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Union of Concerned Scientists

Union of Concerned Scientists

en español

Benefits of Renewable Energy Use

Wind turbines and solar panels are an increasingly common sight. But why? What are the benefits of renewable energies—and how do they improve our health, environment, and economy?

This page explores the many positive impacts of clean energy, including the benefits of wind ,  solar ,  geothermal ,  hydroelectric , and  biomass . For more information on their negative impacts—including effective solutions to avoid, minimize, or mitigate—see our page on  The Environmental Impacts of Renewable Energy Technologies .

Less global warming

Human activity is overloading our atmosphere with carbon dioxide and other  global warming emissions . These gases act like a blanket, trapping heat. The result is a web of  significant and harmful impacts , from stronger, more frequent storms, to drought, sea level rise, and extinction.

In the United States, about 29 percent of global warming emissions come from our electricity sector. Most of those emissions come from fossil fuels like coal and natural gas [ 1 ,  2 ].

What is CO2e?

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most prevalent greenhouse gas, but other air pollutants—such as methane—also cause global warming. Different energy sources produce different amounts of these pollutants. To make comparisons easier, we use a carbon dioxide equivalent, or CO2e—the amount of carbon dioxide required to produce an equivalent amount of warming.

In contrast, most renewable energy sources produce little to no global warming emissions. Even when including “life cycle” emissions of clean energy (ie, the emissions from each stage of a technology’s life—manufacturing, installation, operation, decommissioning), the global warming emissions associated with renewable energy are minimal [ 3 ].

The comparison becomes clear when you look at the numbers. Burning natural gas for electricity releases between 0.6 and 2 pounds of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour (CO2E/kWh); coal emits between 1.4 and 3.6 pounds of CO2E/kWh.  Wind , on the other hand, is responsible for only 0.02 to 0.04 pounds of CO2E/kWh on a life-cycle basis;  solar  0.07 to 0.2;  geothermal  0.1 to 0.2; and  hydroelectric  between 0.1 and 0.5.

Renewable electricity generation from  biomass  can have a wide range of global warming emissions depending on the resource and whether or not it is sustainably sourced and harvested.

Different sources of energy produce different amounts of heat-trapping gases. As shown in this chart, renewable energies tend to have much lower emissions than other sources, such as natural gas or coal.
Source: IPCC, 2011 Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (Chapter 9).

Increasing the supply of renewable energy would allow us to replace carbon-intensive energy sources and significantly reduce US global warming emissions.

For example, a 2009 UCS analysis found that a 25 percent by 2025 national renewable electricity standard would lower power plant CO2 emissions 277 million metric tons annually by 2025—the equivalent of the annual output from 70 typical (600 MW) new coal plants [ 4 ].

In addition, a ground-breaking study by the US Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) explored the feasibility of generating 80 percent of the country’s electricity from renewable sources by 2050. They found that renewable energy could help reduce the electricity sector’s emissions by approximately 81 percent [ 5 ].

Improved public health

The air and water pollution emitted by coal and natural gas plants is linked with breathing problems, neurological damage, heart attacks, cancer, premature death, and a host of other serious problems. The pollution affects everyone: one Harvard University study estimated the life cycle costs and public health effects of coal to be an estimated $74.6 billion every year. That’s equivalent to 4.36 cents per kilowatt-hour of electricity produced—about one-third of the average electricity rate for a typical US home [ 6 ].

Most of these negative health impacts come from air and water pollution that clean energy technologies simply don’t produce. Wind, solar, and hydroelectric systems generate electricity with no associated air pollution emissions. Geothermal and  biomass   systems emit some air pollutants, though total air emissions are generally much lower than those of coal- and natural gas-fired power plants.

In addition, wind and solar energy require essentially no water to operate and thus do not pollute water resources or strain supplies by competing with agriculture, drinking water, or other important water needs. In contrast, fossil fuels can have a  significant impact on water resources : both coal mining and natural gas drilling can pollute sources of drinking water, and all thermal power plants, including those powered by coal, gas, and oil, withdraw and consume water for cooling. 

Biomass and geothermal power plants, like coal- and natural gas-fired power plants, may require water for cooling. Hydroelectric power plants can disrupt river ecosystems both upstream and downstream from the dam. However, NREL’s 80-percent-by-2050 renewable energy study, which included biomass and geothermal, found that total water consumption and withdrawal would decrease significantly in a future with high renewables [ 7 ].

Inexhaustible energy

Photo: Diliff/Wikimedia Commons

Strong winds, sunny skies, abundant plant matter, heat from the earth, and fast-moving water can each provide a vast and constantly replenished supply of energy. A relatively small fraction of US electricity currently comes from these sources, but that could change: studies have repeatedly shown that renewable energy can provide a significant share of future electricity needs, even after accounting for potential constraints [ 9 ].

In fact, a major government-sponsored study found that clean energy could contribute somewhere between three and 80 times its 2013 levels, depending on assumptions [8]. And the previously mentioned NREL study found that renewable energy could comfortably provide up to 80 percent of US electricity by 2050.

Jobs and other economic benefits

Two energy workers on a roof

Two energy workers installing solar panels.
Photo: Dennis Schroeder / NREL

Compared with fossil fuel technologies, which are typically mechanized and capital intensive, the renewable energy industry is more labor intensive. Solar panels need humans to install them; wind farms need technicians for maintenance.

This means that, on average, more jobs are created for each unit of electricity generated from renewable sources than from fossil fuels.

Renewable energy already supports thousands of jobs in the United States. In 2016, the wind energy industry directly employed over 100,000 full-time-equivalent employees in a variety of capacities, including manufacturing, project development, construction and turbine installation, operations and maintenance, transportation and logistics, and financial, legal, and consulting services [ 10 ]. More than 500 factories in the United States manufacture parts for wind turbines, and wind power project installations in 2016 alone represented $13.0 billion in investments [ 11 ].

Other renewable energy technologies employ even more workers. In 2016, the solar industry employed more than 260,000 people, including jobs in solar installation, manufacturing, and sales, a 25% increase over 2015 [ 12 ]. The hydroelectric power industry employed approximately 66,000 people in 2017 [ 13 ]; the geothermal industry employed 5,800 people [ 14] .

Increased support for renewable energy could create even more jobs. The 2009 Union of Concerned Scientists study of a 25-percent-by-2025 renewable energy standard found that such a policy would create more than three times as many jobs (more than 200,000) as producing an equivalent amount of electricity from fossil fuels [ 15 ]. 

In contrast, the entire coal industry employed 160,000 people in 2016 [ 26 ].

In addition to the jobs directly created in the renewable energy industry, growth in clean energy can create positive economic “ripple” effects. For example, industries in the renewable energy supply chain will benefit, and unrelated local businesses will benefit from increased household and business incomes [ 16 ].

Listen to energy expert Paula Garcia talk about renewable energy progress in the US on the Got Science? Podcast:

In English:

En español:

Local governments also benefit from clean energy, most often in the form of property and income taxes and other payments from renewable energy project owners. Owners of the land on which wind projects are built often receive lease payments ranging from $3,000 to $6,000 per megawatt of installed capacity, as well as payments for power line easements and road rights-of-way. They may also earn royalties based on the project’s annual revenues. Farmers and rural landowners can generate new sources of supplemental income by producing feedstocks for biomass power facilities.

UCS analysis found that a 25-by-2025 national renewable electricity standard would stimulate $263.4 billion in new capital investment for renewable energy technologies, $13.5 billion in new landowner income from? biomass production and/or wind land lease payments, and $11.5 billion in new property tax revenue for local communities [ 17 ].

Stable energy prices

Renewable energy is providing affordable electricity across the country right now, and can help stabilize energy prices in the future.

Although renewable facilities require upfront investments to build, they can then operate at very low cost (for most clean energy technologies, the “fuel” is free). As a result, renewable energy prices can be very stable over time.

Moreover, the costs of renewable energy technologies have declined steadily, and are projected to drop even more. For example, the average price to install solar dropped more than 70 percent between 2010 and 2017 [ 20 ]. The cost of generating electricity from wind dropped 66 percent between 2009 and 2016 [ 21 ]. Costs will likely decline even further as markets mature and companies increasingly take advantage of economies of scale.

In contrast, fossil fuel prices can vary dramatically and are prone to substantial price swings. For example, there was a rapid increase in US coal prices due to rising global demand before 2008, then a rapid fall after 2008 when global demands declined [ 23 ]. Likewise, natural gas prices have fluctuated greatly since 2000 [ 25 ].

Source: Energy Information Administration (EIA). 2013. Coal news and markets report .

Using more renewable energy can lower the prices of and demand for natural gas and coal by increasing competition and diversifying our energy supplies. And an increased reliance on renewable energy can help protect consumers when fossil fuel prices spike. 

Reliability and resilience

 Wind and solar are less prone to large-scale failure because they are distributed and modular. Distributed systems are spread out over a large geographical area, so a severe weather event in one location will not cut off power to an entire region. Modular systems are composed of numerous individual wind turbines or solar arrays. Even if some of the equipment in the system is damaged, the rest can typically continue to operate.

For example, Hurricane Sandy damaged fossil fuel-dominated electric generation and distribution systems in New York and New Jersey and left millions of people without power. In contrast, renewable energy projects in the Northeast weathered Hurricane Sandy with minimal damage or disruption [ 25 ]. 

Water scarcity is another risk for non-renewable power plants. Coal, nuclear, and many natural gas plants depend on having sufficient water for cooling, which means that severe droughts and heat waves can put electricity generation at risk. Wind and solar photovoltaic systems do not require water to generate electricity and can operate reliably in conditions that may otherwise require closing a fossil fuel-powered plant. (For more information, see  How it Works: Water for Electricity .)  

The risk of disruptive events will also increase in the future as droughts, heat waves, more intense storms, and increasingly severe wildfires become more frequent due to global warming—increasing the need for resilient, clean technologies.

Learn more:

  • Barriers to Renewable Energy
  • Blog series:  Clean Energy Momentum

References:

[1] Environmental Protection Agency. 2017. Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2015.

[2] Energy Information Agency (EIA). 2017.  How much of the U.S. carbon dioxide emissions are associated with electricity generation?

[3] Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). 2011.  IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation . Prepared by Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [O. Edenhofer, R. Pichs-Madruga, Y. Sokona, K. Seyboth, P. Matschoss, S. Kadner, T. Zwickel, P. Eickemeier, G. Hansen, S. Schlömer, C. von Stechow (eds)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 1075 pp. (Chapter 9).

[4] Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS). 2009.  Clean Power Green Jobs .

[5] National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). 2012.  Renewable Electricity Futures Study . Volume 1, pg. 210.

[6] Epstein, P.R.,J. J. Buonocore, K. Eckerle, M. Hendryx, B. M. Stout III, R. Heinberg, R. W. Clapp, B. May, N. L. Reinhart, M. M. Ahern, S. K. Doshi, and L. Glustrom. 2011. Full cost accounting for the life cycle of coal in “Ecological Economics Reviews.” Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1219: 73–98.

[7]  Renewable Electricity Futures Study . 2012.

[8] NREL. 2016.  Estimating Renewable Energy Economic Potential in the United States: Methodology and Initial Results .

[9]  Renewable Electricity Futures Study . 2012.

IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation . Prepared by Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2011.

UCS. 2009.  Climate 2030: A national blueprint for a clean energy economy .

[10] American Wind Energy Association (AWEA). 2017. AWEA U.S. Wind Industry Annual Market Report: Year Ending 2016. Washington, D.C.: American Wind Energy Association.

 [11] Wiser, Ryan, and Mark Bolinger. 2017. 2016 Wind Technologies Market Report. U.S. Department of Energy.

[12] The Solar Foundation. 2017. National Solar Jobs Census 2016.

[13] Navigant Consulting. 2009.  Job Creation Opportunities in Hydropower .

[14] Geothermal Energy Association. 2010.  Green Jobs through Geothermal Energy .

[15] UCS. 2009.  Clean Power Green Jobs .

[16] Environmental Protection Agency. 2010.  Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy: A Resource for States . Chapter 5.

[17] UCS. 2009.  Clean Power Green Jobs .

[18] Deyette, J., and B. Freese. 2010.  Burning coal, burning cash: Ranking the states that import the most coal . Cambridge, MA: Union of Concerned Scientists.

[20] SEIA. 2017. Solar Market Insight Report 2017 Q2.

[21] AWEA. 2017. AWEA U.S. Wind Industry Annual Market Report: Year Ending 2016. Washington, D.C.: American Wind Energy Association.

[22] UCS. 2009.  Clean Power Green Jobs .

[23] UCS. 2011.  A Risky Proposition: The financial hazards of new investments in coal plants .

[24] EIA. 2013.  U.S. Natural Gas Wellhead Price .

[25] Unger, David J. 2012.  Are renewables stormproof? Hurricane Sandy tests solar, wind . The Christian Science Monitor. November 19.

[26] Department of Energy. 2017 U.S. Energy and Employment Report

Last revised date: December 20, 2017

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★Primary &amp

Secondary source

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Document that discusses information originally presented elsewhere
For Wikipedia’s policy on the use of secondary sources, see WP:SECONDARY .
Not to be confused with Secondary sector .

Scipione Amati ‘s History of the Kingdom of Voxu (1615) an example of a secondary source.

In scholarship , a secondary source [1] [2] is a document or recording that relates or discusses information originally presented elsewhere. A secondary source contrasts with a primary source , which is an original source of the information being discussed; a primary source can be a person with direct knowledge of a situation, or a document created by such a person.

A secondary source is one that gives information about a primary source. In this source, the original information is selected, modified and arranged in a suitable format. Secondary sources involve generalization, analysis, interpretation, or evaluation of the original information.

The most accurate classification for any given source is not always obvious. Primary and secondary are relative terms, and some sources may be classified as primary or secondary, depending on how they are used. [3] [4] [5] [6] A third level, the tertiary source , such as an encyclopedia or dictionary, resembles a secondary source in that it contains analysis, but attempts to provide a broad introductory overview of a topic. [1] [7]

Contents

  • 1 Classification
  • 2 Science, technology, and medicine
    • 2.1 Library and information science
    • 2.2 Maths
    • 2.3 Humanities and history
      • 2.3.1 Law
      • 2.3.2 Family history
      • 2.3.3 Autobiographies
  • 3 See also
  • 4 References
  • 5 Further reading

Classification[ edit ]

Information can be taken from a wide variety of objects, but this classification system is only useful for a class of sources that are called symbolic sources. [8] Symbolic sources are sources that are intended to communicate information to someone. [8] Common symbolic sources include written documents such as letters and notes, but not, for example, bits of broken pottery and scraps of food excavated from a midden , regardless of how much information can be extracted from an ancient trash heap, or how little can be extracted from a written document. [8]

Many sources can be considered either primary or secondary, depending on the context in which they are used. [9] Moreover, the distinction between primary and secondary sources is subjective and contextual, [10] so that precise definitions are difficult to make. [11] For example, if a historical text discusses old documents to derive a new historical conclusion, it is considered to be a primary source for the new conclusion, but a secondary source of information found in the old documents.[ citation needed ] Other examples in which a source can be both primary and secondary include an obituary [12] or a survey of several volumes of a journal counting the frequency of articles on a certain topic. [12]

Whether a source is regarded as primary or secondary in a given context may change, depending upon the present state of knowledge within the field. [13] For example, if a document refers to the contents of a previous but undiscovered letter, that document may be considered “primary”, since it is the closest known thing to an original source, but if the letter is later found, it may then be considered “secondary”. [14]

Attempts to map or model scientific and scholarly communication need the concepts of primary, secondary and further “levels”. One such model is the UNISIST model of information dissemination. Within such a model these concepts are defined in relation to each other, and the acceptance of this way of defining the concepts are connected to the acceptance of the model.

Some other modern languages use more than one word for the English word “source”. German usually uses Sekundärliteratur (“secondary literature”) for secondary sources for historical facts, leaving Sekundärquelle (“secondary source”) to historiography . A Sekundärquelle is a source which can tell about a lost Primärquelle (“primary source”), such as a letter quoting from minutes which are no longer known to exist, and so cannot be consulted by the historian.

Science, technology, and medicine[ edit ]

In general, secondary sources are self-described as review articles or meta-analysis .

Primary source materials are typically defined as “original research papers written by the scientists who actually conducted the study.” An example of primary source material is the Purpose, Methods, Results, Conclusions sections of a research paper (in IMRAD style) in a scientific journal by the authors who conducted the study. [15] In some fields, a secondary source may include a summary of the literature in the Introduction of a scientific paper, a description of what is known about a disease or treatment in a chapter in a reference book, or a synthesis written to review available literature. [15] A survey of previous work in the field in a primary peer-reviewed source is secondary source information. This allows secondary sourcing of recent findings in areas where full review articles have not yet been published.

A book review that contains the judgment of the reviewer about the book is a primary source for the reviewer’s opinion, and a secondary source for the contents of the book. [16] [17] A summary of the book within a review is a secondary source.

Library and information science[ edit ]

In library and information sciences , secondary sources are generally regarded as those sources that summarize or add commentary to primary sources in the context of the particular information or idea under study. [1] [2]

Maths[ edit ]

An important use of secondary sources in the field of mathematics has been to make difficult mathematical ideas and proofs from primary sources more accessible to the public; [18] in other sciences tertiary sources are expected to fulfill the introductory role.

Humanities and history[ edit ]

Secondary sources in history and humanities are usually books or scholarly journals , from the perspective of a later interpreter, especially by a later scholar. In the humanities, a peer reviewed article is always a secondary source.
The delineation of sources as primary and secondary first arose in the field of historiography , as historians attempted to identify and classify the sources of historical writing. In scholarly writing, an important objective of classifying sources is to determine the independence and reliability of sources. [19] In original scholarly writing, historians rely on primary sources, read in the context of the scholarly interpretations. [20]

Following the Rankean model established by German scholarship in the 19th century, historians use archives of primary sources. [21] Most undergraduate research projects rely on secondary source material, with perhaps snippets of primary sources. [22]

Law[ edit ]

In the legal field, source classification is important because the persuasiveness of a source usually depends upon its history. Primary sources may include cases, constitutions, statutes, administrative regulations, and other sources of binding legal authority, while secondary legal sources may include books, the headnotes of case reports, articles, and encyclopedias. [23] Legal writers usually prefer to cite primary sources because only primary sources are authoritative and precedential , while secondary sources are only persuasive at best. [24]

Family history[ edit ]

“A secondary source is a record or statement of an event or circumstance made by a non-eyewitness or by someone not closely connected with the event or circumstances, recorded or stated verbally either at or sometime after the event, or by an eye-witness at a time after the event when the fallibility of memory is an important factor.” [25] Consequently, according to this definition, a first-hand account written long after the event “when the fallibility of memory is an important factor” is a secondary source, even though it may be the first published description of that event.

Autobiographies[ edit ]

An autobiography can be a secondary source in history or the humanities when used for information about topics other than its subject. For example, many first hand accounts of events in World War I written in the post-war years were influenced by the then prevailing perception of the war which was significantly different from contemporary opinion. [26]

See also[ edit ]

  • Original research

References[ edit ]

  1. ^ a b c ” Primary, secondary and tertiary sources “. University Libraries, University of Maryland.
  2. ^ a b ” Secondary sources “. James Cook University.
  3. ^ ” Primary and secondary sources “. Ithaca College Library.
  4. ^ Kragh, Helge (1989), An Introduction to the Historiography of Science , Cambridge University Press, p. 121, ISBN   0-521-38921-6 , [T]he distinction is not a sharp one. Since a source is only a source in a specific historical context, the same source object can be both a primary or secondary source according to what it is used for.

  5. ^ Delgadillo, Roberto; Lynch, Beverly (1999), “Future Historians: Their Quest for Information” , College & Research Libraries: 245–259, at 253, [T]he same document can be a primary or a secondary source depending on the particular analysis the historian is doing,
  6. ^ Monagahn, E.J.; Hartman, D.K. (2001), “Historical research in literacy” , Reading Online, 4 (11), [A] source may be primary or secondary, depending on what the researcher is looking for.
  7. ^ Richard Veit and Christopher Gould, Writing, Reading, and Research (8th ed. 2009) p 335
  8. ^ a b c Kragh, Helge (1989-11-24). An Introduction to the Historiography of Science . Cambridge University Press. p. 121. ISBN   9780521389211 .
  9. ^ Kragh 1989 , p. 121.
  10. ^ Dalton & Charnigo 2004 , p. 419 n.18.
  11. ^ Delgadillo & Lynch 1999 , p. 253.
  12. ^ a b Duffin, Jacalyn (1999), History of Medicine: A Scandalously Short Introduction , University of Toronto Press, p. 366, ISBN   0-8020-7912-1
  13. ^ Henige, David (1986), “Primary Source by Primary Source? On the Role of Epidemics in New World Depopulation”, Ethnohistory, Duke University Press, 33 (3): 292–312, at 292, doi : 10.2307/481816 , JSTOR   481816 , [T]he term ‘primary’ inevitably carries a relative meaning insofar as it defines those pieces of information that stand in closest relationship to an event or process in the present state of our knowledge. Indeed, in most instances the very nature of a primary source tells us that it is actually derivative.…[H]istorians have no choice but to regard certain of the available sources as ‘primary’ since they are as near to truly original sources as they can now secure.
  14. ^ Henige 1986 , p. 292.
  15. ^ a b Garrard, Judith (2010). Health Sciences Literature Review Made Easy . Jones & Bartlett Publishers. ISBN   978-1-4496-1868-1 . Retrieved 16 September 2012.
  16. ^ Princeton (2011). “Book reviews” . Scholarly definition document. Princeton. Retrieved September 22, 2011.
  17. ^ Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (2011). “Book reviews” . Scholarly definition document. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Archived from the original on September 10, 2011. Retrieved September 22, 2011.
  18. ^ Edwards, H.M. (2001), Riemann’s Zeta Function , Mineola, New York: Courier Dover Publications, p. xi, ISBN   0-486-41740-9 , The purpose of a secondary source is to make the primary sources accessible to you. If you can read and understand the primary sources without reading this book, more power to you. If you read this book without reading the primary sources you are like a man who carries a sack lunch to a banquet
  19. ^ Helge (1989), p. 121.
  20. ^ Cipolla (1992), Between Two Cultures: An Introduction to Economic History , W.W. Norton & Co., ISBN   978-0-393-30816-7
  21. ^ Frederick C. Beiser (2011). The German Historicist Tradition . Oxford U.P. p. 254.
  22. ^ Charles Camic; Neil Gross; Michele Lamont (2011). Social Knowledge in the Making . U. of Chicago Press. p. 107.
  23. ^ Bouchoux, Deborah E. (2000), Cite Checker: A Hands-On Guide to Learning Citation Form , Thomson Delmar Learning, p. 45, ISBN   0-7668-1893-4
  24. ^ Bouchoux 2000 , p. 45.
  25. ^ Harland, p. 39
  26. ^ Holmes, particularly the introduction

Further reading[ edit ]

  • Jules R. Benjamin , A Student’s Guide to History (2013) ISBN   9781457621444
  • Edward H. Carr , What is History? (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2001) ISBN   9780333977019
  • Wood Gray , Historian’s handbook, a key to the study and writing of history (Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press, 1991, ©1964) ISBN   9780881336269
  • Derek Harland , A Basic Course in Genealogy: Volume two, Research Procedure and Evaluation of Evidence (Bookcraft Inc, 1958) WorldCat record
  • Richard Holmes , Tommy (HarperCollins, 2004) ISBN   9780007137510
  • Martha C. Howell and Walter Prevenier , From Reliable Sources: An Introduction to Historical Methods (2001) ISBN   9780801435737
  • Richard A. Marius and Melvin E. Page , A Short Guide to Writing About History (8th Edition) (2012) ISBN   9780205118601
  • Hayden White , Metahistory: the historical imagination in nineteenth-century Europe (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1973) ISBN   9780801814693

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      #1 Harvard University Business School – Cambridge, Massachusetts


      Harvard University offers an outstanding on-campus Master’s of Business Administration degree. This accredited MBA tops our ranking due to its unparalleled consistency among the leading educational accreditation sources.

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      Harvard University earned the top spot our ranking with a prestigious on-campus Master’s of Business Administration program. Harvard Business School’s MBA holds esteemed accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business and is currently ranked #1 by US News and World Report, Bloomberg Businessweek, and Eduniversal. The University can additionally be seen within the top five with Forbes, Financial Times, and the Economist. The top ranking educational rating systems reflect a diverse group of universities within the top 10. Harvard has shown their incredible value and impact in their MBA program through their consistent high distinctions from around the world. The Harvard MBA is unparalleled in its level of excellence. The fast-paced program grounded in business fundamentals and management, and includes hands-on business experiences in case methods and FIELD studies. MBA students delve into required foundations courses in the first year, with the second year branching out into elective courses. Electives cover a variety of topics such as organizational behavior, accounting, management, business, entrepreneurial management, government, international economy, finance, marketing, negotiation, strategy, and technology & operations. MBA students are also given the opportunity to study and graduate with a joint degree in MBA/MPP, MBA/MPA-ID, JD/MBA, MD/MBA, and DMD/MBA.

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      #2 Stanford University Graduate School of Business – Stanford, California


      The Graduate School of Business at Stanford University offers an elite Master’s of Business Administration degree. This program is consistently acknowledged among the most prestigious ranking systems for its excellence.

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      Stanford University’s Graduate School of Business offers students a highly acclaimed on-campus Master’s of Business Administration program. This distinguished MBA holds prestigious accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, tops the Financial Times Global MBA Ranking, and is seen listed in the top five by US News and World Report, Forbes, Eduniversal, Bloomberg Businessweek and the Economist. Topping the Financial Times global list, as well as being ranked among the top 10 by all of the major ranking systems shows that the Stanford MBA offers an elite and competitive brand. Stanford’s Graduate School of Business offers a two-year, full-time, MBA program that is focused on helping students sharpen their management skills. The first year of the program equips students with general management knowledge, skills, and hands-on learning experiences. Like the other programs at Stanford, this year includes a global experience to prepare students for global business leadership. The second year allows students to fully personalize their studies with a long list of electives and dual or degree options. A few of the joint degrees available include JD/MBA, MA Education/MBA, MS in Environment and Resources/MBA, MPP/MBA, MS in Computer Science/MBA, MS in Electrical Engineering/MBA, MA in International Policy Studies/MBA, or MD/MBA.

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      #3 University of Chicago Booth School of Business – Chicago, Illinois


      The University of Chicago offers a renowned Master’s of Business Administration degree through the acclaimed Booth School of Business. This program earned its place on our ranking because of its exceptional prestige and outstanding reputation around the world.

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      The University of Chicago’s Booth School of Business offers a highly regarded Master’s of Business Administration degree. This on-campus MBA is accredited by the notable Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business and currently holds the #1 spot on US News and World Report’s Best Business School ranking. This prestigious rank speaks to the impact of the program and the satisfaction of its students. The Booth MBA is also featured in the #4 spot with Bloomberg Businessweek, and in the top fifteen with the Financial Times, Forbes and Eduniversal. This high level of acclaim assures prospective students of the quality of the full-time MBA from the University of Chicago. The Booth School of Business’ program offers a flexible curriculum with an emphasis on helping students become effective leaders through practice in analyzing problems, generating key insights, and implementing creative solutions. The program first sets a strong foundation in business and management with core coursework and then allows students to tailor their degree with elective or a chosen concentration. Concentrations available are Accounting, Analytic Finance, Economics, Econometrics and Statistics, Entrepreneurship, Finance, General Management, International Business, Managerial and Organizational Behavior, Marketing Management, Operations Management, and Strategic Management. Students are also given the opportunity to pursue a joint degree with their MBA through the schools in Law, Medicine, Public Policy, or Social Services Administration.

      The University of Chicago is a four-year, private, not-for-profit university with regional accreditation from the Higher Learning Commission.They currently offer bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral programs through five divisions and six professional schools, to a student body of over 16,000. The Booth School of Business offers a highly decorated Master’s of Business Administration program that gives students the benefit of a distinguished MBA brand. To apply to the University of Chicago’s full-time MBA program, students must complete an online application by one of three deadlines and submit GMAT or GRE scores, current and professional resume, essays, letters of recommendation, and fulfill an interview requirement.

