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Difficulty—Beginner—Outlined Copy

★Prenatal Yoga Online Videos and Classes

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Difficulty & Intensity Guide

This comprehensive guide will help you find which series is right for you

Difficulty Levels

Difficulty refers to the level of skill and technique called for in a class.

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Beginner

Beginner series are most approachable for those who have little or no exposure to yoga. These series typically offer more modifications and detailed instructions on fundamental poses.

These series are perfect for someone who is looking to start a yoga practice and explore the benefits of yoga. These classes can help you to learn the basics of starting a practice, foundational poses, understanding breathwork, and learning to focus on the moment every time you come to the mat.

Read more Close

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Moderate

Moderate classes may include moderate pose modifications and less instruction than found in Beginner classes.

These series are perfect for someone who has previous exposure to yoga, whether at home or in a studio setting, and has a basic understanding of foundational poses and class structure. They are the perfect opportunity to grow your practice, maintain consistency, and enjoy classes designed to grow your pose library and increase your strength.

Read more Close

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Intermediate

Intermediate series tend to be more detailed tutorials on how to achieve more challenging asanas and end-goal poses. These classes help build strength and body awareness by exploring transitions, trying inversions, and mastering breath and movement.

These series are perfect for someone who has a consistent yoga practice and has established confidence in poses, progressions, and general yoga knowledge. They help students express creativity and find freedom in exploring flows and movement. There is less cueing than in Beginner or Moderate content.

Read more Close

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Advanced

Advanced classes are the perfect opportunity to explore your potential beyond what is found in typical in-studio classes. You’ll find your edge while exploring a greater level of strength, control, and skill work.

These series are ideal for students who have high body awareness, are comfortable with most poses, and have confidence in their strength and breath work. These classes allow opportunities to practice inversions, floating, or advanced transitions.

Read more Close

Created with Sketch.








Beginner

Beginner series are most approachable for those who have little or no exposure to yoga. These series typically offer more modifications and detailed instructions on fundamental poses.

These series are perfect for someone who is looking to start a yoga practice and explore the benefits of yoga. These classes can help you to learn the basics of starting a practice, foundational poses, understanding breathwork, and learning to focus on the moment every time you come to the mat.

Read more Close

Created with Sketch.








Moderate

Moderate classes may include moderate pose modifications and less instruction than found in Beginner classes.

These series are perfect for someone who has previous exposure to yoga, whether at home or in a studio setting, and has a basic understanding of foundational poses and class structure. They are the perfect opportunity to grow your practice, maintain consistency, and enjoy classes designed to grow your pose library and increase your strength.

Read more Close

Created with Sketch.








Intermediate

Intermediate series tend to be more detailed tutorials on how to achieve more challenging asanas and end-goal poses. These classes help build strength and body awareness by exploring transitions, trying inversions, and mastering breath and movement.

These series are perfect for someone who has a consistent yoga practice and has established confidence in poses, progressions, and general yoga knowledge. They help students express creativity and find freedom in exploring flows and movement. There is less cueing than in Beginner or Moderate content.

Read more Close

Created with Sketch.








Advanced

Advanced classes are the perfect opportunity to explore your potential beyond what is found in typical in-studio classes. You’ll find your edge while exploring a greater level of strength, control, and skill work.

These series are ideal for students who have high body awareness, are comfortable with most poses, and have confidence in their strength and breath work. These classes allow opportunities to practice inversions, floating, or advanced transitions.

Read more Close

Intensity Levels

Intensity is not the same as difficulty; it refers to the amount of exertion that a workout requires.

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Level 1

This intensity level is ideal for students seeking slow-paced, restorative, or breath-focused content.
Students often leave their mat feeling relaxed and at-ease.

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Level 2

Series within this level vary from energizing flows to entry-level strength content.
They typically move at a slow-to-moderate pace. Students can expect to feel comfortably challenged and explore a wider
range of movement.

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Level 3

Get sweaty with flow and strength content designed to increase your breathing and challenge your limits.
Level 3 intensity classes will increase the pace of your movement and test your endurance.

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Level 4

Push your edge in classes designed to make you sweat. This intensity level moves at a fast pace to increase your heart rate and
accelerate your breathing. Work hard to discover untapped levels of strength and endurance.

Created with Sketch.








Level 1

This intensity level is ideal for students seeking slow-paced, restorative, or breath-focused content.
Students often leave their mat feeling relaxed and at-ease.

Created with Sketch.








Level 2

Series within this level vary from energizing flows to entry-level strength content.
They typically move at a slow-to-moderate pace. Students can expect to feel comfortably challenged and explore a wider
range of movement.

Created with Sketch.








Level 3

Get sweaty with flow and strength content designed to increase your breathing and challenge your limits.
Level 3 intensity classes will increase the pace of your movement and test your endurance.

Created with Sketch.








Level 4

Push your edge in classes designed to make you sweat. This intensity level moves at a fast pace to increase your heart rate and
accelerate your breathing. Work hard to discover untapped levels of strength and endurance.
Intensity Levels

Intensity is not the same as difficulty; it refers to the amount of exertion that a workout requires.

Created with Sketch.








Level 1

This intensity level is ideal for students seeking slow-paced, restorative, or breath-focused content.
Students often leave their mat feeling relaxed and at-ease.

Created with Sketch.








Level 2

Series within this level vary from energizing flows to entry-level strength content.
They typically move at a slow-to-moderate pace. Students can expect to feel comfortably challenged and explore a wider
range of movement.

Created with Sketch.








Level 3

Get sweaty with flow and strength content designed to increase your breathing and challenge your limits.
Level 3 intensity classes will increase the pace of your movement and test your endurance.

Created with Sketch.








Level 4

Push your edge in classes designed to make you sweat. This intensity level moves at a fast pace to increase your heart rate and
accelerate your breathing. Work hard to discover untapped levels of strength and endurance.

Created with Sketch.








Level 1

This intensity level is ideal for students seeking slow-paced, restorative, or breath-focused content.
Students often leave their mat feeling relaxed and at-ease.

Created with Sketch.








Level 2

Series within this level vary from energizing flows to entry-level strength content.
They typically move at a slow-to-moderate pace. Students can expect to feel comfortably challenged and explore a wider
range of movement.

Created with Sketch.








Level 3

Get sweaty with flow and strength content designed to increase your breathing and challenge your limits.
Level 3 intensity classes will increase the pace of your movement and test your endurance.

Created with Sketch.








Level 4

Push your edge in classes designed to make you sweat. This intensity level moves at a fast pace to increase your heart rate and
accelerate your breathing. Work hard to discover untapped levels of strength and endurance.

How This Fits Together

Each series lives at an intersection of Difficulty and Intensity. While one maybe Beginner and Intensity 4, another may be Advanced and Intensity 1. We have something for everyone in every mood.

Tap a square to explore all series at that intersection of Diffuculty & Intensity

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4

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Beginner

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Intensity 4
Explore all series

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Moderate

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Intensity 4
Explore all series

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Intermediate

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Intensity 4
Explore all series

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Advanced

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Intensity 4
Explore all series

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3

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Beginner

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Intensity 3
Explore all series

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Moderate

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Intensity 3
Explore all series

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Intermediate

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Intensity 3
Explore all series

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Advanced

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Intensity 3
Explore all series

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2

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Beginner

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Intensity 2
Explore all series

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Moderate

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Intensity 2
Explore all series

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Intermediate

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Intensity 2
Explore all series

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Advanced

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Intensity 2
Explore all series

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1

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Beginner

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Intensity 1
Explore all series

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Moderate

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Intensity 1
Explore all series

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Intermediate

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Intensity 1
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Advanced

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Intensity 1
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Beginner

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Moderate

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Intermediate

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Advanced
Difficulty Levels
Intensity Levels

MacKenzie Miller's "Prenatal Yoga" Online Video Workouts on Alo Moves

Prenatal Yoga

MacKenzie Miller

Start Practicing
  • Overview
  • Classes
  • Community

What you get

  • Free 14 Day Trial
  • iPhone & Android
  • Download For Offline Use

About the Series

Care for your mental, emotional, and physical health during your pregnancy and beyond. This series is designed to empower and support your changing body with prenatal-specific yoga flows, meditations, lectures, and pranayama.

While many prenatal programs bypass the importance and power of the mind, this series embodies the whole journey of pregnancy. It speaks to the physical and physiological changes that occur and empowers you to feel confident while taking care of yourself during pregnancy. Modifications are provided for your practice as you evolve throughout your pregnancy journey.

It is so important to also tend to your mental wellbeing during your pregnancy. The included meditations will help you stay calm and grounded while on the rollercoaster of your pregnancy while providing you with time to connect to the being that is developing inside your belly.

This series includes:

• Two yoga flows filled with prenatal-specific modifications for each trimester.

• One strength training practice designed to maintain strength, stability, and power.

• Two lectures to inform and empower with information about the psychological, physiological, and cardiovascular changes that are taking place in your body.

• Four meditation practices that encourage centeredness during times of emotional, physical, and hormonal changes. It also allows for special quiet time with your growing baby.

• One pranayama practice to help harness the power of breath during labor and delivery.

• One myofascial release class to relieve physical discomfort and tension.

Both mind and body will reap the amazing benefits of exercise, movement, meditation, and self-care, helping to prepare you for the arrival of your bundle of joy.

Read More
Read Less

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instructor


Instructor


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Normal fa332be3 3fe0 4788 9ac3 fd71432eef44MacKenzie Miller

Work hard, find softness. MacKenzie Miller will leave you feeling as if you have flirted with gravity and laughed with the divine. Students are instantaneously transported away from the hustle of their daily lives, allowing their mat to be an arena reserved for cultivating inner peace.

MacKenzie is a certified personal trainer and yoga instructor. Her teaching combines thorough understanding of alignment and anatomy with the joy of balance and movement. She engages deeply with her students and her classes are thoughtfully sequenced, creating a safe space to have fun and explore, work hard yet find softness.

No aspect of the modern practice experience is left untouched. All will leave energized, grinning and humming at the end.

Total Run Time

5 hr 6 min


(12 Videos)

Difficulty

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Moderate

Intensity

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Intensity 2
Difficulty & Intensity Guide
Difficulty & Intensity Guide

What you get

  • Lifetime Access
  • Satisfaction Guarantee
  • iPhone Access

Classes

  • Movegrid

    1

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    Preview: Go With The Flow

    (15:03)

  • Movegrid

    2

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    Preview: Embracing The New You

    (10:24)

  • Movegrid

    3

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    How To Approach This Plan

    (3:06)

  • Movegrid

    4

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    Lecture: Changes During Pregnancy

    (19:05)

    This lecture discusses the many physical and hormonal changes that occur during pregnancy. You will gain insight into how these changes impact your body and therefore, your…
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    5

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    Lecture: How To Modify During Pregnancy

    (22:15)

    This lecture provides suggestions and recommendations applicable to your yoga practice or fitness routine by trimester, always remembering your body is your best guide.
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    6

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    Meditation: I Trust My Body

    (18:20)

    Women’s bodies are miracle makers. This meditation helps strengthen the bond between you and your body. Building trust in its ability to communicate with you will help you …
  • Movegrid

    7

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    Meditation: Moving Through Fear

    (17:52)

    Fear is present at some point during pregnancy, whether it be about the process, the baby, or your ability as a mother. Instead of letting your fears run rampant, this medi…
  • Movegrid

    8

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    Meditation: Embracing The New You

    (18:33)

    In this meditation, we reflect on the emotional and physical changes that occur during pregnancy.
  • Movegrid

    9

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    Meditation: The Waves

    (18:40)

    This wave meditation will guide you through fluctuations of the mind and body. It comes in handy during labor when you are having contractions.
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    10

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    Pranayama: The Power Of Breath

    (16:57)

    Pranayama practices are powerful coping tools, especially when life is stressful or chaotic. This pranayama practice will guide you through Nadi Shodhana, which is a breath…
  • Movegrid

    11

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    Restorative: Soft & Supported

    (30:32)

    Feel completely supported with gentle poses that create space and is doable throughout your whole pregnancy.
  • Movegrid

    12

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    Myofascial Release: Revive & Refresh

    (31:16)

    Nourish your fascia and release physical tension through this myofascial practice. This class can provide the physical release you desire without the negative side effects …
  • Movegrid

    13

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    Strength Training: I Am Powerful

    (36:27)

    Strength work helped me step into my physical power during pregnancy, and helped me realize how much strength comes from the mind. In the circuit training, we strengthen yo…
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    14

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    Flow: Supple & Strong

    (38:45)

    This 30-minute flow is all about creating healthy mobility and strength around your hips. I provide variations throughout so you can adjust and modify to what feels best to…
  • Movegrid

    15

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    Flow: Go With The Flow

    (34:31)

    This simple flow allows you time to move and breathe in your body. We place emphasis on opening the upper body, specifically the chest and shoulders. Enjoy!

Start your free
14-day trial

Get unlimited access to thousands of videos on Alo Moves

Learn More

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Prenatal Yoga Master Class

ASW20 Applications

Health & fitness

Keeping in shape whilst pregnant is so important and will make getting back in shape after the birth so much easier. Yoga is being used by more and more women to do just that.

This collection of 177 prenatal yoga and pilates exercise tuitional videos will hopefully give you plenty on inspiration to stay in shape. Many if not all of the workouts can be carried out in the comfort of your own home.

