in order return the favour later. Without the ability to distinguish among the members of a group, an organism cannot recognise who has co‑operated and who has defected, who has shared and who has been stingey.

Nor can you have formal moral systems without identity. The 18th-century philosopher Thomas Reid observed that the fundaments of justice – rights, duty, responsibility – would be impossible without the ability to ascribe stable identity to persons. If nothing connects a person from one moment to the next, then the person who acts today cannot be held responsible by the person who has replaced him tomorrow. Our identity detector works in overdrive when reasoning about crimes of passion, crimes under the influence, crimes of insanity: for if the person was beside himself or out of his mind when he committed his crime, how can we identify who has committed the act, and hold him responsible for it?

If we had no scruples, we’d have precious little need for identities

Moral features are the chief dimension by which we judge, sort and choose social partners. For men and women alike, the single most sought-after trait in a long-term romantic partner is kindness – beating out beauty, wealth, health, shared interests, even intelligence. And while we often think of our friends as the people who are uniquely matched to our shared personality, moral character plays the largest role in determining whether you like someone or not (what social psychologists call impression formation), and predicts the success and longevity of these bonds. Virtues are mentioned with more frequency in obituaries than achievements, abilities or talents. This is even the case for obituaries of notable luminaries, people who are being written about because of their accomplishments, not their moral fibre.

The identity detector is designed to pick up on moral features because this is the most important type of information we can have about another person. So we’ve been thinking about the problem precisely backwards. It’s not that identity is centred around morality. It’s that morality necessitates the concept of identity, breathes life into it, provides its raison d’être. If we had no scruples, we’d have precious little need for identities. Humans, with their engorged and highly complex socio-moral systems, have accordingly inflated egos.

‘Know thyself’ is a flimsy bargain-basement platitude, endlessly recycled but maddeningly empty. It skates the very existential question it pretends to address, the question that obsesses us: what is it to know oneself? The lesson of the identity detector is this: when we dig deep, beneath our memory traces and career ambitions and favourite authors and small talk, we find a constellation of moral capacities. This is what we should cultivate and burnish, if we want people to know who we really are.

Nina Strohminger

is a psychologist at Duke University in North Carolina.

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University of Notre Dame University of Notre Dame

College of Arts and Letters

Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews

2012.12.22

Josep E. Corbí

Morality, Self-Knowledge and Human Suffering: An Essay on the Loss of Confidence in the World

Josep E. Corbí, Morality, Self-Knowledge and Human Suffering: An Essay on the Loss of Confidence in the World, Routledge, 2012, 254pp., $130.00 (hbk), ISBN 9780415890694.

 

Reviewed by Sarah Holtman, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities


Taking morality, most fundamentally, to offer guidance as we attempt to respond appropriately to human suffering, Josep Corbí criticizes "the Kantian approach" to moral questions and offers what he deems a more satisfactory alternative. Himself a moral particularist, Corbí focuses on the work of John Rawls and Christine Korsgaard as paradigmatic of the kind of Kantianism he rejects and appeals to detailed accounts of the effects of extermination camp survival, torture, and war to highlight claimed inadequacies.

Seven features characterize the Kantian approach as Corbí understands it: 1) the correctness of our moral judgments, on this view, depends on our ability to reach a certain kind of agreement; 2) the agreement in question is hypothetical rather than actual; 3) determining the terms of this agreement requires appeal to a procedure that is impartial among persons and among the world-views they actually endorse; 4) this procedure demands that agents engaged in it abstract from their own characters in various ways in order to avoid bias; 5) consequently, "the will", as opposed to the agent’s desires, interests and needs, motivates proper moral deliberation; 6) the self thus is appropriately conceived to be divided between a passive side (composed of inclinations that cloud moral judgment in favor of self-interest) and an active side (able to reach decisions on morally appropriate grounds and to motivate action despite contrary passions); 7) the active side of the self is the ultimate source of value, and the moral principles that issue from it properly overrule decisions that have their source in the passive side (42-43).

Broadly conceived, Corbí’s principal criticisms of Kantianism, so understood, resemble those advanced by a wide range of philosophers. These include not only other particularists, but also, e.g., Aristotelians, communitarians and virtue ethicists of various stripes (though of course there is overlap among these groups). Specifically, Corbí objects that, in its quest for impartiality, the Kantian approach excludes morally relevant considerations from moral decision-making and problematically divorces our purportedly true, rational selves from our self-interested and affective selves. The approach thus yields moral principles suited, at best, to an idealized world that is not ours and ultimately promotes the harmful behavior that it seeks to discourage (189-194).

Despite the similarities between Corbí’s objections and those others often have raised, the concrete examples to which he appeals, and the use he attempts to make of them, render his versions of these criticisms distinctive. For instance, Primo Levi’s shame at having survived Auschwitz, when others who were perhaps less selfish or more noble did not, prompts Corbí to suggest that we are ill-equipped to determine what counts as a rational response to horrific conditions that we have not experienced. If parties in the original position (or those taking up some similarly idealized perspective) lack the ability to appeal to such experiences, the moral principles they choose may be inadequate to address real world issues (21-34).

Yet more problematic, some varieties of harm occasion what Corbí calls a "loss of confidence in the world" (48-49). Such is the case, e.g., for the victims of torture and for soldiers who have experienced combat. Not only those who are harmed directly, but also third parties who come to appreciate both the harm itself and its causes, are at risk. Confronted with the inhumanity of the torturer or the brutality of war, these third parties may easily lose their ability to view the world as a place where human beings can trust one another to refrain from harming their fellows without warrant or, at the least, a place where each can count on others for aid if threatened with such harm. (45-52). The result is that third parties tend to turn away from these harms in an attempt to avoid the kind of knowledge that would occasion a devastating loss of confidence. Thus third parties readily accept, e.g., the torturer’s claim that his victim is a danger and that torture is necessary to prevent great harm to others. In so doing, they become complicit in the terrible harm done to the victim. (188).

This fact about third party participation in harm should help us see, says Corbí, that the demands morality places on us may vary with the role we play. The would-be torturer must attend to considerations that found moral prohibitions on torture. The person who eschews the very possibility of participating directly in torture must recognize the too-human tendency to turn away, often through self-deception, from the wrongs being done to another.

But Kantianism, Corbí claims, cannot readily accommodate such varied moral demands. For its impartiality requirements exclude the context-dependent information on which appropriate distinctions depend and thus yield universal moral principles that are blind to relevant differences among perpetrators, third parties and victims themselves. Worse yet, the divided conception of the self that Kantianism endorses actually encourages us to ignore our feelings, experiences and inclinations as we contemplate what, morally speaking, we should and should not do. This inevitably deprives us of relevant information concerning both the consequences of our actions and what we might call our own inhumane tendencies (189-194).

Corbí’s preferred approach to moral decision combines what he calls "receptive passivity", "permeability", and "expressive awareness". The first is an agent’s developed ability to grasp an order that constrains her and to respond proportionately to the constraints she perceives (174-178). The second is the receptivity both of an agent’s dispositions to her deliberation and of deliberation to dispositions (168-169). Finally, to be expressively aware of a situation (as opposed to merely declaratively aware) is to feel motivated to respond proportionately to it (51-52). The moral agent, on this view, is like a dancer who both perceives the order in a piece of music and is receptive to her dispositions in a way that allows her to respond to situations with expressive awareness (178-181). Rather than being bound by moral principles at best too rigid for our complex and imperfect world, she perceives what is morally required by complex situations and responds.

It is true that, as they stand, Rawls’s arguments for justice as fairness, made from the perspective of ideal theory, speak only indirectly to the kinds of harm, and to the associated moral failings, that Corbí has in mind. Likewise, Korsgaard’s Kantianism may well lack sufficiently thick moral foundations to allow us to provide the nuanced answers that vexed real-world moral questions demand. Moreover, of course, not only Rawls and Korsgaard, but Kantians more generally, understand morality to have its foundations not in our characters, but in action-guiding principles that both highlight those considerations that are of primary moral significance and describe the appropriate relationship among them. Yet none of this condemns Kantians to a morality that is wedded to a divided self, impervious to affect or experience, or incapable of offering context-sensitive answers to real-world moral questions.

Perhaps most familiarly, Rawls’s original position is designed to allow us to develop principles of justice with an eye to considerations widely deemed to be of fundamental moral significance and to test those principles against our considered moral judgments regarding more concrete questions. Even if, as Corbí suggests, considered judgments may be developed without experience of the kind of devastating harms his examples highlight, facts about human psychology are among those that parties in the original position must consider. Moreover, idealizing assumptions (e.g., that the society for which principles are chosen is well ordered) are to be modified in later stages as principles of justice suited to real-world conditions are developed. [1]  Thus there is not only room for but also a demand that we ultimately take into account both the effects of such harms and the tendency of third parties to "look away."

Importantly, Rawls’s conception of the person, both in A Theory of Justice and in later works, is multi-faceted, and his aim is not to label some features as those of our true or active selves and others not. It is to acknowledge and honor persons as at once moral, possessed of passions, and endowed with the capacity and disposition to develop their own life plans. Not only, in Rawls’s view, must an adequate theory of justice acknowledge each of these features. It must accord each an appropriate province and blend all three in determining what justice requires and in effectively working to achieve its aims. [2]

The principles of justice that Rawls famously endorses, then, are not the end of the story but very much the beginning. Much of the work that remains, on Rawls’s own account, would involve a conversation about principles, affective capacities, and the complex features of an imperfect world. The aim of this conversation would be nuanced answers to difficult moral questions.

Although Rawls and Korsgaard are Corbí’s main targets, he claims that Kantians more generally fall prey to his criticisms. Yet much recent (and not so recent) work by well known Kantians seeks to develop and extend Kant’s own theory of virtue, argues that there is an important place in Kant and Kantianism for affectively informed moral decision, and develops context-sensitive Kantian responses to real-world moral questions. [3]

To attempt, of course, is not to succeed, and some attempts are bound to be more successful than others. But a reminder of the nature and scope of Rawls’s project should be enough to suggest that the Kantian approach as Corbí describes it is a far cry from the Kantian approach as it is. Kant himself develops a practical philosophy that not only takes seriously the interplay among principle, character and affect but that acknowledges both the necessity of hope (or confidence in human progress and moral improvement) and the inevitable injustice of war. [4]  Guided by this work, and in the spirit of it, contemporary Kantians have sought to describe their own dance among human features and capacities. This dance, like the one Corbí describes, takes place in an imperfect world and aims at greater justice. Though his examples and concerns are worthy of note, Corbí has neither acknowledged this central Kantian theme nor shown that the efforts of contemporary Kantians in this regard do (or must) fail.



[1]  John Rawls, A Theory of Justice, Revised edition (Harvard University Press, 1999), Part One.

[2]  See, e.g., Rawls, Theory, Part Three.

[3]  See, e.g., Thomas E. Hill, Jr., Virtue, Rules and Justice Kantian Aspirations (Oxford University Press, 2012); Marcia Baron, Kantian Justice Almost Without Apology (Cornell University Press, 1995).

[4]  See, e.g., Immanuel Kant, The Metaphysics of Morals, Mary Gregor, ed. and tr. in Practical Philosophy, The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant (Cambridge University Press, 1996); Kant, Toward Perpetual Peace, Gregor, ed. and tr. (Cambridge University Press, 1996).

 

★How to Write a Critical Essay at a Glance

S.Flores/Advice on Critical Essays

For a usefully concise version of this advice, see this highlighted weblink. Note: the advice below uses examples from writing about Shakespeare but the general principles apply to any literary text and its contexts.