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      #4 Massachusetts Institute of Technology Sloan School of Management – Cambridge, Massachusetts


      Within the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, students can earn an acclaimed on-campus Master’s of Business Administration degree. This program earned its place on our list because of its consistent presence in prestigious ranking systems across the country and world.

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      The Massachusetts Institute of Technology offers highly recognized on-campus Master’s of Business Administration . This program is accredited by the distinguished Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business and consistently receives high reviews by the major ranking systems across the country. The Sloan MBA is listed in the top five with US News and World Report, Bloomberg Businessweek, and Eduniversal. They are also seen in the top ten with Forbes and the Financial Times, and in the top 20 with the Economist. This notable acclaim attests to the quality of this top-notch program and gives prospective students an assurance of a recognizable MBA brand. The Sloan School of Management’s Master’s of Business Administration program encourages students to use their creativity and innovation to solve business challenges in an ever evolving market. This two-year, full-time program begins with a comprehensive set of business foundation courses. Then, students branch out into customized courses and optional specialization tracks. Students have an opportunity to pursue tracks in Finance, Entrepreneurship & Innovation, and Enterprise Management, or complete a certificate in Sustainability or Healthcare. MBA students are additionally given a choice to earn a dual degree with the School of Engineering or the Harvard Kennedy School of Government.

      Massachusetts Institute of Technology is a four-year, private, not-for-profit university that serves over 11,000 students each year. They offer bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral degrees through five outstanding schools and hold regional accreditation through the New England Commission of Higher Education. MIT’s Sloan School of Management offers students an elite and well-rounded Master’s of Business Administration program. Those wishing to apply to this elite program must complete an online application by one of three deadlines. They will also need to submit a cover letter and resume, video statement, letter of recommendation, transcripts, and GMAT or GRE scores.

      TMD Ranking Score: 93.60

      #5 Columbia University Business School – New York, New York


      Students of Columbia University can earn an esteemed Master’s of Business Administration. This exceptional MBA is consistently recognized for impactful curriculum and overall value to students.

      Photo courtesy of Columbia University
      The Columbia Business School offers an intensive on-campus Master’s of Business Administration . This program has elite accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business and carries a widespread reputation of excellence. The Columbia MBA is listed among the top ten with Forbes, US News and World Report, Eduniversal, Financial Times, the Economist, and Bloomberg Businessweek. With every major ranking system acknowledging the program, Columbia students can rest assured that their degree will help lead them to their ultimate career goals. The University’s distinct Master’s of Business Administration is designed to help students develop a strong foundation of business and management skills. Once the foundation is set with the core curriculum, students choose a path of courses that are designed with their future goals and interests in mind. While there are no formal concentrations in the Columbia MBA, the program does offer career-focused electives such as Accounting, Finance, Entrepreneurship, Leadership and Ethics, Real Estate, Marketing, Social Enterprise, and Value Investing. Additionally, Columbia allows students to combine their MBA studies with one of 10 professional programs for a dual degree. The dual degree options available include MBA/MS in Nursing, MBA/MS in Urban Planning, MBA/MS in Engineering and Applied Science, MBA/MS in Journalism, MBA/MPH, and an MBA/MA in Private School Leadership.

      Columbia University is a four-year, private, research, Ivy League university that educates over 28,000 students annually. The University holds a regional accreditation from the Middle States Commission on Higher Education and offers a variety of undergraduate and graduate level degrees through 20 academic schools. The Master’s of Business Administration program offered through the Business School has a strong and distinct brand that makes a big impact in the lives of their alumni. Students wishing to join this selective group are required to submit a full application, including GMAT or GRE scores, transcripts from all universities attended, essays, two letters of recommendation and an interview requirement.

      TMD Ranking Score: 93.55

      #6 Northwestern University Kellogg School of Management – Evanston, Illinois


      Northwestern’s Kellogg School of Management offers students a highly recognized Master’s of Business Administration. This program ranked in the top 10 because of its consistent value and outstanding reputation in the MBA world.

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      At Northwestern University students can earn an elite on-campus Master’s of Business Administration . The Kellogg MBA holds elite accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business and is ranked at the #1 slot with the Economist and #4 Forbes. Their other top 15 ranking appearances include US News and World Report, Bloomberg Businessweek, Economist, Financial Times and Eduniversal. This level of acclaim assures MBA students that this program not only makes a wise investment during their studies but will continue to make an impact in their future career. Northwestern’s Kellogg School of Management MBA is offered in a two-year and a one-year accelerated format. Both options are designed with student success in mind. To begin the program all students complete several core course requirements. Once this component of the program is fulfilled, students can personalize their studies with a major or pathway. Major options include Accounting, Economics, Finance, Managing Organizations, Marketing, Operations, and Strategy. MBA students are also given the opportunity to earn a JD-MBA dual degree.

      Northwestern University is a four-year, private, not-for-profit university with four campuses across the world. They offer undergraduate, graduate, and professional degrees, through 12 schools and colleges, to over 22,000 students each year. The University holds a regional accreditation from the Higher Learning Commission and offers one of the most sought after MBA programs in the United States. Students wishing to apply for Northwestern’s prestigious Kellogg MBA have three dates to submit a full application. Additionally, students will need to submit GMAT or GRE scores, transcripts from all universities attended, current and professional resume, recommendations, a video essay, and then fulfill an interview requirement.

      TMD Ranking Score: 93.24

      #7 University of California, ​Berkeley Haas School of Business – Berkeley, California


      The Haas School of Business at UC Berkeley offers a highly acclaimed Master’s of Business Administration. This program stands out with distinguished place among the all six of the leading ranking systems.

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      The University of California, Berkeley’s Haas School of Business carries an elite, worldwide reputation. The University’s full-time, on-campus Master’s of Business Administration program is accredited by the renowned Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business and ranks among the top 10 programs across the major ranking systems, US News and World Report, Forbes, The Financial Times, The Economist, and Eduniversal. They are additionally listed within the top 15 by Bloomberg Businessweek. This notable achievement shows that all six ranking systems recognize the quality and distinct impact of the Haas MBA. The program’s widespread acknowledgement assures prospective students of a great MBA experience and powerful business credential. The Haas MBA sets their program apart by focusing on developing innovative leaders with an international mindset. Students begin by participating in a core curriculum with a solid foundation in leadership. They then move on to electives designed to help students meet their future career goals. Additionally, students also have an opportunity to pursue a dual degree by pairing their MBA with a JD, MPH, or MA in International and Area Studies.

      The University of California, Berkeley is a four-year, public university and a member of the greater University of California System. It is regionally accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges, Senior College and University Commission. They offer undergraduate, graduate, and professional degrees through 14 colleges and schools, to a student body of over 41,000 students annually. Students can earn a highly recognizable Master’s of Business Administration degree from the Haas School of Business. This program has a unique notability that allows students to be confident in the program’s potential to catapult their career. To apply to UC Berkeley’s elite MBA program, students must complete an online application by one of three deadlines and submit GMAT (preferred) or GRE scores, transcripts, current and professional resumes, letters of recommendation, and fulfill an interview requirement.

      TMD Ranking Score: 92.22

      #8 Yale University School of Management – New Haven, Connecticut


      Students enrolled at Yale University can earn an elite on-campus Master’s of Business Administration degree. This program offers students a high level of prestige and accreditation.

      Photo courtesy of Robert Lisak
      Yale University’s School of Management offers a competitive and highly regarded on-campus Master’s of Business Administration degree. This program holds prestigious accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business and is listed among the top 10 MBA programs by Eduniversal. They are additionally listed among the top 15 MBA programs within the ranking systems of Bloomberg Businessweek, Forbes, US News and World Report, Financial Times, and The Economist. This level of acclaim is a testament to the program’s high regard across the country and globally. The Yale School of Management strategically developed their MBA program to assist students in becoming well-rounded leaders with a unique perspective on the big picture problems involved in leading today’s business organizations. This well-established MBA includes a core curriculum, electives, and an international study component. The core curriculum builds a strong foundation of leadership and management concepts and then moves on to a variety of specialized electives courses designed to give students an opportunity to expand their studies.

      Yale University is a four-year, private, research, Ivy League university that educates a select group of just over 12,000 students each year. The University is regionally accredited by the New England Commission of Higher Education and offers highly respected undergraduate and graduate level degrees through six academic departments. The MBA program offered through Yale’s School of Management is seen as a highly elite credential in the business world. Students wishing to apply to this refined program have three dates to submit a full online application, which will need to include GMAT or GRE scores, transcripts from each university attended, complete video questions, and two letters of recommendation.

      TMD Ranking Score: 90.02

      #9 Dartmouth College Tuck School of Business – Hanover, New Hampshire


      Dartmouth College’s distinguished Tuck School of Business offers a rigorous Master’s of Business Administration program. This on-campus MBA consistently receives high praise from the major educational ranking systems around the world.

      Photo credit
      The Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth College offers a highly acclaimed Master’s of Business Administration degree that holds exceptional accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. This program receives consistently high praise from the top educational ranking systems each year. They are seen among the top 10 MBA programs in lists from US News and World Report, Forbes, Bloomberg Businessweek, and The Economist. Additionally, they are listed among the top 25 with The Financial Times, and Eduniversal. This high level of acclaim attests to the distinct value that the Dartmouth MBA adds to each of its students. The program is known to provide a world-renown business education that is focused on developing creative leaders for tomorrow’s business challenges. The well-rounded curriculum begins with students completing a set of common core courses on the key functional disciplines of business and management. Then students have an opportunity to tailor their studies with a wide variety of electives and the choice to specialize in areas such as Finance, Marketing, or Strategy. MBA students can also pursue joint degrees with other schools inside Dartmouth or a dual degree with an institution outside of Dartmouth. Joint degree options include MPH/MBA, MD/MBA, or a Ph.D./MBA.

      Dartmouth College is a four-year, private, research, Ivy League college with a close-knit student body of just over 6,500. They are regionally accredited by the New England Commission of Higher Education and have nearly 50 departments and interdisciplinary programs that offer undergraduate and graduate degrees. Dartmouth is widely considered one of the most prestigious private colleges in the country. The Tuck School of Business offers students a highly respected Master’s of Business Administration degree with a recognizable brand. Students interested in applying to this elite program have four dates to submit a full application form. This application will include GMAT or GRE scores, transcripts, two letters of reference, as well as an interview.

      TMD Ranking Score: 89.34

      #10 Duke University Fuqua School of Business – Durham, North Carolina


      Duke University’s Fuqua School of Business offers students an elite Daytime Master’s of Business Administration program. This well-rounded program earned its place on our ranking because of its outstanding reputation in business and management education.

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      Duke University offers a highly acclaimed Full-Time Master’s of Business Administration degree with esteemed accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. The Daytime MBA is listed at #6 with Bloomberg Businessweek’s annual ranking and then is ranked in the #11 spot with US News and World Report. Additionally, they are seen in the top 25 with rankings from The Financial Times, Eduniversal, Forbes and The Economist. This data gives testimony to the exceptional quality, research, faculty, prestige and the overall impact of the Duke MBA. The daytime Master’s of Business Administration program at Duke is a 22-month in length. The rigorous curriculum provides students with many hands-on learning opportunities to use analytical skills and theoretical knowledge to gain a full understanding of what it takes to become a well-rounded leader in today’s business organizations. Students begin by participating in foundational business courses, then explore specialized training in electives or optional concentrations and certificates.A few of the concentration options available include Financial Analysis, Decision Sciences, Energy Finance, Entrepreneurship and Innovation, Operations Management, Social Entrepreneurship, and Strategy. In addition to concentration courses, students can also pursue a certificate in Health Sector Management, Academic Excellence in Finance joint or pursue a joint degree in MEM/MBA, JD/MBA, MD/MBA, MF/MBA, or an MPP/MBA.

      Duke University is a four-year, private, research university that offers undergraduate, graduate, and professional degrees through 10 different academic schools and colleges to over 16,000 annually. They The University holds regional accreditation from the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, Commission on Colleges and offers an elite and highly respected Master’s of Business Administration degree through the Fuqua School of Business. This program has a world-renown business education that receives high-level awards and rankings consistently. To apply to this highly selective program, students must complete an online application by one of four deadlines and submit college transcripts, current and professional resume, essays, GMAT or GRE scores, and two letters of recommendation.

      TMD Ranking Score: 88.60

      #11 Cornell University SC Johnson College of Business – Ithaca, New York


      The SC Johnson Graduate School of Management at Cornell University offers students an exceptional Master’s of Business Administration degree. This MBA is consistently recognized for its quality and value to students.

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      At Cornell University students have an opportunity to earn their Master’s of Business Administration degree in either a two-year or accelerated one-year format. The distinguished MBA from the SC Johnson Graduate School of Management continually receives accolades from the leading education ranking systems. They are listed in the top 10 programs with Forbes and Eduniversal, and additionally listed in the top 20 with US News and World Report, Financial Times, and Bloomberg Businessweek. Additionally they can be seen featured in the #26 spot by The Economist. Both the one-year and the two-year program offered at Cornell University follow the same dynamic curriculum and include the exceptional faculty and facilities associated with an Ivy League education. Students begin by completing the required core curriculum and then tailor their electives in career-focused concentrations. The concentration options available include consulting, entrepreneurship, leadership, global management, sustainable global enterprise. Johnson MBA students are also given the opportunity to pursue a dual degree in the areas of MBA/JD, MBA/MD, MBA/MILR, MBA/MEng, MBA/MPS, and MBA/MHA.

      Cornell University is a four-year, private, research, Ivy League university that serves over 23,000 students annually. The University holds regional accredited through the Middle States Commission on Higher Education and offers a variety undergraduate and graduate level degrees through 14 academic schools and colleges each year. The Master’s of Business Administration degree offered through the SC Johnson Graduate School of Management is highly decorated by the leading ranking systems in the nation. This elite level of recognition across the rankings attests to the quality of teaching and curriculum in their MBA program. To apply to either of the Johnson Master’s of Business Administration programs, students must complete an online application by the applicable deadlines, four dates for the two-year program and five dates for the one-year program. They will also need to submit GMAT or GRE scores, current and professional resume, and essays.

      TMD Ranking Score: 87.42

      #12 University of California, ​Los Angeles Anderson School of Management – Los Angeles, California


      UCLA offers an outstanding on-campus Master’s of Business Administration program through the renowned Anderson School of Management. This MBA program is consistently acknowledged for their excellence among the leading ranking systems.

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      The University of California, Los Angeles offers prospective graduate students many highly recognizable programs, including a full-time Master’s of Business Administration degree that holds elite accreditation from the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. This program is ranked #6 with the Economist, and in the top 25 programs by US News and World Report, Bloomberg Businessweek, Forbes, Eduniversal, and Financial Times. The Anderson School of Management’s MBA is regularly ranked because of their status as a worldwide leader in business education. This degree is designed to provide students with training to perfect leadership and communication skills needed in successful business organizations today. Students build a strong business foundation with core courses, followed by elective courses, internships, and an applied management research program. Students can choose one of many specializations to focus on with their elective courses. A few of the specialization options available are Easton Technology Leadership, Brand Management, Entrepreneurship, Kayne Investment Management, Leaders in Sustainability, and Executive Development.

      The University of California, Los Angeles is a four-year, public university with a student body of over 44,000 students. The University is regionally accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges, Senior College and University Commission and offers a variety of bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral degrees through 12 professional schools. Students can earn a highly recognized Master’s of Business Administration degree through the prestigious Anderson School of Management. Their value to students and their following careers is among the best in the country. Those wishing to apply have three dates to complete a full application. Additionally, students will need to submit GMAT or GRE scores (GMAT preferred), recommendations, official transcripts, resume reflecting all relevant professional work experience, essays, and then fulfill an interview requirement.

      TMD Ranking Score: 84.33

      #13 New York University Leonard N. Stern School of Business – New York, New York


      Students of NYU’s Stern School of Business can earn a Master’s of Business Administration degree that is consistently recognized among the best in the nation. This program was selected for this ranking because of its superior quality and value to MBA students.

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      New York University’s prestigious Stern School of Business offers students an elite Master’s of Business Administration degree. The program holds esteemed accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business and is consistently ranked in the top 25 in the nation. These notable appearances include US News and World Report, Forbes, The Financial Times, Bloomberg Businessweek, The Economist, and Eduniversal. With hundreds of on-campus MBA programs available, this widespread acclaim speaks volumes of the quality and value of New York University’s business program. The full-time Stern MBA program is focused on developing proactive leadership skills. The well-rounded curriculum is two years in length and consists of core business courses, a summer internship, and electives. Over half of this flexible curriculum is electives and students additionally have the option to pick up to three areas of specialization. A few of the specializations available include Accounting, Business Analytics, Global Business, Digital Marketing, Financial Systems and Analytics, Leadership and Change Management, and Social Innovation and Impact. Students can also pursue a dual degree with options in JD/MBA, MD/MBA, MBA/MFA, MBA/MA in French Studies, MS in Mathematics/MBA, MBA/MPA, MS in Biology/MBA, and Dual MBA with HEC School of Management in France.

      New York University is a four-year, private, not-for-profit university that serves over 51,000 students each year. The University was founded in 1831 and holds regional accreditation through the Middle States Commission on Higher Education. They offer undergraduate, graduate, and professional degrees through five major centers and 18 schools and colleges. The Stern School of Business offers an MBA program that is unmatched in innovation and developing leadership skills. Students wishing to apply to this competitive program must complete an online application by one of four deadlines. Additionally, they will need to submit GMAT or GRE scores, transcripts from all universities attended, current and professional resume, three essays, two professional resumes, and an Emotional Intelligence (EQ) endorsement.

      TMD Ranking Score: 83.90

      #14 University of Pennsylvania Wharton School – Philadelphia, Pennsylvania


      The University of Pennsylvania offers a top-tier Master’s of Business Administration degree. This dynamic MBA program holds an outstanding reputation and prestige within the academic community.

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      The University of Pennsylvania’s Master’s of Business Administration degree is widely recognized as one of the most elite MBA programs in the nation. This distinguished program carries accreditation through the prestigious Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. In addition to excellent accreditation, the Wharton School’s MBA is consistently seen in the top 5 by US News and World Report, Bloomberg Businessweek, Forbes, The Financial Times, and The Economist. The program is 20 months in length and includes a challenging but flexible curriculum focused on developing confidence and elite business skills. The program consists of a core curriculum, elective courses, and a summer internship. Students have a choice of 19 majors and over 200 elective courses to further their studies. A few of the majors available include Entrepreneurial Management, HealthCare Management, Insurance and Risk Management, Marketing and Operations Management, Accounting, Business Analytics, and Organizational Effectiveness. Students also have the option to combine their MBA with a variety of other programs including other Wharton degrees, other schools within UPenn, and even some degree options within Johns Hopkins or Harvard.

      The University of Pennsylvania is a four-year, private, not-for-profit, Ivy League university that holds regional accreditation through the Middle States Commission on Higher Education. They offer undergraduate, graduate, and professional degrees through 12 academic schools to a student body of over 25,000 students annually. The Wharton MBA is an Ivy League program that gives students an exceptional brand that will deliver in education excellence, as well as offering a competitive edge in the job market. Those wishing to apply to this competitive program must complete an online application that will include a history of academic and work experience, two essays, official transcripts, two letters of recommendation, GMAT or GRE scores, and current professional resume.

      TMD Ranking Score: 82.01

      #15 University of Virginia Darden School of Business – Charlottesville, Virginia


      UVA’s Darden School of Business offers a competitive Master’s of Business Administration degree. This MBA program is ranked highly because of its significant impact on alumni and consistent praise from the education community.

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      The University of Virginia’s Darden School of Business offers students a distinguished Master’s of Business Administration degree that is consistently listed among the top programs in the country. This MBA is highly accredited by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business and currently, sits in the #10 slot within The Economist annual full-time MBA ranking. UVA is also in the top 20 from the rankings of US News and World Report, Bloomberg Businessweek, and Forbes; and among the top 50 with The Financial Times and Eduniversal. The University of Virginia delivers their unique curriculum delivered through the Case Method. This method develops strong decision makers and confident leaders. Students will gain a comprehensive perspective on general management within the core courses and then personalize their degree further with career-focused concentrations and electives. A few of the Career Track concentrations available include Asset Management/Sales & Trading, Entrepreneurship, Strategy Consulting, Business Development and Growth, Supply Chain Management, Business Analytics, and Global Business. Darden MBA students are also given an opportunity to pursue a dual MBA/JD degree with the UVA School of Law.

      The University of Virginia is a four-year, public university with a student body of over 24,000 students. The University holds a regional accreditation through the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, Commission on Colleges and offers over 190 bachelor’s, master’s, and professional degrees through 11 academic schools. The Master’s of Business Administration program offered through the Darden School of Business is highly acclaimed by the leading ranking systems in the United States. The program’s many prestigious mentions speak to the impact this MBA has on its students and their satisfaction with the program. Prospective Students will need to submit a full application, which will include GMAT or GRE scores, current professional resume, one essay, to recommendations, transcripts, and then fulfill an interview requirement.

      TMD Ranking Score: 80.38

      #16 Carnegie Mellon University Tepper School of Business – Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania


      Carnegie Mellon University’s Tepper School of Business offers a well-rounded Master’s of Business Administration degree. This program is consistently acknowledged for its commitment to excellence.

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      The Tepper School of Business at Carnegie Mellon University offers many highly respected degrees including both a full-time and part-time Master’s of Business Administration degree. This decorated MBA program receives its accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business and is known for its unique brand and standard of success. CMU is currently listed among the top 25 by US News and World Report, Bloomberg Businessweek, Forbes, and Eduniversal. They can additionally be seen within the top 50 with Financial Times and The Economist. This high level of recognition gives testament of the quality that this flexible degree brings to the table. Both the part-time and full-time on-campus MBA programs at Carnegie Mellon University begin with a Base Camp Orientation Program and then move on to core business foundation courses such as Probability and Statistics, Managing People and Teams, and Leadership and Communications Coaching. Students enrolled in the part-time program have all of the same opportunities to personalize and specialize their degree as those enrolled in the traditional program. There are a variety of specialized tracks, as well as, areas of concentration that make the Tepper MBA unique. The MBA tracks available include Business Analytics, Energy Business, Entrepreneurship, Management of Innovation and Project Development, and Technology Leadership. Additionally, areas of concentration include but are not limited to Accounting, Communications, Ethics and Social Responsibility, Business Technologies, and Operations Research.

      Carnegie Mellon University is a four-year, private, not-for-profit university with a student population of nearly 14,000. The University is regionally accredited by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education and offers undergraduate, graduate, and professional degrees through seven academic schools and colleges. CMU’s Tepper School of Business is well known for their distinctive leadership and MBA brand. In order to apply to this elite blended MBA program, students must submit a full application, which should include GMAT or GRE scores, unofficial transcripts from all universities previously attended, current professional resume, one essay, and one letter of recommendation.

      TMD Ranking Score: 79.00

      #17 University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Kenan-​Flagler Business School – Chapel Hill, North Carolina


      The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill offers a well respected on-campus Master’s of Business Administration degree. The Kenan-Flagler Business School’s MBA offers students a highly respected brand and student centered format.

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      The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill offers a well-respected Master’s of Business Administration degree. This distinguished MBA program holds elite accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business and is currently listed among the top 20 MBA programs in the country with US News and World Report. They can additionally be seen among the top 50 by Bloomberg Businessweek, Forbes, Financial Times, The Economist, and Eduniversal. UNC’s on-campus MBA includes a well-rounded core curriculum with multiple areas of concentration. A few of the concentration options included within the Master’s of Business Administration degree are Capital Markets and Investments, Corporate Finance, Management Consulting, Marketing, Operations Management, and Real Estate. Students also have an opportunity to elect an enrichment concentration in Date, Digital Analysis and Technology, Energy, Entrepreneurship, Healthcare, or Sustainable Enterprise. Dual degrees can be completed in eight areas including but not limited to Law, Pharmacy, City and Regional Planning, Environment and Public Health.

      The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is a four-year, public university with regional accreditation through the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, Commission on Colleges. UNC serves nearly 30,000 students each year and offers over 250 undergraduate, graduate, and professional degrees, through 14 schools and colleges. The on-campus MBA program offered through the Kenan-Flagler Business School consistently receives recognition from leading ranking systems. This level of acknowledgment speaks volumes to level of impact offered by this unique and well-respected program. Students interested in applying to the Master’s of Business Administration program offered through the Kenan-Flagler Business School have four dates to submit a full application including a current resume reflecting a preferred two years of professional work experience, transcripts, GMAT or GRE scores, essays, two professional references and an interview requirement.

      TMD Ranking Score: 76.88

      #18 University of Michigan Stephen M. Ross School of Business – Ann Arbor, Michigan


      The University of Michigan’s Stephen M. Ross School of Business offers an esteemed full-time Master’s of Business Administration degree. This program is highly accredited and consistently regarded as one of the foremost MBAs in the nation.

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      Students of the Ross School of Business at the University of Michigan can earn an on-campus Master’s of Business Administration degree with distinguished accreditation from the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. This elite MBA program sits at #7 with US News and World Report and within the top 15 with Bloomberg Businessweek, Forbes, and the Economist. They are additionally ranked in the top 30 by Financial Times. This level of recognition assures students that the Ross MBA brand is well respected. The program is 57 credit hours in length, generally completed in two years, and consists of core courses, hands-on experiences with MAP projects, electives, and optional study abroad programs. This MBA is highly customizable and gives students an opportunity to study further their study in areas such as leadership, social enterprise, emerging markets, operations, entrepreneurial markets, and sustainable business. There are also over 20 different established dual degree options.

      The University of Michigan is a four-year, public university that is regionally accredited by the Higher Learning Commission. They offer undergraduate and graduate level degrees through 19 schools and colleges to a student population of over 46,000 students each year. Students of the Ross School of Business can earn a highly acclaimed Master’s of Business Administration degree. To apply to this elite program, students must complete an online application, which should include GMAT or GRE scores, undergraduate transcripts, current resume, essay, one recommendation, an interview requirement, and allow for an optional but recommended Team Exercise.

      TMD Ranking Score: 73.44

      #19 University of Texas at ​Austin McCombs School of Business – Austin, Texas


      The University of Texas at Austin’s McCombs School of Business offers a prestigious on-campus MBA program. This MBA made an excellent addition to our list because of its consistent acknowledgement from the top ranking systems from around the world.

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      Students of the University of Texas at Austin can earn a robust business education through the McCombs School of Business. This on-campus Master’s of Business Administration degree holds elite accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business and can be seen ranked within the top 20 with US News and World Report, Bloomberg Businessweek, and Forbes. They are further listed among the top 50 with Financial Times, The Economist, and Eduniversal. At the University of Texas students not only receive distinguished business educations, but they will also experience the flexibility to tailor the curriculum to meet their future goals. First McComb MBA participants complete a set of required and customizable core courses, then pick one of 20 different concentrations to finish their degree. A few of the concentration areas available are Accounting, Finance, Information, Risk, & Operations Management, Management, Marketing, Government & Society, Interdisciplinary Business Topics, and Business.

      The University of Texas at Austin is a four-year, public university that educates over 51,000 students each year. The University carries regional accreditation from the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, Commission on Colleges and offers undergraduate, graduate, and professional degree programs through 17 colleges and schools. Each of the leading ranking systems in the United States includes the McCombs MBA among the top programs in the nation, which assures prospective students that they are earning an easily recognizable degree. Those wishing to apply to this competitive program have three dates to submit a full application. Within the application students will need to submit a current resume reflecting a minimum of two years professional work experience, essays, one letter of recommendation, official transcripts, GMAT or GRE scores, and an interview requirement.

      TMD Ranking Score: 73.31

      #20 Emory University Goizueta Business School – Atlanta, Georgia


      The Goizueta Business School at Emory University offers an exceptional MBA program. This Master’s of Business Administration is widely regarded in the education community because of its high level of excellence and global recognition.