App features:
** Edit the video title, subtitle and keep your own set of user notes.
** Move the video around it's group and even change it's group.
** Make videos your favourites and give them your own rating
** Search by title or notes
** View by favourites or rating
** View by history the last ten played or visited videos

Videos include:
Prenatal Yoga Routine Lara Dutta
Prenatal Yoga 1 – 25 min version
Heidi Kristoffers Prenatal Yoga Flow Part 1
Prenatal Yoga Flow 2 Shoulders and Arms With Heidi
Prenatal Yoga With Heidi Legs and Butt
The Absolute Best Yoga Move To Do During Pregnancy
Beginner Prenatal Yoga Baby Mama Yoga 1 – BEXLIFE
Prenatal Yoga Love Your Unborn Baby In The Womb 15 Minute Pregnant Yoga Routine Part 1
Prenatal Yoga Exercise with Debra Geymayr
PreNatal Yoga for Beginners 29 minute Yoga Class
Pregnancy Yoga – Main Routine
Shiva Rea Mama and Baby Yoga Yoga Gaiam
Prenatal Yoga with Lara Dutta Routine
Denise Austin 3rd Trimester Toning Pregnancy Workout
Third Trimester Pregnancy Exercises Beautiful Belly Healthy Pregnancy Workout
40 Weeks of Fitness Prenatal Workout Series with Lauren Huber Griffith Full Video
Prenatal Yoga with Summer Huntington
Free Yoga Class Prenatal yoga class online with Lesley Fightmaster Pregnancy Yoga
prenatal yoga – pregnancy yoga for birth
30 Minute Intermediate Advanced Prenatal Yoga
Pregnancy Yoga – Strength Stability
Pregnancy Yoga – Energising Flow
Pregnancy Yoga – Vinyasa Flow
Pregnancy Yoga Birth Preparation
Pregnancy Yoga – Embrace Change
Pregnancy Yoga is back
Pregnancy Yoga – 5 Key Modifications
Labour Oriented Endurance Exercises – Keep-ups
Lara Dutta Meditation Yoga
Har Har Meditation
Pregnancy Exercises – Yoga
Pregnancy Yoga – Warm up routine
Method PreNatal Yoga 2-5
Method PreNatal Yoga 4-5
Method PreNatal Yoga 5-5
Method PreNatal Yoga 3-5
Method PreNatal Yoga 1-5
Pregnancy Exercise – Warm Up
Pregnancy Exercises – shoulders and obliques
Prenatal Yoga Routine Gift Of Life 1st Trimester
Prenatal Vinyasa Yoga for Flow and Hip Opening
Happy Pregnancy Workout Exercises for 1st 2nd Trimester
20-Minute Gentle Prenatal Yoga Class Yoga w OneUrbanYogini
Pregnancy Yoga How to Workout Stretches For Pregnant Women by Jen Hilman
Leg and Butt Workout Prenatal Fitness Class FitSugar
Pregnancy Workout 1st 2nd Trimester Toning- Denise Austin
Denise Austin Prenatal Cardio Workout- Fit Firm Pregnancy
Prenatal Stretching and Strengthening Workout Wellness Today
Prenatal Safe Stretch Routine Relief for insomnia restless leg syndrome sciatica more
Prenatal Cardio Dance Workout for a Fit Pregnancy KeairaLaShae
Yoga for the second trimester
Heidi Klum Prenatal Workout Andrea Orbeck Fitness Class FitSugar
All Levels Prenatal Yoga for Strength and Balance
Second Trimester Pre Natal Exercise Video
Prenatal Yoga with Lara Dutta – Routine
Pregnancy Yoga with Esther Ekhart and Jess
Pregnancy Yoga with Esther Ekhart and Jess Part 2
Prenatal Pregnancy Yoga Exercise
Prenatal Yoga for Digestion
Prenatal yoga labor inducing yoga
Warrior Pregnancy Yoga
Pregnancy Yoga Ease Hip Pain and Discomfort in Lower Back
Prenatal Yoga with Lara Dutta – Relevance and Benefits
Soham Meditation with Lara Dutta – Ajapa Japa
Prenatal Yoga with Lara Dutta – Labour Oriented endurance exercisesKeep–ups
Prenatal Yoga with Lara Dutta – Har Har Meditation
Third Trimester Prenatal Yoga 3rd Trimester Prenatal Yoga Garland Pose
Hatha Yoga for Joints ALL LEVELS Posture
Yoga for the Third Trimester
Antenatal Breathing and Relaxation for Labour

and many more

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$2.99








Prenatal Yoga Master Class

Overview
System Requirements
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Available on


PC


Mobile device


Hub

Description

Keeping in shape whilst pregnant is so important and will make getting back in shape after the birth so much easier. Yoga is being used by more and more women to do just that.

This collection of 177 prenatal yoga and pilates exercise tuitional videos will hopefully give you plenty on inspiration to stay in shape. Many if not all of the workouts can be carried out in the comfort of your own home.

App features:
** Edit the video title, subtitle and keep your own set of user notes.
** Move the video around it’s group and even change it’s group.
** Make videos your favourites and give them your own rating
** Search by title or notes
** View by favourites or rating
** View by history the last ten played or visited videos

Videos include:
Prenatal Yoga Routine Lara Dutta
Prenatal Yoga 1 – 25 min version
Heidi Kristoffers Prenatal Yoga Flow Part 1
Prenatal Yoga Flow 2 Shoulders and Arms With Heidi
Prenatal Yoga With Heidi Legs and Butt
The Absolute Best Yoga Move To Do During Pregnancy
Beginner Prenatal Yoga Baby Mama Yoga 1 – BEXLIFE
Prenatal Yoga Love Your Unborn Baby In The Womb 15 Minute Pregnant Yoga Routine Part 1
Prenatal Yoga Exercise with Debra Geymayr
PreNatal Yoga for Beginners 29 minute Yoga Class
Pregnancy Yoga – Main Routine
Shiva Rea Mama and Baby Yoga Yoga Gaiam
Prenatal Yoga with Lara Dutta Routine
Denise Austin 3rd Trimester Toning Pregnancy Workout
Third Trimester Pregnancy Exercises Beautiful Belly Healthy Pregnancy Workout
40 Weeks of Fitness Prenatal Workout Series with Lauren Huber Griffith Full Video
Prenatal Yoga with Summer Huntington
Free Yoga Class Prenatal yoga class online with Lesley Fightmaster Pregnancy Yoga
prenatal yoga – pregnancy yoga for birth
30 Minute Intermediate Advanced Prenatal Yoga
Pregnancy Yoga – Strength Stability
Pregnancy Yoga – Energising Flow
Pregnancy Yoga – Vinyasa Flow
Pregnancy Yoga Birth Preparation
Pregnancy Yoga – Embrace Change
Pregnancy Yoga is back
Pregnancy Yoga – 5 Key Modifications
Labour Oriented Endurance Exercises – Keep-ups
Lara Dutta Meditation Yoga
Har Har Meditation
Pregnancy Exercises – Yoga
Pregnancy Yoga – Warm up routine
Method PreNatal Yoga 2-5
Method PreNatal Yoga 4-5
Method PreNatal Yoga 5-5
Method PreNatal Yoga 3-5
Method PreNatal Yoga 1-5
Pregnancy Exercise – Warm Up
Pregnancy Exercises – shoulders and obliques
Prenatal Yoga Routine Gift Of Life 1st Trimester
Prenatal Vinyasa Yoga for Flow and Hip Opening
Happy Pregnancy Workout Exercises for 1st 2nd Trimester
20-Minute Gentle Prenatal Yoga Class Yoga w OneUrbanYogini
Pregnancy Yoga How to Workout Stretches For Pregnant Women by Jen Hilman
Leg and Butt Workout Prenatal Fitness Class FitSugar
Pregnancy Workout 1st 2nd Trimester Toning- Denise Austin
Denise Austin Prenatal Cardio Workout- Fit Firm Pregnancy
Prenatal Stretching and Strengthening Workout Wellness Today
Prenatal Safe Stretch Routine Relief for insomnia restless leg syndrome sciatica more
Prenatal Cardio Dance Workout for a Fit Pregnancy KeairaLaShae
Yoga for the second trimester
Heidi Klum Prenatal Workout Andrea Orbeck Fitness Class FitSugar
All Levels Prenatal Yoga for Strength and Balance
Second Trimester Pre Natal Exercise Video
Prenatal Yoga with Lara Dutta – Routine
Pregnancy Yoga with Esther Ekhart and Jess
Pregnancy Yoga with Esther Ekhart and Jess Part 2
Prenatal Pregnancy Yoga Exercise
Prenatal Yoga for Digestion
Prenatal yoga labor inducing yoga
Warrior Pregnancy Yoga
Pregnancy Yoga Ease Hip Pain and Discomfort in Lower Back
Prenatal Yoga with Lara Dutta – Relevance and Benefits
Soham Meditation with Lara Dutta – Ajapa Japa
Prenatal Yoga with Lara Dutta – Labour Oriented endurance exercisesKeep–ups
Prenatal Yoga with Lara Dutta – Har Har Meditation
Third Trimester Prenatal Yoga 3rd Trimester Prenatal Yoga Garland Pose
Hatha Yoga for Joints ALL LEVELS Posture
Yoga for the Third Trimester
Antenatal Breathing and Relaxation for Labour

and many more

Screenshots


  • Screenshot 1
  • Screenshot 2
  • Screenshot 3
  • Screenshot 4
  • Screenshot 5
  • Screenshot 6

Features

  • Use this app as a “Video Referencing Library” where you can come back for a refresher lesson or search for how to do something new.
  • Edit the video title, subtitle and keep your own set of user notes.
  • Move the video around it’s group and even change it’s group.
  • Make videos your favourites and give them your own rating
  • Search by title or notes
  • View by favourites or rating
  • View by history the last ten played or visited videos

Additional information

Published by


ASW20 Applications


Copyright


ASW20apps


Developed by


ASW20 Applications

Release date


10/10/2016

Approximate size


7.59 MB

Category


Health & fitness

This app can


Access your Internet connection


Permissions info

Installation


Get this app while signed in to your Microsoft account and install on up to ten Windows 10 devices.

Language supported


English (United States)


Publisher Info


Prenatal Yoga Master Class support


Additional terms


Terms of transaction


Seizure warnings


Photosensitive seizure warning


Report this product


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★THESIS TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP, ENGAGEMENT, AND …

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How to Apply Transformational Leadership at Your Company

Transformational leadership is only one style of management, but it has the potential to empower your workforce to do more than you thought possible.

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Rich Hein

By Rich Hein

Senior Managing Editor,

CIO |

To be a leader and manager you need to have a solid understanding of things such as project management, organizational skills, managing employees and monitoring their performance, but even masters of these skills aren’t necessarily transformational leaders. These skills are simply the foundation on which a transformational leader is most effective.

Some people are just born with leaderships skills and the rest of us have to work at it. You’ve seen them before–the charismatic leaders who have a way of motivating the people around them. They instill a feeling that we are all accountable and that if one of us fails, we all fail.

Transformational Leadership Image

These leaders are on a mission to effect positive change for both the organization and the people they work with, and their energy and passion help fuel cohesion among peers and team members, allowing them to larger than the sum of their parts. They challenge long-held assumptions and don’t accept answers like, “because this is the way we’ve always done it.”

[ Beware the 9 warning signs of bad IT architecture and see why these 10 old-school IT principles still rule . | Sign up for CIO newsletters . ]

What Is Transformational Leadership?

Transformational problems are the critical issues a company or organization faces. Most times they relate to attitudes, behaviors and culture. They are rooted in the core and can be difficult to pinpoint without deep analysis.

“Woodrow Wilson called for leaders who, by boldly interpreting the nation’s conscience, could lift a people out of their everyday selves. That people can be lifted into their better selves is the secret of transforming leadership,” – James MacGregor Burns .

James MacGregor Burns is credited with creating the concept of transformational leadership in 1978. He was a presidential biographer and a leadership expert who focused mainly on the improvement of management principles and procedures.

Burns said that a transformational leader needs to have a solid understanding of the necessary goals to be successful and be articulate in explaining those goals and the method to which they are to be achieved.

[ Looking to upgrade your career in tech? This comprehensive online course teaches you how. ]

“Change doesn’t really happen at a company; it happens with people, so in order to lead change you have to know how to lead people,” says Pamela Rucker , chairwoman of the CIO Executive Council’s Executive Women in IT.

Transformational leaders are described as charismatic, enthusiastic, optimistic, passionate and sometimes visionary, giving them the ability to change long-held perceptions and beliefs. Those traits can spread like a wildfire; when they do, leaders and workers can engage more effectively allowing real transformation to take place.

Leadership Styles

Kevin Ford co-author of the upcoming book, “The Leadership Triangle” and CIO of Tag Consulting says he believes there are three kinds of successful leadership styles and that each one has its own place depending on the challenges you are facing:

  • Tactical: These leaders are solving pretty straight-forward problems. “Tactical issues are solved by expertise. Tactical challenges are the daily bread of the operations-oriented manager,” writes Ford in The Leadership Triangle.
  • Strategic: These leaders are working towards the future with a vision. “Visionaries are different in that they tend to be creative or generative in their approach. They have the ability to see the future and predict specific trends,” says Ford.
  • Transformational: This leader is a facilitator who doesn’t make decisions or establish strategic plans but, instead, facilitates a series of conversations among key stakeholders. “Transformational leaders are driven by a strong set of values and a sense of mission. Often times the strategic leader will have a vision but can’t execute it because they can’t deal with the transformative issues. A transformational leader has a more generalized vision, that’s one of the common good or what’s in the best interests of the stakeholders there.

The big difference, according to Ford, “is that the transformational leader doesn’t always know where things are going to wind up, only that it will be better than where we are today.” There is a time and place for each style, Ford says, but when companies are looking for a turnaround or to keep from getting left behind many times a transformational leader is what they are looking for.

What Embodies a Transformational Leader?

What qualities should a transformational leader possess? Here are thoughts from experts on the topic.

“If you want to transform something, you have to know what it is and not just the technology that supports it. You need to have a vision of where you want to go and be able to communicate it,” says Rucker.

In order to be transformative, according to Rucker, you need to have diversity of thought. You have to make sure that all the key stakeholders are represented in any decision that you make. You shouldn’t just have your own team coming up with ideas on what they think they know about the projects, the company or the industry. You have to honestly care about what these people [peers and stakeholders] want and need in order to make sure those needs are adequately represented and that every solution you provide has been vetted.

You need purposefully find good people with different perspectives who will shake things up and bring in new ideas. You can’t come up with all the ideas yourself. Find a way to look for experts in whatever you are trying to achieve, you have to challenge long-term assumptions people may have,” says Rucker.

“A transformational leader has to be strategic from a planning and objective setting perspective, a strong communicator that can be trusted so that by extension people are willing to ‘get on the bus’, and both be passionate & focused in order to drive change from inception to a successful conclusion, “says Greg Stewart , vice president and CIO of Enerflex.

“Some people see a transformational leader as someone who comes in and radically changes everything and I don’t see it that way,” says Jeffrey S. Shipley, vice president and CIO at Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Kansas City.

“I see it as more of a mentoring or coaching role. It’s about motivation, empowerment and morale of the employees. You have to take the time to individualize, be the role model and understand people and how they think. You need to challenge long-term assumptions and beliefs and think about things a different way,” Shipley says.

“Transformational leadership, as we understand it, is mobilizing people to the common good. The ability to create a safe place to have conversations and voice ideas is very important. Ethics, morality and integrity are a huge part of transformational leadership, even if it’s not in the best interest of self. The transformational leader needs to build trust and that can’t be done in the short-term, it can only be done in the long-term. Anyone can be a transformational leader; it’s all contextual and it’s all driven by scale,” says Ford.

For a look at how to draw out your transformational leadership qualities in your resume, see ” IT resume makeover: Highlighting transformational leadership .”

5 Things You Need to Facilitate Transformation

1. Intellectual Stimulation

By rocking the boat and asking questions, transformational leaders are always challenging the status quo and aren’t afraid of failure. They foster an environment where it’s safe to have conversations, be creative and voice ideas, a place where all team members feel valued. They challenge cultural norms and work to inspire passion with their teams and peers. As Rucker puts it, they are adept at, “turning me moments into we moments.”

