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  • Summer Essays: A Moment of Betrayal

Summer Essays: A Moment of Betrayal

Her heart hammered against her rib cage as she slid to the ground.

By Naneen Karraker

Published:

Katarzyna Bialasiewicz

Editor’s Note: Summer essayists contemplate personal moments of disloyalty, sharing their stories that range from a failing body and objection to war to peer pressure and loss of faith.

An act of betrayal can cause hopelessness and despair. But people show amazing resilience and often overcome the temporary setbacks disloyalty leaves in its disastrous wake.

The East Bay Monthly asked East Bay writers to consider a moment of betrayal in the summer essay contest. The theme seemed to resonate well with the wordsmiths, and essayists responded by turning in moving prose about infidelity, loss, abusive relationships, inside jokes, bullying, and other topics.

The essays chosen to present in print address betrayal in wide-ranging ways, touching on the strains of a weakening body, standing up to the U.S. Marines, and making a gut decision that puts a group of friends at odds. They explore a loss of faith in a trusted adult and a careless act in wartime. They are poignant, dramatic, exciting, heartwarming, and humorous tales, and they are well-written.

Congratulations to the winning essayists, Naneen Karraker, Robert Menzimer, Stacy Appel, Patricia Young, Anna Rabkin, Flossie Lewis, and Bobbie Stein. Thanks to all the many Bay Area writers for submitting such wonderful prose—it was truly great reading. Look for our next essay contest in the winter.

This is the first of the seven winning essays:

 

My heart is pounding, a thundering fills my head, and I can’t catch my breath as I reach the top of the Philadelphia subway station stairs. This isn’t me. I’m healthy. At 66, I am strong and brave enough to do handstands several times a week. I travel a lot, too. These days I fly east several times a year for meetings. Today, I’m on my way to a two-day advisory board meeting at the Quaker Center.

Through the pouring rain, I see a smudge of lights. If I squint and concentrate really hard, they look enough like the drugstore I’m trying to find. I need an umbrella. It’s six long blocks to my meeting. As blurry as they are, the lights become a beacon, a goal, helping me move ahead instead of lying down right where I am.

"I’ve got to get an umbrella." I say it again and again as I fight against the growing weakness in my legs. I can barely put one foot ahead of the other, inching toward the half-dozen people waiting for the light to change.

The light changes. I step off the curb, dragging my new rolling carry-on with one hand and clutching in the other a bag of crisp red apples I’d picked yesterday at my cousin’s Hudson Valley farm. The drugstore lights are just ahead. But when I reach them, I can’t find a door. Just the cold, hard side of a city building interrupted by a ribbon of faintly lit windows. Above them, a Walgreens sign shines a bright red into the dark, autumn evening. I’m imagining a friendly space where I can sit and finally catch my breath. But now what?

I know I need to get out of the rain. I spot an opening in the side of the building, another subway exit, to my left. I push myself to take the dozen or so steps to reach it. Just inside, there’s a narrow landing, maybe 4 feet wide, before stairs leading down to the tracks. I park my suitcase against the wall just inside the opening and lean against it, fighting to suck in one long breath after another. A young man is perched on a ledge about 6 feet across the opening from me. He’s dressed casually, wearing earphones, swaying slightly to his music, eyes closed, waiting for the rain to let up. People rush in and out of the subway and along the sidewalk. My heart hammers against my ribs. My legs give way. I slide slowly down the wall, hoping my new suitcase can hold me. I remember something about how women can experience a heart attack without chest pains or shooting pains down the left arm. Fear spurs me to reach for my cellphone. I dial 911.

A woman finally answers. Somehow I find the words to tell her I think I’m having a heart attack. "Where are you?" she asks. "Near the Walgreens on Broad and Chestnut," I mumble, praying I’ve accurately named my location. Philadelphia is a new city for me.

"We’ll send an ambulance right away."

I can barely focus through the fog that is now settling across my eyes. The steady flow of people becomes a blur. No one stops to help as my legs give way and I curl slowly to the damp sidewalk, knees bent, my back against the suitcase. Still grasping for air, I begin to tremble, afraid that the ambulance will come too late to find me. Then desperate, I lean toward the young man perched on the ledge across from me, struggling to make my voice heard.

"Help me, I think I’m dying."

He looks up, hops off the ledge, and kneels beside me.

"Ma’am, I’m here. What’s going on?"

"I called 911, but I don’t hear any sirens."

"Don’t worry," he assures me. "I hear them. They’re coming."

I strain to hear and struggle against the weight that’s making me feel like stretching out on the wet pavement. To hell with the pedestrians! So what if they have to step around me!

He puts his arm around my shoulders, holding me close. Finally I can hear the sirens through the rain and traffic and pedestrian noise. Closer and closer. He then pulls away, gently propping me against my suitcase.

"They’re across the street," he announces. He jumps up, racing toward the blur of flashing lights. I crumble sideways, stretching out on the wet sidewalk.

Moments later he is beside me, carefully lifting me so I’m sitting again. "They’re here," he assures me. I can vaguely make out two EMTs, dragging their gurney, heading toward us. One of them guides me onto the gurney. He attaches an oxygen mask over my nose and mouth. As I focus on sucking in one breath after another, I can feel the young man moving around, making sure the EMTs have not only me, but also my suitcase and the bag of apples. Then he is gone.

I’m still here, still here and beginning to breathe more easily, even though my body is not the body I’ve trusted for so many years.

Over the past 46 years, Naneen Karraker honed her writing skills by passionately arguing for reducing overreliance on incarcerating people in the United States through letters to the editor, op-ed pieces, pamphlets, grant applications, and speeches. She and her late husband, a criminal defense attorney, raised two sons in Berkeley.

Editor’s Note: This story appears in the July edition of our sister publication, The East Bay Monthly.

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  • Summer Essays: A Moment of Betrayal

Summer Essays: A Moment of Betrayal

Her heart hammered against her rib cage as she slid to the ground.

By Naneen Karraker

Published:

Katarzyna Bialasiewicz

Editor’s Note: Summer essayists contemplate personal moments of disloyalty, sharing their stories that range from a failing body and objection to war to peer pressure and loss of faith.

An act of betrayal can cause hopelessness and despair. But people show amazing resilience and often overcome the temporary setbacks disloyalty leaves in its disastrous wake.

The East Bay Monthly asked East Bay writers to consider a moment of betrayal in the summer essay contest. The theme seemed to resonate well with the wordsmiths, and essayists responded by turning in moving prose about infidelity, loss, abusive relationships, inside jokes, bullying, and other topics.

The essays chosen to present in print address betrayal in wide-ranging ways, touching on the strains of a weakening body, standing up to the U.S. Marines, and making a gut decision that puts a group of friends at odds. They explore a loss of faith in a trusted adult and a careless act in wartime. They are poignant, dramatic, exciting, heartwarming, and humorous tales, and they are well-written.

Congratulations to the winning essayists, Naneen Karraker, Robert Menzimer, Stacy Appel, Patricia Young, Anna Rabkin, Flossie Lewis, and Bobbie Stein. Thanks to all the many Bay Area writers for submitting such wonderful prose—it was truly great reading. Look for our next essay contest in the winter.

This is the first of the seven winning essays:

 

My heart is pounding, a thundering fills my head, and I can’t catch my breath as I reach the top of the Philadelphia subway station stairs. This isn’t me. I’m healthy. At 66, I am strong and brave enough to do handstands several times a week. I travel a lot, too. These days I fly east several times a year for meetings. Today, I’m on my way to a two-day advisory board meeting at the Quaker Center.

Through the pouring rain, I see a smudge of lights. If I squint and concentrate really hard, they look enough like the drugstore I’m trying to find. I need an umbrella. It’s six long blocks to my meeting. As blurry as they are, the lights become a beacon, a goal, helping me move ahead instead of lying down right where I am.

"I’ve got to get an umbrella." I say it again and again as I fight against the growing weakness in my legs. I can barely put one foot ahead of the other, inching toward the half-dozen people waiting for the light to change.

The light changes. I step off the curb, dragging my new rolling carry-on with one hand and clutching in the other a bag of crisp red apples I’d picked yesterday at my cousin’s Hudson Valley farm. The drugstore lights are just ahead. But when I reach them, I can’t find a door. Just the cold, hard side of a city building interrupted by a ribbon of faintly lit windows. Above them, a Walgreens sign shines a bright red into the dark, autumn evening. I’m imagining a friendly space where I can sit and finally catch my breath. But now what?

I know I need to get out of the rain. I spot an opening in the side of the building, another subway exit, to my left. I push myself to take the dozen or so steps to reach it. Just inside, there’s a narrow landing, maybe 4 feet wide, before stairs leading down to the tracks. I park my suitcase against the wall just inside the opening and lean against it, fighting to suck in one long breath after another. A young man is perched on a ledge about 6 feet across the opening from me. He’s dressed casually, wearing earphones, swaying slightly to his music, eyes closed, waiting for the rain to let up. People rush in and out of the subway and along the sidewalk. My heart hammers against my ribs. My legs give way. I slide slowly down the wall, hoping my new suitcase can hold me. I remember something about how women can experience a heart attack without chest pains or shooting pains down the left arm. Fear spurs me to reach for my cellphone. I dial 911.

A woman finally answers. Somehow I find the words to tell her I think I’m having a heart attack. "Where are you?" she asks. "Near the Walgreens on Broad and Chestnut," I mumble, praying I’ve accurately named my location. Philadelphia is a new city for me.

"We’ll send an ambulance right away."

I can barely focus through the fog that is now settling across my eyes. The steady flow of people becomes a blur. No one stops to help as my legs give way and I curl slowly to the damp sidewalk, knees bent, my back against the suitcase. Still grasping for air, I begin to tremble, afraid that the ambulance will come too late to find me. Then desperate, I lean toward the young man perched on the ledge across from me, struggling to make my voice heard.

"Help me, I think I’m dying."

He looks up, hops off the ledge, and kneels beside me.

"Ma’am, I’m here. What’s going on?"

"I called 911, but I don’t hear any sirens."

"Don’t worry," he assures me. "I hear them. They’re coming."

I strain to hear and struggle against the weight that’s making me feel like stretching out on the wet pavement. To hell with the pedestrians! So what if they have to step around me!

He puts his arm around my shoulders, holding me close. Finally I can hear the sirens through the rain and traffic and pedestrian noise. Closer and closer. He then pulls away, gently propping me against my suitcase.

"They’re across the street," he announces. He jumps up, racing toward the blur of flashing lights. I crumble sideways, stretching out on the wet sidewalk.

Moments later he is beside me, carefully lifting me so I’m sitting again. "They’re here," he assures me. I can vaguely make out two EMTs, dragging their gurney, heading toward us. One of them guides me onto the gurney. He attaches an oxygen mask over my nose and mouth. As I focus on sucking in one breath after another, I can feel the young man moving around, making sure the EMTs have not only me, but also my suitcase and the bag of apples. Then he is gone.

I’m still here, still here and beginning to breathe more easily, even though my body is not the body I’ve trusted for so many years.

Over the past 46 years, Naneen Karraker honed her writing skills by passionately arguing for reducing overreliance on incarcerating people in the United States through letters to the editor, op-ed pieces, pamphlets, grant applications, and speeches. She and her late husband, a criminal defense attorney, raised two sons in Berkeley.

Editor’s Note: This story appears in the July edition of our sister publication, The East Bay Monthly.

This page requires javascript. It seems that your browser does not have Javascript enabled. Please enable Javascript and press the Reload/Refresh button on your browser.

Add your comment:

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East Bay Distillers Featured in CA Whiskey Week

Thursday’s Briefing: Hurricane Michael Lashes Florida; El Niño Grows in Pacific

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Hoedown at the O’ Club

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Artist Elizabeth Sher Plays With Perception

Eyeing the Black Risk Takers of Paulson Fontaine Press

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Building the Future

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In the Mayor’s Race, Will Oakland Become the Next Boston?