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      Emory University’s Master’s of Business Administration degree is offered in multiple formats and holds exceptional accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. The Goizueta Business School’s on-campus MBA is highly recognized in the educational ranking community. Emory is listed in the top 20 with US News and World Report. They further sit at #23 with Forbes, #33 with The Economist, #47 with Financial Times, and #28 in Eduniversal’s Best Full Time MBA in America ranking. This type of overall recognition shows prospective students that the Emory MBA is a top-tier program with an exceptional brand. The program’s well-established curriculum consists of core business courses, electives, and a summer internship with additional global learning opportunities. Students have an opportunity to tailor their degree with 90 different electives and over 20 areas of concentration. This level of customization ensures that this degree will help each student meet their future professional goals.

      Emory University is a four-year, private, not-for-profit university that educates over 14,000 students annually. They hold a regional accreditation from the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, Commission on Colleges and offer bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral degrees through nine schools and colleges. The Goizueta Business School offers a sought-after MBA degree that can be completed in a two-year format or an accelerated one-year format for students with professional experience. The program has four deadlines to submit a full application, which will need to include GMAT or GRE scores, current resume, essay, college transcripts, two letters of recommendation, and then fulfill an interview requirement.

      TMD Ranking Score: 72.07

      #21 University of Washington Michael G. Foster School of Business – Seattle, Washington


      Students of the University of Washington’s Foster School of Business can earn a highly accredited Master’s of Business Administration degree. This program was selected for this ranking because of its consistent value and many national recognitions.

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      The University of Washington’s Master’s of Business Administration is consistently recognized within the education community. The program is highly accredited by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business and is listed in the top 15 full-time MBA ranking from Bloomberg Businessweek. They are additionally ranked within the top 50 in rankings from US News and World Report, Forbes, Financial Times, The Economist, and Eduniversal. UW’s Foster School of Business’s full-time MBA is two years in length and includes a curriculum uniquely focused on strategy and global business. Students begin by building competency and confidence in fundamental business concepts, skills, and tools. They then move on to tailor their second year with a choice of over 80 electives, optional certificates, or joint degree options. Certificate options include Entrepreneurship, Global Business, Nonprofit Management, International Development Policy and Management, and Real Estate. And available joint degrees are MBA/MPAcc (Taxation), MBA/JD, MBA/MPAcc (Auditing and Assurance), MBA/MAIS (International Studies), MBA/MAIS (Japan Studies), MBA/MAIS (Korean Studies) and MBA/MHA.

      The University of Washington is a four-year, public university that serves over 46,000 students each year. The University is regionally accredited by the Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities and offers a wide variety of degrees through 17 academic colleges and schools. The Foster School of Business offers a highly decorated, full-time, Master’s of Business Administration degree. This high level of acknowledgment comes from alumni, employers, recruiters, and university peers, showing their exceptional level of prestige in the MBA world. To apply to this competitive program, students must complete an online application and submit two letters of recommendation, two essays, current resume, official GMAT/GRE scores, and fulfill a video and in-person interview requirement.

      TMD Ranking Score: 70.02

      #22 Georgetown University McDonough School of Business – Washington, District of Columbia


      Georgetown University’s McDonough School of Business offers a well-rounded Master’s of Business Administration degree. This top-notch program is consistently acknowledged for its high quality full-time MBA.

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      Students of Georgetown University have an opportunity to earn a full-time Master’s of Business Administration degree that is highly accredited by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. The program is designed to give students the tools needed to quickly advance their careers. Ranking systems continually list this MBA among the top programs in the country. It is seen listed among the top 25 with US News and World Report, as well as, in the top 50 with Bloomberg Businessweek, Forbes, Financial Times, and The Economist. This residential program is also globally recognized as the #33 MBA program from Eduniversal. Georgetown’s McDonough School of Business’ Master’s of Business Administration degree is tailored to give students a transformational leadership experience with a global perspective. This elite program consists of 21 months of comprehensive and rigorous core coursework with multiple ways to personalize the experience. There are over 70 different electives offered to customize the degree and students also have the opportunity to pursue an honors certificate program in International Business Diplomacy. Dual degrees are also offered in the areas of Law, Medicine, Public Policy, or Foreign Service.

      Georgetown University is a four-year, private, not-for-profit Jesuit and Catholic University that is regionally accredited by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education. The University offers undergraduate, graduate, and professional degrees through nine academic schools to just over 19,000 students each year. The Master’s of Business Administration program offered through the McDonough School of Business consistently receives high marks by the leading educational ranking systems. These systems acknowledge that this program offers an investment that is sure to pay off. Students wishing to apply to the elite McDonough MBA program have three dates to submit a full application. The application will include GMAT or GRE scores, official transcripts, one written essay, one video essay, current professional resume, and one letter of recommendation.

      TMD Ranking Score: 68.07

      #23 Indiana University Kelley School of Business – Bloomington, Indiana


      The Kelley School of Business at Indiana University offers an accredited Master’s of Business Administration degree. This program is highly ranked because of its unparalleled reputation in the academic world and the MBA community.

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      Indiana University’s Kelley School of Business offers students a prestigious on-campus Master’s of Business Administration program. This well-respected MBA carries elite accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business and is seen listed in the top 50 with US News and World Report, Bloomberg Businessweek, Forbes, The Economist, and Eduniversal. This high level of recognition from the major ranking systems used in our research demonstrates that Indiana University’s Master’s of Business Administration offers a superior brand. The Kelley School of Business’ program focuses on relevant topics such as Business Law and Ethics, Economics, Marketing, Finance, Operations, Information technology, and Project Management. Along with the tradition MBA program, Indiana University students also have an opportunity to combine their degrees in a variety of ways and earn certificates in Social Entrepreneurship or Global Business Achievement. The Kelley School of Business also offers three unique global experience options including visiting the Washington campus, studying abroad, or taking part in the unique Global Business and Social Enterprise program.

      Indiana University is a four-year, public university with a student body of over 43,000. The University holds a regional accreditation from the Higher Learning Commission and offers over 550 degree programs through 16 academic schools and colleges. IU’s Kelley School of Business offers an accredited Master’s of Business Administration degree with a well-known reputation and history of excellence. To apply to this prestigious program, students must complete an online application by one of two deadlines and will then need to submit transcripts from all universities attended with a suggested GPA of 3.3 or higher, current and professional resume reflecting a minimum of two years work experience, one letter of recommendation, one personal statement, and GMAT scores.

      TMD Ranking Score: 66.38

      #24 Purdue University Krannert School of Management – West Lafayette, Indiana


      Students of the University of Purdue can earn a well-respected Master’s of Business Administration degree through the Krannert School of Management. This program stands out because of its high-acclaim on the national and global level.

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      Purdue University consistently receives recognition for their outstanding level of commitment and dedication to developing leaders. Among their many prestigious programs is their Master’s of Business Administration that holds distinguished accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. This residential program is globally recognized as the #10 MBA program from Eduniversal. An accomplishment that shows how this program can give Purdue alumni a competitive advantage in the global business market. The Purdue MBA can also be seen ranked in the top 50 with Bloomberg Businessweek, and Forbes. As well as, in the top 100 slot with Financial Times, US News and World Report, and The Economist. This dynamic MBA includes curriculum combines classroom learning with hands-on opportunities and global business projects to develop world-class business leaders. The 60-credit hour, 21-month, program covers general business foundation courses, includes a summer internship, and gives students the choice to tailor their degree with relevant concentration areas. A few of the options available are Accounting, Finance, Marketing, Management Information Systems, Operations, Strategic Management, Human Resource Management, Organizational Behavior, and Management Consulting.

      Purdue University is a four-year, public university located in West Lafayette, Indiana. The University holds a regional accreditation from the Higher Learning Commission. They offer a variety of undergraduate and graduate level degrees to a student body of over 42,000 students each year. Students can earn a highly recognizable Master’s of Business Administration degree through the highly acclaimed Krannert School of Management. Applicants have four deadlines to submit a full application, which should include GMAT (preferred) or GRE scores, academic records, work experience, letters of recommendation, essays, statement of purpose, current and professional resume, information about community involvement, and an interview.

      TMD Ranking Score: 61.86

      #25 Arizona State University W.P. Carey School of Business – Tempe, Arizona


      The W.P. Carey School of Business at Arizona State University offers a highly regarded Master’s of Business Administration degree. This program made a great addition to our ranking because of its cutting edge curriculum and overall prestige among the MBA community.

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      Arizona State University’s Carey School of Business is widely recognized for its innovative curriculum and program excellence. The on-campus Master’s of Business Administration program at ASU holds accreditation by the Association to Advance Schools of Business and offers students a unique environment to develop leadership skills and business knowledge. The Carey MBA is listed in the #29 spot with US News and World Report, and within the top 50 by Bloomberg Businessweek, Forbes, Financial Times, The Economist, and Eduniversal. The program’s well-rounded curriculum offers a variety of courses focused on meeting the rapidly changing expectations of the business world. First, students cover core business courses such as Financial Accounting, Managerial Accounting, Organizational Theory, and Marketing Management. They then tailor their studies with relevant and career-focused elective courses. Students can also choose to further their studies with a concurrent degree. Joint degree options include Online MBA/Master’s of Legal Studies, Online MBA/MSE Electrical Engineering, and Online MBA/MS Industrial Engineering.

      Arizona State University is a four-year, public university that has held regional accreditation through the Higher Learning Commission since 1931. The Arizona State University system includes seven locations and serves a large student body of almost 51,000 students each year. They offer bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral programs through 15 academic colleges and schools, including a highly acclaimed Master’s of Business Administration through the Carey School of Business. In order to apply students will need to submit a full application, which will include GMAT scores, information of two recommenders, employment history, all college transcripts, three essays, and a current professional resume. Once accepted, the Carey School of Business provides a Forward Focus MBA Scholarship that can help covers the program’s tuition.

      TMD Ranking Score: 60.58

      #26 Rice University Jesse H. Jones Graduate School of Business – Houston, Texas


      Students at Rice University can earn a competitive Master’s of Business Administration degree. This MBA earned its place on our list because of their exceptional accreditations and numerous high rankings.

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      Rice University offers graduate students an elite Master’s of Business Administration degree through the Jesse H. Jones Graduate School of Business. This highly respected program is accredited by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. MBA students may choose up to two concentration from Accounting, Energy, Entrepreneurship, Finance, Health Care, Marketing, Operations Management, Real Estate, or Strategic Management. Rice is recognized in the business world as a leading institution for entrepreneurs, and has a well-established Rice Business Plan Competition, the largest graduate student startup competition in the world. According to U.S. News and World Report, Rice is ranked 23rd among best business schools in the nation. Rice earned a spot on Bloomberg Businessweek’s top 10 business schools. Students complete an internship the summer after their first year, and focus on their dream job during their second year. Graduates are highly sought out by leading companies in the industry such as Amazon, ExxonMobil, and Phillips 66.

      Rice University is a four-year, private, not-for-profit university that is regionally accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, Commission on Colleges, and offers more than 50 diverse degrees to just over 7,000 students each year. This highly selective school only accepts one student among every 17 freshman applicants, and maintains a small student student-to-faculty ratio of approximately 6:1. U.S. News and World Report ranks Rice 14th in its Best Values category, and 16th Best National University. Graduate students seeking a Master’s of Business Administration can earn their degree through the prestigious Jesse H. Jones Graduate School of Business. Potential candidates interested in pursuing the MBA program must submit an online application, official college transcripts, GMAT or GRE scores, professional resume, up to three letters of recommendation, and either an essay or video. A pool of the strongest applicants will also be invited to participate in a formal admissions interview.

      TMD Ranking Score: 60.42

      #27 Michigan State University Eli Broad College of Business – East Lansing, Michigan


      The Eli Broad College of Business at Michigan State University offers students the opportunity to earn an exceptional Master’s of Business Administration degree. This MBA program offers unique curriculum and hands-on learning labs that prepare students for real world success.

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      At Michigan State University, students can earn an elite Master’s of Business Administration degree through the nationally recognized Eli Broad College of Business. This highly acclaimed program is accredited through the prestigious Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business International, an accreditation held by only 5% of all business schools. Students, faculty, and alumni are proud to be part of a campus that holds so many distinctions. The latest Bloomberg Businessweek ranking places Broad among the top five business schools. U.S. News and World Report ranks the business school 37th overall, and the concentration in Supply Chain Management/Logistics 1st in the nation. Students also receive an excellent return on investment, and is ranked #1 for percentage increase on pre-MBA salary according to The Economist. The high post-graduation salaries make it easier for students to pay off their education, and according to Forbes, 3.6 years is the average length it takes graduates to fully pay off their loans. The high rankings of Broad College of Business, value of the MBA, and post-graduate salary increase make Michigan State the perfect school for students seeking an MBA.

      Michigan State University, founded in 1855, is a four-year, public university serving over 50,000 students each year, making it home to the seventh largest student body population in the U.S. Michigan State is regionally accredited by The Higher Learning Commission, and offers a wide array of over 200 academic programs leading to bachelor’s through doctoral degrees. MSU is a participant in the Big Ten Academic Alliance, is a member of the Association of American Universities, and is consistently ranked a leading research institution. U.S. News and World Report ranks MSU 33rd among the nation’s public universities, and 81st among the world’s top 100 universities. Graduate students seeking a Master’s of Business Administration can earn their degree through the Eli Broad College of Business. Prospective students interested in the MBA program must submit an online application, copies of all official college transcripts, current resume, GMAT or GRE scores, a written and a video essay, and two references. Applicants will be contacted by the admissions staff for an evaluative interview.

      TMD Ranking Score: 59.26

      #28 Penn State Smeal College of Business – University Park, Pennsylvania


      Students can earn a highly acclaimed Master’s of Business Administration degree at Penn State. This MBA was selected for our ranking due to their reputation for academic excellence among the world’s best business schools.

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      Penn State features a highly distinguished Master’s of Business Administration degree through the well established Smeal College of Business. The MBA program is accredited through the prestigious Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. Students can select a concentration in Consulting, Finance, Marketing, and Supply Chain Management, and can add on an option in sixteen areas of study to enhance their business skill set. Students also have opportunities to participate in week long immersions throughout the world. According to the latest assessment from Bloomberg Businessweek, the MBA is ranked 25th overall, 12th among recruiters, and ninth among business schools at public universities. Additionally, U.S. News and World Report ranks the business program 31st in the nation. Recent graduates earned a mean starting salary of $105K, and on average earn back more than half of their investment within their first year after graduation. The high rankings of the MBA program, excellent return on investment potential, and numerous concentration/option areas make it the choice program for students looking to advance their business careers!

      Penn State is a four-year, public, higher education institution, established in 1855, that currently serves an annual student body enrollment of over 47,000 students spanning 24 campuses. Penn State is regionally accredited by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education, and offers more than 275 bachelor’s degree programs, as well as multiple graduate and doctoral degrees. Penn State is among the top one percent of universities worldwide, and is consistently ranked among the top 100 universities in the Center for World University Rankings and the Times Higher Education World University Rankings. The Carnegie Foundation also grants Penn State the highest rating for research universities. Graduate students can pursue a Master’s of Business Administration degree through Smeal College of Business. The admissions process is extremely competitive, and includes submitting a Penn State Graduate School Application, GMAT or GRE scores, an admissions essay, resume, educational transcripts, video application response, and two letters of recommendation.

      TMD Ranking Score: 58.34

      #29 Georgia Institute of Technology Ernest Scheller Jr. College of Business – Atlanta, Georgia


      Ernest Scheller Jr. College of Business at Georgia Institute of Technology offers a world-class Master’s of Business Administration degree program. This distinguished MBA program stands out in this ranking with its relevant, technology-driven curriculum.

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      Ernest Scheller Jr. College of Business at Georgia Institute of Technology includes a well-recognized Master’s of Business Administration degree that is accredited by the highly acclaimed Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business International. MBA students have access to unique experiential learning experiences through Technology Square, a premier high tech business hub located on-campus for start-up firms, as well as established corporations. Students may choose a concentration in Accounting, Finance, Information Technology Management, Law and Ethics, Marketing, Operations Management, or Strategy and Innovation. This elite MBA program is consistently ranked among the top in the nation. Financial Times ranks the Full-time MBA Career Services #1 in the world, and the overall MBA program 54th. Additionally, U.S. News and World Report ranks Scheller 28th among business schools in the nation, and the Supply Chain concentration 17th. This technology rich MBA program is the key to open doors for 21st century students in the global business arena.

      Georgia Institute of Technology is a four-year, public university serving over 29,000 students each year. Georgia Tech was founded in 1885, and is regionally accredited through the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, Commission on Colleges. Students are offered more than 130 technologically focused majors and minors leading to bachelor through doctoral degrees. According to U.S. News and World Report, Georgia Tech is ranked seventh among all public universities and 34th among all universities in the United States. Additionally, Times Higher Education ranks Georgia Tech 23rd among global universities in the world. The university has also been ranked the “smartest” public college in America, based on standardized test scores. Graduate students may earn an academically rigorous Master’s of Business Administration through Ernest Scheller Jr. College of Business. Applicants must complete an application, and submit two required essays and an optional essay, official GMAT or GRE scores, two letters of recommendation, and official college transcripts. Admissions interviews are by invitation only.

      TMD Ranking Score: 56.77

      #30 University of Southern California Marshall School of Business – Los Angeles, California


      Graduate students can earn a premier Master’s of Business Administration at the University of Southern California. This MBA earns a standing ovation for their many high rankings and elite accreditation.

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      A Master’s of Business Administration is offered through the highly acclaimed Marshall School of Business at the University of Southern California. Marshall School of Business is accredited by the elite Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. The MBA program at the University of Southern California has been the recipient of many awards and rankings including being ranked 20th in the nation by U.S. News and World Report. The class of 2020 makes Marshall the first major business school to achieve gender parity in an MBA program. According to Forbes, Marshall ranks third for “Most Satisfied Business School Graduates” and 33rd overall best business school. USC has a strong network of over 375,000 alumni association members in companies and industries globally, earning a ranking for sixth best alumni association by The Economist. The innovative business education, along with the numerous accolades that Marshall School of Business has earned makes this MBA program a transformative point in students’ lives and careers.

      The University of Southern California is a four-year, private, not-for-profit university, regionally accredited through the Western Association of Schools and Colleges, Senior College and University Commission, and is a member of the Association of American Universities. USC was founded in 1880, making it the oldest private research university in California. USC currently serves over 45,000 students annually and offers 95 undergraduate majors and 134 master’s, doctoral, or professional programs. The graduate student body population has seen tremendous growth, and exceeds the undergraduate student enrollment. USC has produced the fourth largest number of billionaire alumni out of all undergraduate institutions in the world. According to U.S. News and World Report, USC is ranked 22nd in the National Universities category. Graduate students can earn a Master’s of Business Administration through Marshall School of Business. Prospective students must submit an online application, copies of official transcripts, GMAT or GRE scores, two required essays, an optional essay, and a professional resume.

      TMD Ranking Score: 56.12

      #31 (Tied) Boston University Questrom School of Business – Boston, Massachusetts


      Boston University offers an outstanding Master’s of Business Administration degree through the Questrom School of Business. This program is a unique addition to our ranking because it offers global experiences, cutting-edge curriculum, and direct access to the Boston business community.

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      Questrom School of Business at Boston University offers an elite Master’s of Business Administration degree. This MBA program is fully accredited by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. Students can complete a Health Sector or Social Impact MBA, or select an innovative concentration in Energy and Environmental Sustainability, Entrepreneurship, Finance, Leadership and Organizational Transformation, Marketing, Operations and Technology Management, or Strategy and Innovation. Students can complete hands-on field seminars in Vietnam, Paris, India, Israel, and Latin America, or become involved in the local Boston business community through internships and consulting projects with leading companies. Questrom School of Business holds a stellar reputation! According to U.S. News and World Report, this MBA program is ranked 42nd in the nation. Additionally, Forbes ranks the business school 48th and Bloomberg Businessweek ranks Questrom 49th. The global learning experiences, along with the distinctions earned by Questrom School of Business make this MBA program stand out!

      Boston University is a four-year public university that holds regional accreditation through the New England Commission of Higher Education, and serves over 33,000 students each year. BU offers over 250 fields of study, including bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral programs through its 17 academic schools and colleges. BU is a member of the Boston Consortium for Higher Education and the Association of American Universities. BU has also been designated as an R1: Doctoral University, by the Carnegies Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. According to U.S. News and World Report, BU is tied for 37th among national universities and 32nd among global universities. Questrom School of Business offers a nationally recognized Master’s of Business Administration degree. In order to apply, prospective students will need to submit an online application form, three video essays or one written essay, current resume, two letters of recommendation, university-level transcripts, and GMAT or GRE scores.

      TMD Ranking Score: 55.76

      #31 (Tied) Washington University in St. Louis Olin Business School – Saint Louis, Missouri


      Students can earn a well respected Master’s of Business Administration degree through the Olin Business School at Washington University in St. Louis. This program is considered a leader in experiential and entrepreneurial educational opportunities, starting with a required summer around-the-world immersion.

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      Olin Business School at Washington University in St. Louis features a highly acclaimed Master’s of Business Administration degree that is prestigiously accredited through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. MBA students start the program in June, and will travel across the globe during their first summer, spending 13 days in St. Louis, one week in Washington D.C., two weeks in Barcelona, and 17 days in Shanghai. Students also have opportunities to gain real-world experience through corporate and non-profit consulting, completing a practicum through the Center for Experiential Learning, and network opportunities with nationally recognized startups in St. Louis. According to U.S. News and World Report, the MBA is ranked 23rd in the nation. Additionally, Forbes ranks this top-notch program 35th and Bloomberg BusinessWeek ranks the program 36th. The hands-on, global business curriculum and experiential learning opportunities make earning an MBA at Washington University in St. Louis an incredible investment in your future!

      Washington University in St. Louis is a four-year, private, not-for-profit institution of higher education with a student body population of over 15,000 students. WashU was founded in 1853, and named after George Washington. They offer associate through doctoral degrees through nine schools and college and hold regional accreditation through the Higher Learning Commission. WashU has received many prestigious rankings, including a current ranking of 18th by U.S. News and World Report and 11th by the Wall Street Journal. Additionally, The Princeton Review ranks WUSL seventh on its Top 25 Schools for Entrepreneurs list. WUSL’s Olin Business School offers an elite MBA that encourages a highly collaborative environment. This distinguished program is a great choice for students looking to obtain the knowledge and skills to succeed in business. To apply to the Olin MBA program, students must complete an online application and submit a one-page resume, two essays, career plan, GMAT or GRE scores, college transcripts, and one professional recommendation.

      TMD Ranking Score: 55.76

      #33 University of Florida Warrington College of Business – Gainesville, Florida


      Warrington College of Business at the University of Florida offers a world-renown Master’s of Business Administration. This program stands out on our ranking with its progressive curriculum and cutting-edge concepts.

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      The University of Florida offers a world-renown Master’s of Business Administration through the Warrington College of Business. The Warrington College of Business holds prestigious accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. The MBA program has consistently been recognized by top leaders in the business industry. U.S. News and World Report ranks UF’s MBA 34th in the nation. Additionally, this prestigious MBA program is ranked among the Top 50 by Bloomberg BusinessWeek, The Economist, and Eduniversal. Students can pursue their degree in a classic two-year format, or in an accelerated one-year format. Career relevant concentrations are offered in Finance, Human Capital, Marketing, Strategy, Supply Chain, and Real Estate. Students can further enhance their resume by earning an industry specific certificate in Tourism and Hospitality Business Management. The wide range of recognitions earned by UF attests to the program’s global MBA brand and significant place in the MBA community.

      The University of Florida is a four-year, public university that has held regional accreditation through the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, Commission on Colleges since 1913.The University has a student population of over 52,000 and offers a variety of bachelor’s degrees, 123 master’s degrees, and 76 doctoral degrees to students through 16 academic colleges. According to U.S. News and World Report, Florida is tied as the eighth best public university in the United States and tied for 35th among all national universities. UF is the only member of the Association of American Universities in the state of Florida. The Carnegie Foundation classifies UF as a Research University with Very High Research. Those wishing to participate in UF’s fast paced and well-respected business program are encouraged to apply to the Warrington MBA. Applicants will need to submit an online application, a current resume, official transcripts, two letters of recommendation, and GMAT scores.

      TMD Ranking Score: 55.69

      #34 University of Notre Dame Mendoza College of Business – Notre Dame, Indiana


      Students can earn a top-rated Master’s of Business Administration degree from the University of Notre Dame. This MBA was selected for our ranking because of their prestigious presence in the MBA community.

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      The Mendoza College of Business at the University of Notre Dame offers students an academically rigorous and ethics-based Master’s of Business Administration degree. The Notre Dame MBA is highly accredited by the Association to Advance Schools of Business and is ranked among the top 50 MBAs with U.S. News and World Report, Bloomberg Businessweek, Forbes, and The Economist. The Economist further ranks the MBA fourth globally for alumni effectiveness and ninth globally for potential to network. Students can choose to pursue a traditional two-year MBA, or an accelerated one-year option. After one semester of core business courses, students will choose a concentration in Business Analytics, Business Leadership, Consulting, Corporate Finance, Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Investments, or Marketing. Students also have the opportunity to participate in international immersion opportunities in China, South America, or Chile. The high caliber of recognition by Mendoza College of Business reflects the exceptional level of teaching and execution of the MBA program, giving prospective students assurance of a worthwhile MBA experience.

      The University of Notre Dame is a four-year, private, not-for-profit, Catholic university, established in 1842, with regional accreditation through the Higher Learning Commission. They offer 75 bachelor’s degree programs, six professional master’s degrees, nine terminal master’s degrees, and 32 doctoral programs to over 12,000 students each year. Students can participate in over 500 student organizations, and approximately half of all students study abroad through Notre Dame International. Notre Dame was the first Catholic university to establish programs in law, engineering, and architecture. Notre Dame is rated among the nation’s top 25 institutions of higher education by U.S. News and World Report, Forbes, and Niche. Notre Dame’s Mendoza College of Business holds the highest level of business accreditation, which globally shows this program is offering a top-tier education. Prospective students will need to submit a full online application. Application components include GMAT or GRE scores, academic transcripts, two letters of recommendation, one slide presentation and one essay.

      TMD Ranking Score: 53.87

      #35 University of Minnesota Carlson School of Management – Minneapolis, Minnesota


      The University of Minnesota’s Carlson School of Management offers a prestigious Master’s of Business Administration degree. This MBA program is consistently viewed as one of the leading programs in the United States.

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      The University of Minnesota offers a Master’s of Business Administration that holds elite accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. This program is listed in the top 50 with rankings from US News and World Report, Bloomberg Businessweek, The Economist, and Forbes. They are additionally ranked in the top 100 programs from The Financial Times. Students will complete the 64 credit-hour program within two years, and after completing foundation courses, are able choose to specialize in the areas of Entrepreneurship, Medical Industry, Finance, Information Systems, Management, Marketing, and Supply Chain. Students will participate in a two-semester long experiential learning experience in either Brand, Consulting, Funds, or Venture Enterprise. All students complete a two week international experience, and have further opportunities for global elective enrichment programs. Students can also participate in 22 business organizations. According to their website this unique, well-rounded curriculum contributes to a 96% job placement rate within 90 days of graduation.

      The University of Minnesota is a four-year, public research university, and educates an impressive student body of nearly 52,000 students each year. The University holds regional accreditation from the Higher Learning Commission, and is considered one of America’s Public Ivy universities. Minnesota is a member of the Association of American Universities. Students are offered a wide array of undergraduate and graduate degrees through their 19 academic schools and colleges. U of M is one of only five schools with an engineering school, law school, medical school, veterinary school, and an agricultural school. Graduate students can earn a prestigious Master’s of Business Administration through the Carlson School of Management. Prospective applicants will need to complete the program’s online application, which will include submission of two professional references, current resume, transcripts, GMAT or GRE scores, a personal statement essay, and a video essay. There is also an additional interview requirement that can be completed in person or via Skype.

      TMD Ranking Score: 52.85

      #36 University of Rochester Simon Business School – Rochester, New York


      Students can earn a reputable Master’s of Business Administration at the University of Rochester. This is the country’s only MBA program with a STEM option for every specialization.