The primary aims of a thesis-seeking/problem-posing exploratory essay assignment is to engage with
the text (literary text, typically, or film) and its critical interpretation/reception by identifying problems,
developing claims and arguments, and enriching your literary understanding,
interests, and commitments. Use/learn Modern Language Association format for
any notes or works cited (see, for instance, link to MLA format guidelines further below, and see the other resources and examples that I provide in the Bblearn folder on Advice for Writing, those include samples of strong student essays and an full example of developing a research essay (on Austen’s novel Mansfield Park).

A first step, basic approach is to ask to what extent the text presents a question or problem that seems challenging to represent and to resolve (solve/answer) without being caught up in some kind of conflict or contradiction–typically these include conflicts/contradictions between a culturally/historically predominant way of valuing or understanding particular identities and relationships versus alternative (perhaps dissenting/oppositional/other) perspectives and arrangements. The text then explores and discloses a debate over how to understand its world via such conflicting desires (including desires for power, for stability or for transgressive change)–a debate over ‘systems’ of belief, over ideology. And (therefore) an ideological debate over what characters and the reader/audience should do and be (including, typically, a debate over what literature should do and be).

 

In Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice, for instance, the predominant patriarchal ideology supports/directs that the daughter (Portia) submit to the will of her father, yet the play seems to support the disobedient actions of a daughter (Jessica) who rebels against her father (Shylock), and one might argue that even Portia is supported in her cross-dressing actions as the young lawyer Balthazar. Why? How so? A cultural analysis of this problem could begin with the critical-theoretical premise (see Stephen Greenblatt’s essay on "Culture") that meanings and identities and relationships can be understood within a particular cultural-historical context as engaging with specific ratios between mobility and constraint–that is, terms/identities have a range of mobility to move across a range of meanings and yet face culturally coded/enforced limits or constraints upon, for instance, what a daughter is permitted to say or to do. The relation or ratio between degrees of mobility and constraint are determined by a principle of exchange–in the case/example above, the dominant Christian culture in Venice supports Jessica’s transgressive rebellion against her Jewish father, because she offers the culture something in exchange (she is paying for her mobility): she robs and flees Shylock in order to marry the Christian Lorenzo. Shylock can save his life and some of his property by converting to Christianity.

 

Another way to identify a problem is when interpretations differ and the difference constitutes an implied/explicit argument and debate. The quotes from the following critics illustrate opposing assessments of the degree to which the character Rosalind in Shakepeare’s As You Like It, ultimately manages on the one hand, to enlarge or to redefine what she (women) can do and be (see first quote by Howard), or on the other hand, shows the disciplinary limits and ideological forces that return her character to dominant ways of being (see second quote by Erickson):

As You Like It is poised carefully on the razor’s edge separating fantasy from harsh reality. . . . [the play] is to a remarkable degree open to the infinite malleability of human beings and their social practices. . . . It is with the heroine, however, that As You Like It offers its richest dramatization of a figure who plays endlessly with the limits and possibilities of her circumstances. . . . this he/she, continues to the end to defy the fixed identities and the exclusionary choices of the everyday world, offering instead a world of multiple possibilities and transformable identities.”  (Jean E. Howard, The Norton Shakespeare, 378-384)

“Male friendship, exemplified by the reconciliation of Duke Senior and Orlando, provides a framework that diminishes and contains Rosalind’s apparent power. . . . Concentration on Rosalind to the neglect of other issues distorts the overall design of As You Like It, one that is governed by male ends. . . . as the play returns to the normal world, [Rosalind] will be reduced to the traditional woman who is subservient to men” (Peter Erickson, Patriarchal Structures in Shakespeare’s Drama 16, 21).

Another example: consider how critics’ comments on Twelfth Night invoke/refer to debates over (im)proper boundaries of gender-identity and desire as represented in that play.Valerie Traub states "The homoerotic energies of Viola, Olivia, and Orsino are displaced onto Antonio, whose relation to Sebastian is finally sacrificed for the maintenance of institutionalized heterosexuality and generational continuity. In other words, Twelfth Night closes down the possibility of homoerotic play initiated by the material presence of the transvestized boy actors. The fear expressed, however, is not of homoeroticism per se; homoerotic pleasure is explored and sustained until it collapses into fear of erotic exclusivity and its corollary: non-reproductive sexuality. The result is a more rigid dedication to the ideology of binarism, wherein gender and status inequalities are all the more forcefully reinscribed" (Desire and Anxiety: Circulations of Sexuality in Shakespearean Drama p.123). Catherine Belsey observes that "If the speech acts in 1.5 are gendered, the gender in question fluctuates from moment to moment in a tantalizing display of discontinuity and deferral. This is not consistently either a straight or a drag act" (Why Shakespeare? 139). Bruce Smith sums up the play’s erotic confusions in this way: “Desire of male for female (Orsino for Olivia, Sebastian for Olivia), of female for male (Olivia for ‘Cesario,’ Viola for Orsino), of male for male (Antonio for Sebastian, Orsino for ‘Cesario’), of female for female (Olivia for Viola), of male for either, of female for either, of either for either: the love plots in Twelfth Night truly offer ‘what you will’” (Twelfth Night: Texts and Contexts 15). In his introduction to the play, Greenblatt states that the "transforming power of costume unsettles fixed categories of gender and social class and allows characters to explore emotional territory that a culture officially hostile to same-sex desire and cross-class marriage would ordinarily have ruled out of bounds" (446 or 1762), which may lead to something "irreducibly strange about the marriages with which Twelfth Night ends" (449 or 1764). Jean Howard argues that the "play enacts . . . the containment of gender and class insurgency . . . . the play seems to me to applaud a crossdressed

To continue with examples/advice, you might explain the social dimensions or importance of a particular
character’s desires and relations to and for another (or to others, including
a group or "category" of people or to/for some concept or principle or desired identity/achievement); your analysis
may also speculate on the degrees of authority or power exercised or available
to particular "figures" or "subjects" (characters) in the work/text; moreover,
how are such identities or relationships represented and enacted (presented
rhetorically in language and through narrative and dramatic structure and style), and to what extent are these desires and power relations and identities in flux, dramatized as being put into question or debate between different social/political/class/gender/ethnic/religious arrangements or configurations. And how do such meanings become presented in literature/text and in performance? For drama, how would a director and actors embody and perform (and address the choices for performance) and communicate a particular interpretation. . . .

Review some aspect of one of the specified, selected texts in view of such or similar problem-posing questions and critical/theoretical framework for identifying/understanding. Take care not to assume that we readily know what particular texts mean, or what meanings are possible, given our assumptions about the time periods in which the texts were composed and how we make sense of these texts today. It is productive to inquire into the possibilities for meaning and for debate, rather than to foreclose such debate by assuming in advance that a text means something or that it could not possibly mean something that seems out of bounds, out of context. As always, you need to find ways to read closely and well, and to work from the evidence and posited aims/arguments of the texts, of critics/scholars’ research and arguments, and of your sense of the text’s functions/meanings/effects.

I encourage you to develop and
to support your ideas as clearly and as cogently as space allows, including
brief citations of specific lines that illustrate your interpretation, and
concise use of summary and paraphrase in support of your analysis. It may be helpful for your response
to include a statement that makes a claim or presents a thesis with brief
explanation and support (such as in the form of “One of Portia’s main
concerns is that she . . . because . . . . But her desire for . . . conflicts
with . . ., and she must . . . in order to . . . . The play thus represents
. . . in its depiction of . . . . Moreover, it is only through X’s relationship
to Y that Z can be realized or established or resolved, even though . . .
.” This is just a partial and overstated (!) example of a structure
that might inform your reasoning and writing–the main
advice is that you may find it effective to compose a thesis for
your analysis/essay.

Tory Young, for instance, offers this general schemata/structure for an essay that is concerned with argument and interpretation and analysis (from Studying English Literature): (1) The issue; (2) the claim; (3) The supporting evidence; (4) The explanation that connects the evidence to the claim about the subject; (5) Rebuttals and qualifiers; ( 6) The explanation that connects them to the claim about the subject. Some of these stages or building blocks for the essay may be repeated (steps 2-6 or 3-6), and each stage should contribute to developing the argument and potential expressed in your thesis statement. As Young states, "Your thesis statement is a sentence-long summary of your argument . . . .Your thesis statement is an argument that you are going to examine with recourse to evidence from primary and secondary research" (106). Moreover, does each paragraph in the essay provide support for the argument or clearly analyze opposing views to the argument.

Katherine Acheson (in Writing Essays About Literature) states that "the task of a student assigned to write an essay about literature is to present a clearly written argument, based on evidence, about the meaning, power, or structure of the work or works" (7). She describes the task of writing such an essay as one in which you "produce a narrative that offers an explanation for the effects the work of literature has" (8)–these effects, for instance, are the ideas and feelings produced by the work of literature (produced through the things that are used to make it, the words). Acheson describes the thesis statement in this way: "The thesis statement describes the evidence you are using, states your interpretations of this evidence, and brings those insights together into a conclusion that is about the way the literature works, what it means, or how and why it has the emotional impact it does" (97). She also emphasizes that arguments in literary criticism analyze "examples in order to come to broader conclusions"–these arguments therefore demonstrate inductive reasoning that moves logically and persuasively from particular pieces of compelling evidence to broader generalizations that advance/deepen/enrich understanding.

Acheson notes, like Tory Young, that the paragraphs in the body of your essay "will each make a point contributing to your argument, and each will highlight the evidence that supports that point. The subject for each body paragraph is provided by your subtopic sentences" (111) and typically the concluding sentence in each paragraph "stipulates the relationship " of the paragraph "to the argument as a whole" and also "leads to the next paragraph." One’s writing need not be so formulaic–you can depart from these guidelines–but this is sound general advice. Acheson offers an additional caution and encouragement: "The analytical reasons that a piece of evidence supports the argumentative contention of the paragraph are implicit in the choice you made to include that evidence in that category. But remember this important advice: your sentences must make those reasons explicit. Whenever you feel uncertain, return to two home bases: 1) your research and the evidence it has provided and 2) the thesis statement and the argument it articulates" (118).

William Whitla (The English Handbook: A Guide to Literary Studies) echoes such sentiments: "For an argument to be convincing, the relationship between generalizations or assertions and supporting evidence must be considered carefully. Many students have the most trouble at exactly this point: they either cannot qualify a generalization in the face of contradictory evidence and so ignore the exception, or they suppress that evidence and continue to assert a generalization. . . . An academic argument, then, is not a contest of absolute rights and wrongs, but rather is a structured statement of position that moves logically to persuade an audience of your views" (92).

Assume
your audience is familiar with the text, but take care to articulate clearly
your understanding and interpretation of the material, especially problems
or contradictions that seem difficult to resolve.

Keep
in mind that your analysis should aim to supplement or to build upon class discussion;
in short, don’t simply repeat an argument discussed
substantially unless you were engaged substantially in that discussion.