Shipley says that managers who have a command-and-control style of leadership can get a lot accomplished, but, he says, they achieve short-term. You can have great success but you can’t maintain long-term success that way.”

A better approach, Shipley says, is to guide your team, but let them solve the problem on their own.

2. Individualized Consideration

Is the golden rule flawed? Maybe not but consider this: Don’t treat people how you want to be treated, treat them the way they want to be treated. People are different and what motivates and excites you is different from your peers and coworkers. “You have to learn to adapt your style to accommodate the skills and people on your team,” says Rucker.

3. Inspirational Motivation

Know where you want to go and create a vision or strategy to get there and then articulate, with optimism and passion, your vision to show them how all this matters in the big picture. “It’s really the meaning behind why you’re doing the job you’re doing that’s so important to communicate to people. I take great pride in understanding my employees and what motivates them,” says Shipley. He offers this analogy:

Two guys are digging a ditch, so I asked one of them, “What are you doing?” He says digging a ditch, what’s it look like I’m doing? I asked the other guy the same question and he says, “I’m building a hospital.”

It’s getting into the minds of the people so that they understand that whatever task they’re doing, they’re not doing that task, they’re a part of something larger “They aren’t digging a ditch or writing that code; they are transforming the way healthcare is delivered in this country,” says Shipley.

4. Idealized Influence

“Divorced from ethics, leadership is reduced to management and politics to mere technique,” writes Burns.

Transformational leadership requires decision-making that works towards the greater good. You need to be a mentor of sorts and lead by example. “Values-based leadership is necessary for driving sustainable change as this ensures that the results achieved are underpinned with a strong moral and ethical foundation, thus they can also stand up to any scrutiny or resistance to change,” says Stewart.

5. Perseverance Through Conflict

Experts agree that transformational change will create conflict. You’re going to have people fight and/or ignore you. “You have to master the role by figuring out how you’re going to get all these people to work with you. Doing that will change the position you have into the power you need to change the company,” says Rucker.

Are you ready to take up the mantle of the transformational leader? You don’t have to be the boss to do so. “Anyone can be a transformational leader, it’s all contextual and it’s all driven by scale,” says Ford.

Rich Hein is a senior writer for CIO.com. He covers IT careers. Follow everything from CIO.com on Twitter @CIOonline , on Facebook, and on Google + .

Next read this:

  • 7 habits of highly effective digital leaders

  • 20 ways to kill your IT career (without knowing it)

  • 16 time-saving tips for IT leaders

  • CIO resumes: 6 best practices and 4 strong examples

  • Why IT-business alignment still fails

  • Top 12 ITSM tools for 2018

  • 6 most-dreaded IT projects

  • CIO playbook: 10 tips for leading IT in the digital era

  • 15 ways to advance your IT career

  • 7 habits of highly effective digital transformations

Related:

  • Careers
  • Innovation
  • Relationship Building and Networking
  • CIO Role
  • IT Strategy
  • IT Leadership

Rich Hein is senior managing editor for CIO.com. He covers IT careers and leadership topics.

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How to Apply Transformational Leadership at Your Company

Transformational leadership is only one style of management, but it has the potential to empower your workforce to do more than you thought possible.

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Rich Hein

By Rich Hein

Senior Managing Editor,

CIO |

To be a leader and manager you need to have a solid understanding of things such as project management, organizational skills, managing employees and monitoring their performance, but even masters of these skills aren’t necessarily transformational leaders. These skills are simply the foundation on which a transformational leader is most effective.

Some people are just born with leaderships skills and the rest of us have to work at it. You’ve seen them before–the charismatic leaders who have a way of motivating the people around them. They instill a feeling that we are all accountable and that if one of us fails, we all fail.

Transformational Leadership Image

These leaders are on a mission to effect positive change for both the organization and the people they work with, and their energy and passion help fuel cohesion among peers and team members, allowing them to larger than the sum of their parts. They challenge long-held assumptions and don’t accept answers like, “because this is the way we’ve always done it.”

[ Beware the 9 warning signs of bad IT architecture and see why these 10 old-school IT principles still rule . | Sign up for CIO newsletters . ]

What Is Transformational Leadership?

Transformational problems are the critical issues a company or organization faces. Most times they relate to attitudes, behaviors and culture. They are rooted in the core and can be difficult to pinpoint without deep analysis.

“Woodrow Wilson called for leaders who, by boldly interpreting the nation’s conscience, could lift a people out of their everyday selves. That people can be lifted into their better selves is the secret of transforming leadership,” – James MacGregor Burns .

James MacGregor Burns is credited with creating the concept of transformational leadership in 1978. He was a presidential biographer and a leadership expert who focused mainly on the improvement of management principles and procedures.

Burns said that a transformational leader needs to have a solid understanding of the necessary goals to be successful and be articulate in explaining those goals and the method to which they are to be achieved.

[ Looking to upgrade your career in tech? This comprehensive online course teaches you how. ]

“Change doesn’t really happen at a company; it happens with people, so in order to lead change you have to know how to lead people,” says Pamela Rucker , chairwoman of the CIO Executive Council’s Executive Women in IT.

Transformational leaders are described as charismatic, enthusiastic, optimistic, passionate and sometimes visionary, giving them the ability to change long-held perceptions and beliefs. Those traits can spread like a wildfire; when they do, leaders and workers can engage more effectively allowing real transformation to take place.

Leadership Styles

Kevin Ford co-author of the upcoming book, “The Leadership Triangle” and CIO of Tag Consulting says he believes there are three kinds of successful leadership styles and that each one has its own place depending on the challenges you are facing:

  • Tactical: These leaders are solving pretty straight-forward problems. “Tactical issues are solved by expertise. Tactical challenges are the daily bread of the operations-oriented manager,” writes Ford in The Leadership Triangle.
  • Strategic: These leaders are working towards the future with a vision. “Visionaries are different in that they tend to be creative or generative in their approach. They have the ability to see the future and predict specific trends,” says Ford.
  • Transformational: This leader is a facilitator who doesn’t make decisions or establish strategic plans but, instead, facilitates a series of conversations among key stakeholders. “Transformational leaders are driven by a strong set of values and a sense of mission. Often times the strategic leader will have a vision but can’t execute it because they can’t deal with the transformative issues. A transformational leader has a more generalized vision, that’s one of the common good or what’s in the best interests of the stakeholders there.

The big difference, according to Ford, “is that the transformational leader doesn’t always know where things are going to wind up, only that it will be better than where we are today.” There is a time and place for each style, Ford says, but when companies are looking for a turnaround or to keep from getting left behind many times a transformational leader is what they are looking for.

What Embodies a Transformational Leader?

What qualities should a transformational leader possess? Here are thoughts from experts on the topic.

“If you want to transform something, you have to know what it is and not just the technology that supports it. You need to have a vision of where you want to go and be able to communicate it,” says Rucker.

In order to be transformative, according to Rucker, you need to have diversity of thought. You have to make sure that all the key stakeholders are represented in any decision that you make. You shouldn’t just have your own team coming up with ideas on what they think they know about the projects, the company or the industry. You have to honestly care about what these people [peers and stakeholders] want and need in order to make sure those needs are adequately represented and that every solution you provide has been vetted.

You need purposefully find good people with different perspectives who will shake things up and bring in new ideas. You can’t come up with all the ideas yourself. Find a way to look for experts in whatever you are trying to achieve, you have to challenge long-term assumptions people may have,” says Rucker.

“A transformational leader has to be strategic from a planning and objective setting perspective, a strong communicator that can be trusted so that by extension people are willing to ‘get on the bus’, and both be passionate & focused in order to drive change from inception to a successful conclusion, “says Greg Stewart , vice president and CIO of Enerflex.

“Some people see a transformational leader as someone who comes in and radically changes everything and I don’t see it that way,” says Jeffrey S. Shipley, vice president and CIO at Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Kansas City.

“I see it as more of a mentoring or coaching role. It’s about motivation, empowerment and morale of the employees. You have to take the time to individualize, be the role model and understand people and how they think. You need to challenge long-term assumptions and beliefs and think about things a different way,” Shipley says.

“Transformational leadership, as we understand it, is mobilizing people to the common good. The ability to create a safe place to have conversations and voice ideas is very important. Ethics, morality and integrity are a huge part of transformational leadership, even if it’s not in the best interest of self. The transformational leader needs to build trust and that can’t be done in the short-term, it can only be done in the long-term. Anyone can be a transformational leader; it’s all contextual and it’s all driven by scale,” says Ford.

For a look at how to draw out your transformational leadership qualities in your resume, see ” IT resume makeover: Highlighting transformational leadership .”

5 Things You Need to Facilitate Transformation

1. Intellectual Stimulation

By rocking the boat and asking questions, transformational leaders are always challenging the status quo and aren’t afraid of failure. They foster an environment where it’s safe to have conversations, be creative and voice ideas, a place where all team members feel valued. They challenge cultural norms and work to inspire passion with their teams and peers. As Rucker puts it, they are adept at, “turning me moments into we moments.”

Shipley says that managers who have a command-and-control style of leadership can get a lot accomplished, but, he says, they achieve short-term. You can have great success but you can’t maintain long-term success that way.”

A better approach, Shipley says, is to guide your team, but let them solve the problem on their own.

2. Individualized Consideration

Is the golden rule flawed? Maybe not but consider this: Don’t treat people how you want to be treated, treat them the way they want to be treated. People are different and what motivates and excites you is different from your peers and coworkers. “You have to learn to adapt your style to accommodate the skills and people on your team,” says Rucker.

3. Inspirational Motivation

Know where you want to go and create a vision or strategy to get there and then articulate, with optimism and passion, your vision to show them how all this matters in the big picture. “It’s really the meaning behind why you’re doing the job you’re doing that’s so important to communicate to people. I take great pride in understanding my employees and what motivates them,” says Shipley. He offers this analogy:

Two guys are digging a ditch, so I asked one of them, “What are you doing?” He says digging a ditch, what’s it look like I’m doing? I asked the other guy the same question and he says, “I’m building a hospital.”

It’s getting into the minds of the people so that they understand that whatever task they’re doing, they’re not doing that task, they’re a part of something larger “They aren’t digging a ditch or writing that code; they are transforming the way healthcare is delivered in this country,” says Shipley.

4. Idealized Influence

“Divorced from ethics, leadership is reduced to management and politics to mere technique,” writes Burns.

Transformational leadership requires decision-making that works towards the greater good. You need to be a mentor of sorts and lead by example. “Values-based leadership is necessary for driving sustainable change as this ensures that the results achieved are underpinned with a strong moral and ethical foundation, thus they can also stand up to any scrutiny or resistance to change,” says Stewart.

5. Perseverance Through Conflict

Experts agree that transformational change will create conflict. You’re going to have people fight and/or ignore you. “You have to master the role by figuring out how you’re going to get all these people to work with you. Doing that will change the position you have into the power you need to change the company,” says Rucker.

Are you ready to take up the mantle of the transformational leader? You don’t have to be the boss to do so. “Anyone can be a transformational leader, it’s all contextual and it’s all driven by scale,” says Ford.

Rich Hein is a senior writer for CIO.com. He covers IT careers. Follow everything from CIO.com on Twitter @CIOonline , on Facebook, and on Google + .

Next read this:

  • 7 habits of highly effective digital leaders

  • 20 ways to kill your IT career (without knowing it)

  • 16 time-saving tips for IT leaders

  • CIO resumes: 6 best practices and 4 strong examples

  • Why IT-business alignment still fails

  • Top 12 ITSM tools for 2018

  • 6 most-dreaded IT projects

  • CIO playbook: 10 tips for leading IT in the digital era

  • 15 ways to advance your IT career

  • 7 habits of highly effective digital transformations

Related:

  • Careers
  • Innovation
  • Relationship Building and Networking
  • CIO Role
  • IT Strategy
  • IT Leadership

Rich Hein is senior managing editor for CIO.com. He covers IT careers and leadership topics.

Follow

SUBSCRIBE! Get the best of CIO delivered to your email inbox.

  

Sponsored Links
  • dtSearch® instantly searches terabytes of files, emails, databases, web data. See site for hundreds of reviews; enterprise & developer evaluations

  • 3 ways Cloud Service Providers can help customers with digital transformations

  • Silicon innovation: From lab to fab

  • 3 Cloud security features for ultimate data protection

  • How hybrid cloud fuels developer innovation

  • Speed the way to AI with the right hardware

  • In a world of hype, get some plain talk about FPGAs

★15 Thesis Statement Examples to Inspire Your Next Argumentative …

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Writing Essays Well: Introductions, Thesis Statements and Topic Sentences

File under:
Essay Writing Journal Article Writing Thesis Writing
By Elite Editing

Introductions

In order for the first paragraph of an essay to actually be a proper introduction (in other words, for it to fulfill the requirements of a proper introduction), it must do two things. These two things are:

1) Include a thesis statement.
2) Provide a preview or essay plan for the essay.

So what do these two things mean?

1) A thesis statement is the sentence (or sometimes sentences) that tells the reader what the position of the author is. When you are given an essay question, the thesis statement is your clear and concise answer to the question. For example, if an essay question was ‘What were the causes of the Holocaust in World War II?’ then your thesis statement would be something like ‘There were many complicated and inter-related causes for the Holocaust, including the economy of Germany, the ideology of the fascists, and Hitler’s personal racism.’

A ‘ thesis ’ is an ‘argument’, so the thesis statement indicates what the argument of the essay is, or what argument (or point of view) the author of the essay will be putting across to readers.

2) An introduction must introduce all the main points that the essay will discuss. Argumentative essays must provide evidence in order to back up or support the thesis statement. This means you have to provide proof to back up your answer to the essay question. So if your essay is on the causes of the Holocaust, and your essay is going to discuss six main causes (two paragraphs on each), then your introduction must list (or introduce) each of these six main causes. So an essay map or preview is just a list of topics that your essay will discuss. Usually this list is linked to your thesis statement, or comes straight after it.


Topic Sentences

When writing an essay, you must use ‘topic sentences’. These are sentences that go at the beginning of each paragraph in which you are about to discuss a new topic. So in the example we have been looking at of the Holocaust essay, I mentioned that the essay will discuss six reasons for the Holocaust and each reason will have two paragraphs. So that means that every second paragraph would use a ‘topic sentence’ since it would be moving on to discuss another reason for the Holocaust. Here are some examples of topic sentences for the example essay:

‘The most significant cause for the Holocaust is the economic state of Germany.’
‘Another reason why the Holocaust occurred is due to Hitler’s personal views.’

These sentences let the reader know what the paragraph will discuss (what the next point to be discussed in the essay is) and also relate the paragraph back to the introduction. This gives the essay a nice flow, and shows that it has been well organised.

So, you can tell what the topic of the first body paragraph is by reading the topic sentence, which is the first sentence in the paragraph.


Concluding Sentences

A concluding sentence goes at the end of a paragraph or topic, and sums up for the readers what has just been discussed and relates it back to the question.