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Cooper Teare Runs His Way to the Top

★Keeley&#39


Saved Essays
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Topics in Paper
  • English Language Films
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@Example Essays

    Stand By Me



    2 Pages
    597 Words

                 Stand By Me is the story of true friendship and the loss of innocence. It brings all childhood insecurities, fears, and dreams intosharp, crystal-clear focus. It begins, as childhood stories often do, with curiosity. Four friends, each with his own emotional
                
    baggage, decide to go on an adventure: to find the dead body of a boy who has mysteriously disappeared. Our quartet, being
                
    young and adventurous, see the excitement as outweighing the possible dangers and risks.
                
    The group consists of Chris Chambers, a very bright, outspoken boy, full of bravado on the outside, yet full of insecurity on the
                
    inside. Chris is intelligent, but being constantly beaten by his father, as well as having to live down his brother’s bad reputation,
                
    have made him fearful and hopeless in regards to his future. His best friend is Gordie Lachance, a boy also full of fear for his
                
    future. Ever since his popular, older brother was killed in an accident, Gordie has become “the invisible boy” to his parents.
                
    They no longer see him or hear him emotionally. Physically they are there, but emotionally they are not. Then there is Teddy
                
    Duchamp, the son of an emotionally disturbed man who has abused him all his life. Teddy lives in constant denial of his
                
    childhood pain and creates a fantasy world in which his father is a good, loving hero. Vern Tessio rounds out the quartet. Vern
                
    is a fairly fat, clumsy boy who is constantly being pushed around by his older brother.
                
    On the journey to find the body of this dead boy, our heroes discover themselves first and foremost. Each boy, in his own way,
                
    has to face his fears, but not alone; they all have each other to lean on. This movie is about true friendship in the purest
                
    sense…the ultimate acceptance of who you are with no strings attached. These boys love and accept each other with all their
                
    frailities and insecurities, and they do not expect anything from each other; they just love each other
                

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    Stand By Me. (1969, December 31). In MegaEssays.com. Retrieved 08:36, October 12, 2018, from https://www.megaessays.com/viewpaper/39310.html
    MegaEssays. “Stand By Me.” MegaEssays.com. MegaEssays.com, (December 31, 1969). Web. 12 Oct. 2018.
    MegaEssays, “Stand By Me.,” MegaEssays.com, https://www.megaessays.com/viewpaper/39310.html (accessed October 12, 2018)

    ★State approves Wittenberg, Clark State joint nursing program

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    1. Nursing
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    5. Clark State

    Clark State

    Transferable General Education Credits

    Most students will have completed the majority of the pre-requisite requirements in their associate degree program. If not all pre-requisites are complete you may be admitted to begin the RN to BSN program immediately; however, successful completion of all pre-requisite courses is required to obtain the BSN degree. Completion of pre-requisites while enrolled in the RN to BSN program may prolong the time to degree. Not all pre-requisites are offered at the University of Cincinnati at all times in an online format. The pre-requisite courses can be completed at any regionally accredited institution and transferred to the University of Cincinnati to fulfill the requirement.


    If you are a student at Clark State Community College, the following courses can be taken to satisfy the required pre-requisite courses for the RN to BSN program:

    Required Courses

    Semester Hours Required

    Clark State Equivalency

    Introduction to Statistics

    3

    STT 2640

    Anatomy & Physiology

    8

    BIO 2121 & 2122

    Microbiology

    3

    BIO 1131

    Psychology or Sociology

    3

    PSY 1111

    Psychology or Sociology

    3

    SOC 1110 or PSY 2223

    Freshman English

    3

    ENG 1111

    Intermediate English

    3

    ENG 1112

    History Elective*

    3

    Elective

    Fine Arts or Humanities Elective*

    3

    Elective

    Cultural Diversity Elective*

    3

    Elective

    *These courses are part of the RN-BSN curriculum. All other courses are prerequisites.




    Sports Management Degree Guide


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    Lewis-Clark State College

    Lewis-Clark State CollegeLocated at the confluence of the Snake and Clearwater Rivers, on the Washington State-Idaho border, Lewis-Clark State College offers a unique educational experience to students. The campus is urban, in a metropolitan setting with a population of nearly 50,000, but the area has an abundance of wilderness. The school is a dichotomy, too; people describe it as a public institution that feels like a private school. Lewis-Clark was founded in 1893 as the Lewiston State Normal School. The undergraduate school has an approximate enrollment of 3,500. Nearly 70 percent of classes have fewer than 20 students and the student-to-faculty ratio is 15:1. The U.S. News and World Reports college ranking places it as #26 of Regional Colleges. The school awards more than 90 degrees.

    Lewis-Clark State College Accreditation Details

    The college is accredited by the North Central Association of the Higher Learning Commission of Colleges and Schools.

    Other programs with special accreditation are:  The Nursing program is accredited by ACEN; the Occupational Therapy program is accredited by ACOTE. Other programs are accredited by the ADA; NLNAC; the National Alliance of Concurrent Enrollment and the National Automotive Technicians Educational Foundation

    Lewis-Clark State College Application Requirements

    Freshmen applying for the first time should access the Common Application form online. It can be completed and submitted online or printed out as a PDF form. There is no application fee. Freshmen should have their high schools send their final official transcripts to the school. In addition, students should have testing agencies send the official scores for ACT, SAT or COMPASS testing. An alternative, for freshmen with a high academic record, is to send an academic portfolio in lieu of the test scores. Students transferring to the school from other colleges should ask the schools to send official transcripts of all coursework, including dual -credit, work, to Lewis-Clark State College. Military transfer students should have transcripts sent of all college courses they have taken.

    Tuition and Financial Aid

    Tuition for in-state students at the school is $6,000 per year. Room and board costs $6,570 and the school estimates books and fees at $1,632. Non-resident tuition is $17,000 per year, with the other costs the same as residents and so the total cost for residents is $$14,102. Non-resident total cost is $24,620 per year. Through an agreement, non-resident students from Asotin County pay tuition of $9,380. Part-time students pay $307 per credit hour whether they are residents or not.

    Although Lewis-Clark State College is one of the most affordable colleges in the area, paying for an education can still be difficult. The first step in obtaining financial aid is completing the FAFSA. The Free Application for Federal Student Aid gives students access to federal grants, loans and work-study opportunities. Applicants give the government information about their finances, and those of their immediate families. The program determines what a student can afford to contribute toward his education, and then subtracts that amount from the actual accost of attending a school. The result us the student’s financial need. Then the program awards them funding as grants, loans or as the chance to participate in work-study opportunities that are administered by the school.

    At Lewis-Clark there are also several scholarships offered through the institution. These are based on academic prowess, financial need or both. Funds are available to first-year freshmen, for certain majors, to minority groups and to non-traditional students. Students apply for all scholarships through a common application upon which there is a check list of available funding. Scholarships are awarded through private sources as well, for athletics and academic programs such as teaching. The school also has a “21” Endowment that is awarded to assist people who were awarded scholarships finish their educations after the scholarships elapse. Lewis-Clark has a tuition waiver for non-resident students as well. An online search will reveal other funding opportunities for students through corporations and associations. If students have exhausted their scholarship and grant options, they might consider taking out student loans. These are low-interest loans that allow deferred repayment until the student has graduated.

    Student Experience

    Students at Lewis-Clark State College are in the unique position of being in an urban environment with the social and economic benefits that entails, while also having the option to participate in varied outdoor recreation. The school has numerous clubs and organizations, and an active sports program. The Lewis-Clark mascot is the Warrior. Men’s sports include baseball, basketball, cross country, golf, tennis and track and field. There is no women’s baseball at Lewis-Clark, but there is a volleyball team. Students also volunteer in many community-assistance programs. The student-to-faculty ratio is 15:1 but, using the “full-time equivalency” calculations, the ratio is higher than many schools this size. Still, because classes are small, there is ample opportunity to get “face-time” with teachers.

    One of the degree options at the school is representative of national interest in the sports administration field. Students can earn either a Bachelor of Arts or a Bachelor of Science in Sports Administration. This degree program puts together the fields of business, health and kinesiology as they relate to sports and sports administration. The program has 120 credit hours. Students follow a required general education path called “Ways of Knowing,” and select courses to satisfy the liberal arts requisite. These include “Ways of Knowing” in Math, Humanities and the Arts, Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences, plus courses treat stress diversity. There are also required courses in oral and written communication and a requisite of 16 credit hours in a foreign language. The general education segment contains 38 credit hours. There are 13 credit hours in electives, 33 in kinesiology and 30 in business followed by a six-credit-hour final project. The curriculum stresses planning and development of athletic programs, marketing and recruitment, event planning and management and financial management in addition to other skills and knowledge bases. Students in both the BA and BS programs are required to take an “Integrative Seminar in Ethics and Values.” Because this major is jointly housed in the Business Department and the Education and Kinesiology and Education Department, students are required to have advisors from both disciplines.

    This school offers much that students find at larger institutions, while maintaining a small-school atmosphere. Lewis-Clark State College is recognized as one of the best colleges in the nation.


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    ★Revising the Persuasive Essay: Thesis Supported by Evidence

    Writing Thesis Statements for Argumentative Essays

    Read the article below (on the left) about thesis statements and then do the interactive quiz on the right. Write only one word in each space.

    Writing Thesis Statements for Argumentative Essays

    Introduction

    University writing often requires students to use persuasion: they need to convince readers of a logical viewpoint on a debatable subject. The thesis statement is usually one sentence in the essay’s introduction that clearly states the writer’s opinion and it often appears after some general background information about the issue. The thesis statement acts as a short summary of the writer’s stance in the debate, helping readers understand what will appear in the rest of the paper. Assignments may not state clearly whether a thesis statement is necessary, but if it asks you to take a position on an issue, analyze, interpret, compare and contrast or show cause and effect, you are probably expected to develop a persuasive thesis. (If you are not sure, it is wise to ask your instructor if the assignment requires a thesis statement.)

    Developing a Thesis

    Before you write a thesis statement, it is important to spend time reading academic articles to gather general background information about the issue. You need to evaluate the findings and arguments of different writers and decide which ones you think are the strongest and most convincing, which ones have the most credibility and which ones will help you write persuasively. Reading recent research will help you to decide your position and write a stronger, well-informed argument. Understanding and critically weighing others’ ideas will guide you towards developing a clear, logical and convincing thesis statement.

    Thesis Statements: 4 points to remember

    1. MAKE IT DEBATABLE

    The first important point is that thesis statements must be debatable. (There is no point writing a persuasive argument if everyone already agrees!)

    Example of an un-debatable thesis statement:

    ‘Drinking too much alcohol may cause health problems.’

    This is weak because it would be very difficult to build a persuasive argument that drinking too much alcohol would not cause health problems: most people (and doctors) already agree that it would.

    Example of a debatable thesis statement:

    ‘Alcohol should contain warning labels about the possible dangers of over-drinking.’

    This is debatable because people can agree or disagree with the proposal. Some might agree that alcohol labels should contain warnings about the dangers of drinking while others may feel that warning labels would be ineffective as they would not stop people from drinking. Therefore, it is a good thesis statement.
    The first point to remember then is that thesis statements must provide room for disagreement and debate.

    2. MAKE IT SPECIFIC

    Thesis statements should be specific, not general. The following thesis statement is too general:

    ‘Drinking alcohol is harmful.’

    This statement is too broad and unfocused because it does not specify:

    *Who drinking alcohol harms
    *What drinking alcohol harms
    *What the main reasons are that make drinking alcohol harmful

    Asking specific ‘Wh’ questions can help narrow your focus and make your paper more manageable.

    The following thesis statement is more persuasive because it is focused:

    ‘Alcohol consumption may negatively impact university students’ GPA.’

    As this statement provides specific answers to the questions above, it significantly narrows the possibilities that the writer can write about and provides a clear focus for the entire argument.

    Here are two more examples of focused thesis statements:

    ‘A four-year university programme is better than a three-year one because students have more time for deeper learning.’
    ‘Hong Kong will not become a world class city until it tackles its air pollution problem.’