Wow, this is a lot of (largely general) advice so how to sum up: Some
writers use the first paragraph to describe an interpretative
problem that arises in a specific passage or for/in a character (and the relations
of that character to others or to the text’s cultural context), or to present
a conflict of critical approaches to a topic or issue that is pertinent to or evident in the literary work. This opening often includes reference to how the text or an aspect of it has been regarded by other scholars–what are some prior or ‘traditional’ ways of framing and understanding what’s at stake in this text? In contrast or in some kind of supplementary extension, what do you understand differently–what difference does your reading make/add and why is it significant/important to consider your line of analysis and argument? What is lost by sticking with prior views and what is gained by considering your counter-view or extension of the prior view to push its analysis further? Can you state this difference that you bring to the conversation in the form of a thesis/hypothesis that addresses (answers or resolves) the problem you have identified?And as Young and Acheson note/advise above, what will be your series of claims supported by evidence and reasoning and taking into account arguments/evidence that may qualify or limit your claim along with any counter argument you make in turn to rebut or take into account the arguments and evidence against your position? As you conclude, you may find a way to restate or reframe your main claim/argument, including its value/significance (the import/importance), and whether your line of analysis suggests further avenues of inquiry and research to be done.

 

Here’s a reminder of a guiding principle/observation from our main course website.

The quote that follows serves as a general guiding premise/claim for the course and its outcomes (also see expected learning outcomes noted further below, following the semester schedule): Literature provides us with a way of understanding how our social life works. Human social life consists of narratives for living, with ‘narratives’ being understood here as an actual life experience spread over time and guided by cultural stories that justify it to participants. Both the cultural and real-world narrative can change; both use frames to exclude norm-dissonant perspectives and values and to ensure that the meanings that support the continuity and homogeneity of the lived process are stable, predictable, and enforced. Who tells the stories in the culture thus largely shapes how that cultural world will be organized. Stories are what people believe and how they believe, and how people believe determines how they act and how they live. Stories can change how people think, perceive, believe, and act. The analysis of the work they perform is thus an important endeavor. And that is what criticism is all about. (An Introduction to Criticism: Literature/Film/Culture–Wiley-Blackwell, 2012)

 

Advanced Advice on Writing Effective Introductions for Journal Articles/Essays

Evaluation/Assessment Rubric for Critical Essay and Term Essay, with check mark along a scale, including specific comments to supplement my notations on the texts of the essays themselves:

Rubric for Initial Criteria for Evaluating Critical Writing/Essays:   Excellent    Very Good-Good    Competent-Fair    Weak
Note: Ultimately the evaluation of your work is holistic,
and therefore also intends to register the different, nuanced,
unexpected and evocative effects of your analysis,
exploration, creative expression/affect, and engagement
with learning and discovery.

1. Strength and clarity of (hypo)thesis/focus,
this may include your introduction to the problem to be
addressed, the critical/scholarly question and
conversation that your essay will contribute to,
intervene in, with scholarship appropriately introduced


and integrated into your text…

2. Intellectual/conceptual strength and persuasiveness of
main claim as well as ensuing argument (including
counter-argument to respond to differing or opposing views
/logic/premises/critical analysis/theory/ideas        

3. Cohesive and coherent development, logical
 organization, including well-structured paragraphs with
clear points and compelling, specific support/evidence

4. Analysis of text’s/topic’s relevant cultural/historical
 contexts and if deployed, of related scholarship/criticism that
supports and strengthens the argument;
analysis of text’s rhetorical/persuasive strategies, structure
(narrative/dramatic/poetic structure, aspects of performance)

5. Topic’s depth/complexity, including explanation of
problem to be addressed, recognition of text’s
conflicts/contradictions (ideological/rhetorical),
creativity and sense of discovery/affective engagement
conveyed—the articulated sense of “what’s at stake, why
it matters” —what difference your essay makes

6. Significance/ conclusion

7. Effective sentences, syntax, active verbs/consistency in verb tense,
diction, punctuation, complexity, and suitable style: academic,
critical, appropriate to your understanding of the
materials/subjects; avoids clichés and trite expressions, avoids overusing

prepositional phrases, appropriately concise

8. MLA style —parenthetical citation of sources,
Works Cited; formatting; spelling ungraded but noted

 

Academic Misconduct: Any act of academic misconduct, including but not limited to cheating, fabrication, plagiarism or facilitating academic dishonesty, will result in failure of the assignment and given the points available, likely failure of the course. Your case will be reported to the Dean of Students according to campus guidelines, and such matters are subject to policies in the UI Student Code of Conduct. Unfortunately, I have had to refer students’ plagiarized work to the Dean of Students in past sections of classes, nearly every year. See this helpful highlighed weblink to learn more about academic integrity on the Dean of Students’ website , including plagiarism: Plagiarism includes the using of ideas, data, or language of another as one’s own without specific or proper acknowledgement or citation, lack of knowledge of proper citation is not valid excuse for plagiarism as it is the responsibility of the author writing the material to know the proper methods for appropriate citation and/or seek guidance/help when using another’s work.

Plagiarism can be committed in any type of assignment and includes, but is not limited to, the following behavior that also does not include the full, clear and proper acknowledgement of the original source: 

  • The copying of another person’s work, published or unpublished;
  • The paraphrase of another person’s work, published or unpublished;
  • Using another person’s ideas, arguments, and/or thesis from a published or unpublished work;
  • Using another person’s research from a published or unpublished work;
  • Using materials prepared by a person or agency in the selling of term papers or other academic materials. 

See UI Library Guidance on Avoiding Plagiarism

Purdue OWL workshop/guidelines on using MLA for citation

MLA Quick Guide to Works Cited/citation

Basic Refresher Guidelines on Conducting Academic Research (via UI Library’s site for English 102) including support for process of finding and citing articles from peer-reviewed journals, books, and the option for direct research assistance/session with a UI librarian.

Lessons on Style (general advice/quited dated handout but perhaps worth looking over) [pdf]

Quick Advice on Punctuation (also dated) [pdf]

Summary/Overview of Perspectives on Critical Theory

Online Writing Center Resources (from writing essays to grammar and usage advice):

http://wiki.english.ucsb.edu/index.php/The_Craft_of_a_Literature_Paper

Questions to Guide Review of Draft of Critical Essay:

1. Does the essay clarify and advance understanding of problem/topic/method/perspective related to the “literary” text’s purposes and rhetorical strategies and to the ‘student’ writer’s interpretation and understanding of the text?
2. Can one understand the writer’s approach and strategies for introducing and developing the critical essay?
3. Sum up the essay’s central idea, hypothesis or purpose in one sentence.
4. What might a reader like best about the essay? Where might the reader want to know more or to pose a critical question?

Desired learning outcomes in the context of the Department of English and its major:

1) Students exhibit knowledge of diverse literatures in English and the cultural and historical contexts in which these works were produced.

2) Students can discern and evaluate the aesthetic and formal qualities of various texts.

3) Students can write an analytic essay that exhibits both critical thinking and effective argumentation.

4) Students can write a research essay that exhibits effective deployment of research as evidence.

5) Students’ writing exhibits correct usage of grammar and of MLA format and citation conventions.

 

 

 

 

Schedule | Syllabus | Projects | Moodle | Resources | Email Craig

Critical Essay

Write a 6-8 page essay that critically analyzes a screenshot from a work of New Media using quotations and ideas from our course readings.  

CONTENTS  

1. Choose a Work of New Media

The subject of your essay will be a work of New Media: a particular web site, for example, or a specific video game (and specific version), or a Facebook news feed on a particular day, etc.  Do not scatter your efforts talking about video games or a service like Twitter generally and in the abstract.  

2. Explore a Critical Question or Issue

Your analysis should ask and answer one critical question about that New Media work, or explain how this New Media work exemplifies and illuminates a critical issue.  The question or issue will provide the unifying center of gravity for your essay.  

A critical question or issue concerns how a work of New Media means or achieves an effect, what that meaning or effect is, to whom it means or is effective (or not), what the consequences that meaning or effect has (aesthetic, social, political, historical, psychological, cultural, economic, etc.).

3. Use Quotations From the Class’s Critical Sources

Develop your analysis around at least three quotations from at least two of our critical readings from the semester: Manovich, Bissell, Murray, Birkerts, Liu.  One of these quotations will probably be the primary inspiration for the critical question or issue that unifies your essay.  

4. Focus on a Screenshot (Part Represents the Whole)

In your analysis, use one screenshot to visually represent the larger work of New Media and to help visualize what you have to say about it.  Rather than trying to generalize about a whole video game or online app, you should use the screen shot to condense that whole experience into one specific, visual eye-full. 

The screen shot should be printed out (black and white is okay) and included with your essay.

5. Do a Close Reading

As much as possible, try to choose and use the screen shot to visualize and sum up whatever you have to say about the New Media work as a whole.  The screenshot can serve a hook on which to hang your whole argument.  You will be performing what is called a “ close reading ” of the screenshot: making a lot out of a little, choosing small visual and verbal details to represent larger meaning, effects, functions, issues, ideas, experiences, impressions, patterns, consequences, etc.  

Analyses that do close readings tend to use words like “represent,” “suggest,” "illustrate,” “offer,” “imply,” “epitomize,” “signify,” “symbolize,” “show,” “connote,” “denote,” “indicate,” “visualize,” “demonstrate,” “convey,” “express,” “reveal,” “expose,” etc.  

6. Include Quotations from an Outside Criticial Source

In addition to the quotations from our course readings, I will ask you to find, read, quote (at least twice), and cite at least one other critical source about or related to that New Media work: a review of the video game, for instance, or an in-depth article about Facebook’s waning popularity.  

 

PROCESS

Write It Twice: From Exploration to Statement to Argument

You will write this essay twice:  

1. First, Write It Starting from the Beginning:

In an exploratory rough draft, you will go top to bottom, trying to put the various elements together to see where they lead you: the New Media work you’ve selected, the screen shot you’ve chosen, the quotations.  

This exploratory rough draft should try to close read the screenshot to link these ingredients together—get them talking to one another—and move you toward a sense of momentum and coherence.  

At the end of the exploratory draft, try to distill the BEST of what you’ve realized and said (or maybe just realized) into a synthesizing statement—a unifying realization, insight, or fusion of the most interesting things you’ve thought or realized in the draft.  

2. Next, Write It Starting from the End

In a final draft, turn the whole project upside down.  Write an introduction that sets up and presents the synthesizing statement (or “thesis statement”) right away as an argument you’ll make, and then reassemble and rewrite all the elements (cutting out what’s extraneous) to make good on that claim.  Reorganize, refocus, and sharpen every paragraph to realize (that is, to make real) your argument and purpose.  

Make sure the first sentence of each paragraph suggests how that paragraph will both push your argument forward while also supporting and reinforcing your thesis statement announced in the introductory paragraph.

The final version of the essay should give the impression that you started the whole process with the final thesis statement and argument already in mind.  The world will never know how you got there! 

 

IF YOU GET STUCK: FREEWRITE

Try opening a new Word file and writing for five minutes solid, talking to yourself about what you’re doing and what you want to do

 

Resources

  • Dracula for the iPad
  • Dracula Developer Diary 2
  • Nancy Drew TV Show: Secret of the Whispering Walls (Part 2)
  • Nancy Drew Game: Ransom of the Seven Ships
  • " Solving the Crime of Modernity: Nancy Drew in 1930 "
  • Close Reading (Wikipedia)
  • Close Reading of A Literary Passage
  • How to Do a Close Reading (Harvard)

 

Schedule | Syllabus | Projects | Moodle | Resources | Email Craig

 

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Writing Centre

Writing Centre

  • Home
  • Writing a Critical Analysis of a Short Story

Writing a Critical Analysis of a Short Story

To write an effective critical analysis, you must first be sure
that you understand the question that has been posed, and all
literary terms that you have been asked to address. Once you feel
you understand the question, reread the piece of literature, making
notes. Then look at the notes you’ve made, consider what
connections you can make between observations, and reconsider the
question. Try to formulate a rough thesis statement (your “claim”).
Now try to select those pieces of evidence that you feel you can
most convincingly use to support the claim you made. Next, try to
formulate a good introduction, that

  • names the work discussed and the author.
  • provides a very brief plot summary.
  • relates some aspect of that plot to the topic you have chosen
    to address.
  • provides a thesis statement.
  • indicates the way you plan to develop your argument (support
    your claim).