So if you had used the topic sentence ‘The most significant cause for the Holocaust is the economic state of Germany’ and then written a paragraph or several paragraphs discussing this topic, a concluding sentence could be: ‘Thus it can be seen that the economic state of Germany was the most important cause for the Holocaust.’

Topic sentences and concluding sentences go before and after your paragraphs like a sandwich, leading the reader through your essay .

See also

  • What is a Thesis Statement?

  • What is a Topic Sentence?

  • Writing Essays Well: Introductions, Thesis Statements and Topic Sentences

  • How to Write an Introduction

One response to “Writing Essays Well: Introductions, Thesis Statements and Topic Sentences

  1. Hello friends, its wonderful piece of writing on the topic of cultureand completely explained,
    keep it up all the time.

    Reply

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How to Write a Thesis Statement

How to Write a Thesis Statement

What is a Thesis Statement?

Almost all of us—even if we don’t do it consciously—look early in an essay for a one- or two-sentence condensation of the argument or analysis that is to follow. We refer to that condensation as a thesis statement.

Why Should Your Essay Contain a Thesis Statement?

  • to test your ideas by distilling them into a sentence or two
  • to better organize and develop your argument
  • to provide your reader with a “guide” to your argument

In general, your thesis statement will accomplish these goals if you think of the thesis as the answer to the question your paper explores.

How Can You Write a Good Thesis Statement?

Here are some helpful hints to get you started. You can either scroll down or select a link to a specific topic.

How to Generate a Thesis Statement if the Topic is Assigned
How to Generate a Thesis Statement if the Topic is not Assigned
How to Tell a Strong Thesis Statement from a Weak One


How to Generate a Thesis Statement if the Topic is Assigned

Almost all assignments, no matter how complicated, can be reduced to a single question. Your first step, then, is to distill the assignment into a specific question. For example, if your assignment is, “Write a report to the local school board explaining the potential benefits of using computers in a fourth-grade class,” turn the request into a question like, “What are the potential benefits of using computers in a fourth-grade class?” After you’ve chosen the question your essay will answer, compose one or two complete sentences answering that question.

Q: “What are the potential benefits of using computers in a fourth-grade class?”

A: “The potential benefits of using computers in a fourth-grade class are . . .”

OR

A: “Using computers in a fourth-grade class promises to improve . . .”

The answer to the question is the thesis statement for the essay.

[ Back to top ]

How to Generate a Thesis Statement if the Topic is not Assigned

Even if your assignment doesn’t ask a specific question, your thesis statement still needs to answer a question about the issue you’d like to explore. In this situation, your job is to figure out what question you’d like to write about.

A good thesis statement will usually include the following four attributes:

  • take on a subject upon which reasonable people could disagree
  • deal with a subject that can be adequately treated given the nature of the assignment
  • express one main idea
  • assert your conclusions about a subject

Let’s see how to generate a thesis statement for a social policy paper.

Brainstorm the topic.
Let’s say that your class focuses upon the problems posed by changes in the dietary habits of Americans. You find that you are interested in the amount of sugar Americans consume.

You start out with a thesis statement like this:

Sugar consumption.

This fragment isn’t a thesis statement. Instead, it simply indicates a general subject. Furthermore, your reader doesn’t know what you want to say about sugar consumption.

Narrow the topic.
Your readings about the topic, however, have led you to the conclusion that elementary school children are consuming far more sugar than is healthy.

You change your thesis to look like this:

Reducing sugar consumption by elementary school children.

This fragment not only announces your subject, but it focuses on one segment of the population: elementary school children. Furthermore, it raises a subject upon which reasonable people could disagree, because while most people might agree that children consume more sugar than they used to, not everyone would agree on what should be done or who should do it. You should note that this fragment is not a thesis statement because your reader doesn’t know your conclusions on the topic.

Take a position on the topic.
After reflecting on the topic a little while longer, you decide that what you really want to say about this topic is that something should be done to reduce the amount of sugar these children consume.

You revise your thesis statement to look like this:

More attention should be paid to the food and beverage choices available to elementary school children.

This statement asserts your position, but the terms more attention and food and beverage choices are vague.

Use specific language.
You decide to explain what you mean about food and beverage choices, so you write:

Experts estimate that half of elementary school children consume nine times the recommended daily allowance of sugar.

This statement is specific, but it isn’t a thesis. It merely reports a statistic instead of making an assertion.

Make an assertion based on clearly stated support.
You finally revise your thesis statement one more time to look like this:

Because half of all American elementary school children consume nine times the recommended daily allowance of sugar, schools should be required to replace the beverages in soda machines with healthy alternatives.

Notice how the thesis answers the question, “What should be done to reduce sugar consumption by children, and who should do it?” When you started thinking about the paper, you may not have had a specific question in mind, but as you became more involved in the topic, your ideas became more specific. Your thesis changed to reflect your new insights.

[ Back to top ]

How to Tell a Strong Thesis Statement from a Weak One

1. A strong thesis statement takes some sort of stand.

Remember that your thesis needs to show your conclusions about a subject. For example, if you are writing a paper for a class on fitness, you might be asked to choose a popular weight-loss product to evaluate. Here are two thesis statements:

There are some negative and positive aspects to the Banana Herb Tea Supplement.

This is a weak thesis statement. First, it fails to take a stand. Second, the phrase negative and positive aspects is vague.

Because Banana Herb Tea Supplement promotes rapid weight loss that results in the loss of muscle and lean body mass, it poses a potential danger to customers.

This is a strong thesis because it takes a stand, and because it’s specific.

2. A strong thesis statement justifies discussion.

Your thesis should indicate the point of the discussion. If your assignment is to write a paper on kinship systems, using your own family as an example, you might come up with either of these two thesis statements:

My family is an extended family.

This is a weak thesis because it merely states an observation. Your reader won’t be able to tell the point of the statement, and will probably stop reading.

While most American families would view consanguineal marriage as a threat to the nuclear family structure, many Iranian families, like my own, believe that these marriages help reinforce kinship ties in an extended family.

This is a strong thesis because it shows how your experience contradicts a widely-accepted view. A good strategy for creating a strong thesis is to show that the topic is controversial. Readers will be interested in reading the rest of the essay to see how you support your point.

3. A strong thesis statement expresses one main idea.

Readers need to be able to see that your paper has one main point. If your thesis statement expresses more than one idea, then you might confuse your readers about the subject of your paper. For example:

Companies need to exploit the marketing potential of the Internet, and Web pages can provide both advertising and customer support.

This is a weak thesis statement because the reader can’t decide whether the paper is about marketing on the Internet or Web pages. To revise the thesis, the relationship between the two ideas needs to become more clear. One way to revise the thesis would be to write:

Because the Internet is filled with tremendous marketing potential, companies should exploit this potential by using Web pages that offer both advertising and customer support.

This is a strong thesis because it shows that the two ideas are related. Hint: a great many clear and engaging thesis statements contain words like because, since, so, although, unless, and however.

4. A strong thesis statement is specific.

A thesis statement should show exactly what your paper will be about, and will help you keep your paper to a manageable topic. For example, if you’re writing a seven-to-ten page paper on hunger, you might say:

World hunger has many causes and effects.

This is a weak thesis statement for two major reasons. First, world hunger can’t be discussed thoroughly in seven to ten pages. Second, many causes and effects is vague. You should be able to identify specific causes and effects. A revised thesis might look like this:

Hunger persists in Glandelinia because jobs are scarce and farming in the infertile soil is rarely profitable.

This is a strong thesis statement because it narrows the subject to a more specific and manageable topic, and it also identifies the specific causes for the existence of hunger.

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Group dynamics

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Group dynamics is a system of behaviors and psychological processes occurring within a social group (intragroup dynamics), or between social groups (intergroup dynamics). The study of group dynamics can be useful in understanding decision-making behaviour, tracking the spread of diseases in society, creating effective therapy techniques, and following the emergence and popularity of new ideas and technologies. [1] Group dynamics are at the core of understanding racism, sexism, and other forms of social prejudice and discrimination. These applications of the field are studied in psychology , sociology , anthropology , political science , epidemiology , education, social work , business, and communication studies .

The three main factors affecting a team’s cohesion (working together well) are: environmental, personal and leadership.

Contents

  • 1 History
  • 2 Key theorists
    • 2.1 Gustave Le Bon
    • 2.2 William McDougall
    • 2.3 Sigmund Freud
    • 2.4 Jacob L. Moreno
    • 2.5 Kurt Lewin
    • 2.6 William Schutz
    • 2.7 Wilfred Bion
    • 2.8 Bruce Tuckman
    • 2.9 M. Scott Peck
    • 2.10 Richard Hackman
  • 3 Intragroup dynamics
    • 3.1 Group formation
    • 3.2 Joining groups
    • 3.3 Types of groups
      • 3.3.1 Primary groups
      • 3.3.2 Social groups
      • 3.3.3 Collectives
      • 3.3.4 Categories
    • 3.4 Group membership and social identity
    • 3.5 Group cohesion
    • 3.6 Black sheep effect
    • 3.7 Group influence on individual behaviour
    • 3.8 Group structure
    • 3.9 Group performance
      • 3.9.1 Social facilitation and performance gains
  • 4 Intergroup dynamics
    • 4.1 Intergroup conflict
    • 4.2 Intergroup conflict reduction
      • 4.2.1 Contact hypothesis (intergroup contact theory)
      • 4.2.2 Superordinate identities
      • 4.2.3 Interdependence
  • 5 Selected academic journals
  • 6 See also
  • 7 References

History[ edit ]

The history of group dynamics (or group processes) [2] has a consistent, underlying premise: ‘the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.’ A social group is an entity that has qualities which cannot be understood just by studying the individuals that make up the group. In 1924, Gestalt psychologist Max Wertheimer proposed ‘There are entities where the behaviour of the whole cannot be derived from its individual elements nor from the way these elements fit together; rather the opposite is true: the properties of any of the parts are determined by the intrinsic structural laws of the whole’ (Wertheimer 1924, p. 7). [3] (The proposition remains questionable, since modern biologists and game theorists do look to explain the ‘structural laws of the whole’ in terms of ‘the way the elements fit together’.)

As a field of study, group dynamics has roots in both psychology and sociology. Wilhelm Wundt (1832–1920), credited as the founder of experimental psychology, had a particular interest in the psychology of communities, which he believed possessed phenomena (human language, customs, and religion) that could not be described through a study of the individual. [2] On the sociological side, Émile Durkheim (1858–1917), who was influenced by Wundt, also recognized collective phenomena, such as public knowledge. Other key theorists include Gustave Le Bon (1841–1931) who believed that crowds possessed a ‘racial unconscious’ with primitive, aggressive, and antisocial instincts, and William McDougall (psychologist) , who believed in a ‘group mind,’ which had a distinct existence born from the interaction of individuals. [2] (The concept of a collective consciousness is not essential to group dynamics.)

Eventually, the social psychologist Kurt Lewin (1890–1947) coined the term group dynamics to describe the positive and negative forces within groups of people. [4] In 1945, he established The Group Dynamics Research Center at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the first institute devoted explicitly to the study of group dynamics. [5] Throughout his career, Lewin was focused on how the study of group dynamics could be applied to real-world, social issues.

Increasingly, research has applied evolutionary psychology principles to group dynamics. As humans social environments became more complex, they acquired adaptations by way of group dynamics that enhance survival. Examples include mechanisms for dealing with status, reciprocity, identifying cheaters, ostracism, altruism, group decision, leadership, and intergroup relations. [6] Also, a combination of evolution and game theory has been used to explain the development and maintenance of cooperative behavior between individuals in a group.

Key theorists[ edit ]

Gustave Le Bon[ edit ]

Main article: Gustave Le Bon

Gustave Le Bon was a French social psychologist whose seminal study, The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind (1896) led to the development of group psychology .

William McDougall[ edit ]

Main article: William McDougall (psychologist)

The British psychologist William McDougall in his work The Group Mind (1920) researched the dynamics of groups of various sizes and degrees of organization.

Sigmund Freud[ edit ]

Main article: Sigmund Freud

In Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego , (1922), Sigmund Freud based his preliminary description of group psychology on Le Bon’s work, but went on to develop his own, original theory, related to what he had begun to elaborate in Totem and Taboo . Theodor Adorno reprised Freud’s essay in 1951 with his Freudian Theory and the Pattern of Fascist Propaganda, and said that “It is not an overstatement if we say that Freud, though he was hardly interested in the political phase of the problem, clearly foresaw the rise and nature of fascist mass movements in purely psychological categories.” [7]

Jacob L. Moreno[ edit ]

Main article: Jacob L. Moreno

Jacob L. Moreno was a psychiatrist, dramatist, philosopher and theoretician who coined the term “group psychotherapy” in the early 1930s and was highly influential at the time.

Kurt Lewin[ edit ]

Main article: Kurt Lewin

Kurt Lewin (1943, 1948, 1951) is commonly identified as the founder of the movement to study groups scientifically. He coined the term group dynamics to describe the way groups and individuals act and react to changing circumstances. [8]

William Schutz[ edit ]

Main article: William Schutz

William Schutz (1958, 1966) looked at interpersonal relations as stage-developmental, inclusion (am I included?), control (who is top dog here?), and affection (do I belong here?). Schutz sees groups resolving each issue in turn in order to be able to progress to the next stage.

Conversely, a struggling group can devolve to an earlier stage, if unable to resolve outstanding issues at its present stage.
Schutz referred to these group dynamics as “the interpersonal underworld,” group processes which are largely unseen and un-acknowledged, as opposed to “content” issues, which are nominally the agenda of group meetings. [9] [10]

Wilfred Bion[ edit ]

Main article: Wilfred Bion

Wilfred Bion (1961) studied group dynamics from a psychoanalytic perspective, and stated that he was much influenced by Wilfred Trotter for whom he worked at University College Hospital London, as did another key figure in the Psychoanalytic movement, Ernest Jones . He discovered several mass group processes which involved the group as a whole adopting an orientation which, in his opinion, interfered with the ability of a group to accomplish the work it was nominally engaged in. [11] His experiences are reported in his published books, especially Experiences in Groups. The Tavistock Institute has further developed and applied the theory and practices developed by Bion.

Bruce Tuckman[ edit ]

Main article: Bruce Tuckman

Bruce Tuckman (1965) proposed the four-stage model called Tuckman’s Stages for a group. Tuckman’s model states that the ideal group decision-making process should occur in four stages:

  • Forming (pretending to get on or get along with others)
  • Storming (letting down the politeness barrier and trying to get down to the issues even if tempers flare up)
  • Norming (getting used to each other and developing trust and productivity)
  • Performing (working in a group to a common goal on a highly efficient and cooperative basis)

Tuckman later added a fifth stage for the dissolution of a group called adjourning. (Adjourning may also be referred to as mourning , i.e. mourning the adjournment of the group). This model refers to the overall pattern of the group, but of course individuals within a group work in different ways. If distrust persists, a group may never even get to the norming stage.