    The second point to remember then is that a thesis statement should be specific.’

    3. HAVE ONLY ONE CONTROLLING ARGUMENT

    As you can see from the examples above, a good thesis statement has only one controlling (main) argument:

    ‘Alcohol should contain warning labels about the possible dangers of over-drinking.’
    ‘Alcohol consumption may negatively impact amongst university students’ GPA.’
    ‘A four-year university programme is better than a three-year one because students have more time for deeper learning.’
    ‘Hong Kong will not become a world class city until it tackles its air pollution problem.

    It is important that your thesis statements also contain only one controlling argument. Supporting details can be discussed in depth later in the essay’s body paragraphs that follow the introduction.

    4. MAKE IT CLEAR AND CONCISE

    As you can see, good thesis statements use clear language and not too many words. It is important that your thesis be clear so that your readers know exactly what your position is. There should be no confusion, such as in the following poor example:

    ‘Many people from around the world have different opinions about whether teenagers under eighteen years of age should be able to get a driving license and drive a vehicle or not and I tend to agree with some of them but not with others.’

    This example is poor for a number of reasons. First, it is too long and ‘wordy’ (it uses too many unnecessary words which can be omitted). Second, the opinion of the writer is not clear to the reader. A better example of a thesis would be:

    ‘Teenagers under eighteen years of age should not have driving licenses as most are not mature enough to handle the responsibility of driving.’

    This thesis statement is much better as the writer’s position is very clear, and uses a minimal number of words. Clear and concise should be your goal in all writing, but it is especially important when writing a thesis statement.

    Summary

    Remember! When you include a thesis statement in your introduction that is…

    1. debatable
    2. specific
    3. has only one main argument
    4. is clear and concise

    …your essay will be focused and your reader will know exactly what to expect in the body paragraphs that follow your introduction. With a little practice, you can write high quality thesis statements that bring focus to all of your argumentative essays.

    More information and practice with thesis statements:

    http://create.arizona.edu/content/weak-thesis-statements-recognizing-and-fixing-them
    http://www.uark.edu/campus-resources/qwrtcntr/resources/handouts/thesis.html
    https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/588/01/
    http://depts.washington.edu/owrc/Handouts/How%20to%20Structure%20and%20Organize%20Your%20Paper.pdf

    Now do the interactive activities on the right.

     


    1. In which paragraph is the thesis statement normally found?
    2. What is another word for ‘argumentative’?
    3. The first step before writing a thesis statement is to _________ expert, academic articles to gather background information.
    4. When you __________ the arguments and findings of academic articles on the issue that you will write about, you will begin to choose those that are most credible and persuasive.
    5. Reading academic articles on the issue that you will write about will help you decide your __________.
    6. The first main point to remember about writing a thesis statement is to make it ___________.
    7. A good thesis statement should always leave room for _________.
    8. Another main point is that thesis statements need to be ___________. They should not be too broad or general.
    9. Writing specific thesis statements helps to narrow the possibilities that the writer will write about and provide _________ to the essay.
    10. A good thesis statement should not have more than ___________ controlling argument.
    11. ____________ details should be discussed in the body paragraphs that follow the introduction.
    12. Another key idea is that a thesis statement should always be very ___________ so that readers can identify the writer’s position on the issue.
    13. A thesis statement should also always be as ____________ as possible. Using too many words may confuse or annoy readers.
    14. If an introduction has a clear, concise and debatable thesis statement with only one controlling idea, readers will be able to identify the writer’s point of view and know exactly what to __________ from the essay before they read its body paragraphs.

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    Μπορεί η εξερεύνηση του βυθού ή ο γύρος του κόσμου με ένα αερόστατο να μην είναι τα πρώτα πράγματα που μας έρχονται στο μυαλό όταν ακούμε τις λέξεις “Επιστημονική Φαντασία”, όμως το αγαπημένο αυτό είδος μυθοπλασίας οφείλει πάρα πολλά στον Jules Verne και τα παράξενα λογοτεχνικά του ταξίδια.

    Γεννημένος το 1828 στη Ναντ της Γαλλίας, ο Verne υπήρξε δικηγόρος, στιχουργός για την όπερα, ακόμα και χρηματιστής πριν ασχοληθεί με τη λογοτεχνία. Μετά από πολλές αποτυχημένες απόπειρες να βρει εκδότη για το έργο του, το 1862 γνωρίζει τον Pierre-Jules Hetzel με τον οποίο σύντομα γίνονται καλοί φίλοι. Στο διάστημα 1863 με 1905, θα εκδοθούν από τον οίκο του Hetzel 54 ολόκληρα μυθιστορήματα του Verne, υπό τον γενικό τίτλο “Voyages Extraordinaires”, ένα έργο – ορόσημο για τη λογοτεχνία του φανταστικού (και όχι μόνο). Ανάμεσα στα μυθιστορήματα αυτά βρίσκονται τίτλοι όπως  το “Ταξίδι στο Κέντρο της Γης” (1864), το “Από τη Γη στη Σελήνη” (1865) το “Είκοσι Χιλιάδες Λεύγες Κάτω από τη Θάλασσα” (1870) και ο “Γύρος του Κόσμου σε Ογδόντα Ημέρες” (1873).

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    October 7, 2016

    Election 2016: The International Issues

    Photo by Gstudio Group/Fotolia

    This essay is one piece of a two-part overview of the issues facing America’s next president. Read about the domestic challenges here .

    From Russia to North Korea to the slaughter in Syria, the next president will face foreign-policy challenges that test the very fundamentals of world order.

    In recent months, RAND researchers have outlined the decisions that must be made, the dangers involved, and the least-bad options that now often pass for good ones. They have assessed the fight against ISIS, developed a peace plan for Syria, and mapped a future for the world economy.

    Senior political scientist Michael J. Mazarr set the scene in a recent op-ed . “U.S. foreign policy over the coming decade,” he wrote, “is likely to focus on the task of managing relations among a collection of tough, ambitious great powers that are determined to shift at least some of the global balance of power away from the United States.”

    ISIS: The Long Fight

    Iraqi Army and U.S. Army soldiers collaborate during a simulation at Camp Taji, Iraq, March 3, 2015

    Iraqi Army and U.S. Army soldiers collaborate during a simulation at Camp Taji, Iraq, March 3, 2015

    Photo by Sgt. Cody Quinn/U.S. Army

    The Islamic State has been driven from some of its most important cities and now finds itself under siege in others. But defeating it on the battlefield is only the first step in what will be a long fight to dismantle what it stands for.

    Western perceptions of the Islamic State as the command-and-control hub of an international terror corporation are misguided. Instead, it is a three-part threat , RAND experts wrote: the self-declared caliphate itself; its franchisees in places like Libya and Nigeria; and its ideology, open-sourced for anyone to claim.

    The coalition fighting ISIS on the ground has made great strides since senior international policy analyst Linda Robinson traveled through the region in the early months of the campaign. She found that the local forces on the front lines were, with some exceptions, fragmented, outgunned, and unprepared to reliably hold ground. Her recommendations, that the United States and its partners provide significantly more training and equipment to those local fighters, have since become strategy.

    ISIS’s opponents on Arabic-language Twitter outnumber its supporters, six to one.

    Success in the fight against ISIS will require further developing those local fighters into competent hold forces, she said, as well as establishing effective governance in Iraq and Syria.

    But as an ideology, ISIS is only the symptom of a disease, not the underlying cause, senior policy analyst Andrew Liepman and political scientist Colin P. Clarke wrote. The coalition still must address the social and political forces that gave rise to ISIS, such as vicious sectarian divisions in Iraq and the civil war in Syria.

    There is reason for optimism in an unlikely place. ISIS may be known for its deft use of social media, but a recent RAND analysis found that its opponents on Arabic-language Twitter outnumber its supporters, six to one . They could represent a potent force in the fight against the idea of ISIS.

    Syria: A Practical Peace Plan

    Civilians walk with containers for fuel and water in Aleppo, Syria, February 11, 2016

    Civilians walk with containers for fuel and water in Aleppo, Syria, February 11, 2016

    Photo by Alexander Kots/Komsomolskaya Pravda via AP

    The United States can no longer afford to wait for a comprehensive political settlement to bring an end to the bloodletting in Syria. Its principal goal, at least for now, should be to establish and sustain an enduring ceasefire , even if that means postponing a decision on the homicidal regime of President Bashar al-Assad.

    That is the only practical way to end the fighting, a team of RAND experts led by former ambassador and special envoy to Afghanistan James Dobbins concluded.

    Their peace plan would freeze the conflict along existing battle lines , effectively dividing Syria into several semi-independent zones—one controlled by the regime, one or more by the Arab opposition, and another by the Kurds. At least some state authority would devolve to those groups, allowing them to govern the areas they now hold, with international oversight.

    For now, America’s main goal in Syria should be to establish and sustain an enduring ceasefire.

    A fourth zone, the vast and desolate east of Syria, would remain a free-fire zone. There all sides could turn their attention to the destruction of a common enemy, the Islamic State.

    A durable ceasefire would at least buy negotiators time to work out the future shape of a Syrian state—and the fate of the Assad regime—without the running clock of a daily body count. Anything else risks making “’the best’ (that is, Assad’s removal) the enemy of ‘the good’ (maintaining the ceasefire),” the RAND experts wrote—and ending up with the worst, a resumption of violence with no realistic plan to stop it.

    Refugees: Lessening the Risk of Radicalization

    An aerial view of Lagadikia refugee camp near Thessaloniki, Greece, June 4, 2016

    An aerial view of Lagadikia refugee camp near Thessaloniki, Greece, June 4, 2016

    Photo by Nicolas Economou/NurPhoto

    As millions of displaced Syrians crowded into desert camps and urban slums, RAND researchers sought to better understand the forces that pushed former waves of refugees into the arms of radicals .

    Their study of more than half a dozen previous refugee crises, from Asia to Africa to the Middle East, identified several common threads that seem to lead toward greater risk of radicalization. They found, for example, that refugees kept in isolated camps, with little opportunity for work or education and little sense of security, have been especially vulnerable to infiltration by militant groups.

    Those findings provide a guide to the international community as it struggles to accommodate refugees now and in the future in a way that lessens the risk of radicalization. Host countries, in particular, should allow refugees some freedom of movement, provide adequate security, and establish opportunities for youth beyond primary school.

    Critical to those efforts, of course, is international support and funding that doesn’t wane as a refugee crisis drags into years.

    Some of that funding could support local businesses that employ both refugees and non-refugees, said senior political scientist Barbara Sude , the study’s lead author. That would improve the lives of people on both sides and strengthen the ties between their communities— all good defenses against the threat of radicalization.

    Russia: The Baltic Question

    Baltic Fleet mariners shout during the final rehearsal of the naval parade to mark Russian Navy Day, Baltiysk, Russia, July 27, 2016

    Baltic Fleet mariners shout during the final rehearsal of the naval parade to mark Russian Navy Day, Baltiysk, Russia, July 27, 2016

    Photo by Igor Zarembo/Sputnik via AP

    Sixty hours. In repeated war games at RAND , sixty hours is all it took Russian forces to punch through NATO’s thin defenses in eastern Europe and reach the capitals of Estonia or Latvia.

    It may seem unlikely that Russian President Vladimir Putin would risk war with NATO, senior research analysts David A. Shlapak and Michael Johnson wrote. But, as their games showed, the potential consequences if he did are so dire that it “may be less than prudent to allow hope to substitute for strategy.”

    Both NATO and the United States have announced stepped-up troop rotations in eastern Europe, a good first step at reinforcing deterrence. But RAND’s research concluded that NATO would need a force of about seven brigades—including three heavy armored brigades— on the ground, properly supported and backed by air power, to fundamentally change the strategic equation for Moscow.

    If Putin risked war with NATO by invading the Baltics, the potential consequences would be dire.

    That would represent a small part of overall spending of NATO member countries, Shlapak and Johnson wrote. Without further strengthening its eastern flank, they added, NATO will remain outnumbered, outranged, and outgunned.