Now proceed to introduce and discuss the evidence you mentioned
in your introduction, in the order in which you mentioned it.
Ensure that you deal with each kind of evidence in a paragraph of
its own, and that you introduce the topic of each paragraph with a
carefully-focused topic sentence. Also ensure that you end each
paragraph with a concluding sentence that sums up the thrust of
that paragraph’s argument and possibly paves the way for the next
piece of evidence to be discussed. (Alternatively, you can begin
the next paragraph with a transitional phrase that links the new
piece of evidence with the one you have just summarized.)

Finally, write a conclusion that restates your thesis (but using
different words), incorporates a brief restatement of your key
evidence, and provides a sense of closure. A good closing technique
is to somehow link the claim you have made about this particular
piece of literature with the author’s general style or
preoccupations, or to suggest some way in which the topic you have
just discussed relates more generally to some aspect of human
existence.

Model Essay

What follows is the sample essay analysing the use of setting in
the short story “The Cask of Amontillado.” Both “good” and “poor”
examples of the essay’s first and second body paragraphs are
included. As you read each paragraph of the essay, beginning with
its introduction, clicking on the “continue” arrow at the bottom of
the paragraph will permit you to see commentary on particular
features of the essay-writing process. To see all the commentary,
you may need to click the arrow multiple times.

  • Introduction
  • Body Paragraph #1 (good)
  • Body Paragraph #1 (poor)
  • Body Paragraph #2 (good)
  • Body Paragraph #2 (poor)
  • Body Paragraph #3
  • Conclusion

Contact

Writing Centre

230 Elizabeth Ave, St. John’s, NL, CANADA, A1B 3X9

Postal Address: P.O. Box 4200, St. John’s, NL, CANADA, A1C 5S7

Tel: (709) 864-8000

★A list of the best one year MBA programs in USA

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Top 10 MBA Programs in the World

Tuesday, November 28, 2017 at 1am
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MBA sign

The QS Global MBA Rankings 2018 ranks business schools around the world. The rankings are based on a total of 13 criteria form the basis of five key indicators: Employability; entrepreneurship and alumni outcomes; return on investment; thought leadership; and diversity.

The top 10 business schools in the Global MBA Rankings 2018 are:

1. Harvard  Graduate School of Business, US

Perhaps unsurprisingly,  Harvard  is the highest-ranked business school in the world this year. One of the world’s most elite universities, Harvard is also the originator of the MBA – the school ran the first course in 1908. For criteria-specific rankings, Harvard leads in employability and comes in at second place for entrepreneurship and alumni outcomes. Despite falling lower than many of the top European schools in terms of diversity, the institution still tops the ranking overall.

2. INSEAD, France

Second on our list is  INSEAD . INSEAD was the first institution to offer the MBA in Europe. It was also the first institution to offer a one-year MBA, as opposed to the standard two-year model in the US. In individual criteria, INSEAD is third for entrepreneurship and alumni outcomes, sixth for thought leadership, eighth for employability and 10th for return on investment – one of the few top institutions to rank highly in that specific criterium.

3. HEC Paris, France

HEC Paris  is the second French institution on this list, and third overall. The famous institution is among the most selective of the grandes écoles, and for good reason. Along with Harvard, it tops the polls in terms of employability and also comes first for diversity –  with an international student rate of 92%.

4. Stanford Graduate School of Business, US

Stanford  is the most selective institution in the US, with more applications per spot than any other business school in the country. Famed for its tech-savvy alumni and the starting point of many of the world’s biggest tech enterprises, the university comes fourth in our global ranking. According to our ranking criteria, the institution leads the world in entrepreneurship and alumni outcomes and comes in 10th for thought leadership.

5. London Business School, UK

London Business School  is the first UK institution in the top 10 this year. The school is based in one of the world’s main financial capitals, with 100% of the world’s leading financial institutions represented in the city, and three quarters of the top 500 global companies using it as their base. It comes third for employability this year, fourth for entrepreneurship and alumni outcomes, seventh for thought leadership and 12th for diversity.

6. The Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, US

Sixth in this year’s global top 10 is  Wharton . The world’s oldest business school was founded in 1881 and is part of the M7 – an elite group of US MBA programs. The institution ranked third for thought leadership, fourth for employability, and ninth for entrepreneurship and alumni outcomes.

7. MIT Sloan School of Management, US

Sloan  is one of the most selective business schools in the world, with alumni including the seventh UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan; Bill Ford, Chairman of the Ford Motor Company; and Cary Fiorina, the former CEO of Hewlett-Packard. The institution is seventh in our global ranking: It ranks ninth for employability, eighth for entrepreneurship and alumni outcomes, and first for thought leadership (unsurprising, given the institution’s focus on innovation).

8. Columbia Business School, US

As the only Ivy League business school based in New York,  Columbia  has a significant competitive edge on other schools in the US. New York is the financial capital of the world and studying at Columbia offers unrivalled access to the city. The institution is eighth in our global ranking. For employability, it ranks at sixth place and is 10th for entrepreneurship and alumni outcomes.

9. Saïd Business School, University of Oxford, UK

The second UK-based business school on this list,  Saïd , is the business school of the world’s oldest English-language university – the University of Oxford. It has the largest intake of any graduate business school in the country. Ninth in our ranking, the institution is placed 11th in the world for diversity and second for thought leadership.

10. IE Business School, Spain

This prestigious institution  is based in Spain, making it the fifth European institution to make it into the top 10. It’s a highly diverse school, coming 10th for diversity – alongside HEC Paris, the only school in this list to rank in the top 10 for this criteria. The institution also came sixth for entrepreneurship and alumni outcomes and 14th for employability.

Infographic for the world's top 10 MBAs

 

Take a look at the complete ranking

Amelia Hopkins

Written by Amelia Hopkins

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Amelia Hopkins is a writer for TopMBA, covering the latest news in business and business education. A graduate of the University of Leeds and Yorkshire native, she enjoys reading, travelling and talking incessantly about the countryside.

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    souvik101990

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    One Year MBA Programs 

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    New post  14 Jun 2017, 12:25

    7

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    One Year MBA Programs

    One year MBA programs have often been considered an anomaly: a shortcut to an MBA, often relegated to older individuals who are not always looking for a dramatic career shift. However, with the recent surge of top MBA programs including INSEAD, LBS, and other European schools dominating the MBA rankings game and many domestic US schools offering 1 year versions of their own program, one year MBAs have gained in popularity.

    Advantage of 1 year programs over 2 year programs

    1. An equivalent degree in half the time and cost.
    2. The lost opportunity cost of not having a job for 2 year.
    3. Despite the shortened academic experience, MBA employers tend to award one-year grads the same starting salaries they pay MBAs of two-year programs. In fact, several schools report that their one-year MBAs make slightly more than graduates of their traditional programs, largely the result of differences in work experience.

    Advantage of 2 year programs over 1 year programs

    1. Losing out on the summer internship which is almost a yardstick of recruitment.
    2. Losing out on networking and socializing with future co-workers.
    3. 2 year programs almost always are less than 2 years in tenure by a couple of months at least.
    3. Limited number of schools offering the one year MBA program.
    4. One major distinction between most of the one-year U.S. programs and the European MBAs is that the U.S. versions generally require a business undergraduate degree and/or a bunch of core prerequisites.

    Top International One-Year MBA Programs

    INSEAD (France, Singapore)

    Image

    Quote:
    With three fully-integrated campuses in Europe, Asia and the Middle East, and over 90 different nationalities in the classroom, no other business school offers such a multicultural experience.

    The accelerated 10-month curriculum develops successful, thoughtful leaders and entrepreneurs who create value for their organisations and their communities. Our alumni often say that their year at INSEAD was life-changing.​

    Cost of the programTuition fees for the July Class are set in December each year. Fees for the December Class are announced in June.
    Current tuition fees for the class graduating in December 2018 are €80,800.
    Tuition fees cover all printed course materials, access to the INSEAD library, access to on-campus information technology services, language tuition and testing*, student council fees, gym access, business cards, printing and health insurance.

    London Business School – UK

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    Quote:
    The world’s most flexible MBA – Customise our MBA to your individual interests and career path. With flexible exit points, core courses that can be tailored to your needs, 70+ electives and applied learning opportunities, there’s a path to suit everyone.

    Cost of the programTuition fees for the MBA starting in August 2017 are £75,100 Fees include all tuition and required core course reading materials which may be provided electronically and/or in hard-copy. You may wish to buy extra materials during your time at LBS, particularly during the elective programme.
    Also covered by your fees are flights and accommodation for your Global Business Experience.
    When considering the cost of an MBA, take into account the potential earning opportunities of summer internships and the optional Business Project while studying.

    Judge Cambridge – UK

    Image

    Quote:
    – a consistently highly ranked and regarded MBA from a business school and university renowned around the world
    – a one-year programme, offering in-depth learning and personalised career development services
    – undertaken by experienced professionals in a class size of c.170, an optimal number to enhance peer-to-peer learning
    – a programme focused on experiential learning, with two live client projects proven to enable global and cross-sector career mobility for graduates.

    Cost of the programThe fees for the class of 2017/18 are £51,000 (this fee includes the £2,470 college membership fee). Please note: there is an application fee payable of £150.
    You should also consider whether there are additional costs such as:
    Set-up costs e.g. buying a laptop, a UK mobile phone, a bike etc.
    Travel to and from Cambridge.
    Utility bills if you decide to live in private accommodation.

    Said – Oxford – UK

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    Quote:
    Our MBA provides a solid grounding in the major business disciplines and core business skills. Our faculty are world-class experts in their fields and they develop courses based on up-to-date best practice and the latest academic research.

    Underpinning a rigorous programme of courses is an extended and strengthened talent development programme. All of our MBA students will be offered professional coaching and a suite of optional courses to help define your interpersonal, communication and team work skills.

    Cost of the programThe fee for the MBA programme 2017/18 is £52,000. This includes:Course fee College fee Life-long Oxford Union membership
    Applicants who are offered and accept a place on the course are asked to pay a non-refundable deposit of £7,300 which will be offset against their course fee.

    IE – Spain

    Image

    Quote:
    The masters in business administration at IE Business School shape leaders that promote innovation and change. Our graduates believe all businesses should generate employment, wealth and social well-being. IE has undergone four decades of rapid growth and is now recognized by the international press as one of the world’s leading business schools.

    Cost of the programIE Business School awards tuition funding assistance based on merit, distinctive competencies and academic excellence. The IE International MBA tuition fee is 69.200€*. Many of our students visit our Financial Aid office for a personal consultation to address their financial needs, and we will be happy to speak on the phone or set up an appointment if you have any questions.

    * Please bear in mind that prices are reviewed annually and are subject to change.

    IMD – Switzerland

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    Quote:
    The IMD MBA is designed to ensure that you master the fundamentals needed in business today and increase your self-awareness. It prepares you to confidently select adequate responses to business challenges worldwide.

    Cost of the programTuition: CHF 60,000. Other fee: CHF 25,000
    Approximate living expenses for a single person: CHF 36,000
    This estimate includes housing: CHF 18,750 and living expenses: CHF 17,250
    If you do not meet the objectives of our pre-program self-assessment in Accounting and Finance, you will need to complete our three-day immersion program at the start of January. The cost for this is CHF 750.