M. Scott Peck[ edit ]

Main article: M. Scott Peck

M. Scott Peck developed stages for larger-scale groups (i.e., communities) which are similar to Tuckman’s stages of group development. [12] Peck describes the stages of a community as:

  • Pseudo-community
  • Chaos
  • Emptiness
  • True Community

Communities may be distinguished from other types of groups, in Peck’s view, by the need for members to eliminate barriers to communication in order to be able to form true community. Examples of common barriers are: expectations and preconceptions; prejudices ; ideology , counterproductive norms , theology and solutions; the need to heal, convert, fix or solve and the need to control. A community is born when its members reach a stage of “emptiness” or peace .

Richard Hackman[ edit ]

Richard Hackman developed a synthetic, research-based model for designing and managing work groups. Hackman suggested that groups are successful when they satisfy internal and external clients, develop capabilities to perform in the future, and when members find meaning and satisfaction in the group. Hackman proposed five conditions that increase the chance that groups will be successful. [13] These include:

  1. Being a real team: which results from having a shared task, clear boundaries which clarify who is inside or outside of the group, and stability in group membership.
  2. Compelling direction: which results from a clear, challenging, and consequential goal.
  3. Enabling structure: which results from having tasks which have variety, a group size that is not too large, talented group members who have at least moderate social skill, and strong norms that specify appropriate behaviour.
  4. Supportive context: which occurs in groups nested in larger groups (e.g. companies). In companies, supportive contexts involves a) reward systems that reward performance and cooperation (e.g. group based rewards linked to group performance), b) an educational system that develops member skills, c) an information and materials system that provides the needed information and raw materials (e.g. computers).
  5. Expert coaching: which occurs on the rare occasions when group members feel they need help with task or interpersonal issues. Hackman emphasizes that many team leaders are overbearing and undermine group effectiveness.

Intragroup dynamics[ edit ]

Intragroup dynamics (also referred to as ingroup-, within-group, or commonly just ‘group dynamics’) are the underlying processes that give rise to a set of norms, roles, relations, and common goals that characterize a particular social group . Examples of groups include religious, political, military, and environmental groups, sports teams, work groups, and therapy groups. Amongst the members of a group, there is a state of interdependence, through which the behaviours, attitudes, opinions, and experiences of each member are collectively influenced by the other group members. [14] In many fields of research, there is an interest in understanding how group dynamics influence individual behaviour, attitudes, and opinions.

The dynamics of a particular group depend on how one defines the boundaries of the group. Often, there are distinct subgroups within a more broadly defined group. For example, one could define U.S. residents (‘Americans’) as a group, but could also define a more specific set of U.S. residents (for example, ‘Americans in the South’). For each of these groups, there are distinct dynamics that can be discussed. Notably, on this very broad level, the study of group dynamics is similar to the study of culture. For example, there are group dynamics in the U.S. South that sustain a culture of honor, which is associated with norms of toughness, honour-related violence, and self-defence. [15] [16]

Group formation[ edit ]

Group formation starts with a psychological bond between individuals. The social cohesion approach suggests that group formation comes out of bonds of interpersonal attraction . [2] In contrast, the social identity approach suggests that a group starts when a collection of individuals perceive that they share some social category (‘smokers’, ‘nurses,’ ‘students,’ ‘hockey players’), and that interpersonal attraction only secondarily enhances the connection between individuals. [2] Additionally, from the social identity approach, group formation involves both identifying with some individuals and explicitly not identifying with others. So to say, a level of psychological distinctiveness is necessary for group formation. Through interaction, individuals begin to develop group norms, roles, and attitudes which define the group, and are internalized to influence behaviour. [17]

Emergent groups arise from a relatively spontaneous process of group formation. For example, in response to a natural disaster, an emergent response group may form. These groups are characterized as having no preexisting structure (e.g. group membership, allocated roles) or prior experience working together. [18] Yet, these groups still express high levels of interdependence and coordinate knowledge, resources, and tasks. [18]

Joining groups[ edit ]

Joining a group is determined by a number of different factors, including an individual’s personal traits [19] ; gender [20] ; social motives such as need for affiliation [21] , need for power [22] , and need for intimacy [23] ; attachment style [24] ; and prior group experiences [25] . Groups can offer some advantages to its members that would not be possible if an individual decided to remain alone, including gaining social support in the forms of emotional support [26] , instrumental support [27] , and informational support [27] . It also offers friendship, potential new interests, learning new skills, and enhancing self esteem [28] . However, joining a group may also cost an individual time, effort, and personal resources as they may conform to social pressures and strive to reap the benefits that may be offered by the group [29] .

The Minimax Principle is a part of social exchange theory that states that people will join and remain in a group that can provide them with the maximum amount of valuable rewards while at the same time, ensuring the minimum amount of costs to themselves [30] . However, this does not necessarily mean that a person will join a group simply because the reward/cost ratio seems attractive. According to Howard Kelley and John Thibaut, a group may be attractive to us in terms of costs and benefits, but that attractiveness alone does not determine whether or not we will join the group. Instead, our decision is based on two factors: our comparison level, and our comparison level for alternatives [30] .

In John Thibaut and Harold Kelley’s social exchange theory , comparison level is the standard by which an individual will evaluate the desirability of becoming a member of the group and forming new social relationships within the group [30] . This comparison level is influenced by previous relationships and membership in different groups. Those individuals who have experienced positive rewards with few costs in previous relationships and groups will have a higher comparison level than a person who experienced more negative costs and fewer rewards in previous relationships and group memberships. According to the social exchange theory , group membership will be more satisfying to a new prospective member if the group’s outcomes, in terms of costs and rewards, are above the individual’s comparison level. As well, group membership will be unsatisfying to a new member if the outcomes are below the individual’s comparison level [30] .

Comparison level only predicts how satisfied a new member will be with the social relationships within the group [31] . To determine whether people will actually join or leave a group, the value of other, alternative groups needs to be taken into account [31] . This is called the comparison level for alternatives. This comparison level for alternatives is the standard by which an individual will evaluate the quality of the group in comparison to other groups the individual has the opportunity to join. Thiabaut and Kelley stated that the “comparison level for alternatives can be defined informally as the lowest level of outcomes a member will accept in the light of available alternative opportunities” (p. 21) [32] .

Joining and leaving groups is ultimately depends on the comparison level for alternatives, whereas member satisfaction within a group depends on the comparison level [31] . To summarize, if membership in the group is above the comparison level for alternatives and above the comparison level, the membership within the group will be satisfying and an individual will be more likely to join the group. If membership in the group is above the comparison level for alternatives but below the comparison level, membership will be not be satisfactory; however, the individual will likely join the group since no other desirable options are available. When group membership is below the comparison level for alternatives but above the comparison level, membership is satisfying but an individual will be unlikely to join. If group membership is below both the comparison and alternative comparison levels, membership will be dissatisfying and the individual will be less likely to join the group.

Types of groups[ edit ]

Groups can vary drastically from one another. For example, three best friends who interact every day as well as a collection of people watching a movie in a theater both constitute a group. Past research has identified four basic types of groups which include, but are not limited to: primary groups, social groups, collective groups, and categories [33] . It is important to define these four types of groups because they are intuitive to most lay people. For example, in an experiment [34] , participants were asked to sort a number of groups into categories based on their own criteria. Examples of groups to be sorted were a sports team, a family, women, and people at a bus stop. It was found that participants consistently sorted groups into four categories: intimacy groups, task groups, loose associations, and social categories. These categories are conceptually similar to the four basic types to be discussed. Therefore, it seems that individuals intuitively define aggregations of individuals in this way.

Primary groups[ edit ]

Primary groups are characterized by relatively small, long-lasting groups of individuals who share personally meaningful relationships. Since these groups often interact face-to-face, they know each other very well and are unified. Individuals that are a part of primary groups consider the group to be an important part of their lives. Consequently, members strongly identify with their group, even without regular meetings [35] . Cooley [36] believed that primary groups were essential for integrating individuals into their society since this is often their first experience with a group. For example, individuals are born into a primary group, their family, which creates a foundation for them to base their future relationships. Individuals can be born into a primary group; however, primary groups can also form when individuals interact for extended periods of time in meaningful ways [37] . Examples of primary groups include family, close friends, and gangs.

Social groups[ edit ]

A social group is characterized by a formally organized group of individuals who are not as emotionally involved with each other as those in a primary group. These groups tend to be larger, with shorter memberships compared to primary groups [38] . Further, social groups do not have as stable memberships, since members are able to leave their social group and join new groups. The goals of social groups are often task-oriented as opposed to relationship-oriented [39] Examples of social groups include coworkers, clubs, and sports teams.

Collectives[ edit ]

Collectives are characterized by large groups of individuals who display similar actions or outlooks. They are loosely formed, spontaneous, and brief [40] . Examples of collectives include a flash mob, an audience at a movie, and a crowd watching a building burn.

Categories[ edit ]

Categories are characterized by a collection of individuals who are similar in some way [41] . Categories become groups when their similarities have social implications. For example, when people treat others differently because of their race, this creates groups of different races [42] . For this reason, categories can appear to be higher in entitativity and essentialism than primary, social, and collective groups. Entitativity is defined by Campbell [43] as the extent to which collections of individuals are perceived to be a group. The degree of entitativity that a group has is influenced by whether a collection of individuals experience the same fate, display similarities, and are close in proximity. If individuals believe that a group is high in entitativity, then they are likely to believe that the group has unchanging characteristics that are essential to the group, known as essentialism [44] . Examples of categories are New Yorkers, gamblers, and women.

Group membership and social identity[ edit ]

The social group is a critical source of information about individual identity. [45] An individual’s identity (or self-concept) has two components: personal identity and social identity (or collective self). One’s personal identity is defined by more idiosyncratic, individual qualities and attributes. [2] In contrast, one’s social identity is defined by his or her group membership, and the general characteristics (or prototypes) that define the group and differentiate it from others. [2] We naturally make comparisons between our own group and other groups, but we do not necessarily make objective comparisons. Instead, we make evaluations that are self-enhancing, emphasizing the positive qualities of our own group (see ingroup bias ). [2] In this way, these comparisons give us a distinct and valued social identity that benefits our self-esteem. Our social identity and group membership also satisfies a need to belong. [46] Of course, individuals belong to multiple groups. Therefore, one’s social identity can have several, qualitatively distinct parts (for example, one’s ethnic identity, religious identity, and political identity). [47]

Optimal distinctiveness theory suggests that individuals have a desire to be similar to others, but also a desire to differentiate themselves, ultimately seeking some balance of these two desires (to obtain optimal distinctiveness). [48] For example, one might imagine a young teenager in the United States who tries to balance these desires, not wanting to be ‘just like everyone else,’ but also wanting to ‘fit in’ and be similar to others. One’s collective self may offer a balance between these two desires. [2] That is, to be similar to others (those who you share group membership with), but also to be different from others (those who are outside of your group).

Group cohesion[ edit ]

Main article: Group cohesiveness

In the social sciences, group cohesion refers to the processes that keep members of a social group connected. [4] Terms such as attraction, solidarity, and morale are often used to describe group cohesion. [4] It is thought to be one of the most important characteristics of a group, and has been linked to group performance, [49] intergroup conflict [50] and therapeutic change. [51]

Group cohesion, as a scientifically studied property of groups, is commonly associated with Kurt Lewin and his student, Leon Festinger . Lewin defined group cohesion as the willingness of individuals to stick together, and believed that without cohesiveness a group could not exist. [4] As an extension of Lewin’s work, Festinger (along with Stanley Schachter and Kurt Back) described cohesion as, “the total field of forces which act on members to remain in the group” (Festinger, Schachter, & Back, 1950, p. 37). [4] Later, this definition was modified to describe the forces acting on individual members to remain in the group, termed attraction to the group. [4] Since then, several models for understanding the concept of group cohesion have been developed, including Albert Carron’s hierarchical model [52] and several bi-dimensional models (vertical v. horizontal cohesion, task v. social cohesion, belongingness and morale, and personal v. social attraction). Before Lewin and Festinger, there were, of course, descriptions of a very similar group property. For example, Emile Durkheim described two forms of solidarity (mechanical and organic), which created a sense of collective conscious and an emotion-based sense of community. [53]

Black sheep effect[ edit ]

Beliefs within the ingroup are based on how individuals in the group see their other members. Individuals tend to upgrade likeable in-group members and deviate from unlikeable group members, making them a separate outgroup. This is called the black sheep effect. [54] The way a person judges socially desirable and socially undesirable individuals depends upon whether they are part of the ingroup or outgroup.

This phenomenon has been later accounted for by subjective group dynamics theory. [55] According to this theory, people derogate socially undesirable (deviant) ingroup members relative to outgroup members, because they give a bad image of the ingroup and jeopardize people’s social identity.

In more recent studies, Marques and colleagues [56] have shown that this occurs more strongly with regard to ingroup full members than other members. Whereas new members of a group must prove themselves to the full members to become accepted, full members have undergone socialization and are already accepted within the group. They have more privilege than newcomers but more responsibility to help the group achieve its goals. Marginal members were once full members but lost membership because they failed to live up to the group’s expectations. They can rejoin the group if they go through re-socialization. Therefore, full members’ behavior is paramount to define the ingroup’s image.

Bogart and Ryan surveyed the development of new members’ stereotypes about in-groups and out-groups during socialization. Results showed that the new members judged themselves as consistent with the stereotypes of their in-groups, even when they had recently committed to join those groups or existed as marginal members. They also tended to judge the group as a whole in an increasingly less positive manner after they became full members. [57] However, there is no evidence that this affects the way they are judged by other members. Nevertheless, depending on the self-esteem of an individual, members of the in-group may experience different private beliefs about the group’s activities but will publicly express the opposite—that they actually share these beliefs. One member may not personally agree with something the group does, but to avoid the black sheep effect, they will publicly agree with the group and keep the private beliefs to themselves. If the person is privately self-aware , he or she is more likely to comply with the group even if they possibly have their own beliefs about the situation. [58]

In situations of hazing within fraternities and sororities on college campuses, pledges may encounter this type of situation and may outwardly comply with the tasks they are forced to do regardless of their personal feelings about the Greek institution they are joining. This is done in an effort to avoid becoming an outcast of the group. [57] Outcasts who behave in a way that might jeopardize the group tend to be treated more harshly than the likeable ones in a group, creating a black sheep effect. Full members of a fraternity might treat the incoming new members harshly, causing the pledges to decide if they approve of the situation and if they will voice their disagreeing opinions about it.