    At the same time, the United States should look for ways to engage Russia , Mazarr wrote. There are areas for mutual cooperation, he noted, such as counterterrorism and nonproliferation. Russia aspires to a respected position in the world order, he wrote—not “the role of hated troublemaker.”

    North Korea: The Wild Card

    North Korean leader Kim Jong-Un watches a parade from a balcony at Kim Il-Sung Square in Pyongyang, May 10, 2016

    North Korean leader Kim Jong-Un watches a parade from a balcony at Kim Il-Sung Square in Pyongyang, May 10, 2016

    Photo by Wong Maye-E/AP

    An underground explosion in rural North Korea in early September rattled seismographs in South Korea and homes fifty miles away in China. It was North Korea’s most powerful nuclear test to date, the latest escalation in one of the world’s most dangerous guessing games.

    This year alone, the erratic regime of leader Kim Jong-Un has test-fired more than 30 ballistic missiles, sent a rocket into space in what was widely seen as another missile test, and detonated two nuclear bombs. Those tests show that the North is determined to advance its weapons programs and the threat they pose, even in the face of ever-tightening international sanctions, senior defense analyst Bruce W. Bennett wrote.

    North Korea’s nuclear tests call into question the long-standing U.S. approach of “strategic patience.”

    The tests also call into question the United States’ long-standing approach of “strategic patience” with North Korea, Bennett wrote. The U.S. sent two B-1 bombers over South Korea in a display of resolve after the September nuclear test, and has moved to deploy an advanced missile-defense system there.

    The quickening pace of provocations from the North this year suggests a weak leader feeling more and more internal pressure, Bennett wrote—and seeking to divert attention through displays of force. That raises another troubling question for the international community: What would happen if the North Korean regime collapses?

    That could plunge parts of the North into anarchy, leave its weapons of mass destruction exposed, and threaten civil war in a country with more than one million military and security personnel, Bennett said. At the same time, it would likely cut off food distribution, provoking a humanitarian disaster “even more serious than is normally the case in North Korea,” he said.

    Central America: Slowing the Exodus

    Coast Guard members from South Padre Island, Texas, detain Mexican nationals aboard a lancha after they were spotted fishing illegally in U.S. territorial waters, May 1, 2015

    Coast Guard members from South Padre Island, Texas, detain Mexican nationals aboard a lancha after they were spotted fishing illegally in U.S. territorial waters, May 1, 2015

    Photo by Petty Officer 1st Class Andrew Kendrick/U.S. Coast Guard

    Nearly 40,000 unaccompanied children, fleeing poverty and violence in Central America, made the treacherous journey to America last year and were stopped at the border. Even more have been coming this year.

    The United States is working with the governments of El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala to slow the exodus by stimulating economic growth, promoting education, and targeting criminal networks. But more needs to be done on this side of the border , senior policy researcher Daniel M. Gerstein and associate sociologist Ernesto F. L. Amaral wrote.

    Given the numbers and the need, the most relevant question for policymakers may be how to best integrate those children allowed to stay into American society. U.S. officials should better monitor how children fare in their host families, in their schools, and in their communities, Gerstein and Amaral wrote.

    History has repeatedly shown the futility of building “impenetrable” border walls to keep people out.

    More broadly, America needs to streamline its immigration court system, with more judges to hear more cases in less time, Gerstein wrote in a separate paper. It also should invest in better technologies to secure the border and target suspect air and sea cargoes as well as individuals.

    A wall across the southern border— “a thin brittle line,” in Gerstein’s words—would only divert money and resources from those needed reforms. The evidence of history, he wrote, from the Great Wall of China to the French Maginot Line, has repeatedly shown the futility of building “impenetrable” barriers to keep people out.

    Trade: Adapt and Integrate

    View of a container terminal in China

    Photo by chungking/Fotolia

    International free-trade deals may have few friends in presidential politics, but they could strengthen economies at home and abroad as the world adapts to some 21st-century realities.

    America will remain the dominant player in the world economy for the foreseeable future. But it will have to accommodate rising world powers like China, as well as developing nations whose economies are growing while those of America’s closest allies slip.

    The United States stands to gain more from strengthening world economic institutions and rules —and engaging with those rising powers— than from pulling back, senior economist Howard J. Shatz wrote. Despite the rhetoric, trade and investment deals represent valuable tools in that effort—measured both in domestic dollars and cents and in the expansion of the world economy.

    The United States should strive to maintain and strengthen the global system of trade it helped create.

    Because of that, the United States should approve some version of a Pacific trade and investment agreement, Shatz concluded—and include an on-ramp for China to join. The U.S. also should sign a new trade and investment agreement with Europe to help restore growth there and benefit both economies.

    This is a decisive moment for the world economy. The United States should strive to maintain and strengthen the global system of trade it helped create—“spurring growth so lives are improved,” Shatz said, “and demonstrating to countries that a U.S.-led economic system is a desirable one in which to participate.”

    — Doug Irving

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    Veronica Roth

    Four: A Divergent Collection (2014)

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    Veronica Roth

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    Veronica Roth

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    About this author

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    Veronica Roth is from a
    Chicago suburb. She studied creative writing at Northwestern University,
    and wrote DIVERGENT (Katherine Tegen Books, May 2011) and INSURGENT
    (May 2012). The third and final book in The Divergent Trilogy,
    ALLEGIANT, will come out on October 22, 2013. In the meantime she will
    spend endless hours browsing Wikipedia in her pajamas as she eats corn
    flakes. (Or some other kind of bland breakfast cereal.)

    Veronica Roth’s Blog

    Movie Update: Clip Tomorrow + Insurgent News
    There have been a few movie updates (mostly exciting ones!) so I
    thought I would give you the whole scoop at once, in case you haven’t
    seen anything yet. So! Three things!
    First of all, a clip of the Divergent movie will be premiering tomorrow night on Entertainment Tonight and online at Yahoo Movies ! (Check for your local listings here .) Check out a little preview on the Divergent Instagram page…
    Read more of this blog post »
    View more on Veronica Roth’s website »
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    Published on December 17, 2013 15:38

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    combine editions

    Veronica Roth’s Books


    Average rating:
    4.18

    · 2,226,393 ratings
    · 186,294 reviews
    · 17 distinct works
    · Similar authors

    Divergent (Divergent, #1)

    Divergent (Divergent, #1)


    4.34 of 5 stars 4.34 avg rating — 1,128,786 ratings

    published
    2011

    138 editions

    Rate this book
    1 of 5 stars 2 of 5 stars 3 of 5 stars 4 of 5 stars 5 of 5 stars

    Insurgent (Divergent, #2)

    Insurgent (Divergent, #2)


    4.17 of 5 stars 4.17 avg rating — 553,119 ratings

    published
    2012

    105 editions

    Rate this book
    1 of 5 stars 2 of 5 stars 3 of 5 stars 4 of 5 stars 5 of 5 stars

    Allegiant (Divergent, #3)

    Allegiant (Divergent, #3)


    3.64 of 5 stars 3.64 avg rating — 358,634 ratings

    published
    2013

    89 editions

    Rate this book
    1 of 5 stars 2 of 5 stars 3 of 5 stars 4 of 5 stars 5 of 5 stars

    Free Four: Tobias Tells the...

    Free Four: Tobias Tells the Divergent Knife-Throwing Scene (Divergent, #1.5)


    4.23 of 5 stars 4.23 avg rating — 69,711 ratings

    published
    2012

    7 editions

    Rate this book
    1 of 5 stars 2 of 5 stars 3 of 5 stars 4 of 5 stars 5 of 5 stars

    The Transfer (Divergent, #0.1)

    The Transfer (Divergent, #0.1)


    4.25 of 5 stars 4.25 avg rating — 31,820 ratings

    published
    2013

    11 editions

    Rate this book
    1 of 5 stars 2 of 5 stars 3 of 5 stars 4 of 5 stars 5 of 5 stars

    Four: A Divergent Story Col...

    Four: A Divergent Story Collection (Divergent, #0.1 – 0.4)


    4.29 of 5 stars 4.29 avg rating — 21,904 ratings

    published
    2014

    28 editions

    Rate this book
    1 of 5 stars 2 of 5 stars 3 of 5 stars 4 of 5 stars 5 of 5 stars

    The World of Divergent: The...

    The World of Divergent: The Path to Allegiant (Divergent, #2.5)


    3.97 of 5 stars 3.97 avg rating — 17,149 ratings

    published
    2013

    2 editions

    Rate this book
    1 of 5 stars 2 of 5 stars 3 of 5 stars 4 of 5 stars 5 of 5 stars

    The Divergent Series 2-Book...

    The Divergent Series 2-Book Collection (Divergent, #1-2)


    4.63 of 5 stars 4.63 avg rating — 9,357 ratings

    published
    2012

    7 editions

    Rate this book
    1 of 5 stars 2 of 5 stars 3 of 5 stars 4 of 5 stars 5 of 5 stars

    Divergent Series Complete B...

    Divergent Series Complete Box Set (Divergent, #1-3)


    4.4 of 5 stars 4.40 avg rating — 12,068 ratings

    published
    2013

    12 editions

    Rate this book
    1 of 5 stars 2 of 5 stars 3 of 5 stars 4 of 5 stars 5 of 5 stars

    The Initiate (Divergent, #0.2)

    The Initiate (Divergent, #0.2)


    4.28 of 5 stars 4.28 avg rating — 8,069 ratings

    published
    2014

    6 editions

    Rate this book
    1 of 5 stars 2 of 5 stars 3 of 5 stars 4 of 5 stars 5 of 5 stars

    More books by Veronica Roth…

    Series by Veronica Roth

    Divergent
    Insurgent
    Allegiant
    Divergent

    (3 books)


    by
    Veronica Roth (Goodreads Author)


    4.175978986185246 of 5 stars 4.18 avg rating — 2,219,873 ratings

    Upcoming Events

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    Interviews


    July 2014,

    Veronica Roth
    “Attn: Divergent fans! Still reeling from the Allegiant
    ending? We have answers! Read Veronica’s take on Tris’s fate, plus her
    tips for aspiring authors and thoughts on writing from Tobias’s POV for
    the Four stories.”
    …More



    more interviews »


    rss

    Veronica’s Recent Updates


    Veronica Roth

    wrote a new blog post
    Movie Update: Clip Tomorrow + Insurgent News
    There have been a few movie updates (mostly exciting ones!) so I
    thought I would give you the whole scoop at once, in case you haven’t
    seen anythin…
    Read more of this blog post »
    Dec 18, 2013 01:41AM  ·  321 likes  ·  like
    Veronica Roth
    added

    Speak by Laurie Halse Anderson

    Speak


    by

    Laurie Halse Anderson (Goodreads Author)

    Rate this book
    1 of 5 stars 2 of 5 stars 3 of 5 stars 4 of 5 stars 5 of 5 stars

    Much has been said about how
    important this book is for teens, particularly those who have
    experienced what Melinda experiences, and I agree with that. But what I
    was surprised to discover as I read it was that I really enjoyed it,
    apart from its “me …more

    Dec 04, 2013 05:20PM  ·  331 likes  ·  like  ·  see review
    Veronica Roth
    added

    The Fault in Our Stars by John Green

    The Fault in Our Stars


    by

    John Green (Goodreads Author)

    read in
    March, 2012
    Rate this book
    1 of 5 stars 2 of 5 stars 3 of 5 stars 4 of 5 stars 5 of 5 stars

    Fantastic.
    Dec 04, 2013 04:39PM  ·  1507 likes  ·  like  ·  see review

    Veronica Roth

    made a comment on
    Official Writer Philosophy of Character Death
    Bethany wrote:
    “Veronica, this is a style question from a proofreader. Do your
    publisher’s copyeditors follow your own basic style decisions (the ones
    …more

    May 31, 2012 01:09PM  ·  see blog post

    Veronica Roth

    made a comment on
    Detergent, AKA Book 3
    Dale wrote: “If I
    can ask Veronica. Why is it set in stone that it will only be a trilogy?
    It seems to me more and more writers and setting sets of 3
    …more