    Northwestern University’s Kellogg School of Management

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    Quote:
    1. Its the highest ranked US Business school which offers a One Year Program.
    2. Median GMAT score of 2011 class was 700, with 700-740 being the scores of 43% of the class.
    3. Average age is 28 and Average WE is 5 years.
    4. Diverse student pool, including engineers, doctors, physicians, lawyers and journalists.
    5. Students complete core coursework before showing up at Kellogg and then focus on advanced electives in 18 different areas of study.
    6. Completion of courses such as accounting, finance, marketing, statistics, operations, economics, and organizational behavior are mandatory.
    7. Kellogg accepts undergrad programs in community colleges but not online degrees.
    8. Recruitment process, however more challenging for one year students, are essentially similar for both 1 year and 2 year programs..

    Cost of the program$95,000! Full Year Expense: $133,000

    Cornell University’s Johnson Graduate School of Management

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    Quote:
    1. High degrees in quant fields are required of applicants.
    2. Concentrations are optional, but available to help position students for their post-MBA goals.
    3. Courses are shared between the 2 year and 1 year programs.
    4. Average GPA: 3.56; Average GMAT score: 710; Median WE is 4 years.
    5.Cornell reports that 97% of the Class of 2012 that sought job offers received them. The average reported base salary $106,400 and the average signing bonus of $17,600 compares favorably with graduates of Cornell’s two-year MBA program ($103,600 base and $23,200 signing bonus).

    Cost of the programTuition: $98,940

    University of Southern California Marshall School of Business

    Image

    Quote:
    1. Participation in 2 week “international immersion” in either Beijing and Shanghai, China, or Santiago, Chile, and Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    2. Notre Dame’s typical intake of one-year students is about 65 a year. Some 29% of the Class of 2012 was composed of women, with only 6% international (much lower than most other programs). The average age of a one-year MBA here is 27, with an average five years of work experience.
    3. During what the school calls “ inter term intensives,” MBA students also can analyze and offer solutions for real-life problems presented by executives from large global organizations, including Adidas, Boeing, GE, Hewlett-Packard, McDonald’s, Nestle, OfficeMax, Pace Global Energy Services, Starbucks and Walgreens.

    F.W. Olin Graduate School of Business at Babson College

    Image

    Quote:
    1. Babson’s accelerated one-year MBA program requires what the school calls “a substantial academic background in business.”
    2. The school, long known as a top place to study entrepreneurial thinking, brings in nearly 80 students a year to its one-year program, about half the size of its more traditional two-year MBA.
    3. A high percentage of one-year students—46%–are from outside the U.S., making the student body more global than most.
    4. The average GMAT score for one-year students is 589, 15 points higher than Babson’s evening students but a bit lower than the 616 for the two-year class. Students have an average five years of work experience, exactly the same as Babson’s two-year MBA candidates.
    5. The program allows students to take on a concentration in one of several fields, including corporate finance, global management, investments, life sciences and healthcare, or marketing.

    Cost of the program: Tuition: $80,167 Total Estimated Cost: $116,747

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    Re: One Year MBA Programs 

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    New post  20 Jun 2017, 08:25

    Great post and very helpful list!
    There are a few more one year MBA programs that can be added, as detailed here: https://aringo.com/mba-1y-one-year-programs/

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    Re: One Year MBA Programs 

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    New post  13 Sep 2018, 06:41

    Hello from the GMAT Club MBAbot!

    Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up – doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

    Want to see all other topics I dig out? Follow me (click follow button on profile). You will receive a summary of all topics I bump in your profile area as well as via email.

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    Re: One Year MBA Programs &nbs
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    My Favorite Things. Essay

    689 words – 3 pages

    It is often said that the best things in life are free, I, for one, fully agree with the statement. To me, “best” does not imply the most beautiful or glamorous, or the most indulgent or heavenly, but it is those things which I held to be the most valuable and precious in my life. Most people would choose to write about their role model (usually their mother), or the sunset, or even the rain. Some would write about food, others about clothes.

    I, on the other hand, have “favourite” things of a very different kind. It might sound strange, but my favourite things are: my eyes, my nose, my mouth, my ears, and my hands. Although they are nothing out of the ordinary (no unfortunately I haven’t been blessed with aquamarine eyes, or perfectly pouting lips), these features are my favourite things because of their ability to evoke in me experience of pure, unadulterated bliss.

    Take my eyes, for instance. People say that one’s eyes are the window to one’s soul. Then I must have a fairly bleak, run-of-the mill type of soul, for what you will see when you look at my eyes are two dark-brown, round buttons. They do not exude any magnetism; neither do they give off an aura of mystery and melodrama. But, they have been the rolls with which I have been able to witness many a beautiful sunset. The sun spreads its mosaic of colour on the horizon, amidst wisps of drifting clouds, as hues of russet pink and violet glisten across the sapphire sky. Then, darkness tears the sky asunder, as day slips into night, providing a canvas for the vast constellation of stars that sparkle majestically, illuminated by the glow of the moon. Serenity fills my souls and soothes my mind as the magnificence and splendour of the sunset captives me.

    My next favourite thing is my nose, a feature that quite dominant on my visage, conspiracy exhibiting its own sense of prominence. I assume that it could serve as a rather good model to demonstrate inclined planes in a Physics practical or…

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    How To Make Your Favorite Food Essay

    by Amanda Right How to , Writing Samples




    Descriptive Essay on My Favorite Food

    How To Make Your Favorite Food Essay, customessayorder.com

    • Outline example
    • How to start
    • How to write the introduction
    • How to write the thesis statement
    • Example of the thesis statement
    • Example of the introduction
    • How to write body paragraphs
    • Example of body paragraphs
    • How to conclude
    • Example of conslusion
    • Essay revision

    Outline sample

    Descriptive Essay on my Favorite Food

    • Introduction: This will include your favorite meal, and why you love it.
    • 1st Body Paragraph: This paragraph should introduce your first reason for settling on the food as your favorite.

    “Pizza is the best delicacy in the entire world. The sensation one feels when the sauce flows off it into the mouth is the best feeling and it cannot compare to any other type of food.”

    • 2nd Body Paragraph: This section shall introduce your second reason.

    “I have amazing memories of the moments we spent with my friend Joe. He owned a pizzeria where we used to share fun eating pizza occasionally having pizza fights.”

    • 3rd Body Paragraph: This paragraph has a third and final reason.

    “Pizza was one food I used to cook with my parents growing up – it really brought us closer together.”

    • Conclusion: This is where you summarize your paper by paraphrasing your thesis statement and restating why you love the food.

    How to start

    The structure of an essay is categorized into an introduction, body paragraphs, and conclusion. The thesis statement may be the first or the final statement in the introduction that summarizes the main arguments to be discussed in the task. The paragraphs in the body are introduced using topic sentences that are discussed in detail using supporting sentences. In conclusion, the piece is summarized by restating the main highlights brought forward in the body paragraphs.

    Food is a fascinating topic to discuss owing to some reasons. The most elemental one being it is a basic need that people can naturally feel for and relate. This is because basic instincts such as hunger and emotions, including love and anger can be freely expressed and one can produce high standard papers about them in a short span. This is because the author has much of the information in their brains and as such minimal research is required on the topic.

    For example, thus far in the essay, it is highly likely that the thought of your favorite food has crossed your mind. You can comfortably describe how your favorite food feels, narrate its benefits and smell, recall how it’s prepared and you might have a craving for the meal at the moment. This is the same for students at all levels. In case you do not have adequate evidence on the matter of the type of paper you are required to write, you can collect information on the same from relevant materials.

    How to write the introduction

    An essay on any topic should be started using a brief introduction on the subject to be discussed with the audience. Similarly, a piece of food should be commenced by introducing the different type of food that will be discussed. The areas to be addressed in the section include a brief introduction into how you have developed the eating habits, the types of foods that have featured in our diets for a couple of centuries as well as the new ones. You are not only required to provide the writer with an introduction on the food that you intend to discuss but also clearly state a thesis statement of your discussion. The piece should be based on a solid idea. Having the thesis statement as the first sentence is a brilliant approach to capturing the reader’s attention as well as giving the essay a more academic and professional edge. In the first section, the student can present their opinion on the topic in a summary and maybe include a small anecdote. These are interesting approaches to ensure the reader is engrossed in your piece and follow the ideas being presented. In the body paragraphs, the essay writer should introduce the facts, logic, and ideas gathered from references. In the beginning is where the student can maintain a light and easy reading tone.

    In a nutshell, to write an introduction, make sure you are clear on what you are being asked, and what you want to say. Gather the information you want to convey, get your thesis statement prepared, and remember that you can’t make an original argument in the introduction itself.

    How to write the thesis statement

    Writing a thesis statement is as simple as choosing what the ultimate point of your research is, and putting it into words.

    Example of the thesis statement

    Pizza is such a wonderful food to eat because there are endless ways to have it; that is why it is my favorite food.

    Writing an Essay on Favorite Food, customessayorder.com

    Example of the introduction

    Pizza is such a wonderful food to eat because there are endless ways to have it; that is why it is my favorite food. Whether you are making it with someone, or know someone who can provide you with good pizza, it is never far away, and it is always good. Pizza, much like food, brings people together.

    How to write body paragraphs

    Tips on body writing

    This should commence with recognizing the type of assignment. This is because the tone in an argumentative paper is different from that in an informative one. Once you are clear on the kind of job, you can select the data and topic appropriately. The next step is to settle on the kind of food that you intend to discuss and why the issue is so important to you. It is followed by the development of an outline and lastly commences writing on your topic.

    1. One paragraph for each argument, otherwise it gets too complicated
    2. Have a topic sentence and a concluding sentence
    3. Reference the thesis statement
    4. Do your research
    5. Write clearly and coherently

    Example of body paragraphs

    1st body paragraph

    I love pizza so much purely for the tactile sensations, it gives me. Being able to enjoy vegetables, stringy melted cheese, and the liquid nature of the tomato sauce is truly divine. Pizza is one of the few dishes which combines textures and flavours in this way, which is why I enjoy it so much.

    2nd body paragraph

    I love pizza because it connects me so strongly to my memories of Joe, my friend. We used to share pizza and have pizza fights all the time when I was growing up – some of my best memories are of him, and it is a huge part of why pizza is one of my favorite things to eat.

    3rd body paragraph

    Pizza is a dish which is very easy to cook communally. It makes for a great family bonding experience, and I remember many nights spent with my family deciding what should go on the pizza, and how it should be placed. Pizza is a very communal dish, and I have a lot of happy memories from that.

    How to conclude

    In conclusion, you should discuss why it is your favorite food and how it is prepared. It is prudent to ensure you have enough reasons to consider concerning the food. Discuss the information you can recall in your mind and research on the areas that may be lacking to ensure that you find your favorite food comprehensively.

    1. Restate the thesis statement
    2. Make sure to reference every argument
    3. Sum everything up
    4. Don’t make any original arguments
    5. Remember that this is your last chance to impress people.

    Conclusion example

    Pizza is a wonderful food for me because of how it is prepared, and the memories I have associated with it. Pizza is such a wonderful food to eat because there are endless ways to have it; that is why it is my favorite food. My family and my friends are both involved in this section of my memories, and all together it combines to make some of my happiest memories.

    Essay revision

    Revisions is just as important a step as everything else. It should take in the whole essay, because this is your last chance to make sure that the essay will pass muster.