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      The Simon Business School at the University of Rochester offers a Master’s of Business Administration that is highly accredited by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. This established MBA is widely seen as a top ranked program among the leading ranking systems. It is listed in the top 50 US programs with U.S. News and World Report, Bloomberg Businessweek, Forbes, and Eduniversal. They are further acknowledged within the top 100 MBA programs with The Financial Times and The Economist. Additionally, Financial Times ranks the business program 13th MBA for Women in the United States. Rochester is the country’s only MBA program with a STEM option for every specialization. Students can choose to pursue the Finance, Marketing, or Consulting track. Within these three tracks, students can select from 10 specializations including Asset Management, Banking, Corporate Finance, Venture Capital and Private Equity, Brand Management, Product Management, Operations, Pricing, Strategy, or Technology. Students can further customize their degree by selecting a minor.

      The University of Rochester is a four-year, private, not-for-profit university, founded in 1850, with regional accreditation from the Middle States Commission on Higher Education. Rochester offers over 200 undergraduate and graduate programs through six academic schools and colleges to nearly 11,600 students each year. The campus offers a low 10:1 student to faculty ratio. According to U.S. News and World Report, Rochester is ranked 34th among national universities and 111th among global universities. Additionally, Times Higher Education World Rankings ranks Rochester 51st among U.S. colleges and 153rd among world universities. Many alumni have also been the recipients of Nobel and Pulitzer prizes, as well as Fulbright Scholars. Rochester’s Simon Business School offers an elite, accredited MBA program focused on analytics and economics. Students interested in this competitive MBA program must complete an online application, submit GMAT or GRE scores, current professional resume, one essay, applicant interesting fact, school-issued unofficial transcripts, and contact information for two references.

      TMD Ranking Score: 52.57

      #37 Vanderbilt University Owen Graduate School of Management – Nashville, Tennessee


      Students can earn a vigorous Master’s of Business Administration degree through the Owen Graduate School of Management at Vanderbilt University. This MBA was selected for our ranking because of their reputation as a leader in business education.

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      The Owen Graduate School of Management at Vanderbilt University offers many exceptional degrees, including a full-time, on-campus Master’s of Business Administration . This prestigious MBA program receives its accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business and is known for its high standards of teaching, curriculum, and alumni success. Vanderbilt is listed among the top 50 MBA programs with U.S. News and World Report, Bloomberg Businessweek, Forbes, and The Economist. They are additionally ranked in the top 100 with The Financial Times. With these high ranking scores, they easily fit in the top three percent of graduate programs in business administration within the U.S. The 62-credit hour Owen MBA program begins with a core foundation of business and management courses and then transitions into a flexible curriculum that allows students to choose from many course options and customize their degree with specializations, concentrations, and emphases. Students may select a concentration in Accounting, Finance, General Management, Healthcare, Human and Organizational Performance, Marketing, Operations and Analytics, or Strategy.

      Vanderbilt University is a four-year, private, not-for-profit university, founded in 1873, with a student population of over 12,500. The university is regionally accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, Commission on Colleges and offers undergraduate, graduate, and professional degrees through 10 academic schools. Vanderbilt has a reputation as an elite university, and is ranked by U.S. News and World Report as the 14th best university by all national universities. Additionally, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings ranks Vanderbilt 108th best university in the world, and Vanderbilt is ranked 52nd in the United States by the Academic Ranking of World Universities. Vanderbilt’s Owen Graduate School of Management considers themselves a leadership laboratory. They offer an exceptional selection of courses to enhance students’ leadership as well as give a top-notch business education. In order to apply to this elite MBA program, students must submit a full application, GMAT or GRE scores, official transcripts, current professional resume, written essay, video essay, and two letters of recommendation.

      TMD Ranking Score: 52.49

      #38 University of Wisconsin-​Madison School of Business – Madison, Wisconsin


      At the University of Wisconsin-Madison, students can earn an exceptional Master’s of Business Administration degree. This MBA carries an excellent reputation and offers a wide variety of specialization areas.

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      Students of the University of Wisconsin-Madison’s School of Business have an opportunity to choose from many competitive programs and highly recognized programs, including a Master’s of Business Administration . This elite MBA is accredited by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business and is currently ranked in the top 50 with U.S. News and World Report, Bloomberg Businessweek, and Forbes. They are additionally ranked in the top 75 U.S. programs with The Financial Times and The Economist. This level of acknowledgment puts this program within the top three percent of graduate business administration programs in the U.S. The UW-Madison MBA is focused on helping students excel and promote within their careers. This full-time program immerses students into real-world projects with industry leaders and allows students to choose a career specialization. Specialization options include Marketing Research, Brand and Product Management, Corporate Finance and Investment Banking, Applied Security Analysis, Real Estate, Risk Management and Insurance, Operations and Technology Management, Supply Chain Management, Strategic Human Resources Management, and Arts Administration.

      The University of Wisconsin-Madison is a four-year, public university and is the flagship campus of Wisconsin’s state university system. UW-Madison is regionally accredited by the Higher Learning Commission and serves nearly 43,000 students each year, and offers 136 undergraduate majors, 148 master’s degree programs, and 120 doctoral programs through 13 unique academic colleges. UW is one of America’s Public Ivy universities, and a member of the Association of American Universities. UW-Madison is widely perceived as a leader in business education. This can be accredited to their well established and prestigious School of Business. Prospective Wisconsin MBA students can rest assured of a comprehensive program that equips them to pursue their future careers. Students wishing to apply to the University of Wisconsin-Madison’s distinguished MBA must have a minimum of two years work experience and submit a full application, which should include GMAT or GRE scores, official transcripts, current resume, personal essay, and one letter of recommendation. Select students will also be asked to fulfill an interview requirement.

      TMD Ranking Score: 49.81

      #39 Ohio State University Max M. Fisher College of Business – Columbus, Ohio


      Max M. Fisher College of Business at Ohio State University offers an elite Master’s of Business Administration degree. This prestigious MBA is acknowledged as one of the leading programs in the nation.

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      The Fisher College of Business at Ohio State University offers a Master’s of Business Administration degree. The program is highly accredited by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business and this year alone, they are ranked in the top 50 with U.S. News and World Report, Bloomberg Businessweek, and Forbes. They can additionally be seen in the top 75 with The Financial Times and The Economist. The Fisher full-time MBA is an intimate and highly customizable Master’s of Business Administration program that consists of 57 credit hours of core curriculum, major courses, and electives. Students can select a major in Data Analytics, Finance, Financial Reporting and Analysis, International Business, Leadership and Organizational Behavior, Marketing, Operations and Logistics, Sports Management, Strategy, or tailor their degree by combining multiple career tracks and electives that appeal to their future career goals. During the summer, students can participate in the Global Applied Projects program, which prepares students for international business, through hands-on consulting projects in the UK, Germany, Belgium, France, China, Mexico, Canada, and many other countries.

      Ohio State University is a four-year, public university, established in 1870, with a student body of nearly 60,000 students, making it the third largest university in the United States. OSU offers a wide variety of degree programs through 23 schools and colleges and hold regional accreditation from the Higher Learning Commission. OSU is a member of the Association of American Universities, the Big Ten Academic Alliance, and is recognized as a Public Ivy. The Carnegie Foundation classifies OSU an R1: Doctoral University- Highest Research Activity. According to U.S. News and World Report, OSU is 16th among the nation’s best public universities, and first among Ohio public universities for academics. The Fisher College of Business accepts applications to the full-time MBA on a rolling basis. Students simply need to complete an online application and submit GMAT or GRE scores, academic transcripts, current resume, essay, optional letters of recommendation, and fulfill a video and live interview requirement.

      TMD Ranking Score: 48.53

      #40 University of California-​Irvine Paul Merage School of Business – Irvine, California


      The Paul Merage School of Business offers a premier Master’s of Business Administration degree. This highly recognized program is regarded with prestige in the MBA community.

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      The highly respected Paul Merage School of Business provides University of California-Irvine students with multiple MBA program offerings. Among the programs offered is an Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business accredited, full-time, residential Master’s of Business Administration degree. This elite program is currently ranked in the top 50 MBAs in rankings from U.S. News and World Report and Forbes. Additionally, it is listed in the top 75 with Bloomberg Businessweek, The Financial Times, and The Economist. Students can rest assured their education will be a wise investment in their future, as Paul Merage is ranked among the top 25 business schools in the U.S. for lifetime earnings. Diversity is embraced, and the business school is ranked 1st for Female Faculty in the World. Students can complete this program in approximately 21 months, and can select a specialization in Digital Transformation, Health Care Management and Policy, Innovation and Entrepreneurship, or Real Estate and Urban Development.

      The University of California-Irvine is a four-year, public university, regionally accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges, Senior College and University Commission. Students of the UCI receive the advantages being a part of the greater University of California System, but in a smaller, more intimate setting. UCI offers 80 undergraduate degrees and 98 graduate and professional degrees through 13 academic schools, to over 35,000 students annually. UC-Irvine was founded in 1965, and is the youngest member of the Association of American Universities. According to U.S. News and World Report, UCI is ranked 33rd among national universities and seventh among public universities in the United States. Applications for the Merage School of Business’s competitive MBA are processed on a rolling basis. Students have five target deadlines to submit their full online application, GMAT or GRE scores, two letters of recommendation, official transcripts, essays, resume, and later fulfill an interview requirement.

      TMD Ranking Score: 46.91

      #41 Boston College Carroll School of Management – Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts


      Boston College offers a well-rounded Master’s of Business Administration degree through Carroll School of Management. Boston College is among the nation’s foremost MBA programs.

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      Boston College offers a top-ranked Master’s of Business Administration degree that holds prestigious accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. BC can be seen listed in the top 50 programs with U.S. News and World Report, Bloomberg Businessweek, and within the top 75 on The Financial Times and Forbes rankings. They can additionally be seen in the number 24 spot in the Eduniversal global ranking. This type of recognition at home, and around the world, attest to the high-quality of education that the Boston College MBA program has to offer. The Carroll School of Management’s MBA consists of core courses, electives, and experiential learning, giving students multiple opportunities to develop their leadership, management, team-building, and communication skills. Students must additionally complete 20 hours of community service prior to graduation. To personalize their studies, students have an opportunity to concentrate in the areas of Competitive Service Delivery, Business Analytics, Asset Management, Corporate Finance, Financial Reporting and Controls, Global Management, Leadership Management, Marketing and Information Analytics, and Product Brand Management.

      Boston College is a four-year, private, not-for-profit college, with Jesuit Catholic affiliation, founded in 1863, with regional accreditation through the New England Commission of Higher Education. BC serves a student body population of over 14,600 students each year and offers bachelor’s and master’s degrees through nine schools and colleges. Students can participate in nearly 300 student organizations, and internships in the bustling city of Boston. According to U.S. News and World Report, Boston College is tied as the 38th best national school, and ranked America’s 50th top college by Forbes. To apply to the Carroll School of Management’s competitive Master’s of Business Administration program student will need to complete an online application. In addition to the application, prospective students will need to submit one letter of recommendation, one personal essay, a current resume, transcripts from all universities attended, current GMAT/GRE scores, and an interview component.

      TMD Ranking Score: 46.48

      #42 University of Maryland, ​College Park Robert H. Smith School of Business – College Park, Maryland


      Students can earn a top-notch Master’s of Business Administration degree at the University of Maryland, College Park. This competitive MBA program was selected for our ranking based on the program’s excellence in education and high academic standards.

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      The University of Maryland’s Robert H. Smith School of Business stands out among the leading business schools in the nation. The university holds a regional accreditation from the Middle States Commission on Higher Education and offers many internationally recognized degree programs, including a Master’s of Business Administration that is accredited by the esteemed Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. This degree is ranked in the top 50 MBA programs with US News and World Report, Bloomberg Businessweek, and Forbes. Additionally, this degree is ranked within the top 75 by The Financial Times and The Economist. Students can also pursue the Executive MBA, which is ranked seventh by The Economist, the online MBA program, ranked ninth by U.S. News and World Report, or the part-time MBA, ranked 15th by U.S. News and World Report. The Smith School of Business’s full-time MBA is 54-credits hours in length and begins with a rigorous core curriculum intended to build a strong business and management foundation. After completion of core coursework students have an opportunity to choose from a wide variety of electives.

      The University of Maryland is a four-year, public, research university, located in College Park, Maryland. UMD was founded in 1856, and serves as the flagship university for the University System of Maryland. Maryland currently offers over 280 well-respected degrees through their 12 schools and colleges. Each year the University of Maryland serves a student body of more than 40,500, making it the largest university in the state and the Washington metropolitan area. Maryland is a member of the Association of American Universities, and considered one of the “Public Ivies.” UMD is classified as a Doctoral University with Very High Research by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. Students enrolled in the MBA program can expect an experience that will leave them with a competitive advantage in the job market. In order to apply applicants must complete an online application, submit GMAT or GRE scores, one letter of recommendation, well-written essays, current resume, and official transcripts.

      TMD Ranking Score: 46.21

      #43 Southern Methodist University Edwin L. Cox School of Business – Dallas, Texas


      Students can earn a distinguished Master’s of Business Administration through the Edwin L. Cox School of Business at Southern Methodist University. This MBA has a prominent national and international standing within the business community.

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      Southern Methodist University’s Cox School of Business is consistently recognized as one of the most prestigious business schools in the country. The Cox Master’s of Business Administration holds notable accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business and is instructed by some of the most distinguished faculty in the nation. This MBA is listed in the top 50 programs by U.S. News and World Report, Bloomberg Businessweek, and Forbes. Additionally, they can be seen ranked in the top 100 by The Economist and Financial Times. The degree consists of 63-credit hours and a required internship. In conjunction with rigorous core courses, students can also customize their MBA experience with a choice of up to two concentrations. Accounting, Finance, Business Analytics, Information and Operations, Management, Marketing, Real Estate, Strategy and Entrepreneurship, or General Business are included in the curriculum’s concentration choices. Additionally, MBA students have the option to pursue a joint degree in either Law or Arts Management. MBA students can also participate in the Finance Honors Program and the Global Leadership Program, a year-long immersion.

      Southern Methodist University is a four-year, private, not-for-profit university that enrolls nearly 12,000 students each year. The university is regionally accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, Commission on Colleges and offers an array of bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral degrees through seven academic schools. Over the years, Southern Methodist University has created a strong brand name as a powerhouse in the education world, and is currently ranked 61st by U.S. News and World Report and 98th in the Forbes ranking. The Master’s of Business Administration program offered through the Cox School of Business is one of the most desirable business programs in the nation. Students interested in applying to this well-respected MBA program should have a minimum of two years work experience and must complete an online application, submit GMAT or GRE scores, a current resume showcasing unique accomplishments, two essays, two professional references, and later fulfill an interview requirement.

      TMD Ranking Score: 45.74

      #44 Brigham Young University Marriott School of Business – Provo, Utah


      Brigham Young University offers a prestigious Master’s of Business Administration degree through the Marriott School of Business. Marriott is a top-tier business school, with an excellent academic track record.

      Photo credit
      Brigham Young University’s Marriott School of Management offers an outstanding Master’s of Business Administration that is accredited by the prestigious Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. This program is seen listed in the top 50 programs with U.S. News and World Report, Bloomberg Businessweek, and Forbes. Additionally, they are ranked within the top 100 programs with The Financial Times. During the first year of this intensive MBA students will work on core curriculum designed to build a solid business foundation. Next, they will put their leadership skills to the test with a summer internship, and then tailor their studies with one of five majors in the areas of Strategic Human Resources, Finance, Marketing, Global Supply Chain Management, or Entrepreneurship. The Marriott School of Management also offers classes, competitions, and off-campus opportunities to help students gain hands-on experience in Global Management, Investment Banking, Real Estate Development, Entrepreneurship, Venture Capital, Ethics, International Human Resources, Marketing Management, and Social Enterprise.

      Brigham Young University is a four-year, private, not-for-profit university, founded in 1875, with a student population exceeding 34,000 students. Brigham is completely owned by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, and LDS scripture, doctrine, and history is integrated into the curriculum, as well as weekly devotional sessions. BYU’s main campus is in Provo, with additional satellite locations in Jerusalem and Salt Lake City. BYU offers 179 undergraduate majors, 62 master’s programs, and 26 doctoral degrees through seven academic schools and colleges. Tuition is lower than at many private schools, due to tithing covering scholarships. According to U.S. News and World Report, BYU is ranked 3rd for graduates with the least debt. The University holds a regional accreditation from the Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities, and the prestigious Marriott School of Management offers a 64-credit hour Master’s of Business Administration program designed to train and educate leaders. To apply to this MBA program students must complete an online application, submit GMAT/GRE scores, ecclesiastical endorsement, essay, resume, two letters of reference, and all official transcripts.

      TMD Ranking Score: 45.21

      #45 University of Pittsburgh Joseph M. Katz Graduate School of Business – Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania


      Joseph M. Katz Graduate School of Business at the University of Pittsburgh offers an academically rigorous Master’s of Business Administration. This MBA was selected for our ranking because of the program’s long standing history of quality education.

      Photo credit
      The Katz Graduate School of Business at the University of Pittsburgh offers a variety high-quality programs, including a Master’s of Business Administration degree. This unique program holds prestigious accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. The college’s consistent level of excellence is noted among the leading ranking systems in the MBA world. In fact, the Katz MBA is listed #39 in Forbes annual ranking. They are further ranked in the top 100 with U.S. News and World Report, Bloomberg Businessweek, The Financial Times, and The Economist. Students can select from a traditional two-year MBA program or an accelerated one-year MBA. Katz’s MBA is highly adaptable, with six concentrations, nine certificates, and 20 career tracks. Concentration choices include Finance, Information Systems and Technology Management, Marketing, Operations, Organizational Behavior and Human Resources Management, and Strategy. Students can also participate in case competitions, global research practicums, consulting field projects, and workshops.

      The University of Pittsburgh is a four-year, public university, founded in 1787, making it one of the oldest institutions of higher education in the United States. Pitt holds regional accreditation from the Middle States Commission on Higher Education. This exceptional university system spans across four regional campuses and offers bachelor’s through doctoral degrees through 17 academic schools and colleges, to over 28,600 students each year. According to U.S. News and World Report, Pitt is ranked 26th among public universities and tied for 70th among all national universities. Additionally, The Princeton Review lists Pitt as a “Best Value Public College.” Pitt is a member of the Association of American Universities. The Katz Graduate School of Business offers multiple formats for their MBA, including a residential one-year and two-year Master’s of Business Administration program. In order to apply to this elite program, students must complete an online application, submit official GMAT or GRE scores, two letters of recommendation, essays, and a current resume.

      TMD Ranking Score: 44.77

      #46 Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey-​Newark and New Brunswick Business School – Newark and New Brunswick, New Jersey


      Students can earn a Master’s of Business Administration through the Business School at Rutgers. This distinguished online MBA stands out on this list due to the program’s wide array of concentrations.

      Photo credit
      Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey-Newark and New Brunswick has a reputable Business School with a focus on exceptional business and leadership training. Among the university’s, many prestigious programs is a Master’s of Business Administration . Rutger’s MBA program holds accreditation through the distinguished Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business and offers students extensive training business fundamentals and leadership. They are ranked within the top 50 with U.S. News and World Report, Bloomberg Businessweek, and Eduniversal. They are further listed in the top 100 programs with Forbes and The Financial Times. This intensive two year MBA begins with a well-rounded foundation in business and management, then allows students to personalize their program with a variety of electives or concentrations. Concentration options included within the curriculum are Analytics and Information Management, Entrepreneurship, Finance, Global Business, Marketing, Marketing Research Insights and Analytics, Pharmaceutical Management, Real Estate, Strategy and Leadership, and Supply Chain Management.

      Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey-Newark and New Brunswick is a four-year, public university that is regionally accredited through the Middle States Commission on Higher Education. Rutgers was founded in 1766, and is the eighth-oldest college in the United States. Rutgers is a member of the Big Ten Academic Alliance, the Association of American Universities, and the Universities Research Association. Rutgers is also considered a “Public Ivy.” According to U.S. News and World Report, Rutgers is ranked 17th among public universities and tied for 58th among national universities. Students can participate in over 700 student organizations and more than 180 study and service-learning programs through Rutgers Global. Rutgers offers a wide array of associate’s through doctoral degrees, including a competitive MBA. Students wishing to apply to this full-time and intensive MBA program should complete an online application, submit GMAT or GRE scores, professional resume, official transcripts, and an essay.

      TMD Ranking Score: 42.81

      #47 University of Texas at ​Dallas Naveen Jindal School of Management – Richardson, Texas


      The University of Texas at Dallas offers an elite MBA program through the Naveen Jindal School of Management. This distinguished MBA stands out on our ranking due to their outstanding accreditation and respect within the business world.

      Photo credit
      The University of Texas at Dallas offers a highly regarded Master’s of Business Administration degree, prestigiously accredited by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. This world class university consistently receives many recognitions including being recognized as housing a top 50 MBA in rankings from U.S. News and World Report, Forbes, Bloomberg BusinessWeek, and Eduniversal. Additionally, the UTD MBA is listed in the top 100 with The Financial Times. This distinct MBA is career focused and offered in a cohort format with an average of 50 students per group. This small grouping encourages personal growth and networking among peers. Students are able to complete this condensed 53 credit hour program in 16 months, or to add on a second graduate degree for a minimum of 63 credit hours by combining one of 13 specialized Master’s of Science degrees. Students can also customize their degree by choosing from 15 concentrations.

      The University of Texas at Dallas is a four-year, public institution of higher education, accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, Commission on Colleges. Over 27,600 students attend UTD, where they have the opportunity to pursue 48 undergraduate programs, 57 master’s programs, and 31 doctoral degrees through eight academic schools, as well as 33 undergraduate and graduate certificates. UTD is host to more than 50 research centers and institutes, and was the fastest university in the state of Texas to be classified by the Carnegie Foundation as a doctoral research university with “Highest Research Activity.” Among the many cutting-edge programs offered at UTD is the MBA through the Naveen Jindal School of Management. In order to apply to this esteemed program, prospective students will need to complete an online application, and submit official transcripts from all previous universities attended, GMAT/GRE scores, one professional letter of recommendation, two essays, a detailed professional resume, and an interview component.

      TMD Ranking Score: 41.93

      #48 Babson College F.W. Olin Graduate School – Wellesley, Massachusetts


      The F.W. Olin Graduate School at Babson College offers a highly recognized Master’s of Business Administration degree. This MBA is among the top ranked in the world.

      Photo credit
      The world renowned F.W. Olin Graduate School provides Babson College students with a superior Master’s of Business Administration degree. This MBA is accredited by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. This elite program is currently ranked in the top 100 MBAs in rankings from U.S. News and World Report, Bloomberg BusinessWeek, Forbes, and The Financial Times. Additionally, it is listed as 22nd with Eduniversal. Students can choose from a traditional two-year MBA program or an accelerated one-year MBA program. Students also have an opportunity to pursue a concentration in the areas of Business Analytics, Entrepreneurship, Finance, Global Management, or Marketing. A unique aspect of the program is that students can also select an intensity track, which is paired with a signature experience. Intensity tracks include Babson College Fund, Business and Social Innovation, Entrepreneurship, Managing the Technology-intensive Enterprise, and Women Innovating Now Lab. Students have the opportunity to work on real-world consulting projects with over 80 organizations and to work one on one with a coach to develop their talents.

      Babson College is a four-year, private, not-for-profit university, that will turn one hundred years old next year. Babson is regionally accredited by the New England Commission of Higher Education and offers undergraduate students 27 areas of study, as well as a variety of graduate degrees, to over 3,000 students annually. Babson was founded as an all-male business institute, and focuses on entrepreneurship education and immerses students into an entrepreneurial life-style. For the past three decades, Babson has consistently been ranked by U.S. News and World Report as the number one college in entrepreneurship education. Babson operate a Center for Women’s Entrepreneurial Leadership, Center for Investments and Finance, Institute for Family Entrepreneurship, and a Retail Supply Chain Institute. Applications for the F.W. Olin Graduate School’s competitive MBA must submit an online application, essay, two letters of professional recommendation, resume, transcripts from all institutions, and GMAT or GRE scores.

      TMD Ranking Score: 39.36

      #49 Northeastern University D’Amore-McKim School of Business – Boston, Massachusetts


      Northeastern University offers a world-class Master’s of Business Administration. This elite MBA degree was selected due to its outstanding educational quality.

      Photo credit
      Northeastern University is continually recognized for their outstanding educational programs, including their world class Master’s of Business Administration . The D’Amore-McKim School of Business is widely known for producing top notch graduates within the field of business. The college holds the highest level of business accreditation from the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business and maintains a standing position in many of the top ranking systems around the world. This MBA program is listed as number 12 in The Financial Times’ annual prestigious ranking. They are additionally listed in the top 75 programs with U.S. News and World Report, Bloomberg Businessweek, and Forbes. This full-time MBA consists of one semester or core courses followed by courses in a concentration area. Concentration areas include Business Analytics, Corporate Innovation and Venturing, Entrepreneurship, Finance, Healthcare Management, International Business, Leading People and Organizations, Marketing, and Supply Chain Management. Students enrolled in the MBA program are also able to complete a three-month, six-month, or twelve-month paid residency, and are highly sought out by top corporations. In fact, the Class of 2018 had a 100% corporate residency placement rate.

      Northeastern University is a four-year, private, not-for-profit university located in Boston, Massachusetts. Northeastern University enrolls approximately 21,500 students each year through 65 undergraduate programs and more than 125 graduate degree programs. Northeastern holds regional accreditation from the New England Commission of Higher Education. The D’Amore-McKim School of Business offers a nationally ranked MBA program that can be completed in two years. The program boasts a 91% employment rate within three months of graduation, with an average starting salary of $88,000. This high level of employment assures prospective students of the quality and outstanding return on investment from a Northeastern University MBA. Student’s interested in applying to this prestigious program should complete their application early to maximize their chances of securing enrollment. Applicants must submit a full online application, personal statement, resume, two letters of recommendation, GMAT or GRE scores, and all university-level transcripts.

      TMD Ranking Score: 37.56

      #50 Texas A&M University Mays Business School – College Station, Texas


      Students at Texas A&M University can earn a highly respected MBA through the Mays Business School. Texas A&M University holds a reputation of excellence within the business education community.

      Photo credit
      Texas A&M University is an elite member of one of the largest state university systems in the United States. In addition to holding prestigious accreditation through the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, Mays Business School is also highly recognized by many of the leading ranking systems in the nation. The Mays Master’s of Business Administration is ranked number 20 in Forbes’ annual ranking, and they are further listed in the top 50 programs with U.S. News and World Report and Bloomberg Businessweek. The Full-time MBA is an accelerated 18-month program, with customizable options such as an internship, study abroad, electives, and specialization/certificate courses. Students have numerous opportunities to network, with over 1,000 student organizations on campus, many designed exclusively for graduate business students. Students are also able to make connections through the Aggie Network and the Texas A&M Network. Due to these opportunities, 90% of MBA graduates have a job offer within 90 days of graduating, with an average starting salary exceeding $100,000.

      Texas A&M University is a four-year, public university, that serves nearly 68,000 students each year. A&M was founded in 1871, as the first institution of higher education in the state of Texas, and is the founding member of the Texas A&M University System. A&M is also a member of the Association of American Universities. A&M holds regional accreditation from the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, Commission on Colleges and currently offers over 130 undergraduate degree programs, 170 master’s degree programs, 93 doctoral degree programs, and five first professional degrees through their 16 colleges and schools. A&M is the only university in Texas designated as a land, sea, and space grant institution. Mays Business School offers a distinguished MBA program. In order to apply students must have a minimum of two years of work experience and complete an online application, submit competitive GMAT or GRE scores, and fulfill an interview requirement. Applicants should also demonstrate leadership, academic, and professional potential.

      TMD Ranking Score: 37.09

      For more information on business management, check out our  Resource Guides  and our list of Business & Management Scholarships . Also, check out our ranking on the 50 Most Beautiful Business Schools .

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      Methodology

      This 2019 Super MBA Ranking examined almost 490 US MBA programs based on their prestige and quality. Each school was ranked on their scoring in the six leading on-campus MBA ranking systems today. MBA ranking scores were taken from the  US News and World Report Best Graduate Business School Ranking , the  Bloomberg Businessweek Best Business Schools Full-Time MBA Ranking , the  Forbes Best Business Schools Ranking , the F inancial Times Global MBA Ranking , the  Economist Global Full-Time MBA Ranking , and the  Eduniversal Best Full-Time MBA in North America Ranking .