Group influence on individual behaviour[ edit ]

Individual behaviour is influenced by the presence of others. [45] For example, studies have found that individuals work harder and faster when others are present (see social facilitation ), and that an individual’s performance is reduced when others in the situation create distraction or conflict. [45] Groups also influence individual’s decision-making processes. These include decisions related to ingroup bias , persuasion (see Asch conformity experiments ), obedience (see Milgram Experiment ), and groupthink . There are both positive and negative implications of group influence on individual behaviour. This type of influence is often useful in the context of work settings, team sports, and political activism. However, the influence of groups on the individual can also generate extremely negative behaviours, evident in Nazi Germany, the My Lai Massacre , and in the Abu Ghraib prison (also see Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse ). [59]

Group structure[ edit ]

A group’s structure is the internal framework that defines members’ relations to one another over time. [60] Frequently studied elements of group structure include roles, norms, values, communication patterns, and status differentials. [61] Group structure has also been defined as the underlying pattern of roles, norms, and networks of relations among members that define and organize the group. [62]

Roles can be defined as a tendency to behave, contribute and interrelate with others in a particular way. Roles may be assigned formally, but more often are defined through the process of role differentiation. [63] Role differentiation is the degree to which different group members have specialized functions. A group with a high level of role differentiation would be categorized as having many different roles that are specialized and narrowly defined. [62] A key role in a group is the leader, but there are other important roles as well, including task roles, relationship roles, and individual roles. [62] Functional (task) roles are generally defined in relation to the tasks the team is expected to perform. [64] Individuals engaged in task roles focus on the goals of the group and on enabling the work that members do; examples of task roles include coordinator, recorder, critic, or technician. [62] A group member engaged in a relationship role (or socioemotional role) is focused on maintaining the interpersonal and emotional needs of the groups’ members; examples of relationship role include encourager, harmonizer, or compromiser. [62]

Norms are the informal rules that groups adopt to regulate members’ behaviour. Norms refer to what should be done and represent value judgments about appropriate behaviour in social situations. Although they are infrequently written down or even discussed, norms have powerful influence on group behaviour. [65] They are a fundamental aspect of group structure as they provide direction and motivation, and organize the social interactions of members. [62] Norms are said to be emergent, as they develop gradually throughout interactions between group members. [62] While many norms are widespread throughout society, groups may develop their own norms that members must learn when they join the group. There are various types of norms, including: prescriptive, proscriptive, descriptive, and injunctive. [62]

  • Prescriptive Norms: the socially appropriate way to respond in a social situation, or what group members are supposed to do (e.g. saying thank you after someone does a favour for you)
  • Proscriptive Norms: actions that group members should not do; prohibitive (e.g. not belching in public)
  • Descriptive Norms: describe what people usually do (e.g. clapping after a speech)
  • Injunctive Norms: describe behaviours that people ought to do; more evaluative in nature than a descriptive norm

Intermember Relations are the connections among the members of a group, or the social network within a group. Group members are linked to one another at varying levels. Examining the intermember relations of a group can highlight a group’s density (how many members are linked to one another), or the degree centrality of members (number of ties between members). [62] Analysing the intermember relations aspect of a group can highlight the degree centrality of each member in the group, which can lead to a better understanding of the roles of certain group (e.g. an individual who is a ‘go-between’ in a group will have closer ties to numerous group members which can aid in communication, etc.). [62]

Values are goals or ideas that serve as guiding principles for the group. [66] Like norms, values may be communicated either explicitly or on an ad hoc basis. Values can serve as a rallying point for the team. However, some values (such as conformity) can also be dysfunction and lead to poor decisions by the team.

Communication patterns describe the flow of information within the group and they are typically described as either centralized or decentralized. With a centralized pattern, communications tend to flow from one source to all group members. Centralized communications allow standardization of information, but may restrict the free flow of information. Decentralized communications make it easy to share information directly between group members. When decentralized, communications tend to flow more freely, but the delivery of information may not be as fast or accurate as with centralized communications. Another potential downside of decentralized communications is the sheer volume of information that can be generated, particularly with electronic media.

Status differentials are the relative differences in status among group members. When a group is first formed the members may all be on an equal level, but over time certain members may acquire status and authority within the group; this can create what is known as a pecking order within a group. [62] Status can be determined by a variety of factors and characteristics, including specific status characteristics (e.g. task-specific behavioural and personal characteristics, such as experience) or diffuse status characteristics (e.g. age, race, ethnicity). [62] It is important that other group members perceive an individual’s status to be warranted and deserved, as otherwise they may not have authority within the group. [62] Status differentials may affect the relative amount of pay among group members and they may also affect the group’s tolerance to violation of group norms (e.g. people with higher status may be given more freedom to violate group norms).

Group performance[ edit ]

Forsyth suggests that while many daily tasks undertaken by individuals could be performed in isolation, the preference is to perform with other people. [62]

Social facilitation and performance gains[ edit ]

In a study of dynamogenic stimulation for the purpose of explaining pacemaking and competition in 1898, Norman Triplett theorized that “the bodily presence of another rider is a stimulus to the racer in arousing the competitive instinct…”. [67] This dynamogenic factor is believed to have laid the groundwork for what is now known as social facilitation—an “improvement in task performance that occurs when people work in the presence of other people”. [62]

Further to Triplett’s observation, in 1920, Floyd Allport found that although people in groups were more productive than individuals, the quality of their product/effort was inferior. [62]

In 1965, Robert Zajonc expanded the study of arousal response (originated by Triplett) with further research in the area of social facilitation. In his study, Zajonc considered two experimental paradigms. In the first—audience effects—Zajonc observed behaviour in the presence of passive spectators, and the second—co-action effects—he examined behaviour in the presence of another individual engaged in the same activity. [68]

Zajonc observed two categories of behaviours—dominant responses to tasks that are easier to learn and which dominate other potential responses and nondominant responses to tasks that are less likely to be performed. In his Theory of Social Facilitation, Zajonc concluded that in the presence of others, when action is required, depending on the task requirement, either social facilitation or social interference will impact the outcome of the task. If social facilitation occurs, the task will have required a dominant response from the individual resulting in better performance in the presence of others, whereas if social interference occurs the task will have elicited a nondominant response from the individual resulting in subpar performance of the task. [62]

Several theories analysing performance gains in groups via drive, motivational, cognitive and personality processes, explain why social facilitation occurs.

Zajonc hypothesized that compresence (the state of responding in the presence of others) elevates an individual’s drive level which in turn triggers social facilitation when tasks are simple and easy to execute, but impedes performance when tasks are challenging. [62]

Nickolas Cottrell, 1972, proposed the evaluation apprehension model whereby he suggested people associate social situations with an evaluative process. Cottrell argued this situation is met with apprehension and it is this motivational response, not arousal/elevated drive, that is responsible for increased productivity on simple tasks and decreased productivity on complex tasks in the presence of others. [62]

In The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life (1959), Erving Goffman assumes that individuals can control how they are perceived by others. He suggests that people fear being perceived as having negative, undesirable qualities and characteristics by other people, and that it is this fear that compels individuals to portray a positive self-presentation/social image of themselves. In relation to performance gains, Goffman’s self-presentation theory predicts, in situations where they may be evaluated, individuals will consequently increase their efforts in order to project/preserve/maintain a positive image. [62]

Distraction-conflict theory contends that when a person is working in the presence of other people, an interference effect occurs splitting the individual’s attention between the task and the other person. On simple tasks, where the individual is not challenged by the task, the interference effect is negligible and performance, therefore, is facilitated. On more complex tasks, where drive is not strong enough to effectively compete against the effects of distraction, there is no performance gain. The Stroop task ( Stroop effect ) demonstrated that, by narrowing a person’s focus of attention on certain tasks, distractions can improve performance. [62]

Social orientation theory considers the way a person approaches social situations. It predicts that self-confident individuals with a positive outlook will show performance gains through social facilitation, whereas a self-conscious individual approaching social situations with apprehension is less likely to perform well due to social interference effects. [62]

Intergroup dynamics[ edit ]

Intergroup dynamics refers to the behavioural and psychological relationship between two or more groups. This includes perceptions, attitudes, opinions, and behaviours towards one’s own group, as well as those towards another group. In some cases, intergroup dynamics is prosocial, positive, and beneficial (for example, when multiple research teams work together to accomplish a task or goal). In other cases, intergroup dynamics can create conflict. For example, Fischer & Ferlie found initially positive dynamics between a clinical institution and its external authorities dramatically changed to a ‘hot’ and intractable conflict when authorities interfered with its embedded clinical model. [69] Similarly, underlying the 1999 Columbine High School shooting in Littleton, Colorado , United States, intergroup dynamics played a significant role in Eric Harris’ and Dylan Klebold ’s decision to kill a teacher and 14 students (including themselves). [59]

Intergroup conflict[ edit ]

According to social identity theory , intergroup conflict starts with a process of comparison between individuals in one group (the ingroup) to those of another group (the outgroup). [70] This comparison process is not unbiased and objective. Instead, it is a mechanism for enhancing one’s self-esteem. [2] In the process of such comparisons, an individual tends to:

  • favour the ingroup over the outgroup
  • exaggerate and overgeneralize the differences between the ingroup and the outgroup (to enhance group distinctiveness)
  • minimize the perception of differences between ingroup members
  • remember more detailed and positive information about the ingroup, and more negative information about the outgroup [71]

Even without any intergroup interaction (as in the minimal group paradigm ), individuals begin to show favouritism towards their own group, and negative reactions towards the outgroup. [71] This conflict can result in prejudice, stereotypes , and discrimination . Intergroup conflict can be highly competitive, especially for social groups with a long history of conflict (for example, the 1994 Rwandan Genocide , rooted in group conflict between the ethnic Hutu and Tutsi). [2] In contrast, intergroup competition can sometimes be relatively harmless, particularly in situations where there is little history of conflict (for example, between students of different universities) leading to relatively harmless generalizations and mild competitive behaviours. [2] Intergroup conflict is commonly recognized amidst racial, ethnic, religious, and political groups.

The formation of intergroup conflict was investigated in a popular series of studies by Muzafer Sherif and colleagues in 1961, called the Robbers Cave Experiment . [72] The Robbers Cave Experiment was later used to support realistic conflict theory . [73] Other prominent theories relating to intergroup conflict include social dominance theory , and social-/ self-categorization theory .

Intergroup conflict reduction[ edit ]

There have been several strategies developed for reducing the tension, bias, prejudice, and conflict between social groups. These include the contact hypothesis, the jigsaw classroom, and several categorization-based strategies.

Contact hypothesis (intergroup contact theory)[ edit ]

In 1954, Gordon Allport suggested that by promoting contact between groups, prejudice can be reduced. [74] Further, he suggested four optimal conditions for contact: equal status between the groups in the situation; common goals; intergroup cooperation; and the support of authorities, law, or customs. [75] Since then, over 500 studies have been done on prejudice reduction under variations of the contact hypothesis, and a meta-analytic review suggests overall support for its efficacy. [75] In some cases, even without the four optimal conditions outlined by Allport, prejudice between groups can be reduced. [75]

Superordinate identities[ edit ]

Under the contact hypothesis, several models have been developed. A number of these models utilize a superordinate identity to reduce prejudice. That is, a more broadly defined, ‘umbrella’ group/identity that includes the groups that are in conflict. By emphasizing this superordinate identity, individuals in both subgroups can share a common social identity. [76] For example, if there is conflict between White, Black, and Latino students in a high school, one might try to emphasize the ‘high school’ group/identity that students share to reduce conflict between the groups. Models utilizing superordinate identities include the common ingroup identity model, the ingroup projection model, the mutual intergroup differentiation model, and the ingroup identity model. [76] Similarly, “recategorization” is a broader term used by Gaertner et al. to describe the strategies aforementioned. [71]

Interdependence[ edit ]

There are also techniques for reducing prejudice that utilize interdependence between two or more groups. That is, members across groups have to rely on one another to accomplish some goal or task. In the Robbers Cave Experiment , Sherif used this strategy to reduce conflict between groups. [71] Elliot Aronson ’s Jigsaw Classroom also uses this strategy of interdependence. [77] In 1971, thick racial tensions were abounding in Austin, Texas. Aronson was brought in to examine the nature of this tension within schools, and to devise a strategy for reducing it (so to improve the process of school integration, mandated under Brown v. Board of Education in 1954). Despite strong evidence for the effectiveness of the jigsaw classroom, the strategy was not widely used (arguably because of strong attitudes existing outside of the schools, which still resisted the notion that racial and ethnic minority groups are equal to Whites and, similarly, should be integrated into schools).

Selected academic journals[ edit ]

  • Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
  • Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice
  • Small Group Research
  • Group Analysis
  • International Journal of Group Psychotherapy
  • The Journal for Specialists in Group Work
  • Social Work With Groups
  • International Journal on Minority and Group Rights
  • Group Facilitation: A Research and Applications Journal

See also[ edit ]

  • Cog’s ladder
  • Collaboration
  • Collaborative method
  • Decision downloading
  • Entitativity
  • Facilitator
  • Group narcissism
  • Interpersonal relationships
  • Maintenance actions
  • Organization climate
  • Out-group homogeneity
  • Small-group communication
  • Social psychology
  • Social psychology (sociology)
  • Social tuning
  • Team effectiveness
  • Team-based learning

References[ edit ]

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[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]

Authority control Edit this at Wikidata
  • GND : 4022392-9
  • NDL : 00944915
  1. ^ Cooley, Charles (1909). social organization: a study of the larger mind. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.
  2. ^ Forsyth, D. R. (2006). Group dynamics. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
  3. ^ Campbell, D. T. (1958). “Common fate, similarity, and other indices of the status of aggregates of persons as social entities”. Systems Research and Behavioural Science. 3 (1): 14-25. doi : 10.1002/bs.3830030103 .
  4. ^ Haslam, N; Rothschild, L; Ernst, D (2002). “Are essentialist beliefs associated with prejudice?”. British Journal of Social Psychology. 41 (1): 87-100.
  5. ^ Lickel, B; Hamilton, D. L.; Wieczorkowska, G; Lewis, A; Sherman, S. J.; Uhles, A. N. (2000). “Varieties of groups and the perception of group entitativity”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 78: 223-246.

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      U.S.

      The End of Men

      Earlier this year, women became the majority of the workforce for the first time in U.S. history. Most managers are now women too. And for every two men who get a college degree this year, three women will do the same. For years, women’s progress has been cast as a struggle for equality. But what if equality isn’t the end point? What if modern, postindustrial society is simply better suited to women? A report on the unprecedented role reversal now under way— and its vast cultural consequences

      Hanna Rosin

      John Ritter

      In the 1970s the biologist Ronald Ericsson came up with a way to separate sperm carrying the male-producing Y chromosome from those carrying the X. He sent the two kinds of sperm swimming down a glass tube through ever-thicker albumin barriers. The sperm with the X chromosome had a larger head and a longer tail, and so, he figured, they would get bogged down in the viscous liquid. The sperm with the Y chromosome were leaner and faster and could swim down to the bottom of the tube more efficiently. Ericsson had grown up on a ranch in South Dakota, where he’d developed an Old West, cowboy swagger. The process, he said, was like “cutting out cattle at the gate.” The cattle left flailing behind the gate were of course the X’s, which seemed to please him. He would sometimes demonstrate the process using cartilage from a bull’s penis as a pointer.