    1. Pay attention to the bibliography
    2. Revise once for grammar, once for formatting
    3. Remember to check that you are using the correct citation style
    4. Ask someone else to look over your essay for you
    5. Remember to check that the thesis statement makes sense.

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    Cesar Torres A Call to Action Illegal immigration in the United States is one of the most controversial issues of today. The United States is a nation built on immigrants and this is why the nation was deemed “The melting pot,” because of all the different nationalities residing in this country. The argument of immigration and whether or not it enhances or threatens life in the United States is an on-going issue. Although we are trying to protect our citizens, immigration laws treat immigrants poorly.

    This country needs to re-examine the immigration laws, so that they do not treat immigrants unfairly as well as protect our citizens while protecting the borders. Immigration has been responsible for cultural change and population growth throughout the country. The political, economic, and social aspects of immigration have created much controversy in regards to ethnicity, job security, job growth, economic benefits, where people live, not to mention impact on the amount of criminal activity, and work habits.

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    Reinforcing the borders, establishing clear immigration and deportation policies and doing something with those who are already illegally here but are law abiding citizens should be the goal for a new immigration policy. Instead of bickering on what should be done, congressional and senate leaders need to get the job done and come up with a flexible and workable reform to immigration. Illegal aliens currently in the United States should be eligible for legal status in eight years or some form of amnesty, as long as they learned English, had not committed a crime and paid their taxes.

    The aim should not be to deport a record number of people. Spouses and minor children of a person who have gained legal status should be eligible to join their legalized family member. No one should be separated from their family. The majority of undocumented workers in the United States are currently holding low-wage, less desirable jobs where they risk injury without health coverage and often work in terrible conditions. Due to their illegal status, the government is failing to protect these workers from morally wrong employers.

    Congress needs to eliminate the current system entirely or commit to making a fair program with strong worker protections that are vigorously enforced. In states like California, almost half of the students starting school are immigrants or the children of immigrants. As a result of immigration driven population growth, most public schools exceed their capacity. All children have the right to a good education. To alleviate overcrowding, schools use portable classrooms, and even hold classes in temporary instructional space, such as cafeterias and gyms.

    One possible solution is to pass in many school districts is year-round school schedules. The aim with the year-round schools is to have the buildings in use during the summer months, with students on various schedules in order to maximize resources. There are millions of illegal aliens living in the United States. They are working jobs that need to be done, that someone has to do and that many of us would never take. They are still waiting for a change in the system which could regulate their status. Ignoring the problem will only make things worse. These people deserve fair treatment.

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    Design of a mechanical four-wheel steering system

    International Conference and Exhibition on Automobile Engineering

    Aastik Chawla, Aakash Tayal, Aditya Salapka and Abhas Jha
    Delhi Technological University, India
    Posters-Accepted Abstracts: Adv Automob Eng
    DOI: 10.4172/2167-7670.C1.003
    Abstract
    Our model is a driver-selectable four-wheel steering which is cheaper than most existing systems and provides a large
    dynamic benefit over other mechanical four wheel steering systems. This system will allow the vehicle to have two-wheel
    steering where it is required (such as high-speed driving) and will give the driver an option to switch to four-wheel steering
    and perform complex maneuvers. We have tried to combine the performance index of an electrical system with the low cost
    and easy maintenance of a linkage-based one. This four-wheel steering system can be activated by the driver and disengaged as
    well, while the vehicle is in motion. We have considered two different types of engaging mechanism.
    1. Servo-based, which can be activated by the push of a button and gives an indication on the dashboard whether, the vehicle
    is in two-wheel drive or four-wheel drive. This system will use a very small servo motor as compared to fully electrical
    ones.
    2. Lever-activated system, which will use a lever to switch between two-wheel and four-wheel steering modes. This system
    will require some physical effort by the driver but the cost of this system will be considerably less as the system is fully
    mechanical.
    This system will enable drivers to negotiate some tricky parking situations and carve a way easily in the intense and jumbled
    traffic of Indian cities. It will also aid off-road drivers in getting out of precarious conditions and make the most of the strained
    paths encountered in off road driving.
    Biography

    Aastik Chawla is pursuing Bachelor’s in Mechanical Engineering from Delhi Technological University, New Delhi, India and will be starting final year from August 2015.

    Email: [email protected]

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    Each week, The Sentinel publishes stories we receive to prompts in Kids World and on www.cumberlink.com . This week’s Kids Speak Out prompt was “My favorite hobby is …”

    •••

    My favorite hobby is football, because you get strong and healthy.

    Isaiah

    First grade

    Broad Street Elementary

    •••

    My favorite hobby is drawing because I’m good at it. I like to draw because I can draw anything. So when I got a box of crayons from my mom, I went upstairs and started drawing. I drew a dog, a cat, and people. Then my room was full of pictures that I drew.

    Ana Potter, 8

    Second grade

    St. Patrick School

    •••

    My favorite hobby is crafts. I like drawing and lots of other things.

    Madeline Stutzman, 9

    Fourth grade

    Fishing Creek Elementary

    •••

    My favorite hobby is playing video games, because it’s like if you were in a world of games. The video game’s name is Xbox One. I love that video game so much. I really like a game called “Destiny.” You can fight robots and aliens. I hope you can play it too.

    Liam Burns, 7

    Second grade

    St. Patrick School

    •••

    My favorite hobby is singing and dancing. I like to sing Ariana Grande songs and dance at the studio. My dance teacher is Mr. David. I like to sing and dance in front of my parents, sister and my nanny and pappy.

    Nayeli Jones, 8

    Third grade

    East Pennsboro Elementary

    •••

    My favorite hobby is collecting Pokémon cards and playing outside. When I am outside, I play at the park. My friends and I play sandman and tag. It is really fun to play outside and to collect Pokémon cards. You should really go outside because it is fresh air.

    Evan MacCuish, 7

    Second grade

    St. Patrick School

    •••

    My favorite hobby is playing the violin because it is my favorite thing to do all the time. I like to play my violin. I learn how to the play the violin. The first time I got it, it was at Christmas. I asked Santa for my violin, and I got it for Christmas. I play my violin every day and every time I do it, it is my favorite.

    Emma Wagner

    Sixth grade

    New Cumberland Middle School

    •••

    My favorite hobby is playing kickball outside with my friends on a hot summer day.

    Conley Dunn, 9

    Fourth grade

    Fishing Creek Elementary

    •••

    My favorite hobby is collecting rocks. I love collecting rocks. I have smooth rocks, hard rocks, different colored rocks, bumpy rocks, sharp rocks and shiny rocks, and some rocks are two colors. Everywhere I go, I get a rock and I keep it in my very own chest with lock and key. I have lots of my very own rocks.

    Evan Zinck,9

    Third grade

    East Pennsboro Elementary

    •••

    My favorite hobby is exercising. I can do 55 sit-ups and 67 push-ups. My dad can do 157 sit-ups and 188 push-ups. My dad can do much more sit-ups than push-ups. My brother is funny doing sit-ups. He lies down and lifts up his hips. He does two different sit-ups. The other one is more funny. He stands up and bows. It’s funny because he bends his knees. I love watching people do push-ups.

    Jocelyn Zerance, 7

    Second grade

    St. Patrick School

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    Hobby

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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    For other uses, see Hobby (disambiguation) .
    “Pastime” redirects here. For the film, see Pastime (film) . For the novel, see Pastime (novel) .

    Hobby: Collecting Seashells

    The origin of the word hobby in Tristram Shandy , a characters’ “hobby-horses”, or particular obsessions

    A hobby is a regular activity that is done for enjoyment, typically during one’s leisure time. Hobbies can include collecting themed items and objects, engaging in creative and artistic pursuits, playing sports, or pursuing other amusements. A list of hobbies is lengthy and always changing as interests and fashions change. By continually participating in a particular hobby, one can acquire substantial skills and knowledge in that area. Engagement in hobbies has increased since the late nineteenth century as workers have more leisure time and advancing production and technology have provided more support for leisure activities. Hobbies tend to follow trends in society, for example stamp collecting was popular during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries as postal systems were the main means of communication, while video games are more popular nowadays following technological advances.

    Hobbyists are a part of a wider group of people engaged in leisure pursuits where the boundaries of each group overlap to some extent. The Serious Leisure Perspective [1] groups hobbyists with amateurs and volunteers and identifies three broad groups of leisure activity with hobbies being found mainly in the Serious leisure category.

    a. Casual leisure is intrinsically rewarding, short-lived, pleasurable activity requiring little or no preparation.

    b. Serious leisure is the systematic pursuit of an amateur, hobbyist, or volunteer that is substantial, rewarding and results in a sense of accomplishment.

    c. Project-based leisure is a short-term often a one-off project that is rewarding. [2]

    Contents

    • 1 Etymology
    • 2 History
    • 3 Hobbies and related leisure activities
    • 4 Types of hobbies
      • 4.1 Collecting
      • 4.2 Making and tinkering
        • 4.2.1 Gardening
        • 4.2.2 Tinkering
      • 4.3 Activity Participation
        • 4.3.1 Outdoor recreation
      • 4.4 Liberal arts pursuits
      • 4.5 Sports and games
    • 5 Significant achievements by hobbyists and amateurs
    • 6 See also
    • 7 References
    • 8 External links

    Etymology[ edit ]

    Writing articles for Wikipedia is a hobby for some people.

    In the 16th century, the term “hobyn” had the meaning of “small horse and pony”. The term ” hobby horse ” was documented in a 1557 payment confirmation for a “Hobbyhorse” from Reading, England. [3] The item, originally called a “Tourney Horse”, was made of a wooden or basketwork frame with an artificial tail and head. It was designed for a child to mimic riding a real horse . By 1816 the derivative , “hobby”, was introduced into the vocabulary of a number of English people. [4] Over the course of subsequent centuries, the term came to be associated with recreation and leisure . In the 17th century, the term was used in a pejorative sense by suggesting that a hobby was a childish pursuit, however, in the 18th century with a more industrial society and more leisure time, hobbies took on greater respectability [5] A hobby is also called a pastime, derived from the use of hobbies to pass the time. A hobby became an activity that is practised regularly and usually with some worthwhile purpose. [6] Hobbies are usually, but not always, practised primarily for interest and enjoyment, rather than financial reward.

    History[ edit ]

    The origins pursuits that others thought somewhat childish or trivial. However, as early as 1676 Sir Matthew Hale, in Contemplations Moral and Divine, wrote “Almost every person hath some hobby horse or other wherein he prides himself.” [7] He was acknowledging that a “hobby horse” produces a legitimate sense of pride. By the mid 18th century there was a flourishing of hobbies as working people had more regular hours of work and greater leisure time. They spent more time to pursue interests that brought them satisfaction. [8] However, there was concern that these working people might not use their leisure time in worthwhile pursuits. “The hope of weaning people away from bad habits by the provision of counter-attractions came to the fore in the 1830s, and has rarely waned since. Initially the bad habits were perceived to be of a sensual and physical nature, and the counter attractions, or perhaps more accurately alternatives, deliberately cultivated rationality and the intellect.” [9] The flourishing book and magazine trade of the day encouraged worthwhile hobbies and pursuits. The burgeoning manufacturing trade made materials used in hobbies cheap and was responsive to the changing interests of hobbyists.