      Each ranking system emphasizes certain criteria that it deems most important, in order to quantify which MBA program is best. By averaging all the scores, this list provides a more subjective score without the idiosyncratic elements of each ranking system’s methodology. The data for each list was compiled and placed on a 100 point scale. Then all the data was calculated with equal weight and averaged to find the Top Management Degrees Score. This score provided the ranking order for this list.

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      1. Home
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      3. Top 10 MBA Programs in Asia
       Top 10 MBA Programs in Asia

      Top 10 MBA Programs in Asia

      In the last decade, Asia has become a lucrative destination for MBA seekers ready to forge international careers. Economic force China lures business students from near and far, and with an increasing range of MBA programs taught in English, its cities are becoming ever more attractive for those looking to take the next steps in their careers, whether they plan to stay and find work in Asia or take their experiences and understanding of the region back home. There are many locations in Asia to do an MBA: Singapore and Hong Kong both combine insight into Asia with strong connections to the West, and world-class business programs taught in native-level English. MBA programs in India and on mainland China are catering increasingly to international students as the two nations court more and more international investors.

      INSEAD – Asia Campus
      Singapore,
      Singapore

      27 Followers
      169 Discussions

      INSEAD - Singapore

      For Asia-bound MBA applicants, it’s hard to look past Singapore. Indeed, the school’s Full-Time MBA is currently ranked right at the top of the Global MBA Ranking from the Financial Times. Although INSEAD’s first campus was its Fontainebleau, France one, since 2000 the school has also run programs out of Singapore, the sovereign city-state in southeast Asia. The triple-accredited school, whose MBAs are also highly ranked by The Economist and Businessweek, runs its Full-Time MBA program in parallel with INSEAD’s campus in France. Students can also take part in an elective course on the Abu Dhabi campus, as well as making the most of INSEAD’s partnership with the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania.

      View School Profile

      CEIBS China Europe International Business School – Shanghai Campus
      Shanghai,
      China

      30 Followers
      78 Discussions

      CEIBS - Shanghai

      CEIBS’ Full-Time MBA is typically ranked as one of the best MBA programs in Asia in the Financial Times’ Global MBA Ranking. Its Executive MBA also received a top-20 placing in the Financial Times’ EMBA Ranking 2016. Students can select from concentrations in Finance, Marketing or Entrepreneurship. With its main campus in Shanghai, CEIBS also has a presence in Beijing, Shenzhen, Zurich and Accra.

      View School Profile

      HKUST Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Business School
      Hong Kong,
      Hong Kong (PRC)

      27 Followers
      151 Discussions

      HKUST - Hong Kong Campus

      In terms of MBA programs in Asia, Hong Kong’s position as a financial city where East meets West is a compelling choice for business students, and HKUST Business School delivers on that promise. Ranked 15th in the Financial Times’ Global MBA Ranking 2017, HKUST’s MBA is a 12-month program, which sits alongside the school’s part-time MBA programs that meet weekly or fortnightly.

      View School Profile

      Nanyang Technological University (NTU) – Nanyang Business School
      Singapore,
      Singapore

      56 Followers
      122 Discussions

      NTU - Nanyang

      Another top business school in Asia is Singapore’s Nanyang Business School, which was also ranked among the top 100 MBA programs by both the Financial Times and The Economist in their most recent surveys. The general MBA is offered with three tracks: General Management, Strategy & Innovation or Banking & Finance. Meanwhile the Nanyang Fellows MBA, designed for senior executives, begins in Singapore and continues at three universities in the United States: The Wharton School in Philadelphia, Georgetown University in Washington DC, and UC Berkeley in California.

      View School Profile

      NUS Business School, National University of Singapore
      Singapore,
      Singapore

      59 Followers
      151 Discussions

      NUS

      For those interested in studying business in Asia’s financial powerhouse Singapore, NUS is another school worth considering. Ranked within the top 100 MBA programs by the Financial Times, The Economist and Businessweek, the school’ general MBA is offered alongside the Executive MBA, which has been ranked within the top 20 EMBA programs by both the Financial Times and The Economist.

      View School Profile

      ISB Indian School of Business
      Hyderabad,
      India

      21 Followers
      83 Discussions

      ISB

      For students looking to study in the South Asian country of India, one of the country’s most highly-regarded b-schools, the Indian School of Business has campuses in Hyderabad and Mohali. Ranked 27th in the Financial Times’ Global MBA Ranking 2017, IBS’s Post Graduate Program in Management (PGP) includes concentrations in Entrepreneurship, Public Policy, Infrastructure and Healthcare.

      View School Profile

      Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad (IIMA)
      Ahmedabad,
      India

      11 Followers
      75 Discussions

      Further north in Ahmadabad, the IIMA was also ranked within the top 30 MBA programs in the Financial Times’ Global MBA Ranking 2017. The 12-month Post-Graduate Programme in Management (PGP) is the school’s equivalent of an MBA. As well as the regular program of classes, the PGP is also available as a Seminar track, where students undertake a research project.

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      Shanghai Jiao Tong University – Antai College of Economics and Management
      Shanghai,
      China

      10 Followers
      28 Discussions

      For Asia-bound MBA students looking to break into the world of Chinese business, the Antai College of Business and Management makes the most of its place within Asia’s largest economy. The school’s International MBA is a two-year program taught in English. This triple-accredited business school is also home to a well-regarded Executive MBA, which was ranked 7th in the Financial Times’ EMBA Ranking 2016.

      View School Profile

      The Chinese University of Hong Kong – CUHK Business School
      Hong Kong,
      Hong Kong (PRC)

      19 Followers
      73 Discussions

      CUHK

      CUHK’s MBA program is allegedly Asia’s longest-running MBA, with a reputation for placing almost 30 percent of its MBA graduates in finance roles following graduation. As well as the standard 12-month MBA, the school offers dual MBA degrees with HEC Paris, the University of Texas at Austin and the Rotterdam School of Management. CUHK is also home to a two-year Executive MBA taught in English on weekends every two to three weeks, allowing students to keep up with work commitments.

      View School Profile

      HKU The University of Hong Kong
      Hong Kong,
      Hong Kong (PRC)

      36 Followers
      77 Discussions

      HKU

      Accredited by AACSB and EQUIS, the University of Hong Kong sees MBA students spend time in Asian hubs like Beijing and Hong Kong and, depending on the chosen track, four months in London, New York, Hong Kong or Shanghai. This international focus has helped the program to be ranked within the top 100 MBA programs in the world by both the Financial Times and The Economist. More than 30 percent of graduates find roles in the financial services industry, while another 29 percent are placed in consulting roles, across Asia and elsewhere.

      View School Profile

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          ★Phantasy Star Online 2 Let&#39

          CAPA

          Gaming Corrective and Preventive Actions

          » List of Game Guides » Phantasy Star Online 2: Summoner
          Phantasy Star Online 2: Summoner
          List of Game Guides
          Phantasy Star Online 2: Summoner
          Written by Perseonn Balthasaar Perseonn Balthasaar
            Last update at 09 Oct 2018 08:12

          This guide is intended to be a comprehensive version of the poster-like Summoner Guide I have made before. This expands the idea of sub classes, pet attacks, and equipments. Updates will be done regularly based on new material or discovery.

          Fold Unfold
          Table of Contents
          Part 1: Summoner Basics
          Early Levels
          Mag
          The Second Pet
          Notable NPCs
          Part 2: Pet Raising
          Pet’s Properties
          Egg Synthesis / Pet Level Up
          Candy Box
          Part 3: Pets
          Glossary
          Wanda / Jinga (ワンダ/ジンガ)
          Torim / Aero (トリム/アエロ)
          Cery / Popple (サリィ/ポップル)
          Maron (マロン)
          Melon (メロン)
          Rappy (ラッピー)
          Viola (ヴィオラ)
          Synchro (シンクロウ)
          Redran (レドラン)
          Part 4: Summoner Skills and Techs
          Class Skills
          Technics
          Part 5: Class Combination
          Summoner-Braver (SuBr)
          Summoner-Fighter (SuFi)
          Summoner-Bouncer (SuBo)
          Techer-Summoner (TeSu)
          Part 6: The Critical Build
          Recommended Candies
          Takt
          Rings
          Units
          Logic
          Class Damage Comparison
          Videos
          Viola Tutorial
          Rappy Tutorial
          Vs. Magatsu
          Vs. Omega Falz Apprentice
          Vs. Esca Falz Mother
          Closing

          Part 1: Summoner Basics

          A summoner is a class that utilizes pets to inflict damage at enemies. The pets are basically the summoner’s weapon, with their own stats and Photon Arts (PA). Pets are most damaging when using Summoner main as the class have a couple of ways to raise the pet damage. Being a Summoner is relatively more expensive compared to other classes: instead of eating up your assets, it will directly eat your meseta, time, and your precious SG.

            Part 1 Objectives, you will be able to:

          • Gain Meseta by following ARKS Road closely
          • Buy or find a Light-attribute Wanda (ワンダ) Egg
          • Locate Pietro
          • Locate Ariel
          • Raise only Mag’s TATK
          • Pick Torim or Cery as your second pet

          Early Levels

          You picked Summonner and stared with a Wanda (ワンダ) (do check that little Wanda). What goes from here?

          Lets check a few things:

          • Find the [Pet] menu and check your Wind-attribute Wanda with Enjoys Sun personality. It should have a few PA available, one of which is Wanda Slicer.
          • Take a look at your Takt. It will be your best friend for a long while till you can get a Rose Skewer.
          • You have this something called ARKS Road to follow.

          To ease yourself, follow the ARKS Road closely. It will teach you the basic of the gameplay, especially how to care for your pets.

          While doing that, your Wanda, while perfectly serviceable, will not do good on longer term due to its Wind-attribute. While your Wanda is still low-leveled, we can replace him without any repercussions.

          First, find a Visiphone.

          A terminal with purple thing on top of it.
          A terminal with purple thing on top of it.

          Second, Select [Player Shop], finish the password registration and such. Do not worry, it is not complicated. Remember to save your password somewhere in case you forget it.

          First option, conviniently.
          First option, conviniently.

          Now you can browse the Player Shop, look for a Light-attribute Wanda Egg with Enjoys Sun Personality.

          Be smart and use filter!
          Be smart and use filter!
          The Egg looks like this.
          The Egg looks like this.

          If you cannot afford it now, follow the ARKS Road to obtain some Meseta (be careful during the Mag lessons! Do not level up your mag yet!). ARKS Road would also teach you how to hatch your egg (Use said egg from [Item] menu) and feed an EXP egg to your Pet via Egg Synthesis.

          Pietro will teach the bulk of it.
          Pietro will teach the bulk of it.

          As you are going for some quests like poking poor Naberius monkeys, you will notice that you get some EXP Egg 6★. You will always obtain this as long as your main class is Summoner, so you have no worry about pet leveling. Also visit the Pet Labs in the Shop Area.

          Ariel will be your best friend!.
          Ariel will be your best friend!.

          So to recap, if you follow ARKS Road, you should be able to do these:

          • Hatch Pet Eggs from inventory
          • Feed Pet with Eggs that raises their level via [Egg Synthesis] from [Pet] menu
          • Set a Takt and Pet and Pet PA on [Weapon] menu
          • Equip units
          • Buy items from Player Shop.
            • Oh, did you get that Light-attribute Enjoys Sun Wanda Egg? Remember to hatch it and equip it on [Weapon] menu!

          Now you have the Light attribute Wanda with Enjoys Sun personality, you are pretty much set. Feed it with all the eggs you have!

          Mag

          At a certain point early in the game, you will get a Mag. If you are to use Summoner as-is. You will want a T-ATK Mag (unless you plan to sub Bouncer, see below). Only increase the T-ATK on your mag, and nothing else. Messing up your Mag’s stat is costly: 50 Excubes per 1 level, roughly 600K Meseta. Per level.

          Although Summoner can use S-ATK or R-ATK for pets, focusing on T-ATK is easier for the endgame:

          • T-ATK affixes are cheaper than R-ATK or S-ATK.
          • Resta, or healing depends on T-ATK only.
          • Rappy Melody’s heals depends on their and character’s T-ATK
          • Rykros Staff’s Potential.pngGlance of Darkness depends on character’s T-ATK.

            When in doubt, fill you Mag with T-ATK using tech weapon like Staff, Wand, Talis or Jet Boots. Reduce its Dex by feeding it with Trimate or 6★ Room Goods. Never let any other stat gains a single level!

          The Second Pet

          At this point, you might notice that a pet cannot fully die, they will just be stunned when their HP reaches 0. Stunned pet are unusable for a period of time, notably Wanda is 30 seconds, thus do consider a secondary pet. Take note, only use Light attribute pets (more on this later).

          Torim (トリム) or Cery (サリィ) would be a good choice since they are easy to use. Torim has powerful single strike attack, while Cery is a long-lange support pet. If you are limited on resource though, stick to that Wanda.

            When in doubt, always use Wanda/Jinga first as they are the safest pet to use.

          Notable NPCs

          Ariel the Pet Lab Attendant

          Ariel is in the Shop Area, next to Monica / Dudu; she facilitates various pet enhancement activities. Activities that you can do with Ariel includes:

          • Candy Compression, reduces the size of candies
            • Requires Grinders for 12★ or less candies, requires Lambda Grinders for 13★ candies
          • Pet Goods Shop, exchange various items to obtain candies and tools
            • You can exchange for Grinders for Candy Eraser (deletes Candy) and Excubes for Caramel Crusher (deletes Caramel Cubes)
          • Evolve Pet Rarity, more info on pet’s rarity below.
          • Return Pet to egg, this will destroy their entire candy box. Returned pet egg is untradable.

          Pietro the Summoner

          Pietro is on the Gate Area, next to Echo, near Class Counter; he is mentor for Summoner Class. Activities you can do with Pietro includes:

          • Request Limit Break, for rarity 12★ and above.
            • Pet needs to be L100 to utilize Limit Break
            • Allows 12★ pet to attain Lv 110, 13★ to Lv 120, 14★ to Lv 130
            • Pet will grow depressingly slow above Lv 100
          • Client Orders
            • They Grow Up So Fast! (Partner Card)
            • Become a Top-Notch Summoner (5 SP)
            • Let’s Master the Summoner! (5 SP)
            • Summoner Supremacy I, II, III, and IV (1 SP each, requires a total of 10 Su Excubes)
            • My Gallant Wanda! (Two Layer Pancake)
            • This maybe the only reason to keep a Wanda
            • My Gallant Jinga! (Vin-Spi Candy Stick)
            • My Gallant Popple! (Critical Candy Stick)

          Part 2: Pet Raising

          Your pet has a different mechanics that that of a normal weaponry. Here, pet raising will be discussed from the basic topics like its parameters, to the more advanced topics, like its candy box.

            Part 2 Objectives, you will be able to:

          • Hatch a Light-attribute Pet
          • Limit Break a 13★ or rarer pet once it reaches L100
          • Increase the Pet Plus value
          • Raise a pet Level by using Egg Synthesis
          • Use Synthesis charge 3 times per day (costs 30 SG total) to boost pet EXP rate
          • Increase pet level to 50 in order to remove Gelatin Cubes
          • Destroy 8 Caramel Cubes using Caramel Crusher (costs 64 Excube total)
          • Name all candy types and their function
          • Obtain candy box tools from Ariel and SG Shop

          Pet’s Properties

          Pet has several important properties, from Rarity, Personality, Elemental Attribute, and Pet Plus.

          A window displaying egg information.
          A window displaying egg information.

          Rarity

          A pet has a rarity that determines their highest level. Rarity can be upgraded at the Pet Lab if you have a higher rarity egg of the same species (i.e. You can only increase rarity of a 7★ Viola with a 8★ Viola).

          RarityMax Level
          6★Lv. 60
          7★Lv. 65
          8★Lv. 70
          9★Lv. 75
          10★Lv. 85
          11★Lv. 90
          12★Lv. 100 (Limit Break to 110, ask Pietro)
          13★Lv. 100 (Limit Break to 120, ask Pietro)
          14★Lv. 100 (Limit Break to 130, ask Pietro)

          Rarity upgrade also allows you to change pet’s personality, provided the fodder egg has different personality and at least of the same rarity.

          Wanda, Torim, and Cery can be rarity upgraded to Jinga, Aero, and Popple, respectively. Be warned that if you say, evolve Wanda to Jinga, you need another Jinga Egg to rarity upgrade it. That being said, there are no reason to pick Wanda over Jinga, Torim over Aero, or Cery over Popple. Jinga, Aero, and Popple are superior in every aspects, unless your Wanda, Torim, and Cery are 14★.

          Personality

          Personality is similar to weapon potential. They have varied effect, but most prominent is increasing damage. Personality has 5 levels and is automatically raised as pet levels up (Pet L100 is where you can attain L5 Personality). Changing personality can be hard or impossible as it requires egg of at least the same rarity.

          "Super" personality (e.g. Super Fervent, Super Dilligent) will have an additional effect of raising Rare Drop Rate by 5%.

            Warning! I cannot stress this enough, but changing personality is close to impossible for high rarity pet. If you have a 13★ pet whose personality you want to change, you need another 13★ pet with different personality.

          Elemental Attribute

          Pets starts with a 10 attribute value that is visible upon viewing the egg. Ideally, you will want the default attribute to be Light. You can change attribute by putting Lemonade in the Candy Box, but changing to Light Attribute is very costly. Attribute can be raised by putting Pancakes. Pets with 12★ rarity or below will have a maximum of 50 attribute, while a 13★ or above will have 60 attribute.

          Attribute directly affects pet damage. Let’s say you have a pet with 1000 ATK (any attack) with 50 Light attribute. While in the information screen the pet has 1000 ATK, it effectively has:

          1000 ATK + 50/100 * 1000 ATK = 1500 ATK

          If the pet attacks a target which is weak to Light element, its effective attack will be:

          1000 ATK + 50/100 * 1.2 * 1000 ATK = 1600 ATK

          And thus, raising element is the best way to increase overall pet’s damage.

            Warning! Always appraise Egg to Light-attribute and always hatch Light-attribute pets if you want to raise them properly.

          Pet Plus

          A pet has extra HP, S-ATK, R-ATK, T-ATK, and DEX to be raised. This is called Pet Plus, as seen on the figure below.

          A Pet Plus of a Rappy, not yet maximized.
          A Pet Plus of a Rappy, not yet maximized.

          Each pet type has a different plus value cap; any Wanda will have same the same cap, but a Jinga will have different cap than Wanda. Pet Plus can make or break pet: Rappy is quite weak without its all stat +250 Pet Plus cap. However, pet’s Plus value will be close-to-maxed, if not maxed, once they reach L120 by feeding random Pet eggs.

          Feeding another pet egg to increase the Pet Plus.
          Feeding another pet egg to increase the Pet Plus.

            Remember! Pet Plus will usually be maxed, if not near-maxed, it you continue to feed other pet eggs to your pet! You might be maxing them without even realizing!

          Egg Synthesis / Pet Level Up

          Level up pet by using [Egg Synthesis] on Pet menu. Unleveled pet is only as frightening as a Rappy Doll room item. A pet can be feed (synthesized) with an EXP Egg or another pet egg. If you are a Summoner main, you will have a steady drop of EXP Eggs. The Pet Lab can exchange grinders for 6★ EXP egg or Photon Sphere for 12★ EXP Egg.

            Warning! A Level 1 Pet is as intimidating as a L1 Rappy. Level your pet properly!

            You can use Synthesis Charge to boost the EXP gained from eggs. It will cost 10 SG the first 3 times. This is best used on L100+ pet after Limit Break; feed them at least ★12 EXP Eggs.

          Candy Box

          This is the last aspect of pet raising. Candy Box is akin to putting affix to regular weapons or units. A pet always starts with a 8×8 candy box that is filled with Gelatin Cube (Blue), Caramel Cube (Orange), and Paper Cube (Gray). Each pet type has a different box layout, for the exception of Wanda/Jinga, Torim/Aero, and Cery/Popple.

          Candy Box Basics

          Below is an example of a fresh Wanda/Jinga box:

          Recommended arrangement for Freshly hatched Wanda's Candy Box
          Recommended arrangement for Freshly hatched Wanda’s Candy Box

          Blue Gelatin Cubes will be removed automatically once a pet reaches level 50 (or so).

          Brown Caramel Cubes, require Caramel Crusher (8 Excubes) to remove. A pet will always start with 8 Caramel Cubes, requiring you to spend 64 Excubes per pet.

          Gray Paper Cube cannot be removed. Makes you wonder why since they are supposed to be paper.

          Candy Box Content

          A CandyBox can hold a limited amount of candies. It is a good idea to compress candies first before putting it to candy box. Compressing candies require Meseta and Grinders. Parfaits will require Lambda Grinders.
          From the most important candies:

          IconCandy TypeDescription
          Pancake.pngPancakesPancakes are the second most important candy, an they increase the elemental value. You can only put 2 of them, requiring you to have 3-Layers and 2-Layer pancakes to maximize a 13★ pet’s element. You need 160 Synthesizers to create a 2-Layer Pancake (8 Excubes) and 1050 Synthesizer to create a 3-Layer Pancake (53 Excubes). For newbies, start with 2 2-Layer Pancakes and destroy one of them when you have the resource to create the 3-Layer Pancake. They can be compressed 3 times to a 2×2 size. All pancakes require 6 Grinders and either 9869 Meseta (1-Layer), 25194 Meseta (2-Layer), and 42214 Meseta (3-Layer).
          Parfaits.pngParfaitsParfait is the most important candy on the box, and they usually boosts damage. You can only put 2 and as a special rule just for them, they have to be different kind of parfait. A parfait can be compressed 4 times to a 2×2 size, costing a total of 12 Lambda Grinders and 636300 Meseta.
          Rolls.pngRollsRolls are the third most important candy, and they have a varied uses. You can put 2 rolls and they can be compressed twice. Depending on the roll’s rarity, it will cost 6 Grinders and 28459 Meseta for a 10★, 8 Grinders and 59347 Meseta for an 11★, and finally 10 Grinders and 82625 Meseta for a 12★.
          Cookie.pngCookiesCookies adds stat, and they are akin to affixes, meaning that their stat increase will not contribute to elemental multiplier. You can put 3 cookies in a candy box. For basic users, put the same cookie as your character’s best attack stat. By default, this is your T-ATK, so stock Technic Cookies. For advanced users, stock Spirita Cookies for later as they will come in handy with 14★ Pets. Cookies can be compressed 3 times, costing a total of 6 Grinders and 25205 Meseta.
          Stick_Candy.pngCandy SticksCandy sticks have varying properties, but they usually increase stats without needing to be compressed. You can put 4 candy sticks in a candy box.
          Sandwich.pngSandwichesSandwiches raises one type of defense by 100, depending their name. They don’t require compression either. You can put 5 sandwiches in a candy box, but most often you will only need 1 to 3.
          Soda.pngSodasThe Sode / Lemonade / Ramune changes the element of the pet. This requires 1 Attribute Changer and 100 Synthesizer. They can be compressed twice to a 1×1 size. While their compression price is negligible, the Attribute Changer is an entirely different thing. Non-light attribute can be anywhere around 100K-1M Meseta on the Player Shop, while the Light Attribute Changer can go around 2M-5M+.
          PetGummy.pngGummiesGummies adds 10 HP and they are 1×1 each. Use them to fill the gap caused by other candies.
          Crepe.pngCrepesCrepes adds things like EXP gain rate, rare drop rate, and Meseta gain rate. However, at maximum compression, they are still a 2×2 candy and their minuscule boosts is not worth sacrificing that kind of space.

          Candy Box Tools

          As you fill your Candy Box, you might notice that you can remove a few candies to add more useful candies. This is where these tools come in handy. Two of them can be found at Ariel’s Pet Good Shop, and the Removers (that returns candy to your inventory) are only available from SG Shop.

          IconToolDescription
          CaramelCrusher.pngCaramel CrusherDeletes a caramel cube. Costs 8 Excubes.
          CandyEraser.pngCandy EraserDeletes a candy. Costs 10 Grinders.
          CandyRemover.pngCandy RemoverContrary to its name, this returns a candy to your inventory. Costs 1 SG at SG shop.
          CandyRemover.pngAll Candy RemoverReturns an entire candy box to your inventory. Costs 5 SG at SG Shop.

          Part 3: Pets

          The other important thing beside raising your pet properly is how to use them properly.

            Part 3 Objectives, you will be able to:

          • Deploy different pet according best suited on their strength and weakness
          • Use the highest DPS move whenever possible
          • Use DoT attacks to maximize damage
          • Use Recall PA to bring pet back to your side
          • Assemble each pet’s candy box to the recommendation

          There are a number of pets for a Summoner, each with their own specific purpose. The table below is a quick reference for pet’s use, strength, and weakness.

          IconPet NameStrength and Weakness
          PetWandaIcon.pngPetJingaIcon.pngWanda / Jinga Suitable for all player skills  All-purpose pet  High ATK  High DEF  High-powered normal attacks  Has an area attack that Stuns  Has a knockdown attack  Efficient PP usage  Normal attack has a big hitbox   None
          PetTorimIcon.pngPetAeroIcon.pngTorim / Aero Suitable for all player skills  Easy-to-use Boss killer  High ATK  Low-risk, high damage PAs   Weakest normal attack   Third lowest DEF   High PP Usage   Recovers long from stun
          PetCeryIcon.pngPetPoppleIcon.pngCery / Popple Suitable for all player skills  Long-range support  Normal attack restores a lot of PP  Has Jellen (lowers ATK by 15%) on its most powerful DPS attack  Most powerful and widest area attack  Has a homing attack that also knocks enemy down  Has an attack that clusters enemy   Prone to jamming   Beside homing attack, all projectiles are slow   Low damage output  Recovers long from stun
          PetMaronIcon.pngMaron Suitable against aggressive bosses  Highest HP  Can shield character from damage  Has a high-powered DoT attack  Has a bouncing homing attack  Has a very powerful suicide attack   Suicide attack requires 30-60 seconds to set up   Requires more than 1 Maron to properly take advantage of its suicide attack  Recovers long from stun   Not much use outside boss EQ  Somewhat not aggressive, despite being a melee pet
          PetMelonIcon.pngMelon Suitable against aggressive bosses  High ATK  Highest DEF  Can shield character from damage  Has a high-powered DoT attack  Has a bouncing homing attack  Efficient PP usage  Recovers quickly from stun   Lowest HP   Not much use outside boss EQ  Somewhat not aggressive, despite being a melee pet
          PetRappyIcon.pngRappy Suitable for all player skills  All-purpose pet  Has the most powerful normal attacks  Has a healing skill  Recovers quickly from stun   Normal attack has small hitbox   Has a small sympathy alert ring   Slowest recall attack
          PetViolaIcon.pngViola Attracts enemies  High-powered normal attacks  High-powered PAs  Highest DoT PA  Has an attack that Stuns  Efficient PP usage  Normal attack has a big hitbox   PAs have big hitboxes   Unsuitable for newbies   Requires use of Viola Change to choose between regain PP or doing high damage   Low ATK   Low DEF if not in Change state   Slow PA animation
          PetSynchroIcon.pngSynchro Premier boss killer  Has the most powerful DPS attack  High-powered normal attacks  High ATK  Quickest recall attack   Has an attack with guard frames   Has an attack that Binds  High-powered normal attacks   Unsuitable for newbies   Low HP   Low DEF   Requires chaining different PAs to maximize damage   Requires to be summoned after stunned pet to maximize damage   Recovers long from stun
          PetRedranIcon.pngRedran  Highest possible damage multiplier (150%) from personality   Decimates enemy with multiple parts quickly  High-powered normal attacks  High ATK   Recall attack has invulnerability frames   Unsuitable for newbies   Beside recall, all other attacks are slow   Low HP   Low DEF   Not much use against bosses that don’t have multiple parts   Little use during Boss EQ   Recovers long from stun

          Glossary

          Please note the following glossary before reading the detailed description of each pets.