      In the late 1970s, Ericsson leased the method to clinics around the U.S., calling it the first scientifically proven method for choosing the sex of a child. Instead of a lab coat, he wore cowboy boots and a cowboy hat, and doled out his version of cowboy poetry. (People magazine once suggested a TV miniseries based on his life called Cowboy in the Lab.) The right prescription for life, he would say, was “breakfast at five-thirty, on the saddle by six, no room for Mr. Limp Wrist.” In 1979, he loaned out his ranch as the backdrop for the iconic “Marlboro Country” ads because he believed in the campaign’s central image—“a guy riding on his horse along the river, no bureaucrats, no lawyers,” he recalled when I spoke to him this spring. “He’s the boss.” (The photographers took some 6,500 pictures, a pictorial record of the frontier that Ericsson still takes great pride in.)


      Video: In this family feud, Hanna Rosin and her daughter, Noa, debate the superiority of women with Rosin’s son, Jacob, and husband, Slate editor David Plotz

      Feminists of the era did not take kindly to Ericsson and his Marlboro Man veneer. To them, the lab cowboy and his sperminator portended a dystopia of mass-produced boys. “You have to be concerned about the future of all women,” Roberta Steinbacher, a nun-turned-social-psychologist, said in a 1984 People profile of Ericsson . “There’s no question that there exists a universal preference for sons.” Steinbacher went on to complain about women becoming locked in as “second-class citizens” while men continued to dominate positions of control and influence. “I think women have to ask themselves, ‘Where does this stop?’” she said. “A lot of us wouldn’t be here right now if these practices had been in effect years ago.”

      Ericsson, now 74, laughed when I read him these quotes from his old antagonist. Seldom has it been so easy to prove a dire prediction wrong. In the ’90s, when Ericsson looked into the numbers for the two dozen or so clinics that use his process, he discovered, to his surprise, that couples were requesting more girls than boys, a gap that has persisted, even though Ericsson advertises the method as more effective for producing boys. In some clinics, Ericsson has said, the ratio is now as high as 2 to 1. Polling data on American sex preference is sparse, and does not show a clear preference for girls. But the picture from the doctor’s office unambiguously does. A newer method for sperm selection, called MicroSort , is currently completing Food and Drug Administration clinical trials. The girl requests for that method run at about 75 percent.

      Even more unsettling for Ericsson, it has become clear that in choosing the sex of the next generation, he is no longer the boss. “It’s the women who are driving all the decisions,” he says—a change the MicroSort spokespeople I met with also mentioned. At first, Ericsson says, women who called his clinics would apologize and shyly explain that they already had two boys. “Now they just call and [say] outright, ‘I want a girl.’ These mothers look at their lives and think their daughters will have a bright future their mother and grandmother didn’t have, brighter than their sons, even, so why wouldn’t you choose a girl?”

      Why wouldn’t you choose a girl? That such a statement should be so casually uttered by an old cowboy like Ericsson—or by anyone, for that matter—is monumental. For nearly as long as civilization has existed, patriarchy—enforced through the rights of the firstborn son—has been the organizing principle, with few exceptions. Men in ancient Greece tied off their left testicle in an effort to produce male heirs; women have killed themselves (or been killed) for failing to bear sons. In her iconic 1949 book, TheSecond Sex, the French feminist Simone de Beauvoir suggested that women so detested their own “feminine condition” that they regarded their newborn daughters with irritation and disgust. Now the centuries-old preference for sons is eroding—or even reversing. “Women of our generation want daughters precisely because we like who we are,” breezes one woman in Cookie magazine. Even Ericsson, the stubborn old goat, can sigh and mark the passing of an era. “Did male dominance exist? Of course it existed. But it seems to be gone now. And the era of the firstborn son is totally gone.”

      Ericsson’s extended family is as good an illustration of the rapidly shifting landscape as any other. His 26-year-old granddaughter—“tall, slender, brighter than hell, with a take-no-prisoners personality”—is a biochemist and works on genetic sequencing. His niece studied civil engineering at the University of Southern California. His grandsons, he says, are bright and handsome, but in school “their eyes glaze over. I have to tell ’em: ‘Just don’t screw up and crash your pickup truck and get some girl pregnant and ruin your life.’” Recently Ericsson joked with the old boys at his elementary-school reunion that he was going to have a sex-change operation. “Women live longer than men. They do better in this economy. More of ’em graduate from college. They go into space and do everything men do, and sometimes they do it a whole lot better. I mean, hell, get out of the way—these females are going to leave us males in the dust.”

      Man has been the dominant sex since, well, the dawn of mankind. But for the first time in human history, that is changing—and with shocking speed. Cultural and economic changes always reinforce each other. And the global economy is evolving in a way that is eroding the historical preference for male children, worldwide. Over several centuries, South Korea, for instance, constructed one of the most rigid patriarchal societies in the world. Many wives who failed to produce male heirs were abused and treated as domestic servants; some families prayed to spirits to kill off girl children. Then, in the 1970s and ’80s, the government embraced an industrial revolution and encouraged women to enter the labor force. Women moved to the city and went to college. They advanced rapidly, from industrial jobs to clerical jobs to professional work. The traditional order began to crumble soon after. In 1990, the country’s laws were revised so that women could keep custody of their children after a divorce and inherit property. In 2005, the court ruled that women could register children under their own names. As recently as 1985, about half of all women in a national survey said they “must have a son.” That percentage fell slowly until 1991 and then plummeted to just over 15 percent by 2003. Male preference in South Korea “is over,” says Monica Das Gupta, a demographer and Asia expert at the World Bank. “It happened so fast. It’s hard to believe it, but it is.” The same shift is now beginning in other rapidly industrializing countries such as India and China.

      Up to a point, the reasons behind this shift are obvious. As thinking and communicating have come to eclipse physical strength and stamina as the keys to economic success, those societies that take advantage of the talents of all their adults, not just half of them, have pulled away from the rest. And because geopolitics and global culture are, ultimately, Darwinian, other societies either follow suit or end up marginalized. In 2006, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development devised the Gender, Institutions and Development Database, which measures the economic and political power of women in 162 countries. With few exceptions, the greater the power of women, the greater the country’s economic success. Aid agencies have started to recognize this relationship and have pushed to institute political quotas in about 100 countries, essentially forcing women into power in an effort to improve those countries’ fortunes. In some war-torn states, women are stepping in as a sort of maternal rescue team. Liberia’s president, Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, portrayed her country as a sick child in need of her care during her campaign five years ago. Postgenocide Rwanda elected to heal itself by becoming the first country with a majority of women in parliament.

      In feminist circles, these social, political, and economic changes are always cast as a slow, arduous form of catch-up in a continuing struggle for female equality. But in the U.S., the world’s most advanced economy, something much more remarkable seems to be happening. American parents are beginning to choose to have girls over boys. As they imagine the pride of watching a child grow and develop and succeed as an adult, it is more often a girl that they see in their mind’s eye.

      What if the modern, postindustrial economy is simply more congenial to women than to men? For a long time, evolutionary psychologists have claimed that we are all imprinted with adaptive imperatives from a distant past: men are faster and stronger and hardwired to fight for scarce resources, and that shows up now as a drive to win on Wall Street; women are programmed to find good providers and to care for their offspring, and that is manifested in more- nurturing and more-flexible behavior, ordaining them to domesticity. This kind of thinking frames our sense of the natural order. But what if men and women were fulfilling not biological imperatives but social roles, based on what was more efficient throughout a long era of human history? What if that era has now come to an end? More to the point, what if the economics of the new era are better suited to women?

      Once you open your eyes to this possibility, the evidence is all around you. It can be found, most immediately, in the wreckage of the Great Recession, in which three-quarters of the 8 million jobs lost were lost by men. The worst-hit industries were overwhelmingly male and deeply identified with macho: construction, manufacturing, high finance. Some of these jobs will come back, but the overall pattern of dislocation is neither temporary nor random. The recession merely revealed—and accelerated—a profound economic shift that has been going on for at least 30 years, and in some respects even longer.

      Earlier this year, for the first time in American history, the balance of the workforce tipped toward women, who now hold a majority of the nation’s jobs. The working class, which has long defined our notions of masculinity, is slowly turning into a matriarchy, with men increasingly absent from the home and women making all the decisions. Women dominate today’s colleges and professional schools—for every two men who will receive a B.A. this year, three women will do the same. Of the 15 job categories projected to grow the most in the next decade in the U.S., all but two are occupied primarily by women. Indeed, the U.S. economy is in some ways becoming a kind of traveling sisterhood: upper-class women leave home and enter the workforce, creating domestic jobs for other women to fill.

      The postindustrial economy is indifferent to men’s size and strength. The attributes that are most valuable today—social intelligence, open communication, the ability to sit still and focus—are, at a minimum, not predominantly male. In fact, the opposite may be true. Women in poor parts of India are learning English faster than men to meet the demands of new global call centers. Women own more than 40 percent of private businesses in China, where a red Ferrari is the new status symbol for female entrepreneurs. Last year, Iceland elected Prime Minister Johanna Sigurdardottir, the world’s first openly lesbian head of state, who campaigned explicitly against the male elite she claimed had destroyed the nation’s banking system, and who vowed to end the “age of testosterone.”

      Yes, the U.S. still has a wage gap, one that can be convincingly explained—at least in part—by discrimination. Yes, women still do most of the child care. And yes, the upper reaches of society are still dominated by men. But given the power of the forces pushing at the economy, this setup feels like the last gasp of a dying age rather than the permanent establishment. Dozens of college women I interviewed for this story assumed that they very well might be the ones working while their husbands stayed at home, either looking for work or minding the children. Guys, one senior remarked to me, “are the new ball and chain.” It may be happening slowly and unevenly, but it’s unmistakably happening: in the long view, the modern economy is becoming a place where women hold the cards.

      In his final book, The Bachelors’ Ball , published in 2007, the sociologist Pierre Bourdieu describes the changing gender dynamics of Béarn, the region in southwestern France where he grew up. The eldest sons once held the privileges of patrimonial loyalty and filial inheritance in Béarn. But over the decades, changing economic forces turned those privileges into curses. Although the land no longer produced the impressive income it once had, the men felt obligated to tend it. Meanwhile, modern women shunned farm life, lured away by jobs and adventure in the city. They occasionally returned for the traditional balls, but the men who awaited them had lost their prestige and become unmarriageable. This is the image that keeps recurring to me, one that Bourdieu describes in his book: at the bachelors’ ball, the men, self-conscious about their diminished status, stand stiffly, their hands by their sides, as the women twirl away.

      The role reversal that’s under way between American men and women shows up most obviously and painfully in the working class. In recent years, male support groups have sprung up throughout the Rust Belt and in other places where the postindustrial economy has turned traditional family roles upside down. Some groups help men cope with unemployment, and others help them reconnect with their alienated families. Mustafaa El-Scari, a teacher and social worker, leads some of these groups in Kansas City. El-Scari has studied the sociology of men and boys set adrift, and he considers it his special gift to get them to open up and reflect on their new condition. The day I visited one of his classes, earlier this year, he was facing a particularly resistant crowd.

      None of the 30 or so men sitting in a classroom at a downtown Kansas City school have come for voluntary adult enrichment. Having failed to pay their child support, they were given the choice by a judge to go to jail or attend a weekly class on fathering, which to them seemed the better deal. This week’s lesson, from a workbook called Quenching the Father Thirst , was supposed to involve writing a letter to a hypothetical estranged 14-year-old daughter named Crystal, whose father left her when she was a baby. But El-Scari has his own idea about how to get through to this barely awake, skeptical crew, and letters to Crystal have nothing to do with it.

      Like them, he explains, he grew up watching Bill Cosby living behind his metaphorical “white picket fence”—one man, one woman, and a bunch of happy kids. “Well, that check bounced a long time ago,” he says. “Let’s see,” he continues, reading from a worksheet. What are the four kinds of paternal authority? Moral, emotional, social, and physical. “But you ain’t none of those in that house. All you are is a paycheck, and now you ain’t even that. And if you try to exercise your authority, she’ll call 911. How does that make you feel? You’re supposed to be the authority, and she says, ‘Get out of the house, bitch.’ She’s calling you ‘bitch’!”

      The men are black and white, their ages ranging from about 20 to 40. A couple look like they might have spent a night or two on the streets, but the rest look like they work, or used to. Now they have put down their sodas, and El-Scari has their attention, so he gets a little more philosophical. “Who’s doing what?” he asks them. “What is our role? Everyone’s telling us we’re supposed to be the head of a nuclear family, so you feel like you got robbed. It’s toxic, and poisonous, and it’s setting us up for failure.” He writes on the board: $85,000. “This is her salary.” Then: $12,000. “This is your salary. Who’s the damn man? Who’s the man now?” A murmur rises. “That’s right. She’s the man.”

      Judging by the men I spoke with afterward, El-Scari seemed to have pegged his audience perfectly. Darren Henderson was making $33 an hour laying sheet metal, until the real-estate crisis hit and he lost his job. Then he lost his duplex—“there’s my little piece of the American dream”—then his car. And then he fell behind on his child-support payments. “They make it like I’m just sitting around,” he said, “but I’m not.” As proof of his efforts, he took out a new commercial driver’s permit and a bartending license, and then threw them down on the ground like jokers, for all the use they’d been. His daughter’s mother had a $50,000-a-year job and was getting her master’s degree in social work. He’d just signed up for food stamps, which is just about the only social-welfare program a man can easily access. Recently she’d seen him waiting at the bus stop. “Looked me in the eye,” he recalled, “and just drove on by.”

      The men in that room, almost without exception, were casualties of the end of the manufacturing era. Most of them had continued to work with their hands even as demand for manual labor was declining. Since 2000, manufacturing has lost almost 6 million jobs, more than a third of its total workforce, and has taken in few young workers. The housing bubble masked this new reality for a while, creating work in construction and related industries. Many of the men I spoke with had worked as electricians or builders; one had been a successful real-estate agent. Now those jobs are gone too. Henderson spent his days shuttling between unemployment offices and job interviews, wondering what his daughter might be doing at any given moment. In 1950, roughly one in 20 men of prime working age, like Henderson, was not working; today that ratio is about one in five, the highest ever recorded.

      Men dominate just two of the 15 job categories projected to grow the most over the next decade: janitor and computer engineer. Women have everything else—nursing, home health assistance, child care, food preparation. Many of the new jobs, says Heather Boushey of the Center for American Progress, “replace the things that women used to do in the home for free.” None is especially high-paying. But the steady accumulation of these jobs adds up to an economy that, for the working class, has become more amenable to women than to men.