    The English have been identified as enthusiastic hobbyists, as George Orwell observed. “[A]nother English characteristic which is so much a part of us that we barely notice it … is the addiction to hobbies and spare-time occupations, the privateness of English life. We are a nation of flower-lovers, but also a nation of stamp-collectors, pigeon-fanciers, amateur carpenters, coupon-snippers, darts-players, crossword-puzzle fans. All the culture that is most truly native centres round things which even when they are communal are not official—the pub, the football match, the back garden, the fireside and the ‘nice cup of tea’.” [10]

    Deciding what to include in a list of hobbies provokes debate because it is difficult to decide which pleasurable pass-times can also be described as hobbies. During the 20th century the term hobby usually brought to mind activities such as stamp collecting, embroidery, knitting, painting, woodwork, photography, but not activities like listening to music, watching television or reading. These latter activities bring pleasure but lack the sense of achievement that is usually associated with a hobby. They are usually not structured, organised pursuits, as most hobbies are. The pleasure of a hobby is usually associated with making something of value or achieving something of value. “Such leisure is socially valorised precisely because it produces feelings of satisfaction with something that looks very much like work but that is done of its own sake.” [6] “Hobbies are a contradiction: they take work and turn it into leisure, and take leisure and turn it into work.” [11]

    Hobbies and related leisure activities[ edit ]

    The terms amateur and hobbyist are often used interchangeably. Stebbins [1] has a framework which distinguishes the terms has a useful categorisation of leisure in which he separates casual leisure from serious Leisure. He describes serious leisure as undertaken by amateurs, hobbyists and volunteers. Amateurs engage in pursuits that have a professional counterpart, such as playing an instrument or astronomy. Hobbyists engage in five broad types of activity: collecting, making and tinkering (like embroidery and car restoration), activity participation (like fishing and singing), sports and games, and liberal-arts hobbies (like languages, cuisine, literature). Volunteers commit to organisations where they work as guides, counsellors, gardeners and so on. The separation of the amateur from the hobbyist is because the amateur has the ethos of the professional practitioner as a guide to practice. An amateur clarinetist is conscious of the role and procedures of a professional clarinetist.

    A large proportion of hobbies are mainly solitary in nature. [12] However, individual pursuit of a hobby often includes club memberships, organised sharing of products and regular communication between participants. For many hobbies there is an important role in being in touch with fellow hobbyists. Some hobbies are of communal nature, like choral singing and volunteering.

    During the 20th century there was extensive research into the important role that play has in human development. While most evident in childhood, play continues throughout life for many adults in the form of games, hobbies, and sport. [13]

    The type of hobbies that people engage in changes with time. In the 21st century the video game industry is very large hobby involving millions of kids and adults in various forms of ‘play’. Stamp collecting has declined along with the decline in the importance of the postal system. Woodwork and knitting have declined as hobbies as manufactured goods provide cheap alternatives for handmade goods. Through the internet an online community has become a hobby for many people; sharing advice, information and support, and in some cases, allowing a traditional hobby, such as collecting , to flourish and support trading in a new environment.

    People who engage in hobbies have an interest in and time to pursue them. Children have been an important group of hobbyists because they are enthusiastic for collecting, making and exploring, in addition to this they have the leisure time that allows them to pursue those hobbies. The growth in hobbies occurred during industrialisation which gave workers set time for leisure. During the Depression there was an increase in the participation in hobbies because the unemployed had the time and a desire to be purposefully occupied. [14] Hobbies are often pursued with an increased interest by retired people because they have the time and seek the intellectual and physical stimulation a hobby provides. Studies of ageing and society support the value of hobbies in healthy ageing.

    Types of hobbies[ edit ]

    For a more comprehensive list, see List of hobbies .

    Hobbies are a diverse set of activities and it is difficult to categorize them in a logical manner. The following categorization of hobbies was developed by Stebbins. [2]

    Collecting
    • Collectable
    • Antique
    • Antiquities
    Terms
    • Ephemera
    • Premium
    • Prize
    • Souvenir
    • Special edition
    Topics
    • List of collectables
    • List of hobbies
    • v
    • t
    • e

    Collecting[ edit ]

    This section does not cite any sources . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (November 2017) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message )
    Main article: Collecting

    Collecting includes seeking, locating, acquiring, organizing, cataloging, displaying and storing. Collecting is appealing to many people due to their interest in a particular subject and a desire to categorise and make order out of complexity. Some collectors are generalists, accumulating items from countries of the world. Others focus on a subtopic within their area of interest, perhaps 19th century postage stamps, milk bottle labels from Sussex, or Mongolian harnesses and tack.

    text

    A stamp album used in stamp collecting .

    Collecting is an ancient hobby, with the list of coin collectors showing Caesar Augustus as one. Sometimes collectors have turned their hobby into a business, becoming commercial dealers that trade in the items being collected.

    An alternative to collecting physical objects is collecting records of events of a particular kind. Examples include train spotting , bird-watching , aircraft spotting , railfans , and any other form of systematic recording a particular phenomenon. The recording form can be written, photographic, online, etc.

    Making and tinkering[ edit ]

    This section does not cite any sources . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (November 2017) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message )

    Scale modeling is making a replica of a real life object in a smaller scale and dates back to prehistoric times with small clay “dolls” and other children’s toys that have been found near known populated areas. The Persians , Greeks , and Romans took the form to a greater depth during their years of domination of the Western World, using scale replicas of enemy fortifications , coastal defense lines, and other geographic fixtures to plan battles.

    At the turn of the Industrial Age and through the 1920s, families could afford things such as electric trains , wind-up toys (typically boats or cars) and the increasingly valuable tin toy soldiers.

    Model engineering refers to building functioning machinery in metal, such as internal combustion motors and live steam models or locomotives. This is a demanding hobby that requires a multitude of large and expensive tools, such as lathes and mills . This hobby originated in the United Kingdom in the late 19th century, later spreading and flourishing in the mid-20th century. Due to the expense and space required, it is becoming rare.

    Scale modeling as we know it today became popular shortly after World War II . Before 1946, children as well as adults were content in carving and shaping wooden replicas from block wood kits, often depicting enemy aircraft to help with identification in case of an invasion.

    A coffee-table sized model railroad

    With the advent of modern plastics, the amount of skill required to get the basic shape accurately shown for any given subject was lessened, making it easier for people of all ages to begin assembling replicas in varying scales. Superheroes, aeroplanes, boats, cars, tanks, artillery, and even figures of soldiers became quite popular subjects to build, paint and display. Although almost any subject can be found in almost any scale, there are common scales for such miniatures which remain constant today.

    3D Printing is a relatively new technology and already a major hobby as the cost of printers has fallen sharply. It is a good example of how hobbyists quickly engage with new technologies, communicate with one another and become producers related to their former hobby. 3D modeling is the process of making mathematical representations of three dimensional items and is an aspect of 3D printing.

    Dressmaking has been a major hobby up until the late 20th century, in order to make cheap clothes, but also as a creative design and craft challenge. It has been reduced by the low cost manufactured clothes.

    Cooking is for some people an interest, a hobby, a challenge and a source of significant satisfaction. For many other people it is a job, a chore, a duty, like cleaning. In the early 21st century the importance of cooking as a hobby was demonstrated by the high popularity of competitive television cooking programs.

    Gardening[ edit ]

    This section does not cite any sources . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (November 2017) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message )
    Main article: Gardening

    Gardening

    Residential gardening most often takes place in or about one’s own residence, in a space referred to as the garden. Although a garden typically is located on the land near a residence, it may also be located on a roof , in an atrium , on a balcony , in a windowbox , or on a patio or vivarium .

    Gardening also takes place in non-residential green areas, such as parks, public or semi-public gardens ( botanical gardens or zoological gardens ), amusement and theme parks , along transportation corridors, and around tourist attractions and hotels . In these situations, a staff of gardeners or groundskeepers maintains the gardens.

    A variety of flowers and vegetables in an indoor garden.

    Indoor gardening is growing houseplants within a residence or building, in a conservatory , or in a greenhouse . Indoor gardens are sometimes incorporated into air conditioning or heating systems.

    Water gardening is growing plants that have adapted to pools and ponds. Bog gardens are also considered a type of water garden. These all require special conditions and considerations. A simple water garden may consist solely of a tub containing the water and plant(s).

    Container gardening is concerned with growing plants in containers that are placed above the ground.

    Tinkering[ edit ]

    This section does not cite any sources . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (November 2017) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message )

    Tinkering is ‘dabbling’ with the making process, often applied to the hobby of tinkering with car repairs, and various kinds of restoration: of furniture, antique cars , etc. It also applies to household tinkering: repairing a wall, laying a pathway, etc.

    Making and Tinkering hobbies also include higher-end projects like building or restoring a car, or building a computer from individual parts, like CPUs and SSDs.
    For computer savvy do-it-yourself hobbyists, CNC (Computer Numerical Control) machining is also popular. A CNC machine can be assembled and programmed to make different parts from wood or metal.

    Activity Participation[ edit ]

    Outdoor recreation[ edit ]

    This section does not cite any sources . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (November 2017) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message )
    Main article: Outdoor recreation

    Outdoor pursuits are the group of activities which occur outdoors . These hobbies include gardening, hill walking , hiking , backpacking , cycling, canoeing , climbing , caving , fishing, hunting , wildlife viewing (as birdwatching ) and engaging in watersports and snowsports .

    Depending on an individual’s desired level of adrenaline, outdoors experiences are considered one type of hobby. While many enjoy an adrenaline rush or just an escape from reality, outdoor recreational activities can also be an extremely effective medium in education and team building . [15]

    As interest increases, so has the desire for commercial outdoor pursuits. Outdoor recreational supply stores have opened in large numbers and are thriving, as have outdoor pursuit journalism and magazines, both on paper and the Internet.

    The increased accessibility of outdoor pursuit resources has been the source of some negative publicity over the years, with complaints of the destruction of landscape . An example is the destruction of hillsides as footpaths are eroded due to an excessive number of visitors.

    Liberal arts pursuits[ edit ]

    Main article: Liberal arts education
    Main article: The arts

    An amateur magician performing.

    Many hobbies involve performances by the hobbyist, such as singing, acting, juggling , magic , dancing, playing a musical instrument , martial arts and other performing arts .

    Some hobbies may result in an end product. Examples of this would be woodworking, photography, moviemaking , jewelry making , software projects such as Photoshopping and home music or video production , making bracelets , artistic projects such as drawing, painting, writing…, Cosplay (design, creation, and wearing a costume based on an already existing creative property), creating models out of card stock or paper – called papercraft . Many of these fall under the category visual arts .

    Reading , books, ebooks , magazines, comics, or newspapers, along with browsing the internet is a common hobby, and one that can trace its origins back hundreds of years. A love of literature, later in life, may be sparked by an interest in reading children’s literature as a child. Many of these fall under the category literary arts .

    Sports and games[ edit ]

    Main article: Sport
    Main article: Game

    Stebbins [2] makes a distinction between an amateur sports person playing a sport that has a professional equivalent such as football or tennis and a hobbyist playing a less formal sport or game that are rule bound but have no professional equivalent like deck tennis and long distance trekking. Amateur sport ranges from very informal play to highly competitive practice.

    Evidence suggests that playing sports helps improve physical and mental health. [16]

    Significant achievements by hobbyists and amateurs[ edit ]

    There have been many instances where hobbyists and amateurs have achieved significant discoveries and developments. These are a small sample.