          TermsDescription
          DamageA rough calculation based on pet’s average ATK (Pet Plus included) at L120 using assumption that Character has 1000 ATK, 400 T-ATK affix total (Units and Pets), and enemy with 350 T-DEF. Personality and Other Candy Box contents are ignored.
          DPSDamage per second, calculated rough damage divided by frame. This is solely used to determine which pet attack is more powerful when used over and over. It does not mean that it is the most efficient attack.
          Recall PAA Photon Arts (PA) that returns pet to your side and stops it from using further attack. This will pause the effect of Near Auto Target ring. Unless noted, pet will perform the move first before returning.
          DoTDamage-over-time, inflicts small damage over a set amount of time. It is similar to Poison, but is not counted as a status effect, hence do not activate Chase Advance Plus. A DoT skill will sucessfully deliver damage if the first hit lands, even if the part is hidden or the pet got stunned. However, it will cancel if the affected part is destroyed, or pet is unsummoned.
          FrameThe amount of frame required to finish the attack 1 second (1s) consists of 60 frames (60f). The smaller the frame for PA, the better the utilization for Rykros Staff’s Potential.pngGlance of Darkness.
          Normal Attack 1The attack you get if you hold attack button, a.k.a. Normal Attack spam.
          Normal Attack 1-2-3The attack you get if you let pet attack automatically. Melee pets usually have an attack string that is more powerful DPS-wise if you (can) let them finish. Each attack is calculated against enemy defense.
          Parfaits.pngNormalNormal attacks requires Spirited Parfait
          Parfaits.pngBraverL.pngNormalNormal attacks requires Spirited Parfait and Attack Advance (Br)
          TaktRykrosStaff.pngDPSThe DPS when wielding Rykros Staff during Alter Ego, assuming the Glance of Darkness hits.

            Warning! DPS values are only used as a relative value to compare one pet’s damage to another! Do not use it for any other purpose than this!

            Example 1: Despite Aero having higher T-ATK , Viola’s normal attacks (1291 T-ATK, 2424 DPS) are way stronger (~1.59 times!) than Aero’s (1448 ATK, 1519 DPS).

            Example 2: The game listed that Jinga Slicer has 2325 Power, while Melon Break has 1586 Power. Below you will find the DPS of Jinga Slicer is 5026, while Melon Break is 5015, thus using Jinga Slicer and Melon Break have nearly the same DPS.

          Wanda / Jinga (ワンダ/ジンガ)

          A pet without real weakness, dubbed "Almighty Pet" in Japan. They have a rather efficient PP usage (even more efficient on Wanda), solid DPS, powerful normal attacks, high HP, high defense, and easy to use PAs. When in doubt of what pet to use, Wanda or Jinga is never a wrong choice.

          14★ Wanda is more durable with higher HP and Def and less PP usage. 14★ Jinga has higher ATK and upgraded Jinga Assault (132% stronger).

          Stunned Wanda/Jinga takes 30s to recover.

          PersonalityDescription
          Personality.pngEnjoys Sun (晴れ好き)112% damage during clear weather, does not work on EQs. Preferable if you use Jinga on regular quests.
          Personality.pngFervent (こんじょう)Small chance to endure damage that would otherwise killed it. Gains invulnerability when activated. Preferable on EQs, although Jinga itself is not easy to KO.
          Personality.pngPowerful (パワフル)14★ only. Combines the effect of Enjoys Sun and Fervent, as well as having increased rare item drop rate.

          Photon Arts

          IconNameDamageDPSTaktRykrosStaff.pngPPFrameDescription
          PA-Wanda-1.pngSlicer5696502672851568Primary DPS attack. A two-hit attack. Wanda version costs 10 PP at L17.
          PA-Wanda-2.pngBreak3844512585392545Area attack. Knocks down enemies. Wanda version costs 15 PP at L17.
          PA-Wanda-3.pngAssault3210427976931045Recall PA. A wide linear area of effect. Wanda version is about 24.5% weaker and narrower.
          PA-Wanda-4.pngShock2908387772912545Wide-ranged area attack. Causes Stun. Wanda version costs 20 PP at L17.
          PA-Wanda-5.pngPulsar1206482510003044DoT attack over 877f (14.6s).
          NormalAttack.pngNormal 114951724-952Gains 10.4 PP per second.
          NormalAttack.pngParfaits.pngNormal 12092241452Gains 10.4 PP per second.
          NormalAttack.pngParfaits.pngBraverL.pngNormal 12825325952Gains 10.4 PP per second.
          NormalAttack.pngNormal 1-2-373262747160Gains 15.4 PP per second.
          NormalAttack.pngParfaits.pngNormal 1-2-3102563846160Gains 15.4 PP per second.
          NormalAttack.pngParfaits.pngBraverL.pngNormal 1-2-3138455192160Gains 15.4 PP per second.

          Candy Box

          Manaka’s personal choice:

          • 1 3-Layer Pancake
          • 1 2-Layer Pancake
          • 1 Deadly Parfait
          • 1 Spirited Parfait
          • 2 Support Rolls
          • 2 Critical Candy Sticks
          • 2 Vin-Spi Candy Sticks
          • 2 Spirita Cookies

          Arrangement is as follows. For more information, see the Recommended Candies Section.

          Recommended arrangement for Wanda and Jinga's Candy Box
          Recommended arrangement for Wanda and Jinga’s Candy Box

          Torim / Aero (トリム/アエロ)

          A pet with high powered PAs, focusing on quality over quantity. They are best suited to pursuit agile enemies with their fast Stab and their double DoT attacks. Their main weakness is their lack of wide area attack, PP inefficiency, low defense, and weakest normal attacks (i.e. not worth for Spirited Parfait). If you can, switch to Torim or Aero during a boss’ downtime, such as when Dragon drops its head, Deus showing its core etc. and perform Shout then Spiral to their weak points. In order to maximize their damage, try to land as many full-charged Shout-Spiral as you can.

          14★ Torim is more durable with higher HP and Def and less PP usage. 14★ Aero has higher ATK, upgraded Aero Spriral (wider attack area) and Aero Slash (105% stronger).

          Stunned Torim/Aero takes 60s to recover.

          PersonalityDescription
          Personality.pngDilligent (がんばりや)115% PA damage with 130% PP cost. Preferable for the big damage boost.
          Personality.pngDocile (おりこうさん)121% damage on enemies with a status effect. Since EQ bosses does not get status effect like normal enemies, the boost will be useless there.
          Personality.pngElite (エリート)14★ only. Combines Diligent and Docile, as well as having increased rare item drop rate.

          Photon Arts

          IconNameDamageDPSTaktRykrosStaff.pngPPFrameDescription
          PA-Torim-1.pngStab3522480382941544Primary mook mashier. Quick attacks, but leans on the inefficient side.
          PA-Torim-2.pngSlash741736184867251235-hit attack.
          PA-Torim-2.pngShout Slash89004342559025123Use Slash after Shout. This is their PP-efficient attack beside Spiral, even more if you jump after using it.
          PA-Torim-3.pngBullet64706008371542Recall PA. DoT lasts for 647f (10.8s).
          PA-Torim-4.pngShout Bullet1035496011981542Use Bullet after Shout. Regular and Shout DoT stacks.
          PA-Torim-4.pngShout2438340269742043Small area attack. Grants a 20s buff that enhances the power of Slash, Bullet, and Spiral.
          PA-Torim-5.pngSpiral1524145138895063Primary DPS attack. Charging increases power.
          PA-Torim-5.pngSpiral C166722471341950162Charge for 120f (2s).
          PA-Torim-5.pngSpiral C2190603267370650350Charge for 308f (5s).
          PA-Torim-5.pngShout Spiral C1166726175712350162Charge for 120f (2s) after Shout.
          PA-Torim-5.pngShout Spiral C2476498168860750350Charge for 308f (5s) after Shout.
          NormalAttack.pngNormal 1799922-652Gains 6.9 PP per second.
          NormalAttack.pngNormal 1-2-336721519-27145Gains 11.2 PP per second.
          PA-Torim-5.pngBraverL.pngShout Spiral C2524148985942450350Charge for 308f (5s) after Shout. Requires S Charge (Br).

          Candy Box

          Manaka’s personal choice:

          • 1 3-Layer Pancake
          • 1 2-Layer Pancake
          • 1 Deadly Parfait
          • 1 Super Luxury Parfait
          • 2 Support Rolls
          • 2 Critical Candy Sticks
          • 1 Vin-Spi Candy Sticks
          • 1 Body Sandwich
          • 2 Spirita Cookies

          Arrangement is as follows. For more information, see the Recommended Candies Section.

          Recommended arrangement for Torim and Aero's Candy Box
          Recommended arrangement for Torim and Aero’s Candy Box

          Cery / Popple (サリィ/ポップル)

          A long-range support pet, best at taking down a large quantity of enemies. They are risky to use against bosses that moves too much because its main DPS attack tends to miss. However, their easy-to-use nature allows you to utilize Zanverse together with their attacks.

          Cery and Popple have a problem that inputting PA too fast (e.g. by tapping button repeatedly) will cause them to skip the said PA, but will still cost PP. Mind the timing between PAs.

          14★ Cery is more durable with higher HP and Def and less PP usage. 14★ Popple has higher ATK and upgraded Popple Plode (chargeable, 275% stronger).

          Stunned Cery/Popple takes 60s to recover.

          PersonalityDescription
          Personality.pngAdept (てきぱき)130% Normal attack PP regain. This is the preferable personality.
          Personality.pngSerene (やさしい)Heals previously summoned pet HP by a certain amount after a certain time. I am uncertain for the purpose of this ability since unsummoned pet gains HP relatively quick. Does not affect stunned pets.
          Personality.pngPop (ポップ)14★ only. Combines Adept and Serene, as well as having increased rare item drop rate.

          Photon Arts

          IconNameDamageDPSTaktRykrosStaff.pngPPFrameDescription
          PA-Cery-1.pngPlode5043472871282064Slow projectile. Cery version costs 10 PP at L17.
          PA-Cery-1.pngPlode C84044502587420112Charge for 112f (1.9s). Popple only. Increases area of effect and damage.
          PA-Cery-2.pngFall2832386173522044Clusters enemy together. Area is rather small.
          PA-Cery-3.pngCurse3608492084111544Primary DPS attack. Inflicts Jellen, which reduces target’s attack by 15%. Slow homing projectile.
          PA-Cery-4.pngChaser1592217056611544Knocks enemy down. Quick homing projectile.
          PA-Cery-5.pngTeritory 4-hit38151293216115177Recall PA. Popple will return first. Area attack which requires holding the button. Initial use cost 15 PP, Cery version costs 5 PP at L17.
          PA-Cery-5.pngTeritory 8-hit114462069253162.4332Costs roughly 62 PP.
          PA-Cery-5.pngTeritory 12-hit335783935423588.1512Costs roughly 88 PP.
          PA-Cery-5.pngTeritory 16-hit4884042354457113.9692Costs roughly 114 PP.
          PA-Cery-5.pngTeritory 20-hit6410144114587139.7872Costs roughly 140 PP.
          NormalAttack.pngNormal 117091972-1552Gains 17.3 PP per second; 21.9 PP per second if Adept.
          NormalAttack.pngParfaits.pngNormal 123922760-1552Gains 17.3 PP per second; 21.9 PP per second if Adept.
          NormalAttack.pngParfaits.pngBraverL.pngNormal 132293726-1552Gains 17.3 PP per second; 21.9 PP per second if Adept.

          Candy Box

          Manaka’s personal choice:

          • 1 3-Layer Pancake
          • 1 2-Layer Pancake
          • 1 Deadly Parfait
          • 1 Super Luxury Parfait
          • 2 Support Rolls
          • 2 Critical Candy Sticks
          • 1 Vin-Spi Candy Sticks
          • 1 Body Sandwich
          • 3 Spirita Cookies

          Arrangement is as follows. For more information, see the Recommended Candies Section.

          Recommended arrangement for Cery and Popple's Candy Box
          Recommended arrangement for Cery and Popple’s Candy Box

          Maron (マロン)

          A defensive pet with self-explosion ability. Maron is best used when your enemy are overly aggressive, like Dragon. Once was popular pet before damage cap was implemented. With damage cap in place, Maron Strike’s capped 1M damage does lower DPS that its required setup. Using Maron for Strike attack only will lower their DPS a lot; consider using the strike as a bonus damage and focus on using Curse and Break as primary DPS. Along with its counterpart, Melon, they see limited use outside fighting bosses.

          Maron’s size has 3 stages, which powers up their Strike. The 1st stage is default; Maron will always be on 1st stage if you summon them. The 2nd stage is reached after 3 hits, in which Maron becomes big. The 3rd stage is reached after 9 hits, in which Maron becomes even bigger with flames coming out of their body. You have 15 seconds to perform Maron strike before Maron explodes on your hand and reduce your HP to a fraction.

          Stunned Maron takes 60s to recover.

          PersonalityDescription
          Personality.pngAdverse (逆境)117% damage if HP drops below 25%. This is always activated during Maron Strike, thus the preferred personality.
          Personality.pngFierce (やせ我慢)A chance to recover 18% of max HP when taking damage.
          Personality.pngCute (キュート)14★ only. Combines Adverse and Fierce, as well as having increased rare item drop rate.

          Photon Arts

          IconNameDamageDPSTaktRykrosStaff.pngPPFrameDescription
          PA-Maron-1.pngStrike 161636268559Stuns enemy and Maron. Hold PA button to delay the throw.
          PA-Maron-1.pngStrike 2215724314559Requires Maron to take 3 hits. DPS is if Maron take 3 hits and be thrown in 5 seconds.
          PA-Maron-1.pngStrike 3616344109559Requires Maron to take 9 hits. DPS is if Maron take 9 hits and be thrown in 15 seconds.
          PA-Maron-2.pngBreak3418476983411543Primary DPS attack. A rudimentary area attack with no added effect. Unlike Jinga Break, Maron stays in place.
          PA-Maron-3.pngShield1Recall PA. Hold button to keep Maron in front of your character, draining your 1 PP every 2s. Maron will take all damage from front at 50% rate. Shield might not be available if Maron is too far away, or obscured by walls.
          PA-Maron-4.pngChaser761103845292544A homing missile attack that bounces at every enemy in an area. Can bounce back to the same enemy.
          PA-Maron-5.pngCurse12561132215924044DoT attack over 570f (9.5s). Slow homing projectile.
          NormalAttack.pngNormal 114501673-1352Gains 15.0 PP per second.
          NormalAttack.pngParfaits.pngNormal 120302343-1352Gains 15.0 PP per second.
          NormalAttack.pngParfaits.pngBraverL.pngNormal 127413162-1352Gains 15.0 PP per second.
          NormalAttack.pngNormal 1-2-367681981-42205Gains 12.3 PP per second.
          NormalAttack.pngParfaits.pngNormal 1-2-394752773-42205Gains 12.3 PP per second.
          NormalAttack.pngParfaits.pngBraverL.pngNormal 1-2-3127913744-42205Gains 12.3 PP per second.

          Candy Box

          Manaka’s personal choice:

          • 1 3-Layer Pancake
          • 1 2-Layer Pancake
          • 1 Deadly Parfait
          • 1 Megaton Parfait
          • 2 Support Rolls
          • 2 Critical Candy Sticks
          • 2 Body Sandwiches
          • 1 React Sandwiches
          • 2 Mind Sandwiches
          • 2 Spirita Cookies

          Arrangement is as follows. For more information, see the Recommended Candies Section.

          Recommended arrangement for Maron's Candy Box
          Recommended arrangement for Maron’s Candy Box

          Melon (メロン)

          Maron’s counterpart, similar PAs with different Strike mechanic. Melon has lowest HP among all pets, but highest defense among all. Hold the Strike PA button after throwing melon to catch it back.

          Melon size’s stage is reached faster, needing only 1 hit for 2nd Stage and 2 hits for 3rd Stage. Melon will revert to 1st Stage after spending 15 seconds on 3rd Stage, instead of blowing up the player.

          A 14★ Melon will have 5000 S-DEF, along with 300 more ATK compared to Maron.

          Stunned Melon takes 20s to recover.

          PersonalityDescription
          Personality.pngAdverse (逆境)117% damage if HP drops below 25%. This is not activated during Melon Strike, unless Melon’s HP is below 25% when using.
          Personality.pngFierce (やせ我慢)A chance to recover 18% of max HP when taking damage. This is preferred to keep Melon on the defensive side.
          Personality.pngCute (キュート)14★ only. Combines Adverse and Fierce, as well as having increased rare item drop rate.

          Photon Arts

          IconNameDamageDPSTaktRykrosStaff.pngPPFrameDescription
          PA-Maron-1.pngStrike 1235423941059Stuns enemy. Hold PA button to delay the throw. Hold PA button after throwing to catch Melon. Uncaught melon will be stunned.
          PA-Maron-1.pngStrike 24709478959Requires Melon to take 1 hit.
          PA-Maron-1.pngStrike 3588759871059Requires Melon to take 2 hits.
          PA-Maron-2.pngBreak3594501585872043Primary DPS attack. A rudimentary area attack with no added effect. Unlike Jinga Break, Melon stays in place.
          PA-Maron-3.pngShield51Recall PA. Hold button to keep Melon in front of your character, draining your 1 PP every 2s. Melon will take all damage from front at 50% rate. Shield might not be available if Melon is too far away, or obscured by walls.
          PA-Maron-4.pngChaser67892444152544A homing missile attack that bounces at every enemy in an area. Can bounce back to the same enemy.
          PA-Maron-5.pngCurse13424141316822544DoT attack over 570f (9.5s). Slow homing projectile.
          NormalAttack.pngNormal 113601569-1352Gains 15.0 PP per second.
          NormalAttack.pngParfaits.pngNormal 119032196-1352Gains 15.0 PP per second.
          NormalAttack.pngParfaits.pngBraverL.pngNormal 125702965-1352Gains 15.0 PP per second.
          NormalAttack.pngNormal 1-2-363451857-42205Gains 12.3 PP per second.
          NormalAttack.pngParfaits.pngNormal 1-2-388832600-42205Gains 12.3 PP per second.
          NormalAttack.pngParfaits.pngBraverL.pngNormal 1-2-3119923510-42205Gains 12.3 PP per second.

          Candy Box

          Manaka’s personal choice:

          • 1 3-Layer Pancake
          • 1 2-Layer Pancake
          • 1 Deadly Parfait
          • 1 Megaton Parfait
          • 2 Support Rolls
          • 1 Critical Candy Stick
          • 2 Vin-Spi Candy Sticks
          • 1 Mind Sandwiches
          • 3 Spirita Cookies

          Arrangement is as follows. For more information, see the Recommended Candies Section.

          Recommended arrangement for Melon's Candy Box
          Recommended arrangement for Melon’s Candy Box

          Rappy (ラッピー)

          An all-rounder pet, very friendly to newbies, although obtaining their eggs is not newbie friendly (Rare drop from XH Deus, Dragon, Omega Luther). Rappy invokes the Magikarp Power: its stat before L120 are not impressive, and has 250 points to fill on each stat of Pet Plus; Level 100 and 120 Rappy has attack differences of almost 400 points. They notably have strongest normal attacks, albeit smaller hit box. This is both blessing and a curse since it is more accurate to hit a weak point, but easier to miss moving enemies. They are also the only pet to have a healing PA.

          Stunned Rappy takes 20s to recover.

          PersonalityDescription
          Personality.pngEarly Bird (はやおき)Reduces stunned duration by 33%. All obtained Rappy eggs so far has only Super Early Bird (超はやおき) personality, which also boosts Rare Drop Rate by 5%.

          Photon Arts

          IconNameDamageDPSTaktRykrosStaff.pngPPFrameDescription
          PA-Rappy-1.pngMelody1929289367332040Creates a healing field similar to Resta, but can be stacked over and over. Does not count as support Tech cast by player.
          PA-Rappy-2.pngDrop3868515785702045A rudimentary area attack. Primary DPS during Alter Ego with Rykros Staff.
          PA-Rappy-3.pngCanon2609347868921545Recall PA. Homing projectile that requires a target. If there’s no target, the missile will lauch straight upward. Rappy is slow to return after performing the PA.
          PA-Rappy-4.pngSonic1112654276676201236-hit attack. The PA will not start if Rappy does not hit a target.
          PA-Rappy-5.pngEnd196605754650340205Charge for 151f (2.5s). Listed DPS is for a full charge.
          NormalAttack.pngNormal 128313267-2052The normal attack hits twice, restoring 10 PP per hit. Gains 23.0 PP per second.
          NormalAttack.pngParfaits.pngNormal 139644574-2052Gains 23.0 PP per second.
          NormalAttack.pngParfaits.pngBraverL.pngNormal 153516174-2052Primary DPS attack if using SuBr with Attack Advance. Gains 23.0 PP per second.
          PA-Rappy-5.pngBraverL.pngEnd216266330707940205Requires S Charge (Br).

          Candy Box

          Manaka’s personal choice:

          • 1 3-Layer Pancake
          • 1 2-Layer Pancake
          • 1 Deadly Parfait
          • 1 Spirited Parfait
          • 2 Support Rolls
          • 2 Critical Candy Sticks
          • 1 Body Sandwich
          • 2 Spirita Cookies

          Arrangement is as follows. For more information, see the Recommended Candies Section.

          Recommended arrangement for Rappy's Candy Box
          Recommended arrangement for Rappy’s Candy Box

          Viola (ヴィオラ)

          A pet that is best for soloing, as it has an effective hate generation, unlike the Launcher PA Fake Silhouette. Bosses will even more likely to target Viola rather than other people in an EQ. Viola’s regular PA are similar to Wanda, albeit lacking a reliable area attack. Viola’s stats are not very impressive, and this including their defense. Using Viola Change, however, increases their defense and changes how their PA works: exerting high-powered damage and enormous hit box in expense of slower animation and sluggish PP regeneration. Viola is the signature pet of Manaka.

          Stunned Viola takes 30s to recover.

          PersonalityDescription
          Personality.pngPoser (目立ちたがり)Takes 10% less damage and makes hate generation even more effective. This is the preferred personality.
          Personality.pngSoothing (いやし系)Increases healing rate of all unsummoned pets. Does not affect stunned pets.

          Photon Arts

          IconNameDamageDPSTaktRykrosStaff.pngPPFrameDescription
          PA-Viola-1.pngSlicer3626362661862560A 2-hit attack.
          PA-Viola-1.pngChange Slicer123305691687225130Use Slicer after Shout. A 2-hit attack over a very wide area in front of Viola.
          PA-Viola-2.pngStamp3263466283192542Stuns enemies in an area. A 2-hit attack on the epicentrum.
          PA-Viola-2.pngChange Stamp10443696286692590Primary DPS attack. Use Stamp after Shout.
          PA-Viola-3.pngAssault1686240860651042Return PA.
          PA-Viola-3.pngChange Assault4045441372061055Use Assault after Change.
          PA-Viola-4.pngPulsar105867539363038DoT attack over 843f (14.1s).
          PA-Viola-4.pngChange Pulsar179951186135530108Use Pulsar after Change. DoT attack over 910f (15.2s). Regular and Change DoT stacks. Hitbox is very big compared to Regular.
          PA-Viola-5.pngChange145140% DEF (candies excluded), increases the power and enlarges the hitbox of all PAs; normal attacks are unaffected. Attack PP regain and natural PP regeneration will be set to 30% of normal value. Viola will be in Change state until the art is used again, similar to Stance skills. VIola is invulnerable during the Change animation.
          NormalAttack.pngNormal 118732161-1452Gains 16.2 PP per second.
          NormalAttack.pngParfaits.pngNormal 126223025-1452Gains 16.2 PP per second.
          NormalAttack.pngParfaits.pngBraverL.pngNormal 135404084-1452Gains 16.2 PP per second.
          NormalAttack.pngNormal 1-2-370702424-64175Gains 21.9 PP per second.
          NormalAttack.pngParfaits.pngNormal 1-2-398983393-64175Gains 21.9 PP per second.
          NormalAttack.pngParfaits.pngBraverL.pngNormal 1-2-3133624581-64175Gains 21.9 PP per second.

          Candy Box

          Manaka’s personal choice:

          • 1 3-Layer Pancake
          • 1 2-Layer Pancake
          • 1 Deadly Parfait
          • 1 Spirited Parfait
          • 2 Support Rolls
          • 2 Critical Candy Sticks
          • 3 Body Sandwiches
          • 3 Spirita Cookies

          Arrangement is as follows. For more information, see the Recommended Candies Section.

          Recommended arrangement for Viola's Candy Box
          Recommended arrangement for Viola’s Candy Box

          Synchro (シンクロウ)

          The pet for taking down bosses quickly. Has the highest DPS among all pets, but is hardest to use, and get stunned quickly. Synchro’s setup requires you to have superfluous amount of PP (above 150, 185 would be ideal), them to be summoned after a stunned pet (best using Melon); after that, you need to learn to use different PA in order to power up Synchro Geki. Synchro is the best pet to use with Bouncer sub and good to take down Magatsu and Luther.

          Notably, Syncro’s PA names are left transliterated rather than translated. The translated name would be: Slash (Zan), Fists (Ken), Kick (Kyaku), Sever (Dan), and Beat (Geki).

          Stunned Synchro takes 60s to recover.

          PersonalityDescription
          Personality.pngDevoted (なかま思い)112% damage if Synchro is summoned after a stunned pet. This is the preferred personality due to its huge boost. The boost stays during area change and will be reset if Synchro is switched out or entering campship.
          Personality.pngCunning (こうかつ)PP Cost reduced by 20% if summoned after a stunned pet.

          For both personalities, as long as Synchro is summoned after a stunned pet, the boosts will active, regardless of when the stun occur, e.g.:

          • Maron Strike (Maron stunned) > Summon Aero > Summon Maron (still stunned) > Summon Synchro (boosts active).

          Photon Arts

          IconNameDamageDPSTaktRykrosStaff.pngPPFrameDescription
          PA-Synchro-1.pngZan178224305921544Use to home in on enemy and start a combo. Has a rather bad vertical tracking.
          PA-Synchro-1.pngChain Zan267336447135544Use Zan after a different PA.
          PA-Synchro-2.pngDan218832827122540Recall PA. Synchro will return before attacking. Use to correct Synchro’s vertical position and gain Field effects for SuBo. Chained Dan causes Bind.
          PA-Synchro-3.pngKen1629222257121044Only use Ken after a PA. Do not use before using other PA.
          PA-Synchro-3.pngChain Ken3258444379341044Use Ken after a different PA. This is the intended use.
          PA-Synchro-4.pngKyaku2847388373741044A spinning kick that lasts for 3 rotation, but only hit once. The main use is to stall Chain state in case you need to do something else like Shifta, Deband, Resta, Fields etc. Synchro will also have a Just Guard in all directions, but it does not work 100% of time so use it with care. Chained Kyaku enlarges the area of effect.
          PA-Synchro-5.pngGeki194926582544Geki without chain.
          PA-Synchro-5.pngGeki 2292439872544Use Geki after 2 other PAs.
          PA-Synchro-5.pngGeki 3584779742544Use Geki after 3 other PAs.
          PA-Synchro-5.pngGeki 411695159472544Use Geki after 4 other PAs.
          NormalAttack.pngNormal 116002000-748Gains 8 PP per second.
          NormalAttack.pngParfaits.pngNormal 122402799-748Gains 8 PP per second.
          NormalAttack.pngParfaits.pngBraverL.pngNormal 130233779-748Gains 8 PP per second.
          NormalAttack.pngNormal 1-2-397822644-32222Gains 9.3 PP per second. Note that Synchro’s 3rd hit has 2400 power, which makes it stronger than many PAs.
          NormalAttack.pngParfaits.pngNormal 1-2-3136953701-32222Gains 9.3 PP per second.
          NormalAttack.pngParfaits.pngBraverL.pngNormal 1-2-3184894997-32222Gains 9.3 PP per second.