    May 15, 2012 02:02PM  ·  see blog post

    Veronica Roth

    made a comment on
    Dark Days Tour, Part 1
    Jazmin wrote: “Why doesn’t anything ever come to Washington? D: Maybe show us a little love next time around? :)”

    Rebecca wrote: “Why can’t it come to …more

    May 09, 2012 12:55PM  ·  see blog post
    Veronica Roth
    added

    When We Get There by Shauna Seliy

    When We Get There


    by

    Shauna Seliy

    read in
    April, 2012
    Rate this book
    1 of 5 stars 2 of 5 stars 3 of 5 stars 4 of 5 stars 5 of 5 stars
    Apr 25, 2012 10:29AM  ·  6 likes  ·  like
    Veronica Roth
    added

    What's Left of Me by Kat Zhang

    What’s Left of Me (The Hybrid Chronicles, #1)


    by

    Kat Zhang (Goodreads Author)

    Rate this book
    1 of 5 stars 2 of 5 stars 3 of 5 stars 4 of 5 stars 5 of 5 stars
    Apr 25, 2012 10:28AM  ·  7 likes  ·  like
    Veronica Roth
    added

    Crewel by Gennifer Albin

    Crewel (Crewel World, #1)


    by

    Gennifer Albin (Goodreads Author)

    Rate this book
    1 of 5 stars 2 of 5 stars 3 of 5 stars 4 of 5 stars 5 of 5 stars
    Apr 25, 2012 10:26AM  ·  6 likes  ·  like

    Veronica Roth

    made a comment on
    The Giveaway of Many 4s!
    Thanks for your entries, guys! (I’m posting here as a kind of marker so I know that anything that comes after this is too late.)
    Apr 04, 2012 03:10PM  ·  see blog post

    More of Veronica’s books…

    Quotes by Veronica Roth

    “We believe in ordinary acts of bravery, in the courage that drives one person to stand up for another.”


    Veronica Roth ,

    Divergent
    tags:
    inspirational-quotes ,
    strength-and-courage
    11945 likes
    like
    “Becoming fearless isn’t the point. That’s impossible. It’s
    learning how to control your fear, and how to be free from it.”


    Veronica Roth ,

    Divergent
    tags:
    dauntless ,
    divergent ,
    fearless ,
    four ,
    tris
    8388 likes
    like
    “I might be in love with you.” He smiles a little. “I’m waiting until I’m sure to tell you, though.”


    Veronica Roth ,

    Divergent
    tags:
    humorous
    7155 likes
    like
    See all Veronica Roth’s quotes »

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    The Daily Northwestern

    ‘Divergent’ author, Northwestern grad Veronica Roth talks new movie, advice for students

    The+film+adaptation+of+%22Insurgent%2C%22+the+second+book+in+Veronica+Roth%27s+%28Weinberg+%2710%29+%22Divergent%22+series+will+premier+Friday.+Roth+is+currently+working+on+a+new+book+series+and+encouraged+writers+to+stick+with+their+craft+even+when+faced+with+tough+competition.+

    The film adaptation of

    The film adaptation of “Insurgent,” the second book in Veronica Roth’s (Weinberg ’10) “Divergent” series will premier Friday. Roth is currently working on a new book series and encouraged writers to stick with their craft even when faced with tough competition.

    Source: Veronica Roth’s Facebook page

    Source: Veronica Roth’s Facebook page

    The film adaptation of “Insurgent,” the second book in Veronica Roth’s (Weinberg ’10) “Divergent” series will premier Friday. Roth is currently working on a new book series and encouraged writers to stick with their craft even when faced with tough competition.

    Rachel Yang , Reporter
    March 18, 2015

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    AE


    Veronica Roth, now 26, was still attending Northwestern when she wrote “Divergent,” the first novel in the popular dystopian trilogy.

    Fans are anxiously awaiting the March 20 premiere of “Insurgent,” the second installment of the series’ film adaptations.

    But despite achieving success at a young age, Roth (Weinberg ’10) told The Daily that while attending NU’s creative writing workshops, she struggled with being surrounded by writers she thought were more talented than she was. In an interview with college media organizations, Roth discussed what she learned from her college experience and what fans can expect from the upcoming film, her new book series and her advice to aspiring writers in college.

    “Of the three books, ‘Insurgent’ probably has the most complicated plot,” Roth said.

    As a result, there had to be cuts in order to keep the film action-packed. The first novel introduced readers to the “Divergent” world, where people are sorted into factions based on personality types. The protagonist, Tris Prior, played by Shailene Woodley in the films, breaks the norm by being Divergent and possessing multiple traits. The first book left off as Tris embarks on a plan to stop the corrupt faction leader who is trying to use one faction against another. “Insurgent” focuses on the struggles of carrying out that plan.

    In the “Insurgent” novel, Tris cannot use a gun because of stress, a plot point changed for the film.

    It would be hard to have a heroine “who doesn’t touch a gun and somehow also doesn’t die,” Roth said.

    Roth told The Daily her favorite scene in the upcoming movie happens when Tris and Four, a fellow Divergent, are subjected to a truth serum trial. Roth called the scene a “sci fi-esque moment.”

    “They’re taking this thing that doesn’t exist but (it’s) also a good character building moment, where people are revealing things,” Roth said.

    The last book in the trilogy, “Allegiant,” will be split into two films, Roth said. After these films are released, she said she will be ready to move on to her new book series.

    Roth said the first book in the new series, which she hopes to release in 2017, also has otherworldly elements and shares traits with “Star Wars.”

    “It’s set in space and it’s about a young man who unites with someone who’s supposed to be his enemy to get revenge,” she said.

    As she moves forward with the book, Roth also reflected on advice for aspiring writers in college.

    Roth told The Daily that the creative process is more important than the results of the creativity. Citing a passage from comedian Amy Poehler’s book, “Yes Please,” Roth advocated for “passion about the creative act” but “ambivalence about the results of your work.”

    “You don’t need to take to heart every single person’s reaction,” Roth said. “Some people are going to like it, and some people are going to not like it.”

    For college students, adopting this attitude is especially important, she said, because they are constantly worrying about the future.

    “If you can let writing carry through good times and bad times,” Roth said, “you have a much higher likelihood of succeeding in the industry, because you’ll be able to take criticism and you’ll be able to take rejection because you know that you’ll still be able to write at the end of the day.”

    Roth, who said she “just Googled it” when she wanted to get published, said she learned at NU to “go after the things that I want and not to wait until someone tells me how to do them.”

    NU’s driven environment, especially in creative writing workshops, made her realize the importance of “being comfortable with a lot of people around you being better than you,” which she said many NU students have not yet accepted.

    “Just because someone is more skilled than you, doesn’t mean that you don’t have value,” Roth said. “It’s okay to be in the world and to look up to people.”

    Email:  [email protected]northwestern.edu
    Twitter:  @_rachelyang

    Comments

    Tags: Divergent , Insurgent , Shailene Woodley , Tris Prior , Veronica Roth

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      • Further Readings

    • Annotated Bibliography

    • Giving an Oral Presentation


      Toggle Dropdown

      • Dealing with Nervousness

      • Using Visual Aids

    • Grading Someone Else’s Paper

    • How to Manage Group Projects

    • Writing a Book Review


      Toggle Dropdown

      • Multiple Book Review Essay

      • Reviewing Collected Essays

    • Writing a Field Report


      Toggle Dropdown

      • About Informed Consent

      • Writing Field Notes

    • Writing a Policy Memo

    • Writing a Research Proposal

    • Acknowledgements

    Purpose of Guide

    This guide is intended to help you organize and write a quality academic research paper. Also included are recommendations regarding how to manage specific course assignments. Note that, if you have specific questions about how to write a research paper, you should always seek advice from your professor before you begin. Specific requirements stated by your professor will always supersede instructions provided in these general guidelines.

    Thanks to Dr. Robert V. Labaree of the Von KleinSmid Center Library for International and Public Affairs, University of Southern California Libraries, for sharing the content of this guide.

    Additional Help

    Jandrisevits Learning Center (JLC)

    The JLC is SHU’s central academic support service and is open to all SHU students. Our mission is to provide academic support to strengthen student learning and empower every student to develop as self-directed learners. JLC tutors see each student as a holistic learner, paying attention to the importance of cognition as well as to the emotional aspects of learning.

    Academic Support Services include 1-on-1 tutoring with Professional and Peer tutors; group study sessions for particular courses by Classroom Learning Assistants (CLAs); monthly workshops on specific academic and life skills; specialized Learning Labs in math, critical reading and writing, accounting, and math; and online writing support (OWL).

    SHU Library Minute: JLC Online Writing Lab from Sacred Heart U Library on Vimeo .


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    Writing a Critical
    Book Review in History, by John Jones

     

    Introduction

     

    On being required
    to write my first critical book review for an upper level history course I was
    filled with questions as were many of my peers. I was aware that the discourse
    is different between disciplines and that each discipline has its own unique
    requirements. I also suspected that there was a difference in the objectives
    between English and History critical book reviews. My suspicions were confirmed
    as soon as I read some critical history book reviews. The objectives in book
    reviews between the disciplines are different animals. The most difficult part
    of any assignment is understanding what needs to be done, and how.

    Like many of my
    peers, I was a third-year student in a fourth-year class expected to write at
    the fourth-year level. The transition to upper level writing across the
    disciplines can be traumatic for the unprepared. Many of us had never written a
    critical book review for history, and not all of us were history majors. A
    number of students dropped out of the course after writing their first critical
    book review in history simply because they did not know what was required and
    did not conduct the research to find out. The critical book review in history
    is unique to the discipline and a skill that is expected to be mastered by
    history students after their first year. Understanding whata critical book review in history is
    supposed to consist of is the first step in writing one.

     

    Purpose

    The purpose of the
    critical book review for history is to share information about an historical
    topic – it is not a book report that summarizes the content. Historiography is
    the history of writing on a particular topic. The historical source under
    review is usually secondary, that is, it is about an event in history that the
    author has contributed some new information. The review is critical in that it
    discusses and evaluates the significance of this new information. Book reviews
    also provide the historian with a thumbnail sketch of the contents – that may
    be very useful in research work. Writing a book review requires that you assess
    the books strengths and weaknesses as they pertain to historiography – it is
    not a literary review. You should also tell the reader why you liked or
    disliked the book.


    Reviewing books is
    an essential part of the historian�s profession. History students are expected
    to learn the discipline: to become historians. In order to review a book on
    history it is essential to have some information on the subject, the region,
    and the period. The bibliography in the book should supply you with references
    to sources with related information. Journals are also a good place to find
    this information and to look for scholarly book reviews that will also help you
    understand the form, and give you an idea of what your review should look like.

     

    What
    is a critical book review
    ?

    The book review is
    simply an essay with three parts: an introduction, a body, and a conclusion.
    The three parts of the critical book review for the historian are: who wrote
    it, why did they write it, and what do they have to offer. Good historical
    writing is also an argument. Arguments are intended to extend our knowledge,
    and also can be described as having three parts: a premise, supporting
    evidence, and a conclusion.


    1 Who wrote it?

    Biographical
    information about the credibility, and expertise of the author must be taken
    into consideration. Who is the author, what is his or her background, how does
    the author�s background affect his or her writing? Education, class, ethnicity,
    nationality, gender, and political or religious affiliations may affect the
    authors expertise, bias, or interpretation. Is the author an authority or
    qualified to write on the subject.

    2 Why did the author write it?

    What is the author
    attempting to do? What is the theme: the argument? What assumptions has the
    author made? Is the argument well supported, with good documentation or does it
    have contradictions? Is the author�s conclusion convincing?

     

    3 What does the author
    contribute?

    What is new or
    different about this book, or does it offer anything new? Does the author
    present new information or evidence? Does the author raise new issues or leave
    unanswered questions for other scholars? How does this book differ from the
    general understanding of the topic or time?

     

    History
    and Rhetoric
    .