    • Amateur astronomers have explored the skies for centuries and there is a long list of Notable amateur astronomers who have made major discoveries.
    • A substantial amount of early scientific research came from the amateur activities of the wealthy, such as Antoine Lavoisier ‘s contributions to the science of chemistry . [17] At that time there were few professional scientists and little formal study in the area. Another example is the experimentation in electricity that Benjamin Franklin undertook that resulted in his invention of the lightning rod . [18]
    • Open source is a development model using the internet to cooperate on projects. It is most notable in the development of software and widely used software has been developed and maintained by large numbers of people programming collectively. Many of these contributors are professional programmers, but a proportion are home-based amateurs, often with high level expertise. Open source contributes to many other projects, including those of the Wikimedia Foundation and notably the Wikipedia where thousands of hobbyists have built the most used reference source in the world. The highly significant Linux computer operating system began as a student’s hobby by Linus Torvalds . Linux is Linus plus X representing Unix upon which it was based.
    • While the general public was not aware of nature observation which was formally conducted as field research , during the 1930s, practitioners of the hobby went on to become the pioneers of the conservation movement that flourished in the UK from 1965 onwards. Eventually, it became a global political movement within a generation’s time span.[ citation needed ]

    See also[ edit ]

    • Avocation
    • Community of interest
    • List of hobbies
    • Personal life
    • Play (activity)

    References[ edit ]

    1. ^ a b “The Serious Leisure Perspective (SLP)” . The Serious Leisure Perspective (SLP). Retrieved 2016-02-18.

    2. ^ a b c Stebbins, Robert (2015). Serious Leisure – A Perspective for Our Time, Transaction Publishers, 2015,. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.
    3. ^ The Phrase Finder (1996–2012). “Hobby-horse” . The Phrase Finder. Gary Martin. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
    4. ^ Douglas Harper (2001–2012). “hobby” . Online Etymology Dictionary. Douglas Harper. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
    5. ^ Gelber S M. ‘’Hobbies: leisure and the Culture of Work in America’’ Columbia University Press, 1999, p. 11.
    6. ^ a b Gelber S M. ‘’Hobbies: leisure and the Culture of Work in America’’ Columbia University Press, 1999, p. 12.
    7. ^ Sir Matthew Hale (1676). Contemplations moral and divine . Printed by William Godbid, for William Shrowbury at the Bible in Duke-Lane, and John Leigh at the Blew Bell Fleet Street near Chancery-lane. p. 201.
    8. ^ Gelber S M. ‘’Hobbies: leisure and the Culture of Work in America’’ Columbia University Press, 1999, p. 3.
    9. ^ Thomson F M L. ‘’The Cambridge Social History of Britain, 1750–1950 Vol 2’’. Cambridge University Press, 1990, p. 327
    10. ^ Orwell, George (28 February 1941). “The Lion and the Unicorn: Socialism and the English Genius” . England Your England.
    11. ^ Gelber S M. ‘’Hobbies: leisure and the Culture of Work in America’’ Columbia University Press, 1999, p. 23.
    12. ^ Gelber S M. ‘’Hobbies: leisure and the Culture of Work in America’’ Columbia University Press, 1999, p. 28.
    13. ^ Carlisle R P Ed, ‘’Encyclopedia of Play in Today’s Society Vol 1’’, SAGE Publications, 2009 page x
    14. ^ Gelber, Steven. “A Job You Can’t Lose: Work and Hobbies in the Great Depression”. Oxford University Press. JSTOR   3788855 .
    15. ^ “6 Ways to Find a New Hobby” . Thrifty Crates. Thrifty Crates. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
    16. ^ “Analysis of health and educational benefits of sport and culture” . gov.uk. Retrieved 18 August 2015.
    17. ^ “Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier” . Science History Institute. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
    18. ^ Turner 2014 , p. 233.

    External links[ edit ]

    Wikiquote has quotations related to: Hobby
    Look up hobby in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
    Look up pastime in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

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        Anticipating Everyday Environmental Threats Is Just as Important as Recovering from Natural Disaster


        by Darren Ruddell|

        For the first time in human history, the majority of the world’s population lives in urban settings. Urban living offers many attractions–employment opportunities, higher education, entertainment, healthcare, and public transportation. But the changes we make to the natural landscape to accommodate and support our current population often make us vulnerable to human and environmental threats. And when disasters strike urban areas, many lives are threatened and upended.

        For instance, think about how we have built practically right up to shorelines in the New York City area and how quickly Hurricane Sandy flooded streets and subway terminals in 2012. Consider the way Hurricane Katrina overwhelmed the levee systems and devastated New Orleans in 2005. The list of urban crises goes on: Fukushima, Japan (2011), the floods in Fort Lyons and Boulder, Colorado (2013), tornadoes in Moore, Oklahoma, and the deadly European (2003) and Chicago (1995) heat waves.

        For all its attractive features, Los Angeles, too, is vulnerable. L. A. is not only vulnerable to acute disasters like earthquakes and floods; we also experience chronic hazards like air pollution and high temperatures. After all, the city is in a three-year drought and is vulnerable to 13 of the 16 federally designated natural hazards. (The only three we don’t have to worry about: volcanic eruption, snowstorm, and tornado.)

        Strengthening our city is the motivation behind the recent announcement that Los Angeles will create the position of “chief resilience officer.” L.A. is one of the first 32 cities to create such a position, as part of a campaign backed by the Rockefeller Foundation . The goal of the program is to build urban resiliency around the world by pursuing collaborations across government, private, and nonprofit sectors to address complex human, environmental, and economic challenges.

        The city’s emergency management departments–the fire department equipped with search and rescue capabilities and a well-trained police force–respond to acute disasters. But L.A. also needs one person to lead a city-wide effort to make the important and thoughtful decisions that will increase resiliency while reducing vulnerability to human and environmental threats in the future.

        What does resilience mean in this context? The Worldwatch Institute, an environmental research organization, defines resilience as the ability of natural or human systems to survive in the face of great change. Resilient systems possess the ability to return to a state of equilibrium following a disturbance while non-resilient systems struggle to restore equilibrium or fail to recover altogether.

        Old-school emergency management focuses on a reactive strategy–recovering from a disaster such as an earthquake, flood, or fire. (We are seeing this approach in the response to water main break and flooding near UCLA.) But resiliency planning also adds a second approach, a proactive position: anticipating and protecting against threats to critical infrastructure prior to a disaster. Seismic retrofitting of buildings as well as earthquake drills fit into this category. Similarly, green spaces and vegetation help reduce the “ urban heat island effect ” found in cities. So would efforts to restore marsh habitat in Louisiana to absorb storm surge in a hurricane. Another way cities can increase their resiliency is by diversifying their energy sources; wind and solar are local energy resources that can and should be developed to provide power the local economy.

        To work on both these strategies, the job of the Los Angeles chief resilience officer (CRO) requires several different types of skills: the local knowledge to know what risks the city faces; the technical capacity to do the planning; and the ability to bring together very different kinds of people, from scientists to politicians to media and neighborhood leaders.

        By way of example, consider how the chief resilience officer might confront repeated heat waves in the city. Before the heat wave, the CRO would work to redesign our city to minimize exposure–adding trees and green spaces that have cooling effects (L.A. River restoration plans, especially removing the concrete, would have benefits here). Coordinating heat warnings with the National Weather Service also would be important. During the heat event, the city could provide cooling centers, water and aid stations, and health services to assist people in need. Post-heat wave, the CRO would work to return residents and the city to normal. Think how complex such work would be on this one subject. And then think about all the other threats Los Angeles faces.

        The benefits of such work would go far beyond preparation and response to disaster. Resilience planning can create jobs for those engaged in the work, add to knowledge and science as the city gathers and analyzes data on its vulnerabilities, and improve education (in part by involving scholars and other experts in the work). Incorporating technology and social media into these planning efforts could create easily available real-time, geo-referenced data regarding evacuation routes and hazards during a disaster. And once we learn lessons on effective resiliency planning, we can share them with others. The Dutch, for instance, are experts in land reclamation and levees, and they provided their expertise to New Orleans officials dealing with the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina.

        If the CRO is to succeed, people around Los Angeles will have to collaborate as never before, and many of us–at least in the academic sector–are eager to contribute to this work, and learn from it.

        In fact, students in my USC program on GeoDesign–a first-of-its-kind major that brings together architecture, planning, and spatial sciences–have already started investigating how resilience can be engineered. Younger students, from kindergarten to high school, can be engaged as well, through class projects and field trips.

        The appointment of a chief resilience officer to Los Angeles is a demonstration of global leadership. It’s also timely because, unlike New Orleans or New York, L.A. has not experienced a major disaster recently. L.A. can get a head start on investing in critical infrastructure and services before we encounter the disasters that we know are on their way.


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        The Power of Resilience – Varsity Tutors Scholarship Essay

        The skill I believe is most important to college success is the ability to bounce back; resilience. Though it’s not a physical skill, it’s something that can be practiced and learned and improved, so, in my opinion, it can justifiably be considered a skill. College is full of challenges, and not all of them are easily conquered. A person’s resilience allows them to see these obstacles in a different light, recognize how that error could have been avoided, and use that insight to be more successful next time.

        Making mistakes, minor and massive, is all part of the learning experience! It’s important to realize that everyone messes up in one way or another all the time. Once in a while, there are even things that happen that were unavoidable, but we must deal with the consequences, like a death or traumatic event. However, it’s very important to not let those setbacks derail you. I know a lot of people who have met obstacles in their lives and let the feeling of failure completely take over. It affects not only your current mood, but also you actions and your future. Resilience is a necessity if you plan on conquering the roadblocks you’ll surely meet in college.

        In college, there are a million things that can happen in ways we hadn’t planned on. It could be that you slept through your morning classes on accident. Maybe you forgot to study for a test you have today and end up flunking it. Or, perhaps you wrote a paper in philosophy that you were sure was right on as far as what your professor was asking for, but you somehow received a low grade because your professor actually thought you were a little off the mark. Messing up or thinking you have things figured out and realizing that you don’t can be embarrassing, but if you look carefully, there are lessons to be learned. Missed a class? It’s not reason to feel stupid or ashamed and decide not to go; that’s going to backfire. Failing your exam will teach you that you need to find a method of studying that works better for you. If a professor didn’t like exactly what you had to say this time, you will have a better idea of what they’re looking for in your next paper. When students let themselves feel defeated by the challenges they face in college, it’s really easy for them to dig themselves into a hole that it’s extremely difficult to pull themselves out of. But, even if you’re looking up at the world from the bottom of the pit that you dug, that has not sealed your fate, and you are not doomed to failure. There may be some negative consequences involved, like taking a bad grade or falling behind a little. The experience isn’t a purely positive one, which is where a lot of students get stuck in the “failure” mindset. However, when one uses their resilience and triumphs over the obstacle instead of surrendering to it, they most definitely learn from that experience. Resilience allows us to see the positive aspects of our mistakes and to learn from them.

        Seeing the lessons to be learned leads us to the next step, which is applying that newfound knowledge. By making mistakes and not letting them deter you from trying again, we are able to make another, more educated attempt. When you accept defeat, you waste a valuable opportunity to move forward with more insight than you’d had before. One “oops” is not the end of the world! Learning by experience teaches us the most valuable lessons of our lives. How often are we ever going to use the quadratic equation, really? Learning how to handle difficulties and handle them in the ways you’ve seen as most effective is much more important; that applies to all aspects of life.

        Practicing and improving one’s resilience, I believe, is the most helpful thing you can do in order to be successful in college. It’s great to have good study habits, know how to write a paper, and be skilled in the art of Pulling an All-Nighter. However, no matter how awesome things can be, there are bound to be bumps in the road, and being able to handle those sets you up for success not only in college but in life as well.

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