          Synchro Chains

          The Chain is Synchro’s main trade is would hamper their attack capability if not learned properly. Basically you need to use a different PA one after another. Example:

          • Zan does 1782 damage normally. If you do Zan twice, it will simply double that damage.
            • Use Dan then Zan; Zan will become its Chained version and does 2673 damage instead.
            • Use Dan then Zan then Zan; the first Zan will be Chained, but the second one will be regular.
          • Ken does 1629 damage normally, weaker than Zan, but cost twice as much.
            • Use Zan then Ken then Zan then Ken; the first Zan will be regular, the first Ken will be Chained, doing 3258 damage, the second Zan will be Chained, doing 2673 damage, the second Ken will also be chained.
            • If you do the sequential 4 PAs above, you’ll notice the character will glow an emblem and have a distinct click sound. This is the sign of Geki reaching full power (4 Chains).
          • Now you learn the basic Synchro combo: Zan – Ken – Zan – Ken – Geki
            • Geki counts as a Chain PA, so the Geki on the above combo, while used at full power because 4 Chains, also serve as Chain 1 for the next sequence.
            • Perform this combo: Zan – Ken – Zan – Ken – Geki – Zan – Ken – Zan – Geki
            • Both of the Geki will be at full power, since the first Geki also serve as Chain, making the Zan in bold Chained.

          Synchro Combos

          The values below disregard both personalities

          NameSequenceDamageDPSTaktRykrosStaff.pngPPDuration
          Combo 1Zan-Ken-Zan-Ken-Geki226666176967255220f (3.7s)
          Combo 2 (Weak)Combo 1-Zan-Ken-Zan-Geki42964651010006100396f (6.6s)
          Combo 2Combo 1-Ken-Zan-Ken-Geki43550659810089105396f (6.6s)
          Combo 3Combo 2-Ken-Zan-Ken-Geki64434676110249155572f (9.5s)
          Combo 4Combo 3-Ken-Zan-Ken-Geki85317684210334205660f (12.5s)
          Combo 5Combo 4-Ken-Zan-Ken-Geki106201689610387255924f (15.4s)
          Combo 6Combo 5-Ken-Zan-Ken-Geki1270856933104223051100f (18.3s)

          You might noticed that Synchro’s combo is basically repeating Ken-Zan-Ken-Geki after the Basic Combo 1. Always pay attention to your character’s glow and sound cue.

          The Potential.pngGlance of Darkness potential from Rykros Staff, along with Bo sub, can restore 5 PP per attack if you have Deband on. This essentially nullifies the PP cost of Zan and halves cost of Ken, making Combo 1 cost only 30 PP, and subsequent Ken-Zan-Ken-Geki also cost only 30 PP. This allows you to perform up to Combo 6 with only 185 PP (last 5 PP is required to perform the Geki, which still cost 25PP, but you will get 5 PP back).

          Candy Box

          Manaka’s personal choice:

          • 1 3-Layer Pancake
          • 1 2-Layer Pancake
          • 1 Deadly Parfait
          • 1 Spirited Parfait
          • 2 Support Rolls
          • 2 Critical Candy Sticks
          • 2 Body Sandwiches
          • 2 Spirita Cookies

          Arrangement is as follows. For more information, see the Recommended Candies Section.

          Recommended arrangement for Synchro's Candy Box
          Recommended arrangement for Synchro’s Candy Box

          Redran (レドラン)

          A long-range pet that can tear multi-part enemies, such as Ragne and Vibras, quickly. On the reverse side, they also can tear down Redran quickly. Redran has the highest ATK among all pets, but also the lowest def of all pets, with about 120 HP less than Synchro and only 60 DEF better. Other than Mining base Defense EQ, Redran has minimal use, especially because they tend to run out of PP quickly. Oftentimes, its role can be swapped with the more efficient Popple.

          I believe Redran is a portmanteau of Laser Dragon (ーザードラ), thus their name should be Ladran (read: leɪdræn). Would be too difficult to read, though.

          Stunned Redran takes 60s to recover.

          PersonalityDescription
          Personality.pngRowdy (あばれんぼう)Raises damage by 2% for each enemy killed by Redran; capped at 50% or 150% damage total. The bonus will be reset upon entering campship and unsummoning Redran. This would be the preferred personality.
          Personality.pngHawkish (とうそうしん)Raises damage depending on number of enemies near the Redran. 106% for 1-4 enemies, 112% for 5 enemies and above. Since Redran is a long-range pet that has a low durability, this skill becomes counterproductive for its survival, specially since it does not do much in boss EQs.

          Photon Arts

          IconNameDamageDPSTaktRykrosStaff.pngPPFrameDescription
          PA-Redran-1.pngLaser141636389754425133Hold PA button to increase lock on. Caps at 8 locks, which requires 133f (2.2s). A target may be locked twice. Becomes significantly weaker if an enemy has only 1 targetable point.
          PA-Redran-2.pngSlash250134907062543Recall PA. Has invulnerability frames and knocks enemy down.
          PA-Redran-3.pngBurst180296111697940177Hold PA button to increase lock on. Caps at 8 locks, which requires 177f (2.95s). Only locks to a single target point. Should the target dies or Redran lost target, the sphere will disappear and starts appearing when a new target is acquired.
          PA-Redran-4.pngGravity34911544Sends a bullet that clusters enemy upon impact. The area is similar to Popple Fall, thus not much real use, except for detonating Mine.
          PA-Redran-5.pngMine4843121118511044Sends a needle that attaches to enemy’s body part. The needle can be activated using Redran Laser, Burst, or Gravity. Upon activation, the needle will explodes and does a 4-hit area damage over 4 seconds. There can only be 1 needle active on an enemy, but the explosion can occur any number of times. Try using Mine-Gravity-Mine-Gravity.
          NormalAttack.pngNormal 120032311-1052Gains 10.4 PP per second.
          NormalAttack.pngParfaits.pngNormal 128043236-1052Gains 10.4 PP per second.
          NormalAttack.pngParfaits.pngBraverL.pngNormal 137864368-1052Gains 10.4 PP per second.

          Candy Box

          Manaka’s personal choice:

          • 1 3-Layer Pancake
          • 1 2-Layer Pancake
          • 1 Steady Parfait
          • 1 Spirited Parfait
          • 2 Support Rolls
          • 2 Critical Candy Sticks
          • 3 Body Sandwiches
          • 3 Spirita Cookies

          Arrangement is as follows. For more information, see the Recommended Candies Section.

          Recommended arrangement for Redran's Candy Box
          Recommended arrangement for Redran’s Candy Box

          Part 4: Summoner Skills and Techs

          No matter how powerful your pets are, you are as only as good as the skills you pick.

            Part 4 Objectives, you will be able to:

          • Pick the right class skills for Summoner main
          • Pick the right class skills for Summoner sub
          • Learn the required Technics to support your pets

          Class Skills

          Below is a table of all Summoner skills. The SP column is the recommended SP spent on the skill. The color coded is as follows:

          • ■ Skills that must be taken
          • ■ Skills that is nice to have, but in low priority overall. Take them only if all the magenta skills are learned.
          • ■ Skills that is in very low priority, but great if you want to use Su as a sub-class.
          IconSkill NameNotesSP
          SuSkillHPUp.pngHP Up
          HP High Up
          Increases HP. Do not max either skill unless your Summoner skill tree is for sub-classing.1
          SuSkillHPRestorate.pngHP RestorateRecovers a portion of HP every 5 seconds after a certain threshold. Do not max this unless your Summoner skill tree is for sub-classing; on a sub tree, this skill works wonders!1
          SuSkillQuickRecovery.pngQuick RecoveryReduces the time of bad status effect on character. Not really worth it.0
          SuSkillMassiveMate.pngMassive MatePrevent flinching and reduces damage when using Mate items. Not worth it at all since you can create an Atomizer Lover Ring which grants you invulnerability instead.0
          SuSkillAssistShare.pngAssist ShareMain Class only. Allows switched pet to retain all buffs of the previous pet.1
          SuSkillPetSwitchStrike.png SuSkillPetSwitchShoot.pngPet Switch Strike
          Pet Switch Shoot
          Main Class only. Allows S-ATK or R-ATK to be used in damage formula instead of T-ATK
          ※ Only take if character’s S-ATK or R-ATK is higher than T-ATK
          ※ Only change the formula used to calculate damage. Pet damage is always Tech.
          ※ Only one can be activated
          ※ Does not affect Glance of Darkness
          0
          SuSkillAllAttackBonus.pngAll Attack Bonus 1
          All Attack Bonus 2
          Each skill multiplies damage by 115%, for a total of 132.25% damage (115% * 115%).10
          SuSkillDearMaster.pngDear MasterPet will sacrifice itself to prevent your death. Low priority, since you are not supposed to take much damage, unless from Alter Ego. Losing a more powerful pet, such as Synchro, will have a huge dent on your DPS. If you are to take this skill, max it.0 or 5
          SuSkillPetSympathy.pngPet SympathyMain Class only. Pet will ask for Shifta during attacks (higher chance on E-Trials or when attacking bosses) and Resta when low on HP. Fulfilling Shifta request will multiply pet damage by 120% at L10, while Resta will double the amount of heal the pet receives. Lasts 90 seconds.10
          SuSkillHarmonizeUp.pngHarmonize UpMain Class only. Increase the chance of pet requesting Sympathy. Only spend 1 SP on this skill, as on raid bosses, pet will ask Sympathy quite often.1
          SuSkillSympathyTime.pngSympathy TimeMain Class only. Increases the duration of Sympathy to be 180 seconds at L5. You will not want a gap in your Sympathy buff, since you are recommended to take 1 Harmonize Up.5
          SuSkillEasySympathy.pngEasy SympathyMain Class only. Extends the window when pet asks for Sympathy by 10 seconds, making it 20 seconds total. This skill is crucial if you cannot fulfill Sympahty immediately, such as during downtime of bosses.1
          SuSkillLongDistanceLove.pngLong Distance LoveMain Class only. You can fulfill Sympathy needs even if the pet is far away. This 1 SP removes the need to constantly return your pet to your side.1
          SuSkillPointAssist.pngPoint AssistGives a mark on an enemy part. Upon hitting the said part, damage is multiplied by 115% for both pet and character.10
          SuSkillSupportFire.pngSupport FireIncreases damage to all parts of the enemy affected by point assist by 110%. If a part is marked with Point Assist and you have Support Fire, that part will take a total of 126.5% damage (115% * 110%). If you mark a part with Point Assist and you attack a different part, that different part will take 100% damage.1
          SuSkillPetPhotonBarrier.pngPet Photon BarrierReduces damage to pets. Pet does not get hit that much to warrant spending point on this skill.0
          SuSkillPetRecovery.pngPet RecoveryMain class only. Recovers a small percentage of pet HP every 5 seconds. Between the must-take 3 SP and maxed 5 SP, there’s only 1% difference.3
          SuSkillReserveRecovery.pngReserve RecoveryIncreases the recovery speed of non-active pet. If you need this skill, you need to practice more.0
          SuSkillPetElementWeakHit.pngPet Element Weak HitIncreases damage when attacking enemies with their elemental weakness. Pet attacks are multiplied by 110%, while character is multiplied by 105% instead.5
          SuSkillPetElementPPRestorate.pngPet Element PP RestorateMain class only. Increases PP gained with pet normal attacks when attacking enemies with their elemental weakness. This skill is required if you are to use high-output pets like Synchro.5
          SuSkillPPUp.pngPP Up 1
          PP Up 2
          Increases maximum PP. Very low priority.0
          SuSkillAllAttackUp.pngAll Attack Up
          All Attack High Up
          Raises your attack by 200 if you spend all 15 points in it. Low priority.13-15
          SuSkillAllDefenseUp.pngAll Defense Up
          All Defense High Up
          Raises your defense by 200 and DEX by 100 if you spend all 15 points in it. Low priority.13-15
          SuSkillPBAdvance.pngPB AdvanceIncreases PB power. Will do nothing if you have Cetus Proi.0
          SuSkillAlterEgo.pngAlter EgoMain Class only. The premier boss masher skill on Summoner. Multiplies damage by 120%, but you will also take a portion of damage that the pet takes. The damage taken can be mitigated if the character is invulnerable, e.g. during Mirage Step. However, your character is not invulnerable during a knocked-down state. (leading to something I call "Summoner Blues")10
          SuSkillAllAttackBonus.pngHigh Level Bonus SuRequires Su Lv. 80. Multiplies all damage by 5%5
          SuSkillAlterEgoHarmony.pngAlter Ego HarmonyRequires Su Lv. 85. Main Class only. Requires no SP. Grants character invulnerability from damages other than the one pet receives during Alter Ego, but Alter Ego’s damage can no longer mitigated with Mirage Step or other mechanism (such as Atomizer Lover Ring). A high-defense pet like Jinga, Viola, or Melon will make your character practically have 90 seconds of invulnerability. Holding Melon or Maron during Strike will make your character bypass all kinds of damage.

          Technics

          There are few technics essential to have. You can obtain them as drops, buy from player shops, or trade them on Excube Shop at L17 for 20 Excubes each.

          IconNameDescription
          TechResta.pngRestaHeals all allied units in an area. Pet will request a Resta sympathy if they have a low HP. Either craft of Resta is fine.
          TechAnti.pngAntiRestores status effect of all allied units in an area. A full-charged Anti lasts about 5 seconds on the field, you can use this as a preemptive move if you see a status move is incoming, like Elder’s ice meteor. Preferred to have Concentrated craft (reduces charge time).
          TechShifta.pngShiftaRaises base attack power of all allied units in an area. Pet will request Shifta sympathy during battle. Pet needs to have the Shifta buff for increased attack. Having Shifta buff on the character is irrelevant to pet’s damage. Preferred to have Multi craft (more ticks).
          TechDeband.pngDebandRaises base defense power of all allied units in an area. Deband is not as essential as Shifta, but is a key skill to have for Bo sub. Preferred to have Multi craft (more ticks).
          TechZanverse.pngZanverseInflicts additional 20% Wind damage when the pet is within the Zanverse radius. Best combined with long-range pets like Popple. Zanversed pet will affect the DoT given to enemy, as long as the pet is on the Zanverse area. Preferred to have Concentrated craft (reduces charge time).
          TechMegiverse.pngMegiverseRestores HP equal to 25% of damages inflicted if the pet is within the Megiverse radius. Note that since pet does the damage, character will not benefit from the skill at all, unless Potential.pngGlance of Darkness is active. Either craft of Megiverse is fine.
          TechSafoie.pngSafoie Type-0Must have Type-0 Craft (available at start). A movement PA that helps you travel faster. It also tracks enemy’s height, and has a lot of hits to help you escape from Fhange (that red-prison thing which traps you in an E-Trial).

          Part 5: Class Combination

          Summoner has 3 viable sub-classes: Braver, Fighter, and Bouncer. Their usage is depending on your play style. All multipliers listed are not counting High Level Bonus, which is a must-take.

            Part 5 Objectives, you will be able to:

          • Elaborate every pros and cons of each sub class
          • Argue that SuFi is NOT the best nor only sub for Summoner

            If you are new to Summoner, stick to SuBr. As your playing experience with Su increases, you can decide whether to use SuBo or SuFi later, or stay as SuBr.

          Summoner-Braver (SuBr)

          Recommended for all skill level. SuBr has the easiest usage, but relatively lacks output. This is compensated by Attack Advance which, on several pets, provides a PA-powered normal attacks with 0 PP usage. This contributes to its beginner-friendly nature as newbies tend to use normal attacks a lot.

          PropertyDescription
          Average Stance126.5% damage, +25% critical rate
          Weak Stance149.5% weak-point damage, +25% critical rate
          S Charge (on Brave and Weak Stance)110% damage for charge skills.
          Eligible skills are Popple Plode, Torim/Aero Spiral, and Rappy End
          Attack Advance135% damage from normal attacks
          J Reversal CoverRestores 20% HP upon reversal. This skill oftentimes a lifesaver.
          Best compatibilityJinga, Viola, Synchro, Redran, Rappy. These are pets with the highest normal attack DPS. If your Rappy has Spirited Parfait (はりきりパフェ), you can just use normal attacks since it will become Rappy’s top DPS move, being only slightly (~5%) less powerful than Rappy End with S Charge.
          Usage noteWith a strong normal attack pets, Near Auto Target, Attack Advance, and Spirited Parfait, you can just wave your takt once and cruise through a Free Field without using PAs.

          Summoner-Fighter (SuFi)

          Recommended for experienced players. SuFi has the highest stance multiplier and less likely need to switch stance, but offers little compensation once PP runs out and has lowest critical rate (means your base damage will be lower). While theoretically SuFi is significantly more powerful than SuBr, in practice Brave Stance SuFi is about 5-10% stronger than Average Stance SuBr due to the lower base damage and the need to fill PP.

          PropertyDescription
          Brave Stance154% front-attack damage (135% on rear-attack), +25% critical rate.
          The Brave Stance depends on the point of the part pet attacks compared to the enemy’s body.
          E.g.: Brave Stance works when attacking Dragon’s front leg from any position (including from rear!), but will not work when attacking dragon’s hind leg from any position (including from the front!).
          Wise Stance175.5% rear-attack damage (100% on front attack), +25% critical rate.
          Chase Advance Plus115% damage to target with certain status effect.
          Pets that inflicts status effects are: Wanda/Jinga (Shock: Stun), Viola (Stamp: Stun), Maron/Melon (Strike: Stun), Synchro (Dan: Bind, Geki: Stun).
          Popple’s Jellen does not count.
          PP SlayerAdditional 200 ATK when PP is below 50%.
          AdrenalineShifta and Deband is now 30 seconds per tick. Applies to pet too.
          Halfline and DeadlineThese are triggered by character HP. Most likely you will use a R/P Keeper Tech ring, thus these skills might be somewhat too risky to justify the extra ATK.
          Usage noteOn Elder, you can activate Wise Stance all-time due the uniqueness of the game treating the front-half area (the side where Elder mostly are) as Elder’s rear body.

          Summoner-Bouncer (SuBo)

          Recommended for experienced players. SuBo has lower multiplier than SuFi, but has a superior PP regeneration mechanism. They are the only sub-class that allows Summonner to reach 100% critical without external help (means your base damage is all-time highest). While it does not have high multiplier compared to Fi, its PP regeneration is more than enough to make it up, even with only Elemental Stance; this means that you will need to get used to PA constantly. Unfortunately, using SuBo means you require extra pallet slot to accommodate Fields.

          PropertyDescription
          Elemental Stance132% damage on elemental weakness hit (110% on normal), +25% critical rate
          Break Stance149.5% damage on breakable parts (100% on normal), +25% critical rate
          J Reversal PP GainRecovers 20% PP during just reversal
          Critical FieldCritical Rate +30%
          Elemental PP Restorate FieldRestores 3 PP every normal attack if you hit an elemental weakness.
          Field RemainPet needs to be inside the field to have its effect. This skill allows pet to exit the field for a brief time and retains the field’s effect.
          Shifta Air Attack Boost105% damage during Shifta when attacking mid-air. All of pets’ attacks and PAs are counted as mid-air atacks.
          Deband PP RestorateRestores 5 PP during Deband when using a normal attack.
          Somehow, Potential.pngGlance of Darkness counts as a normal attack and will restore 5 PP if the character has Deband.
          Bouncer MagFeed your mag with DEX, and S-ATK and T-ATK will also get filled at 1:1 ratio.
          Best compatibilitySynchro vs Magatsu.
          Use Rykros Staff for maximum effectiveness.
          Usage noteIf you need to create elemental pets to take advantage of Elemental Stance, Wanda or Jinga would be the best choice, followed by Aero.
          If you don’t have elemental Pets, SuBo is less effective on multi-elemental weakness EQs, such as the Seasonal EQs.

          Techer-Summoner (TeSu)

          Recommended for Techer who dislikes using Wands. TeSu allows you to buff allies while capable of dishing out damage from a safe distance. However, it is always a good idea to have a Wand as a side weapon. Lavis Cannon is a recommended side arm due to its usage simplicity and almost make Heavy Hammer unneeded.

          PropertyDescription
          Shifta Advance
          Shifta Critical
          Shifta Strike
          Increases the potency of Shifta, granting it a total of 24.625% more base ATK, along with 20% critical rate and 110% damage.
          Deband Advance
          Deband Cut
          Deband Toughness
          Increases the potency of Deband, granting it a total of 24.625% more base DEF, along with -15% damage reduction and 125% maximum HP increase.
          Element Weak Hit120% damage on elemental weakness hit.
          Long-time Assist+30s per-tick duration for Shifta and Deband, for a total of 45s.
          PP RestorateIncreases passive PP regneration rate by 140%. PP regeneration further increases to 350% if character is on the ground and doesn’t move for at least 1 second.
          Resta Advance120% Resta healing.
          Rebirth BonusApplies Shifta and Deband at maximum duration to a revived target.
          Tech Up 1
          Tech Up 2
          Increases TATK by 50 and 75.
          Super TreatmentGrants 25% HP recovery and +3 PP regeneration to character and all healed allies upon healing status ailments.
          Territory BurstHorizontal area of effect increase for support skills: Shifta, Deband, Resta, Anti, Megiverse, Zanverse, Zondeel.
          Wide SupportFurther horizontal and vertical area of effect increase for support skills: Shifta, Deband, Resta, Anti.
          Territory PP Save-7 PP usage for support skills: Shifta, Deband, Resta, Anti, Megiverse, Zanverse, Zondeel
          Wand GearAdds Wand Gear that causes Tech Explosion. Wand Hits are based on SATK, while Tech Explosions are based on TATK. Both are considered o be Strike damage.
          Wand LoversActivate to maximize Wand Gear and increases normal attack Strike damage by 140%, but causes Mirage Escape to become Step when wielding Wand. Applies to Tech Explosion, but not to Heavy Hammer.
          Wand ReactorAdds 40% of Wand’s base TATK to SATK.
          Wand Gear ElementActivate to add 15% chance to inflict status effect depending on Wand’s attribute.

          Part 6: The Critical Build

          According to the damage calculator, Summoners have a hard time maintaining average damage since pet’s minimum damage starts at 70%, as opposed to other weapon’s 90% when using a 13★. Adding as much critical as possible allows pet to reach higher average damage, without compensating any aspects (maybe that 10 PP from 2 Spirita Candy Sticks).

            Part 6 Objectives, you will be able to:

          • Maximize pet’s critical hit ratio
          • Capitalize on Deadly Parfait’s high damage multiplier

          Recommended Candies

          These candies are arranged from the highest priority to the lowest. Do check Collection File every list update. They usually come with an egg.

          IconCandy NameEffectPetObtain
          Pancake.png3-Layer Pancake+30% Elemental Attribute.
          Only 1 is needed.
          AllPet Goods Shop
          Pancake.png2-Layer Pancake+20% Elemental Attribute.
          Only 1 is needed. During the beginning of the game, you can use 2 since most likely, 3-Layer Pancake is too expensive.
          AllPet Goods Shop
          Pietro CO "My Gallant Wanda!"
          Parfaits.pngDeadly Parfait110% critical damageAllTrade 50 Weapon Badge 2017
          Title Reward for L80 Redran
          Parfaits.pngSpirited Parfait140% normal attack damageJinga, Viola, Redran, Synchro, RappySeasonal EQs
          Parfaits.pngSuper Megaton Parfait112% damage against bossAllXQ Terran Phantoms
          Parfaits.pngMegaton Parfait109% damage against bossAllBadge Shop (50 Weapon Badge 2018)
          Parfaits.pngSuper Complete Parfait108% damage if pet HP is above 60%.AllCollection File
          Parfaits.pngPerfect Parfait107% damage against elemental weakness, use only if you are out of options.AllBadge Shop (50 Weapon Badge 2018)
          Parfaits.pngSteady Parfait+4% damage for every enemy killed, up to 20% total (120% damage). Resets when pet is switched out or entering campship.Rowdy RedranSeasonal EQs
          Parfaits.pngBolster Parfait108% damage if pet is within a Mirage Step distance.Popple, RedranBadge Shop (50 Weapon Badge 2018)
          Parfaits.pngSuper Luxury ParfaitPP Regen 123%, Attack PP Gain 114%, PP Cost -10%. Most suited for pets with high PP consumption.Aero, Synchro, Redran, PoppleSeasonal EQs
          Parfaits.pngLuxury ParfaitPP Regen 120%, Attack PP Gain 110%, PP Cost -5%.Aero, Synchro, Redran, PoppleESC-A Falz Mother
          Rolls.pngSupport Roll101% damage, +10% critical rate, 120% defense during Shifta sympathyAllYamato EQ
          Seasonal EQs
          Exchange 100 Shiva and Durga stones
          Rolls.pngConversion RollIncreases each attack by 4% of each defense. S-DEF will raise S-ATK, R-DEF will raise R-ATK, and T-DEF will raise T-ATKMelonUltimate Naberius
          Stick_Candy.pngCritical Candy StickCritical Rate +7%AllPietro CO "My Gallant Popple!"
          Stick_Candy.pngSpirita Candy StickPP+5. Use this if you do not have Critical candies yetAllRandom drop
          Stick_Candy.pngVin-Spi Candy StickAll ATK +20, PP+3Popple, Jinga, RappyPietro CO "My Gallant Jinga!"
          Stick_Candy.pngAbility Candy StickAll +5. Use this if you do not have Vin-Spi candies yetPopple, Jinga, RappyAriel’s Pet Goods Shop (50 Grinders)
          Cookie.pngPower/Shoot/Tech CookiesRespective ATK +35AllRandom drops
          Cookie.pngSpirita CookiePP+5. Will be handy once pet reaches 14★.AllRandom drops

            When in doubt, you can always use 1 Deadly Parfait, 1 Megaton Parfait, 1 3-Layer Pancake, 1 2-Layer Pancake, 2 Critical Candy Sticks, and fill the rest with proper cookies and Gummies.

          Takt

          For most of the time, sticking to your regular Takt is fine, but higher rarity Takts has additional effects. Takts are really handy, for one, it does not benefit a +35 grind, not even Rykros Staff.

          IconNameRarityObtainDescription
          TaktRoseSkewer.pngRose Skewer10★Christmas EQ,
          Player Shop
          The only all-class takt. This is essential to have as it also allows you to use pet when you are raising your subclass.
          TaktYukiKaze.pngYuki Kaze13★2017 Weapon Badge ShopPotential.pngSnowfall Splendor will reduce damage taken by pets by 5% and regenerates their HP by 10% every 10 seconds.
          Potential.pngPerennial Conqueror increases pet damage by 3% and decreases damage taken by character by 40% during fight against Profound Darkness.
          TaktQliphadPick.pngZeinesis / Qliphad Pick13★Deus EQPotential.pngMelody of Evil increases natural PP regeneration by 10% and attack PP regain by 15%. Not really worth it, considering the need of 120 Qliphad Fuse.
          TaktEvledaAnhks.pngEvleada / Cleasis Anhks13★Any XH Omega EQPotential.pngDeathblow Honor restores 3PP per enemy killed. Cleasis has an added ability of raising damage by 3% during Defense Phase of Buster Quest.
          TaktRykrosStaff.pngRykros Staff14★Zieg Trade,
          Deus ESC-A,
          Any XH Omega Boss EQ
          Potential.pngGlance of Darkness provides 2 things during Alter Ego: First, it automatically fulfill Shifta Sympathy if the Sympahty window runs out; however, this does not grant Shifta to the pet, merely extending the sympathy buff.
          Second, it launches a 2000 power Darkness attack at every PA during Alter Ego that relies on T-ATK of the character. The faster the PA, the more extra damage you can do; it roughly adds 20% damage. Best combined with Synchro.
          TaktGurenNoYomimusubi.pngGuren no Yomimusubi14★Zieg Trade,
          2018 Arkuma Land LQ
          102% damage and further 103% damage when attacking elemental weak enemy. Total damage is 105.06%. Automatically applies Shifta every 14 seconds to character and pet.
          Name roughly means "Crimson Lotus Underground Pact".

          Rings

          If you plan to use more than 1 L Skill Rings, then it is recommended that you use 12★ units. If you play multiple classes, do not put near auto-target on your unit, as it might be wasteful.

            Pet attacks are always Tech, regardless of activated Switch skills. This necessitate Tech-based rings.