     

    Rhetoric is the
    art of argument, and good historical writing is always argumentative. Good
    historical writing is also about creating something new. Combine these two and
    you have, an argument about a new historical perception.

    Getting started

    1 Summarize

    ����������� Attempt to summarize the author�s
    thesis in a single sentence. This may be difficult if the author has merely
    implied rather than explicitly explained his or her thesis. You might have to
    read the whole book in some cases to determine what the author�s thesis is.
    Watch out for transitions or verbs that imply proof. Careful, critical reading
    is essential. An historical book, paper or essay, such as a critical book
    review is an argument. Arguments are very important to historians. Books such
    as Anthony Weston�s, A Rulebook for Arguments, or Trudy Govier�s, A
    Practical Study of Argument
    , are very helpful if you are unsure of what an
    argument is.

     

    2 Take a
    position

    ����������� You need a thesis statement of your
    own to produce an authoritative review. You should take a position pro or con
    and support it with evidence.

     

    3 Make a
    statement

    Make
    a relevant statement that clearly states your position and reveals your
    impression of the book. Your argument should be based on your interpretation of
    the author�s thesis.

     

    The Introduction

    Book reviews are
    short and concise, they may vary from half a page to several pages depending on
    the assignment. The introduction is extremely important, it must be short,
    effective, and it must contain your thesis.

    The thesis

    Developing a good thesis is often the most difficult
    part of writing. What happened, why is it interesting, why or how did it
    happen? The answers to these questions should set up the body of your thesis.
    Develop a hypothesis and then look for weak or vague words that detract from a
    strong, concise statement.Summarize
    the author�s thesis in a single powerful sentence if possible. Your thesis
    should appear in the last sentence of the first paragraph. Note – In a book
    review the conclusion should appear in the introduction unless you are posing a
    question, because your conclusion or question, is the argument that you are
    discussing. Often you cannot write a good thesis until you completed the first
    rough draft of your paper. Rewriting and refining are the keys to producing a
    good thesis.


    I have included a
    book review for illustration purposes. In my first attempt to do a critical
    book review I examined a number of critical book reviews in history in search
    ofthe common elements. Examining the
    work of others can provide invaluable information. I would recommend that you
    read a number of book reviews if you are uncomfortable about writing. I think
    the following book review is a good example of a critical book review in
    history. The entire review is less than two pages, approximately 650 words,
    that also fits the criteria for most upper level assignments.

     

    The Forgotten Cause of the Civil War

    A New Look at the
    Slavery Issue

    Lawrence R. Tenzer

    Scholars’ Publishing House
    1997

     

    A book review by Danny Yee ( [email protected] ),  Copyright � 1998
    http://www.anatomy.usyd.edu.au/danny/book-reviews/

     

    One of the things
    that has always puzzled me about the history of the United States is how a
    civil war could be fought and won to end slavery, but full civil rights not be
    granted to blacks until a century later. Tenzer’s
    The
    Forgotten Cause of the Civil War
    suggests that one of the major contributions to tension between North
    and South – and hence one of the causes of the civil war – was
    white slavery, or the perception of slavery by
    Northerners as a personal threat.

    Tenzer begins with the legal
    definition of slavery and of terms such as White, Black, and mulatto (which
    often differed from the social definitions). The
    partus
    sequitur ventrem
    rule made
    the offspring of a slave mother slaves, regardless of their colour. (No slave
    could be White, of course, so white slaves were classified as mulattos.)
    Chapter two looks at the consequence of this rule, the presence of white slaves
    in the South. Tenzer makes no attempt to provide quantitative figures here,
    stressing instead the accessibility of accounts of white slaves in the North
    (notably advertisements for runaway slaves who could "pass" as
    white). However many of them there actually were, the
    idea of slaves indistinguishable from free whites
    was widespread in the North.

    Chapter three looks at Southern
    racial theory, in particular the fabrication of figures for insanity in the
    1840 census and Dr Nott’s idea that mulattos were unhealthier and shorter lived
    than black slaves. This leads to a chapter on the illicit slave trade, which
    Tenzer argues is the explanation for census results showing an apparently
    higher "fecundity" for black slaves than for free blacks and
    mulattos. His argument for an extensive illicit slave trade (continued in an
    appendix) is indirect but persuasive.

    The 1850 Fugitive Slave law allowed
    runaway slaves to be reclaimed without due process, creating the possibility
    that free whites could be seized accidentally, or even kidnapped. This was
    perceived as an attack on freedoms inside the North and many states passed
    personal liberty laws in response. The political power of the South and events
    such as the destruction of the Missouri Compromise and the
    Dred
    Scott
    decision also raised
    fears of slavery being extended into the territories and Northern states. Mixed
    with ideas that "capital should own labor" and that slavery was
    right, regardless of colour, this produced an explosive atmosphere. However
    seriously leaders in the South may have contemplated the nationalization of
    slavery or the possibility of enslaving free white laborers in the North, there
    was enough evidence for this to make it a major theme in anti-slavery campaigns
    and Republican political propaganda.

    Detailed references and some of the
    argument are left to the endnotes, and
    The Forgotten Cause of the Civil
    War
    is accessible to the
    non-specialist – despite having only a slender background knowledge of the
    period I had no trouble following it. I found Tenzer’s thesis convincing: it
    resolved my perplexity about a war being fought to end slavery without blacks
    being granted civil rights. In any event,
    The Forgotten Cause of the Civil
    War
    , with its extensive
    quotations from newspapers and other texts of the period, both Southern and
    Northern, paints a vivid picture of attitudes to slavery in the decades before
    the Civil War.

     

    Disclaimer: I received a review copy of The Forgotten Cause of the Civil
    War
    from the Scholars’ Publishing House, but I have no stake,
    financial or otherwise, in its success.

     

    %T
    The Forgotten Cause of the Civil War

    %S A New Look at the Slavery Issue
    %A Lawrence R. Tenzer
    %I Scholars' Publishing House
    %C Manahawkin
    %D 1997
    %O paperback, bibliography, index
    %G ISBN 0-9628348-0-7
    %P xxvi,273pp
    %K history , United States


    The Introduction

    �One of the things that has always puzzled me
    about the history of the United States is how a civil war could be fought and
    won to end slavery, but full civil rights not be granted to blacks until a
    century later. Tenzer’s
    The Forgotten Cause of the Civil War suggests that one of the major contributions
    to tension between North and South – and hence one of the causes of the civil
    war – was
    white
    slavery, or the perception of slavery by Northerners as a personal threat.�

    This introduction in two sentences is short.
    The first sentence injects the writer into the work with a question that
    catches the reader�s interest,

    �One of the things that has always puzzled me
    about the history of the United States is how a civil war could be fought and
    won to end slavery, but full civil rights not be granted to blacks until a
    century later.�

    The second sentence identifies the author, the book, and the authors
    thesis; the issue of white slavery.

    �Tenzer’s The Forgotten Cause of the Civil
    War
    suggests that one of
    the major contributions to tension between North and South – and hence one of
    the causes of the civil war – was
    white slavery, or the perception of slavery by
    Northerners as a personal threat.�

    The writer has clearly identified both the
    authors thesis and his own. In this example the writer�s thesis is presented as
    a question that is being covered by the writer and the reader can expect the
    conclusion at the end.

    The body of the essay explains the theme of the book in three
    paragraphs that elaborate on points made in the introduction. The first
    paragraph explains the colour and physical characteristics ofWhite, Black, and Mulatto slaves. The second
    paragraph compares Mulatto to Black slaves, and the illicit slave trade. The
    third paragraph discusses slave laws and the possibility that free whites could
    be seized accidentally, or even kidnapped. The author�s thesis, the case for
    Northern concerns being sufficiently aroused to provoke the civil war, is
    wrapped up in the last two sentences of the third paragraph.

    �Mixed with ideas that "capital should own labor" and that
    slavery was right, regardless of colour, this produced an explosive atmosphere.
    However seriously leaders in the South may have contemplated the
    nationalization of slavery or the possibility of enslaving free white laborers
    in the North, there was enough evidence for this to make it a major theme in
    anti-slavery campaigns and Republican political propaganda.�

    The concluding paragraph states the writers thesis and answers the
    question asked in the first line. The conclusion also provides the writer�s
    opinion of the author�s work and recommends the book to readers with little
    knowledge of the period. This book review provides enough insight into the
    contents of the book for the reader to get a snap shot of the entire book.

    A
    book review for history then is
    simply an essay with three parts, an introduction, a
    body, and a conclusion. The three parts of the critical book review for the
    historian are: who wrote it, why, and what does the author have to offer. In �The
    Forgotten Cause of the Civil War
    : A New Look at the Slavery Issue�
    these three questions are readily answered. In addition, the answer to the last
    question, what does the author have to offer, perhaps also poses an interesting
    question for further research ��ideas that �capital should own labour� and that
    slavery was right regardless of colour�.

    Genre

    It is important to identify the historical genre of
    the book. The genre may be��
    characterized by style, form, or content as: biography, cultural,
    demographic, economic, environmental, ethno-history, feminist, intellectual,
    labour, legal, military, diplomatic, political, psychohistory, religious,
    social, or urban.

     

    Evidence and Credibility of Sources

     

    A clear
    distinction must be made between primary and secondary evidence.
    Evaluating a book for history requires detective work and critical evaluation.
    Books are usually secondary evidence, but good books are supported by adequate
    primary evidence. The credibility of the author also must be considered.


    Primary evidence is
    contemporary to the problem being studied.

    Examples:

    Journals, diaries, letters,
    autobiographies, personal papers, government publications, maps, census
    reports, newspaper articles, pamphlets, treatises, sermons, oral histories, and
    artifacts.

    Secondary evidence is a
    synthesis of primary sources written by a historian for the purpose of
    argumentation or explanation. The quality of the synthesis is very important.

    Examples:

    Scholarly books, journal articles,
    and theses.

     

    Authors

    Academic
    Historians
    are ranked by their degree, B.A., M.A., or Ph.D..

     

    Amateur Historians may have
    been journalists who write history and maintain high standards. Lawyers,
    politicians, civil servants, and fiction writers may also turn to writing
    history.

    Non-Historians may be
    propagandists, holocaust- deniers, and those who deliberately falsify history
    for many different reasons.

     

    Documentation

    Documentation is
    extremely important to Historians. Proper documentation is easy if you have a
    guide. If you do not want your professor to have a hairy fit, and use a lot of
    red ink, pick up A Handbook For UCC History Students and use it. This
    guide was written by the History Faculty at UCC for history students. Another
    useful guide for documentation, and recommended by a member of the history
    faculty at UCC is A Pocket Guide To Writing In History, by Mary Lynn
    Rampolla.



    Back to Essays Page

     


     
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    How to Write a Book Review

    How to Write a Book Review


    Your opinion is important—dont be afraid to voice it in a book review

    Writing a book review is not the same as writing a book report or a summary. A book review is a critical analysis of a published work that assesses the work’s strengths and weaknesses. A prominent reviewer can have a major impact on a book’s reception. Many authors strive to have their books reviewed by a professional because a published review (even a negative one) can be a great source of publicity.

    One need look no further than Oprah Winfrey’s famed Book Club to see the effect that this type of publicity can have on a book’s sales. There are countless book review examples , but first, let’s discuss how to write a book review.

    You aren’t in high school anymore

    A book review is not a book report. Resist the temptation to summarize the character, plot , theme, and setting, which was probably the formula you used in your high school English classes. Your readers are not interested in having the book re-told to them, and are certainly not interested in having the ending spoiled.

    To become a legitimate book reviewer, you need to be able to tell your readers whether the book you are reviewing is interesting, thorough, original, and worth spending money on (or at least borrowing from the library).

    Preparing to write a review

    Before writing a book review, you must, of course, read the book. Reading the first page, last page, and dust jacket won’t cut it—you must read the book in its entirety, making quick notes about your impressions as you read.

    We also recommend that you ask yourself questions as you read. If the book is non-fiction, ask yourself, “Does the author have a clear argument that he or she is trying to prove? Is it original? Does he or she prove the argument successfully? Are the arguments sound? Is it well-researched and well-written? Does the author omit any information that would have been relevant?”

    For a work of fiction, ask yourself, “Is this work original? Are the characters well-rounded and believable? Does the plot twist, turn, and thicken, or does it plod along? Does the book address universal themes? Is the dialogue realistic?”

    Make notes about the author’s writing style: Is it irreverent or dry? Fast-paced or excruciatingly detailed? These are all things that potential readers will want to know. As a reviewer, you must tell them.

    Get to the point

    When you begin writing the review, think about what your thesis is. Will your review be favorable, or do you plan to advise your readers to spend their money elsewhere? Just like in a college paper, remember to make your thesis known in the first few lines of your review. This will help your reader focus and will provide you with an argument for your review.

    Don’t forget the details

    Briefly include some biographical information about the author at the beginning of your review. Is this his or her first book? If not, what types of books has he or she written before? How has his or her background qualified him or her to write about this particular subject? Also, be sure to include the book’s complete title, the number of pages it has, its publisher, and its price.

    Before launching into your nuanced and cerebral analysis, briefly tell the reader what the book is about, its genre, and who its intended audience is. Is the book designed for mass commercial appeal or for a select group of academic specialists? Providing this information at the beginning will let readers know if they’re interested in reading the entire review.

    Support your argument with direct quotes

    Just as you would in academic writing , carefully select passages from the book you are reviewing to support your argument. These passages will help readers understand what you mean when you write that the book is a tender love story, a violent murder mystery, or a dull yawner. Since a book review is generally quite short (less than 1,000 words), we suggest selecting brief passages.

    Try to use a natural, informal tone. A book review is not rocket science; you are simply communicating your impressions and opinions of an author’s work. What’s more, always remember to edit and proofread your review multiple times before publishing it. If you’re going to rip a novel apart for being overly verbose and hard to follow, you’d better triple check to make sure your review is grammatically sound and succinct!

    Image source: Amador Loureiro/Unsplash.com

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    Tips for Formatting a Cover Letter for a Resume


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    Alison Doyle
    Updated September 21, 2018

    Along with your resume , a cover letter provides an opportunity to impress a potential employer with both your professionalism and how well you would fit in with the company’s mission and culture.

    How you format your cover letter, both from a content (the information you include) and a presentation (what your cover letter looks like) perspective is important. Even when applying online or via email, your cover letter needs to be properly formatted, readable, and without any mistakes.

    Cover letters to send with resumes follow the format of a formal business letter . They are written in paragraph form and include a formal salutation, closing, and signature. It’s important to write a targeted cover letter that shows how you are qualified for the job for which you’re applying. Each cover letter you write should be unique and customized.

    What Content to Include in Your Cover Letter

    1. First Paragraph – Why you are writing
    2. Middle Paragraphs – What you have to offer
    3. Concluding Paragraph – How you’ll follow-up

    Paragraph 1: Why You Are Writing

    • If you are writing in response to a job posting ( review samples ), indicate where you learned of the position and the title of the position. More importantly, express your enthusiasm and the likely match between your credentials and the position’s qualifications.
    • If you are writing a prospecting letter ( review samples ) in which you inquire about possible job openings – state your specific job objective. Since this type of letter is unsolicited, it is even more important to capture the reader’s attention.
    • If you are writing a networking letter ( review samples ) to approach an individual for information, make your request clear.

    In some cases, you may have been referred to a potential employer by a friend or acquaintance. Be sure to mention this mutual contact by name in your first paragraph to encourage your reader to keep reading!

    Paragraph 2: What You Have to Offer

    In responding to a job advertisement, refer specifically to the qualifications listed and illustrate how your particular abilities and experiences relate to the position for which you are applying.

    In a prospecting letter, express your potential to fulfill the employer’s needs rather than focusing on what the employer can offer you. You can do this by giving evidence that you have researched the organization thoroughly and that you possess skills used within that organization.

    Emphasize your achievements and problem-solving skills. Show how your education and work skills are transferable, and thus relevant, to the position for which you are applying.

    Paragraph 3: How You Will Follow Up 

    Close by reiterating your interest in the job and letting the employer know how they can reach you. Include your phone number and email address. Or bid directly for the job interview or informational interview and indicate that you will follow-up with a telephone call to set up an appointment at a mutually convenient time. If you mention that you will be in touch, be sure to make the call within the time frame indicated.

    In some instances, an employer may explicitly prohibit phone calls, or you may be responding to a “blind want-ad” which precludes you from this follow-up. Unless this is the case, make your best effort to reach the organization. At the very least, you should confirm that your materials were received and that your application is complete.

    If you are applying from outside the employer’s geographic area, you may want to indicate if you’ll be in town during a certain time frame (this makes it easier for the employer to agree to meet with you).

    In conclusion, you may indicate that your references are available on request. Also, if you have a portfolio or writing samples to support your qualifications, state their availability.

    Tips for Formatting Your Cover Letter

    Ashley DeLeon. © The Balance 2018

    Letter Length
    A cover letter should be three or four paragraphs at most , and shouldn’t be longer than one page. If you need to you can adjust the margins (see below) to fit your letter on a single page.

    Pick a Simple Font
    Cover letter presentation matters as much as what you include. When writing cover letters, it’s important to use a basic font that is easy to read. Depending on the  hiring process  your cover letter may be viewed  in an applicant tracking system  or other online hiring system. Those systems work best reading simple text rather than fancy formatting.

    Using a basic 12 point font will ensure that your cover letter is easy to read. Basic fonts like Arial, Verdana, Calibri, and Times New Roman work well. Your cover letter font should match the font you use in your resume.

    Set Your Margins
    The standard margins for a business letter are 1″. However, if you are having trouble condensing your letter to fit on a single page you can shorten up the top, bottom and side margins to 3/4″ or 1/2″ or even a little tighter.

    Leave Plenty of White Space
    Don’t forget to leave space below your greeting, between each paragraph, and after your closing.

    Carefully Proofread the Letter
    Take the time to proof your letter before you send or upload it. It can be easier to double check if you print out a copy or read it out loud.

    Review a Formatted Cover Letter

    This is a cover letter example. Download the cover letter template (compatible with Google Docs and Word Online) or see below for more examples.

    Screenshot of a cover letter

    ©TheBalance 2018


    Download the Word Template

    Review a Formatted Cover Letter (Text Version)

    Carson Applicant
    123 Main Street
    Anytown, CA 12345
    555-555-5555
    [email protected]

    September 1, 2018

    Preston Lee
    Manager
    Acme Insurance
    123 Business Rd.
    Business City, NY 54321

    Dear Mr. Lee:

    I am writing to apply for the position of part-time Front Desk Receptionist as posted on LocalJobs.com. After reading the posting, I’m confident I would be an excellent fit for your office. In addition to my experience as a receptionist, last summer I worked as a night auditor at a local hotel.

    I’m currently a sophomore at Northern University, and my schedule would fit the role well because I have nights and weekends free. When I was in high school, I worked as a part-time receptionist for a local dentist. I’m particularly proud that I was given the responsibilities of a receptionist at such a young age. I learned how to work with people, answer phones, schedule patients and answer many of their questions.

    I’ve attached my resume so you can see my current education, goals, and experience. My email is [email protected], and my cell phone is 555-555-5555. I would like to schedule a time to discuss the job opportunity.

    Sincerely,

    Carson Applicant (signature hard copy letter)

    Carson Applicant

    Review Cover Letter Samples

    Next, take a look at cover letter samples , plus review tips for creating cover letters that will have the maximum positive impact on employers.

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      Here Is a List of 15 Things Not to Include in a Cover Letter







    ★V for Vendetta

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    V for Vendetta, the dystopian film based on the graphic novel by Alan Moore, is the film that will be discussed in this response. The film showcases a world that is ravaged by nuclear war, and is centered on England (more specifically London), which is shown as being ruled over by a fascist party known as Norsefire. The protagonist is an unknown masked terrorist like figure known only as V, who is waging a vendetta against the government for inflicting the horrors of a concentration camp known as Larkhill, of which he is the only survivor.

    V is an eccentric character who lives in a place which he called The Shadow Gallery, where he houses artifacts of art and culture which are banned under Norsefire. The film is about how V meets Evey Hammond, a young woman who eventually becomes the next V towards the end of the film, and also how he wages his vendetta against Norsefire – by blowing up various edifices that symbolize the government, and going on air to talk to the people of London directly.

    The issues under criticism here are that of totalitarianism and the loss of individual freedom under the same. The prisoners at Larkhill are similar to those tortured in the Nazi concentration camps of the Second World War: they are persecuted for being who they are, because they do not adhere to mainstream values. These people are homosexuals, radicals, black: as a quote from the film aptly goes: “different became dangerous”.

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    The control that Norsefire exerts is total, which is what suppresses the precious individual freedom and the rights of anyone who does not go by what the party considers acceptable. Another issue that the film addresses is the mute obedience of the people of London who are, according to V, so comfortable in the order that Norsefire establishes that they neglect freedom and liberty for the sake of this numb security. The acquiescence is responsible for the perverted reality in the dystopian of V for Vendetta.

    Quotation from The Handmaiden’s Tale: “Moira had power now, she’d been set loose, she’d set herself loose. She was now a loose woman. ” (Chapter 22, pg. 133) This quotation evokes the character of V in the film V for Vendetta. Just like Moira, V had once been (at Larkhill) a prisoner of the forces of totalitarianism, but strictly in the physical sense. Mentally, both characters prise themselves away from the control being forced upon them — the entire purpose, after all, of these regimes is to have control over individual minds.

    Thus, the power that normally would rest with the regime is transferred to the individual: V. He has taken the initiative to disobey, challenge and reject the very codes by which other citizens abide, and his actions, words and even the place in which he resides are a testament to his rebellion. Naturally, Moirna in Atwood’s novel is seen as a “loose woman” by the powers that be, because she has rebelled. In much the same manner, V because of his rebellion is labeled a terrorist, and an outlaw.

    Thus both the suggestion of rebellion and the consequences of it in the selected quote can be greatly applied to what happens in V for Vendetta. V not only defies the system, he goes several steps ahead and seeks to actively disrupt it. He does this in a systematic and ingenious manner, and while extracting his vendetta on the specific individuals who were responsible for the horrors of Larkhill, he also works against Norsefire and the forces of fascism as a whole.

    V is a symbol for anarchy and freedom: he is the polar opposite of everything the dystopian world presented in V for Vendetta stands for. The irony is that both Moira and V are “good” human beings in their own right: Moira is a feminist and fiercely devoted to her values, V is learned, knowledgeable and even sensitive even though he is capable of killing ruthlessly. However, because of his defiance, V is labeled in the public eye by the government whose forces he is opposing.

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    V for Vendetta

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    by Ms Allaker 3 years, 2 months ago

     

    VI VERI VENIVERUM VIVUS VICI

    By the power of truth, I, while living, have conquered the universe.