          IconNameDescription
          RingCStrikeTIcon.pngR/C Strike Tech +20
          R/Cストライク法撃
          +20% critical rate, 103% critical damage. Use this unless you have Fi sub. Grinding is a must.
          RingPKeeperTech.pngR/P Keeper Tech +20
          R/Pキーパー法撃
          103% damage if HP is above 75%. Use this for Fi sub. Grinding is a must.
          RingNearAutoTargetIcon.pngL/Near Auto Target
          L/ニアオートターゲット
          Pet will automatically attack enemies with 1 swing. Using recall skills (like Jinga Assault), will cancel the effect until next takt swing.
          RingAirReversal.pngL/Air Reversal
          L/エアリバーサル
          Allows you to perform reversal in-mid air, anytime.
          RingAtomizerLovers.pngL/Atomizer Lover
          L/アトマイザーラバーズ
          Increases usage speed when using Atomizer and grants invulnerability while doing so. Grinding is optional to increase the potency of Atomizer (up to 160%).
          RingTechCParrying.pngL/C Tech Parry +20
          L/テックCパリング
          Provides 0.6s of frontal Just Guard when charging a technique using a Tech weapon (Rod, Talis, Wand, Jet Boots, Takt). This is optional, but can be handy if you master the rather lenient timing. Should you decide to acquire this, grinding is a must.

          Units

          Ideally, you should have 100+ TATK on each unit (including the base unit TATK), 1200+ HP total, and 185+ PP total. Extra HP prevents accidental deaths during Alter Ego till you can obtain the Alter Ego Harmony; the extra PP is required if you are to utilize Synchro. However, should you unable to obtain this, try to aim for at least 1000 HP and 150 PP.

          Of course, you are free to use any units you like, and fit it with as much affix as you like. Do note that the trend of PSO2 as of Chapter 5 is to put high ATK boss which drops high powered weapon, thus raising HP is more beneficial than overly raising TATK.

          Logic

          By default, pet’s minimum damage is roughly 70%, while Critical hits in PSO2 automatically put your damage to 100%. Thus, without any enhancements, your mean damage using a pet is:

          (100% + 70%) / 2 = 85%

          However, at any circumstances, you have at least 5% critical rate, which means 95% of time you deal average 85% damage, while the 5% of the time, you deal 100% of the damage.

          95% * 85% + 5% * 100% = 85.75%

          In other words, without any critical enhancements, averagely, you only do 85.75% damage.

          Lets say you are using a Class Stance Critical (25%, assuming either Br or Bo sub) and a Critical Strike Ring Tech (20%), you will have a total of 50% Critical Rate (5% + 25% + 20%). Ignoring Critical Damage bonus from ring, your average damage will be:

          50% * 85% + 50% * 100% = 92.5%

          By boosting your critical rate to 50%, you gain 6.75% more damage (7.87%, if relative to 85%).

          What if you use all the critical option available without outside aid? Assuming Br sub, you already have 50% critical with ring (5% base + 25% stance + 20% ring). Add 14% from 2 Critical Candy Sticks and 20% from 2 Support Rolls. This will add up to 84% critical rate. Your average damage will be:

          16% * 85% + 84% * 100% = 97.6%

          You are almost 12% more powerful than a non-critical build (14.82%, if relative to 85%).

          Example, a SuBr uses Deadly Parfait and maxed Critical Strike Tech ring: 84% critical rate and 103% * 110% = 113.3% damage during a critical hit (3% from Ring, 10% from Deadly Parfait). Their average damage will be:

          16% * 85% + 84% * 113.3% = 108.77%

          At more than 80% critical rate, the Deadly Parfait is more powerful than Super Complete Parfait (The damage rate with Super Complete Parfait alone will be 108.13%). And, with outside aid like Shifta Critical and Critical Field, pretty much 100% critical is guaranteed, bumping the overall damage to 113.3%

          Class Damage Comparison

          Class+Deadly Parfait+Main Stance+Shifta+A Advance
          SuBr16% * 85% + 84% * 113.3% = 108.77%137.59%137.59%149.05%
          SuFi36% * 85% + 64% * 113.3% = 103.11%158.89%158.89%158.89%
          SuBo0% * 85% + 100% * 113.3% = 113.30%149.55%157.03%157.03%

          Note: Attack Advance are calculated based on the need to fill PP, which is the same on SuFi and SuBr.

          Videos

          Viola Tutorial

          Rappy Tutorial

          Vs. Magatsu

          Vs. Omega Falz Apprentice

          Vs. Esca Falz Mother

          Closing

          Should you require aid in-game, you can contact Manaka, her player name is VateVierge. If you want to chat on discord, feel free to contact me at Perseonn#7731. Have fun using pets!

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          Phantasy Star Portable 2

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          Matt Edwards

          Contributor

          Lacklustre sequels and fierce competition have gradually eroded Phantasy Star’s storied reputation for online role-playing on consoles – a reputation founded nearly a decade ago on the Dreamcast by Phantasy Star Online. The worst blow came with the failure of series reboot Phantasy Star Universe, which, although enjoyable to play if you were prepared to pay, failed to recapture those players who’d deserted the Gurhal System in favour of Azeroth.

          But despite some baffling design choices – including an infuriating segregation between the online and offline game modes – Universe was to finally come good with last year’s Phantasy Star Portable. This was effectively a scaled-down and free-to-play Phantasy Star Universe on the PSP which took inspiration from Monster Hunter (a game which, ironically, Phantasy Star Online inspired itself) by offering an ad-hoc multiplayer experience for four players.

          It would have been a solid package if developer Alfa System had included an online Infrastructure Mode – because, as with Monster Hunter, this isn’t Japan, and organising a Phantasy Star session down Wetherspoons isn’t something that’s viable for 95 per cent of European PSP owners. But despite this oversight, it was clear that the framework for a more accessible Phantasy Star was already in place, it just needed some fine tuning. Fortunately, this is exactly what Phantasy Star Portable 2 achieves.

          1
          Portable 2 is a visually impressive game filled with all manner of biological mutants and towering bosses.

          Portable 2 is set three years after the events of Universe and focuses on the exploits of a freelance mercenary organisation called Little Wing. So rather than retread the traditional GUARDIANS career path, Portable 2 has your character start as a lowly grunt aboard the Clad 6 space colony.

          All four Phantasy Star races make a return – the floppy-haired Humans, the robotic Cast, the grizzly Beasts and the “elves in space” Newmans – but rather than a basic Job Class which can later be upgraded to something more advanced, like a Gunmaster, in Portable 2 there are only four Job Classes which are all selectable from the beginning. These include the classic slashing, shooting and casting trio of Hunter, Ranger and Force, as well as the new multi-purpose Brave class.

          This new system actually allows for significantly more personalisation. For a start, you can change Job Class whenever you want for mere pocket change – keeping everything about your old class intact while you try out something different. Furthermore, players are no longer restricted to certain weapon types. By earning Extend Points through completing missions, you can now unlock any weapon rank for any class.

          2
          Casts have SUV weapons, Beasts have Nanoblasts, now Humans and Newmans get in on the action with Mirage monster summons.

          Building a character capable of wielding many S-rank weapon types will take a great many hours, but in terms of the flexibility this provides – especially in those situations where you obtain a rare weapon you might otherwise be unable to equip – this new freedom feels like a tangible improvement. This can also be said of the revamped battle system.

          By combining some of the best features from the previous games, especially Phantasy Star Zero, Portable 2’s hack-and-slash combat, while still fairly basic, makes this the most satisfying Phantasy Star yet. While holding a melee weapon you still have access to a normal attack and a Photon Art special move, but instead of building up Photon Charges the old way, the number of Photon Arts you can perform is now dictated by a Photon Power gauge that recharges independently.

          Other technical additions include a standalone block button which allows both two-handed weapons and the new shields to reduce damage, and a Perfect Block system which requires strict timing but negates all damage. But for players who prefer a more focused build – such as a Cast Ranger or a Technic-heavy Newman Force – the tweaks to the firearm and magic combat means Portable 2 is now more engaging for all types of player.

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          More about Phantasy Star Portable 2

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          About the author

          Matt Edwards

          Matt Edwards

          Contributor

          When he’s not tinkering with his motorbike, Matt (@TheStreetWriter) writes for gamesTM, Edge, ONE Gamer, Play, Guinness and NEO. He also claims to know a thing or two about fighting games.

          More articles by Matt Edwards

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          Let's Play Index

          Phantasy Star Online 2 Let's Play - Episode 172 - Hero Class

          Phantasy Star Online 2 Let’s Play – Episode 172 – Hero Class

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          Published on ● Video Link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OpkwCSML-cQ


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          Duration: 27:57
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          100.00% liked this video   7   0

          On today’s episode of the Phantasy Star Online 2 Let’s Play we’re taking a look at the new Hero Class. This is a versatile class that has specific requirements to unlock it as well as well as specific level cap unlock requirements.

          (C) SEGA
          『PHANTASY STAR ONLINE 2』公式サイト
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          In game story translations are available through the story patch in the PSO2 Tweaker. Out of game translations by Kazanboshi, Armored Raven, and Oceanic PSO2.

          If you’d like to play this game yourself please check out the Phantasy Star Online 2 Installation and Registration Guide I put together located at http://youtu.be/_FaxU1AcyGk


          Other Videos By PrinceBrightstar

          2017-10-04 Phantasy Star Online 2 Let’s Play – Episode 181 – Mother Cluster Revealed
          2017-09-24 Phantasy Star Online 2 Let’s Play – Episode 180 – Change The World
          2017-09-22 Channel Update – What’s with the slow release schedule? What’s the future like?
          2017-09-18 Phantasy Star Online 2 Let’s Play – Episode 179 – Shironia Advanced Quest / Xiera’s Capture?
          2017-09-10 Phantasy Star Online 2 Let’s Play – Episode 178 – Regiment of the Wicked / Let’s Meet Stratos
          2017-09-01 Phantasy Star Online 2 Let’s Play – Episode 177 – Buster Quests
          2017-08-26 Phantasy Star Online 2 Let’s Play – Episode 176 – The Savior
          2017-08-20 Phantasy Star Online 2 Let’s Play – Episode 175 – Episode 5 Begins!
          2017-08-13 Phantasy Star Online 2 Let’s Play – Episode 174 – Learning The Arks History / Beach Wars 2017
          2017-08-05 Phantasy Star Online 2 Let’s Play – Episode 173 – The Perils Of Not Being In Character
          2017-07-29Phantasy Star Online 2 Let’s Play – Episode 172 – Hero Class
          2017-07-25 Phantasy Star Online 2 Let’s Play – Episode 171 – Episode 4 Recap / Quintessence of Steel
          2017-07-19 Update! Phantasy Star Online 2 Episode 5 – What Is She Doing There?!
          2017-07-11 Phantasy Star Online 2 Let’s Play – Episode 170 – Memories of Apprentice’s Revival
          2017-07-03 Phantasy Star Online 2 Let’s Play – Episode 169 – Why I Am Here
          2017-06-25 Phantasy Star Online 2 Let’s Play – Episode 168 – Aurora Explores Lilipa
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          The INSEAD MBA programme requires a high level of engagement from our participants under the expert leadership of our professors. In fact, it is the vast diversity of experiences brought by our students to campus that makes the programme unique.
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          In the classroom, INSEAD professors aim to bring out the best in each of you, so that you learn from each other’s experiences as well as from their own cutting-edge research. Their objective is to tease out different perspectives in order to orchestrate a multi-faceted debate and challenge everyone’s assumptions.
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          Group Experience
          Learning how to work effectively in diverse groups is a crucial part of the MBA programme, and at INSEAD we take special care to craft groups that are diverse not only in terms of nationality, but also industry background and professional expertise. The aim is to ensure that each group member will bring a unique perspective and a unique set of strengths and weaknesses to both learn from and contribute to the team.

          Study groups consist of 5 to 6 members and are fixed for the core curriculum of the programme. During these first four months, you will complete a total of about 50 group assignments, spread across 11 different subjects. Preparation time may vary from a few minutes to many hours or even days, and to facilitate easy interaction you will sit together during classes as well. Each group tends to have its own dynamics, driven by differences in temperament, teamwork and leadership styles. Of course, conflicts may arise, but courses such as Organisational Behaviour will give you tools to analyse different behavioural patterns and experiment with new and modified ways of influencing, motivating and negotiating with others.

          Once you have completed the core curriculum, you will move on to choose electives from different areas of interest, so you will form new groups with new people in each course. However, the many days (and sometimes nights) you spent studying, debating and bonding with your first study group often lead to close friendships that stay on long beyond you have earned your MBA. So when you meet with current students or Alumni, be sure to ask them about their study group because it is bound to be one of your key experiences at INSEAD.

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          During the second half of the programme, INSEAD offers you an unparalleled range of innovative electives, all taught from an international perspective. You can tailor the programme to meet your specific needs and career objectives by choosing 11 electives from a selection of more than 75 courses (offered across both campuses). While some students prefer to concentrate on certain disciplines, such as entrepreneurship and strategy, others choose to take courses in a wider variety of subjects to prepare for a career in general management.


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          What Changes in the INSEAD MBA Curriculum?

          INSEAD B-school has announced improvements to its top-ranked MBA curriculum that will take effect in September 2017.

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          What Changes in the INSEAD MBA Curriculum?


          INSEAD B-school has announced improvements to its top-ranked MBA curriculum that will take effect in September 2017.

          Fresh from receiving the top spot in  the Financial Times’ 2017 ranking of Global MBA programmes  for the second year in a row, INSEAD will be implementing  changes  in its MBA programme it feels will better serve its students in their preparation for a lifetime of business leadership.

          INSEAD’s Dean of Degree Programmes and Associate Professor of Finance, Urs Peyer, believes the improvements in the MBA programme “will offer students a more personalised learning journey with professional coaching and career advisors, more elective choice…, an innovative ‘big picture’ course about Business and Society, as well as a leading-edge digital start to their MBA programme.”

          MBA curriculum changes

          During a two-year review of its MBA programme,  INSEAD  solicited input from key stakeholders, like faculty, alumni, and recruiters, to overhaul its curriculum. The goal was to enhance the programme by focusing on new aspects of “personal leadership and career development”. This approach to learning is designed to be transformational, equipping students with the practical skills to thrive in a global business environment and giving them the foundational education to support it.

          New digital start

          If you worry about having enough business knowledge to begin an intense MBA programme, or if it has been a while since you were in school, you will benefit from INSEAD’s new unique preparatory tutorials.

          The INSEAD programme assesses students’ core knowledge and provides access to digital learning tools to prepare them for success in their MBA courses.

          Personalised learning journey

          Once you are confident of your ability to proceed with INSEAD’s MBA programme, you will embark on a 10-month journey designed to turn you into an innovative and successful leader in the new global business world, or to stimulate the budding entrepreneur in you. INSEAD has added a new Personal Leadership Development Programme to enhance your learning experience. It includes personal coaching from professionals and peers throughout the globe.

          Content innovations

          INSEAD’s curriculum changes are geared around a concept it is calling “Business as a Force for Good”, which helps students understand the complex relationship between business and society at large. Three new courses on ethics, politics, and policy have been combined into one “super-course”.

          New electives

          The 10-month MBA programme focuses first on a core curriculum of strategy, marketing, finance, accounting, and organisational behaviour courses. Following that, you can choose from over 75 elective classes so you can focus on the particular skills of interest to you and that will benefit you in your career. With the improved MBA programme, INSEAD has expanded this array of elective courses, adding new classes on digital initiatives as well as business ethics.

          Personal career advisors

          Intent on preparing you for the transition from student to alumni, as you embark upon a professional career, INSEAD will assign you a personal career advisor who will assist you from the start of the MBA programme to its finish.

          Culminating capstone

          With the virtually instantaneous spread of information throughout the world, companies sometimes have to make split-second decisions that can be critical to their future. Planning for contingencies and crises is key to steering a company through choppy waters. In an effort to drive this point home, INSEAD will thrust you into a simulated business crisis just prior to your graduation from the MBA programme. This culminating capstone exercise will force you to apply the knowledge you have gained and to use your own analytical talents to react to the simulation of a critical and realistic crisis.

          INSEAD programme details

          INSEAD is one of the world’s top business schools and has graduated over 50,000 students from its programmes. A popular destination for international students, INSEAD has 170 countries represented in its pool of alumni. The current class of 2017 has an average GMAT score of 707, average age of 29, average experience level of approximately six years, and is roughly one-third female.

          Check out: What an MBA Degree Can and Can’t Do for You?

          Its Fontainebleau, France location is INSEAD’s flagship campus, but it also has locations in Singapore and Abu Dhabi. This multi-campus learning environment allows students an international experience, further expanding their horizons and exposing them to global issues. In addition to MBA and Master’s programmes, INSEAD offers a full suite of executive education courses with over 11,000 participants each year and a doctoral programme in management.

          INSEAD has demonstrated it does not take its rank as #1 MBA programme in the world lightly. Rather than being content with its programme and standing, INSEAD instead seeks continuous improvement to retain its position as a global leader in business education. As its Dean and Professor of Economics Ilian Mihov said, “It is important for us to constantly innovate and to provide our MBA students an academic education of the highest standards.” 

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          INSEAD Abu Dhabi

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          As one of the world’s leading and biggest graduate business colleges, INSEAD offers members a genuinely universal academic experience. With campuses in Europe (France), Asia (Singapore) and Middle East (Abu Dhabi), and partnerships with top organizations, INSEAD’s business training and research traverses far and wide. Our 145 eminent employees from 40 nations motivate more than 1,400 students in our degree and PhD programs. On top of that, more than 11,000 officials take an interest in INSEAD’s executive training programs every year.

          INSEAD’s pioneering programs are globally acknowledged. Of specific note, the Financial Times has positioned INSEAD as the #1 MBA program in that world for two years consecutively (2016 & 2017).

          INSEAD Middle East

          With half a century’s experience in conveying phenomenal business training, and three decades of performing research and executive education programs in Europe and Asia, INSEAD extended its venture into the Middle East in 2007 with the foundation of the campus in Abu Dhabi.

          The Middle East assumes an undeniably critical part in any international business plan as world resource demand develops. INSEAD is focused on growing business training over this dynamic district, offering bits of knowledge into cutting edge management ideas and overall business practices n one of the quickest developing and energizing regions of the world. It is with this objective that we have initiated seven open-enrolment programs at our campus in Abu Dhabi.

          INSEAD’s campus in Abu Dhabi was additionally set up to better comprehend and add to the advancement of the area through profound research of necessary business subjects of both local and worldwide intrigue. Driven by INSEAD’s world class workforce, applied research activities are being embraced in a few zones including: women and leadership, heathcare and HR management and humanitarian logistics.

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          We are free from any prevailing customs or pervasive authoritative opinion; we are interested in, and aware of, different perspectives; we learn through the exchange of thoughts and encounters.

          Autonomy as an administration guideline

          We have faith in scholarly freedom and are self-governing in our financial, institutional and scholastic planning and decision making process.

          Thoroughness and significance in teaching and research

          We support diversity in research and training strategies with no single school of thought or system prevailing; what is important is thoroughness and effect on administration as a scholastic discipline, on business practice, and in the classroom.

          Closeness to the international business community

          We cooperate with the global business community to investigate and disperse administration knowledge; we trust in the part of business as a power for enhancing individuals’ lives.

          Entrepreneurial soul

          We will explore and enhance; we are prepared to go out on a limb and deal with the aftereffects of our activities.

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            Example English Literature Essays

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            Essay

            literature
            Written By:

            • The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica
            See Article History

            Essay, an analytic , interpretative, or critical literary composition usually much shorter and less systematic and formal than a dissertation or thesis and usually dealing with its subject from a limited and often personal point of view.

            Read More on This Topic

            Read More default image

            nonfictional prose: The essay

            In modern literatures, the category of nonfictional prose that probably ranks as the most important both in the quantity and in the quality of its practitioners is the essay.

            Some early treatises—such as those of Cicero on the pleasantness of old age or on the art of “divination,” Seneca on anger or clemency , and Plutarch on the passing of oracles—presage to a certain degree the form and tone of the essay, but not until the late 16th century was the flexible and deliberately nonchalant and versatile form of the essay perfected by the French writer Michel de Montaigne . Choosing the name essai to emphasize that his compositions were attempts or endeavours, a groping toward the expression of his personal thoughts and experiences, Montaigne used the essay as a means of self-discovery. His Essais , published in their final form in 1588, are still considered among the finest of their kind. Later writers who most nearly recall the charm of Montaigne include, in England, Robert Burton , though his whimsicality is more erudite , Sir Thomas Browne , and Laurence Sterne , and in France, with more self-consciousness and pose, André Gide and Jean Cocteau .

            At the beginning of the 17th century, social manners, the cultivation of politeness, and the training of an accomplished gentleman became the theme of many essayists. This theme was first exploited by the Italian Baldassare Castiglione in his Il libro del cortegiano (1528; The Book of the Courtier ). The influence of the essay and of genres allied to it, such as maxims, portraits, and sketches, proved second to none in molding the behavior of the cultured classes, first in Italy, then in France, and, through French influence, in most of Europe in the 17th century. Among those who pursued this theme was the 17th-century Spanish Jesuit Baltasar Gracián in his essays on the art of worldly wisdom.

            Keener political awareness in the 18th century, the age of Enlightenment , made the essay an all-important vehicle for the criticism of society and religion. Because of its flexibility, its brevity , and its potential both for ambiguity and for allusions to current events and conditions, it was an ideal tool for philosophical reformers. The Federalist Papers in America and the tracts of the French Revolutionaries are among the countless examples of attempts during this period to improve the human condition through the essay.

            The genre also became the favoured tool of traditionalists of the 18th and 19th centuries, such as Edmund Burke and Samuel Taylor Coleridge , who looked to the short, provocative essay as the most potent means of educating the masses. Essays such as Paul Elmer More’s long series of Shelburne Essays (published between 1904 and 1935), T.S. Eliot ’s After Strange Gods (1934) and Notes Towards the Definition of Culture (1948), and others that attempted to reinterpret and redefine culture , established the genre as the most fitting to express the genteel tradition at odds with the democracy of the new world.

            Whereas in several countries the essay became the chosen vehicle of literary and social criticism, in other countries the genre became semipolitical, earnestly nationalistic, and often polemical, playful, or bitter. Essayists such as Robert Louis Stevenson and Willa Cather wrote with grace on several lighter subjects, and many writers—including Virginia Woolf , Edmund Wilson , and Charles du Bos—mastered the essay as a form of literary criticism .

            Learn More in these related Britannica articles:

            • nonfictional prose: The essay
              In modern literatures, the category of nonfictional prose that probably ranks as the most important both in the quantity and in the quality of its practitioners is the essay.…
            • Eugenio de Santa Cruz y Espejo, Francisco Javier

              Latin American literature: The modern essay
              All of this literary production was accompanied by a strong essayistic tradition whose main topic was the distinctiveness of Latin American culture and, within that culture, the individual cultures of the various countries. Many of the poets and fiction writers mentioned before also wrote…
            • Copernicus, Nicolaus: heliocentric system

              English literature: Effect of religion and science on early Stuart prose
              The Essays are masterworks in the new Stuart genre of the prose of leisure, the reflectively aphoristic prose piece in imitation of the Essays of Michel de Montaigne. Lesser collections were published by Sir William Cornwallis (1600–01), Owen Felltham (1623), and Ben Jonson (Timber; or, Discoveries,…
            • Eugenio de Santa Cruz y Espejo, Francisco Javier

              Latin American literature: Romanticism
              These brief, descriptive essays depicted the lives of rural folk, or of poor urban dwellers, whose traditional customs differed from the modern ways of those writing them. A uniquely Peruvian version was created by Ricardo Palma, whose sketches are often brief narratives that he called tradiciones. Volumes of…
            • Sima Qian, detail, ink and colour on silk; in the National Palace Museum, Taipei.

              Chinese literature: Prose
              …first example of the well-developed essay, however, is found neither in the Mencius nor in the Zhuangzi but in the Mozi, attributed to Mo Di, or Mozi, a predecessor of Mencius and Zhuangzi, whose singular attainments in logic made him a forceful preacher. His recorded sermons are characterized by simplicity…

            More About Essay

            12 references found in Britannica articles

            Assorted References

              • major treatment
                • In nonfictional prose: The essay
              • style and themes
                • In literature: The scope of literature

              contributions of

                • Camus
                  • In Albert Camus: Early years
                • Montaigne
                  • In Michel de Montaigne: The Essays
                • Plutarch
                  • In Plutarch
                • Stevenson
                  • In Robert Louis Stevenson: Early life
                • Valéry
                  • In Paul Valéry

                development in

                  • China
                    • In Chinese literature: Prose
                    • In Chinese literature: Classical literature
                  • England
                    • In English literature: Effect of religion and science on early Stuart prose

                  External Websites

                  • Literary Devices – Definition of Essay
                  Britannica Websites
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                  • essay – Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up)

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                  HOME / WRITING RESOURCES / STRATEGIES FOR ESSAY WRITING /

                  Ending the Essay: Conclusions

                  So much is at stake in writing a conclusion. This is, after all, your last chance to persuade your readers to your point of view, to impress yourself upon them as a writer and thinker. And the impression you create in your conclusion will shape the impression that stays with your readers after they’ve finished the essay.

                  The end of an essay should therefore convey a sense of completeness and closure as well as a sense of the lingering possibilities of the topic, its larger meaning, its implications: the final paragraph should close the discussion without closing it off.

                  To establish a sense of closure, you might do one or more of the following:

                  • Conclude by linking the last paragraph to the first, perhaps by reiterating a word or phrase you used at the beginning.
                  • Conclude with a sentence composed mainly of one-syllable words. Simple language can help create an effect of understated drama.
                  • Conclude with a sentence that’s compound or parallel in structure; such sentences can establish a sense of balance or order that may feel just right at the end of a complex discussion.

                  To close the discussion without closing it off, you might do one or more of the following:

                  • Conclude with a quotation from or reference to a primary or secondary source, one that amplifies your main point or puts it in a different perspective. A quotation from, say, the novel or poem you’re writing about can add texture and specificity to your discussion; a critic or scholar can help confirm or complicate your final point. For example, you might conclude an essay on the idea of home in James Joyce’s short story collection, Dubliners, with information about Joyce’s own complex feelings towards Dublin, his home. Or you might end with a biographer’s statement about Joyce’s attitude toward Dublin, which could illuminate his characters’ responses to the city. Just be cautious, especially about using secondary material: make sure that you get the last word.
                  • Conclude by setting your discussion into a different, perhaps larger, context. For example, you might end an essay on nineteenth-century muckraking journalism by linking it to a current news magazine program like 60 Minutes.
                  • Conclude by redefining one of the key terms of your argument. For example, an essay on Marx’s treatment of the conflict between wage labor and capital might begin with Marx’s claim that the “capitalist economy is . . . a gigantic enterprise ofdehumanization“; the essay might end by suggesting that Marxist analysis is itself dehumanizing because it construes everything in economic — rather than moral or ethical– terms.
                  • Conclude by considering the implications of your argument (or analysis or discussion). What does your argument imply, or involve, or suggest? For example, an essay on the novel Ambiguous Adventure, by the Senegalese writer Cheikh Hamidou Kane, might open with the idea that the protagonist’s development suggests Kane’s belief in the need to integrate Western materialism and Sufi spirituality in modern Senegal. The conclusion might make the new but related point that the novel on the whole suggests that such an integration is (or isn’t) possible.

                  Finally, some advice on how not to end an essay:

                  • Don’t simply summarize your essay. A brief summary of your argument may be useful, especially if your essay is long–more than ten pages or so. But shorter essays tend not to require a restatement of your main ideas.
                  • Avoid phrases like “in conclusion,” “to conclude,” “in summary,” and “to sum up.” These phrases can be useful–even welcome–in oral presentations. But readers can see, by the tell-tale compression of the pages, when an essay is about to end. You’ll irritate your audience if you belabor the obvious.
                  • Resist the urge to apologize. If you’ve immersed yourself in your subject, you now know a good deal more about it than you can possibly include in a five- or ten- or 20-page essay. As a result, by the time you’ve finished writing, you may be having some doubts about what you’ve produced. (And if you haven’t immersed yourself in your subject, you may be feeling even more doubtful about your essay as you approach the conclusion.) Repress those doubts. Don’t undercut your authority by saying things like, “this is just one approach to the subject; there may be other, better approaches. . .”

                  Copyright 1998, Pat Bellanca, for the Writing Center at Harvard University

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