     

    Camera shots 

    • camera shots.ppt
    •   Shot Types and Positions.ppt

     

     

    Handouts 

    Student overview – V for Vendetta.docx  2015

    Glossary terms.doc  2015

    V for Vendetta intro 2015.ppt

    The little details.pptx  2015

    Essay writing

    • Justice_and_Revenge_Essay.pdf
    • The Magic Sentence V for Vendetta.docx
    • V for vendetta hero question.docx  

     

       

     Character

    • V for Vendetta internet.pptx
    •   group work on characters 12 (3).pdf
    •   group work on pbworks 12 (5).pdf
    • Whose who.docx  
     Quotes

    IMPORTANT QUOTES FROM V FOR VENDETTA.docx

    Extra reading:

    this will allow for greater links beyond the text

    • Chaos breaks out in London 2014.docx
    • V for Vendetta interview.docx  
      

    Purpose and audience

    • Purposes in V for Vendetta by students.pdf

     

     Scene analysis 

    •  Film Commentary
    •   Opening scene analysis.docx  
    • download and save to your files then begin to discuss the scenes while looking at  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sCiGyaSPRhI   
    • Begin Mid End Events.docx   

     

     From web 

    • angles: 
      http://www.mswassonsclass.com/uploads/1/8/7/9/1879554/4051672_orig.png
    • shots: 
      https://pchs-tech.wikispaces.com/file/view/shots_camera_more.JPG/199226946/shots_camera_more.JPG  
    • shots and angles – take note of different language: 
      http://image.slidesharecdn.com/sbcs1-121029104137-phpapp02/95/storyboard-cheat-sheet-1-638.jpg?cb=1351525354   
    • Video of an Analysis of V for Vendetta (The Opening Scene) 
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d3c-VttMQso

     

     

    Homework for film study

     

    Quotes from V for Vendetta  

     

    Questions raised by the movie  

     

    Summary of the film (in your own words)

     

    Planning it out

     

    Characters – Click on the images

     

    Evey

     

    V

     

    Chancellor Sutler

     

    Gordon Deitrich

     

    Mr Creedy

    Finch 

     

     THE BUZZ WORDS – Look at the film and write down the buzz words that the government uses to maintain control

    •  

     

     

     

    Close scene analysis notes for specific scenes

    Scene Presentation 
    V and Evey meet, V blows up Justice building English.pptx  2014 
    V’s Speech at BTN Scene Analysis.pptx  2014 
    Valerie’s story Valerie’s Story.pptx  2014
    Evey would rather die… God is the rain GOD IS IN THE RAIN.pptx  2014
    Sutler’s rise to power (told by Rookwood) english assignment.pptx  2014
    Domino effect scene V for Vendetta (1).pptx  2014
    Why won’t you die? Creedy v. V V for Vendetta.pptx  2014
    End of film – blowing up Parliament vforvendettascenepresentation.pptx  2014

     

     

     

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    NCEA Level 2 2015

    NCEA Level 2 2015

    V for Vendetta Essay

    Analyse how the beginning and / or ending of the visual text(s) demonstrated the director’s purpose.

    The beginning of the visual text V for Vendetta demonstrated the director’s purpose of teaching his audience about the idea of fascism versus anarchy. The opening scenes are crucial for this, as McTeigue used the beginning to cause his audience to empathise with the main characters, resulting in the audience already favouring the anarchists from the very beginning. McTeigue also taught his audience that the fascist government is very cruel, and utilised techniques to make the audience not trust the government, thus setting his viewers up to dislike or even hate the fascist government. He also showed that fascism causes people to hide their individuality. The film follows the story of two anarchists, V and Evey, in their revolt against their oppressive, fascist government. Through this, McTeigue influences the political opinions of his audience, by convincing them that anarchism is superior to fascism. McTeigue used the beginning of V for Vendetta to purposefully manipulate his audiences’ perspectives into believing that anarchism is better than fascism, spreading his political views to his audience.

    McTeigue’s intentions at the beginning of the film are very clear, as he sets up the rest of the story by making his audience empathise with the anarchist main characters. This is an important feature of all films, as the purpose of the beginning of any film is to introduce the characters, setting, and themes of the film. As we know from real life, first impressions are very important in our judgements of people, and characters in a film are no exception. In V for Vendetta, McTeigue uses many film techniques to make his audience view the main characters is a positive way. Firstly, McTeigue shows both Evey and V in their own homes for the beginning of the film. This is crucial as it causes the audience to feel intimacy with these characters and feel like they are getting to know them, which is especially important as the character V is often very emotionally withdrawn from the audience, especially as he wears a mask so they cannot see his expression. Lighting is used convincingly in their homes, as both character’s rooms are warmly lit in soft yellows, which creates a calm, friendly atmosphere. Props are also used, as features such as mirrors and televisions help to make these characters seem like any other person, helping the audience to relate to them. The entire mis en scene of these two locations makes these characters look like any other person, which causes the audience to like these characters and feel like they can relate to them. The effect of this is that right from the beginning of the film, the audience are subconsciously aligning themselves with the anarchist main characters. McTeigue does this to ensure that his opinion that anarchy is better than fascism is believed by his viewers. Another technique used to cause the audience to empathise with the anarchist main characters is narration. Evey narrates the beginning of the film with a voice-over, whilst the shots are of Guy Fawkes’s failed attempt to blow up Parliament. Evey says in this narration “A man can fail…but 400 years later an idea can still change the world”. Near the end of this narration, Guy Fawkes is shown being executed. What is important about this is the shot types used. Close-ups of Guy Fawkes being killed causes the audience to feel closer to him, and this is reiterated with shots of people crying as guy Fawkes is killed. Thus the audience see Guy Fawkes as a person not just the encapsulation of an idea. This is important as like Guy Fawkes, V is a person who embodies the idea of anarchy. However it is very difficult to have a deep connection with an idea. As Evey says in her narration, “but you cannot kiss an idea…it is not an idea I miss, it is a man”, which shows that it is the people who manifest ideas that make us truly believe in their views. Evey’s narration, in conjunction with the shots of Guy Fawkes, are important as it causes the audience to relate to Guy Fawkes, an anarchist, helping the audience to connect better with V and McTeigue’s political views. The way in which McTeigue has manipulated his audience to see anarchism as better than fascism is very similar to many aspects of modern media. The media is influencing the opinions of people worldwide, all day every day. A key way that they are doing this is by personal stories. Despite our best intentions, if we are shown a personal story from one perspective and simply facts from another, no matter how convincing the facts are, we will be swayed towards the perspective of the personal story. This is because we relate to people, so follow their views. Not only is McTeigue manipulating his audience in V for Vendetta to see anarchism as better than fascism by causing us to relate to the main characters, but he is also utilising a common persuasion technique used by the media, showing how easily people can be controlled by feelings of empathy. McTeigue used the beginning of the film to cause his audience to relate to anarchists, causing them to be manipulated into seeing anarchism as better than fascism.

    In order to strengthen the audience’s views towards anarchism being superior to fascism, McTeigue portrays the fascist Government as cruel. The large power of the Government and its oppressive, violent means of controlling its population are focused on. This causes the audience to not trust the fascist Government, thus further manipulating them to believe that anarchy is better than fascism. McTeigue utilises the technique of lighting to do this. Whilst Evey & V’s rooms are in warm light, the outside world is shown in very little lighting and dark colours. Noir lighting is used, which makes the town look very sinister. Tall buildings on either side of the street create the feeling of being trapped in. Through this, the audience learns that the country V and Evey live in is a very cruel place. Evey travels through the night looking very scared and vulnerable, and the audience, who have already been conditioned to empathise with her, also feel trapped and in anticipation. The lack of colour in these scenes also makes life here seem empty, and the people appear cold hearted. This feeling of control by the Government is reiterated by sound effects, with Evey’s footsteps echoing loudly through the streets, continuing this feeling of emptiness. Another instance of diegetic sound being used in the opening scenes to convey the cruelty and power of the Government is the yellow coded curfew which comes over the speaker, showing how these people are not free. McTeigue does this to portray the cruel, oppressive nature of the Government. Camera angles are also used here when Evey is confronted by a group of Fingermen. Fingermen are the corrupt henchman of the Government, who roam the streets looking for people breaking the strict law, who they will then exert ‘justice’ on by attacking them. Evey meets a group of henchmen after curfew. She is shown in high angle shots, to make her look very vulnerable. In contrast, the Fingermen are shown in low angles, which makes them look large and powerful. They are shown from the side and other angles which accentuate their grotesque features, making them appear less human. This shows the hideous nature of the Government, persuading the film’s audience that this fascist Government is evil. McTeigue wanted to persuade his audience that anarchism is better than fascism to warn against powerful governments and to show people to protect their freedom. Some of the features of the Government in V for Vendetta can actually be seen in our governments in the real world. Examples of this include mass surveillance, and the ever-increasing influence of the media. By taking these features and amplifying them in the film, McTeigue is warning his audience that if we allow these things to continue, they could eventually lead to an all-powerful totalitarian government like the fascist Government in V for Vendetta. Thus McTeigue persuaded his audience that anarchism is better than fascism and warned about the increasing power of governments by using film techniques to make the Government of the film be seen as cruel and controlling.

    Another purpose of McTeigue’s is to teach his audience that fascism forces people to lose who they are. This is a further aspect of fascism that McTeigue used to show his audience that anarchism is superior to fascism. At the beginning of the film, there are shots of Evey and V getting ready. An important part of each character getting ready is that they are disguising who they are. V puts on a mask, which is a motif occurring throughout the film. The first time he puts it on, the shot is a point of view shot from V’s perspective, so the audience sees the mask come on as though they themselves are putting it on. This is important as it shows how V is forced to hide himself, rather than revealing who he is underneath. Likewise, Evey hides her true self when she dresses up and puts on her makeup, and goes to see Gordon only under the cover of darkness. Masks are a reoccurring motif of the film, and they are used to symbolise hiding one’s true identity. It is important that they are established at the beginning of the film, as this means that the audience learn that the main characters must hide their true selves in order to survive in this fascist country. McTeigue also uses the opening scenes to show why these characters feel the need to hide their true selves, and why they do not fit in with the society they live in. Whilst Evey and V are getting ready to head out, both have their television on. Playing over the television is what appears to be a news broadcast, however instead of discussing information, the broadcast is very clearly Government propaganda. Lewis Prothero, the presenter, is yelling at the camera about how pathetic America is and how the reason for their failure is godlessness. Prothero ends this broadcast with the dialogue “Strength through unity, unity through faith”. This is the motto of the Government, and clearly demonstrates their views. It shows how the Government is very religious, and how they keep their country unified by using a lot of force. Whilst Prothero is saying this dialogue on the screen, he is extremely angry, seen by his expressions, agitated manner, and very loud, harsh voice. This causes the film’s audience to dislike him, and as he is the mouth of the Government, it further causes the film’s audience to not trust the Government. McTeigue has also developed Prothero in such a way that the audience will draw parallels between him and people they see on the media in the real world. For example, Prothero’s blatant belief in religion can be compared to some extremist religious leaders, and the government’s motto also is in keeping with this. It is also clear later in the film that this fascist government is based off Hitler and Nazi Germany, as many of their actions and beliefs are the same. This comparison between the Government and Nazi Germany actually begins in this opening scene, as the Government Slogan spoken in Prothero’s dialogue of “Strength through unity, unity through faith” is very similar to the Nazi Party slogan of “Ein Volk, ein Reich, ein Führer”, which translates as “One nation, one empire, one leader”. The similarities between these slogans about uniting the country shows how these two fascist, powerful governments believe in uniting their countries through vast power of the leader, who acts supposedly to fulfil God’s intentions. By comparing the Government of V for Vendetta to Hitler and Nazi Germany, the audience learns that this government is very powerful and very cruel. McTeigue wants his audience to believe that anarchism is better than fascism, and he does this by showing how totalitarian governments stop people from being who they truly are, and by comparing the Government to the Nazi Party.

    McTeigue’s purpose in V for Vendetta is to persuade his audience that anarchism is better than fascism. He persuades his audience to believe this right from the very beginning of the film. He carefully chooses to show personal insights into the main character’s lives, and to show them acting just like the average person would, to ensure his audience likes these characters. By making his viewers like these characters, he causes them to feel empathy towards them, thus manipulating them to see their beliefs of anarchism more favourably than they see fascism. In comparison, the fascist Government and the country which they run is shown as evil, causing the audience to be even more swayed towards anarchy as they do not trust the fascist Government. McTeigue also shows the audience how the totalitarian fascist Government is controlling people in all parts of their lives, including making them hide who they truly are. By comparing the Government to extremist rulers such as Hitler, the audience sees that fascist, powerful governments are a bad thing. McTeigue warns his audience through the film that certain aspects of our society, if left unchanged, could lead to fascism as governments slowly gain power. Thus the beginning of V for Vendetta demonstrated McTeigue’s purpose of persuading his audience that anarchism is better than fascism.

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