      The list of growing jobs is heavy on nurturing professions, in which women, ironically, seem to benefit from old stereotypes and habits. Theoretically, there is no reason men should not be qualified. But they have proved remarkably unable to adapt. Over the course of the past century, feminism has pushed women to do things once considered against their nature—first enter the workforce as singles, then continue to work while married, then work even with small children at home. Many professions that started out as the province of men are now filled mostly with women—secretary and teacher come to mind. Yet I’m not aware of any that have gone the opposite way. Nursing schools have tried hard to recruit men in the past few years, with minimal success. Teaching schools, eager to recruit male role models, are having a similarly hard time. The range of acceptable masculine roles has changed comparatively little, and has perhaps even narrowed as men have shied away from some careers women have entered. As Jessica Grose wrote in Slate , men seem “fixed in cultural aspic.” And with each passing day, they lag further behind.

      As we recover from the Great Recession, some traditionally male jobs will return—men are almost always harder-hit than women in economic downturns because construction and manufacturing are more cyclical than service industries—but that won’t change the long-term trend. When we look back on this period, argues Jamie Ladge, a business professor at Northeastern University, we will see it as a “turning point for women in the workforce.”

      The economic and cultural power shift from men to women would be hugely significant even if it never extended beyond working-class America. But women are also starting to dominate middle management, and a surprising number of professional careers as well. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, women now hold 51.4 percent of managerial and professional jobs—up from 26.1 percent in 1980. They make up 54 percent of all accountants and hold about half of all banking and insurance jobs. About a third of America’s physicians are now women, as are 45 percent of associates in law firms—and both those percentages are rising fast. A white-collar economy values raw intellectual horsepower, which men and women have in equal amounts. It also requires communication skills and social intelligence, areas in which women, according to many studies, have a slight edge. Perhaps most important—for better or worse—it increasingly requires formal education credentials, which women are more prone to acquire, particularly early in adulthood. Just about the only professions in which women still make up a relatively small minority of newly minted workers are engineering and those calling on a hard-science background, and even in those areas, women have made strong gains since the 1970s.

      Office work has been steadily adapting to women—and in turn being reshaped by them—for 30 years or more. Joel Garreau picks up on this phenomenon in his 1991 book, Edge City , which explores the rise of suburbs that are home to giant swaths of office space along with the usual houses and malls. Companies began moving out of the city in search not only of lower rent but also of the “best educated, most conscientious, most stable workers.” They found their brightest prospects among “underemployed females living in middle-class communities on the fringe of the old urban areas.” As Garreau chronicles the rise of suburban office parks, he places special emphasis on 1978, the peak year for women entering the workforce. When brawn was off the list of job requirements, women often measured up better than men. They were smart, dutiful, and, as long as employers could make the jobs more convenient for them, more reliable. The 1999 movie Office Space was maybe the first to capture how alien and dispiriting the office park can be for men. Disgusted by their jobs and their boss, Peter and his two friends embezzle money and start sleeping through their alarm clocks. At the movie’s end, a male co-worker burns down the office park, and Peter abandons desk work for a job in construction.

      Near the top of the jobs pyramid, of course, the upward march of women stalls. Prominent female CEOs, past and present, are so rare that they count as minor celebrities, and most of us can tick off their names just from occasionally reading the business pages: Meg Whitman at eBay, Carly Fiorina at Hewlett-Packard, Anne Mulcahy and Ursula Burns at Xerox, Indra Nooyi at PepsiCo; the accomplishment is considered so extraordinary that Whitman and Fiorina are using it as the basis for political campaigns. Only 3 percent of Fortune 500 CEOs are women, and the number has never risen much above that.

      But even the way this issue is now framed reveals that men’s hold on power in elite circles may be loosening. In business circles, the lack of women at the top is described as a “brain drain” and a crisis of “talent retention.” And while female CEOs may be rare in America’s largest companies, they are highly prized: last year, they outearned their male counterparts by 43 percent, on average, and received bigger raises.

      Even around the delicate question of working mothers, the terms of the conversation are shifting. Last year, in a story about breast-feeding, I complained about how the early years of child rearing keep women out of power positions. But the term mommy track is slowly morphing into the gender-neutral flex time, reflecting changes in the workforce. For recent college graduates of both sexes, flexible arrangements are at the top of the list of workplace demands, according to a study published last year in the Harvard Business Review. And companies eager to attract and retain talented workers and managers are responding. The consulting firm Deloitte, for instance, started what’s now considered the model program, called Mass Career Customization, which allows employees to adjust their hours depending on their life stage. The program, Deloitte’s Web site explains, solves “a complex issue—one that can no longer be classified as a woman’s issue.”

      “Women are knocking on the door of leadership at the very moment when their talents are especially well matched with the requirements of the day,” writes David Gergen in the introduction to Enlightened Power: How Women Are Transforming the Practice of Leadership . What are these talents? Once it was thought that leaders should be aggressive and competitive, and that men are naturally more of both. But psychological research has complicated this picture. In lab studies that simulate negotiations, men and women are just about equally assertive and competitive, with slight variations. Men tend to assert themselves in a controlling manner, while women tend to take into account the rights of others, but both styles are equally effective, write the psychologists Alice Eagly and Linda Carli, in their 2007 book, Through the Labyrinth .

      Over the years, researchers have sometimes exaggerated these differences and described the particular talents of women in crude gender stereotypes: women as more empathetic, as better consensus-seekers and better lateral thinkers; women as bringing a superior moral sensibility to bear on a cutthroat business world. In the ’90s, this field of feminist business theory seemed to be forcing the point. But after the latest financial crisis, these ideas have more resonance. Researchers have started looking into the relationship between testosterone and excessive risk, and wondering if groups of men, in some basic hormonal way, spur each other to make reckless decisions. The picture emerging is a mirror image of the traditional gender map: men and markets on the side of the irrational and overemotional, and women on the side of the cool and levelheaded.

      We don’t yet know with certainty whether testosterone strongly influences business decision-making. But the perception of the ideal business leader is starting to shift. The old model of command and control, with one leader holding all the decision-making power, is considered hidebound. The new model is sometimes called “post-heroic,” or “transformational” in the words of the historian and leadership expert James MacGregor Burns. The aim is to behave like a good coach, and channel your charisma to motivate others to be hardworking and creative. The model is not explicitly defined as feminist, but it echoes literature about male-female differences. A program at Columbia Business School, for example, teaches sensitive leadership and social intelligence, including better reading of facial expressions and body language. “We never explicitly say, ‘Develop your feminine side,’ but it’s clear that’s what we’re advocating,” says Jamie Ladge.

      A 2008 study attempted to quantify the effect of this more-feminine management style. Researchers at Columbia Business School and the University of Maryland analyzed data on the top 1,500 U.S. companies from 1992 to 2006 to determine the relationship between firm performance and female participation in senior management. Firms that had women in top positions performed better, and this was especially true if the firm pursued what the researchers called an “innovation intensive strategy,” in which, they argued, “creativity and collaboration may be especially important”—an apt description of the future economy.

      It could be that women boost corporate performance, or it could be that better-performing firms have the luxury of recruiting and keeping high-potential women. But the association is clear: innovative, successful firms are the ones that promote women. The same Columbia-Maryland study ranked America’s industries by the proportion of firms that employed female executives, and the bottom of the list reads like the ghosts of the economy past: shipbuilding, real estate, coal, steelworks, machinery.


      If you really want to see where the world is headed, of course, looking at the current workforce can get you only so far. To see the future—of the workforce, the economy, and the culture—you need to spend some time at America’s colleges and professional schools, where a quiet revolution is under way. More than ever, college is the gateway to economic success, a necessary precondition for moving into the upper-middle class—and increasingly even the middle class. It’s this broad, striving middle class that defines our society. And demographically, we can see with absolute clarity that in the coming decades the middle class will be dominated by women.

      We’ve all heard about the collegiate gender gap. But the implications of that gap have not yet been fully digested. Women now earn 60 percent of master’s degrees, about half of all law and medical degrees, and 42 percent of all M.B.A.s. Most important, women earn almost 60 percent of all bachelor’s degrees—the minimum requirement, in most cases, for an affluent life. In a stark reversal since the 1970s, men are now more likely than women to hold only a high-school diploma. “One would think that if men were acting in a rational way, they would be getting the education they need to get along out there,” says Tom Mortenson, a senior scholar at the Pell Institute for the Study of Opportunity in Higher Education. “But they are just failing to adapt.”

      This spring, I visited a few schools around Kansas City to get a feel for the gender dynamics of higher education. I started at the downtown campus of Metropolitan Community College. Metropolitan is the kind of place where people go to learn practical job skills and keep current with the changing economy, and as in most community colleges these days, men were conspicuously absent. One afternoon, in the basement cafeteria of a nearly windowless brick building, several women were trying to keep their eyes on their biology textbook and ignore the text messages from their babysitters. Another crew was outside the ladies’ room, braiding each other’s hair. One woman, still in her medical-assistant scrubs, looked like she was about to fall asleep in the elevator between the first and fourth floors.

      When Bernard Franklin took over as campus president in 2005, he looked around and told his staff early on that their new priority was to “recruit more boys.” He set up mentoring programs and men-only study groups and student associations. He made a special effort to bond with male students, who liked to call him “Suit.” “It upset some of my feminists,” he recalls. Yet, a few years later, the tidal wave of women continues to wash through the school—they now make up about 70 percent of its students. They come to train to be nurses and teachers—African American women, usually a few years older than traditional college students, and lately, working-class white women from the suburbs seeking a cheap way to earn a credential. As for the men? Well, little has changed. “I recall one guy who was really smart,” one of the school’s counselors told me. “But he was reading at a sixth-grade level and felt embarrassed in front of the women. He had to hide his books from his friends, who would tease him when he studied. Then came the excuses. ‘It’s spring, gotta play ball.’ ‘It’s winter, too cold.’ He didn’t make it.”

      It makes some economic sense that women attend community colleges—and in fact, all colleges—in greater numbers than men. Women ages 25 to 34 with only a high-school diploma currently have a median income of $25,474, while men in the same position earn $32,469. But it makes sense only up to a point. The well-paid lifetime union job has been disappearing for at least 30 years. Kansas City, for example, has shifted from steel manufacturing to pharmaceuticals and information technologies. “The economy isn’t as friendly to men as it once was,” says Jacqueline King, of the American Council on Education. “You would think men and women would go to these colleges at the same rate.” But they don’t.

      In 2005, King’s group conducted a survey of lower-income adults in college. Men, it turned out, had a harder time committing to school, even when they desperately needed to retool. They tended to start out behind academically, and many felt intimidated by the schoolwork. They reported feeling isolated and were much worse at seeking out fellow students, study groups, or counselors to help them adjust. Mothers going back to school described themselves as good role models for their children. Fathers worried that they were abrogating their responsibilities as breadwinner.

      The student gender gap started to feel like a crisis to some people in higher-education circles in the mid-2000s, when it began showing up not just in community and liberal-arts colleges but in the flagship public universities—the UCs and the SUNYs and the UNCs. Like many of those schools, the University of Missouri at Kansas City, a full research university with more than 13,000 students, is now tipping toward 60 percent women, a level many admissions officers worry could permanently shift the atmosphere and reputation of a school. In February, I visited with Ashley Burress, UMKC’s student-body president. (The other three student-government officers this school year were also women.) Burress, a cute, short, African American 24-year-old grad student who is getting a doctor-of-pharmacy degree, had many of the same complaints I heard from other young women. Guys high-five each other when they get a C, while girls beat themselves up over a B-minus. Guys play video games in each other’s rooms, while girls crowd the study hall. Girls get their degrees with no drama, while guys seem always in danger of drifting away. “In 2012, I will be Dr. Burress,” she said. “Will I have to deal with guys who don’t even have a bachelor’s degree? I would like to date, but I’m putting myself in a really small pool.”

      UMKC is a working- and middle-class school—the kind of place where traditional sex roles might not be anathema. Yet as I talked to students this spring, I realized how much the basic expectations for men and women had shifted. Many of the women’s mothers had established their careers later in life, sometimes after a divorce, and they had urged their daughters to get to their own careers more quickly. They would be a campus of Tracy Flicks, except that they seemed neither especially brittle nor secretly falling apart.

      Victoria, Michelle, and Erin are sorority sisters. Victoria’s mom is a part-time bartender at a hotel. Victoria is a biology major and wants to be a surgeon; soon she’ll apply to a bunch of medical schools. She doesn’t want kids for a while, because she knows she’ll “be at the hospital, like, 100 hours a week,” and when she does have kids, well, she’ll “be the hotshot surgeon, and he”—a nameless he—“will be at home playing with the kiddies.”

      Michelle, a self-described “perfectionist,” also has her life mapped out. She’s a psychology major and wants to be a family therapist. After college, she will apply to grad school and look for internships. She is well aware of the career-counseling resources on campus. And her fiancé?

      Michelle: He’s changed majors, like, 16 times. Last week he wanted to be a dentist. This week it’s environmental science.

      Erin: Did he switch again this week? When you guys have kids, he’ll definitely stay home. Seriously, what does he want to do?

      Michelle: It depends on the day of the week. Remember last year? It was bio. It really is a joke. But it’s not. It’s funny, but it’s not.

      Among traditional college students from the highest-income families, the gender gap pretty much disappears. But the story is not so simple. Wealthier students tend to go to elite private schools, and elite private schools live by their own rules. Quietly, they’ve been opening up a new frontier in affirmative action, with boys playing the role of the underprivileged applicants needing an extra boost. In 2003, a study by the economists Sandy Baum and Eban Goodstein found that among selective liberal-arts schools, being male raises the chance of college acceptance by 6.5 to 9 percentage points. Now the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights has voted to investigate what some academics have described as the “open secret” that private schools “are discriminating in admissions in order to maintain what they regard as an appropriate gender balance.”

      Jennifer Delahunty, the dean of admissions and financial aid at Kenyon College, in Ohio, let this secret out in a 2006 New York Times op-ed . Gender balance, she wrote back then, is the elephant in the room. And today, she told me, the problem hasn’t gone away. A typical female applicant, she said, manages the process herself—lines up the interviews, sets up a campus visit, requests a visit with faculty members. But the college has seen more than one male applicant “sit back on the couch, sometimes with their eyes closed, while their mom tells them where to go and what to do. Sometimes we say, ‘What a nice essay his mom wrote,’” she said, in that funny-but-not vein.

      To avoid crossing the dreaded 60 percent threshold, admissions officers have created a language to explain away the boys’ deficits: “Brain hasn’t kicked in yet.” “Slow to cook.” “Hasn’t quite peaked.” “Holistic picture.” At times Delahunty has become so worried about “overeducated females” and “undereducated males” that she jokes she is getting conspiratorial. She once called her sister, a pediatrician, to vet her latest theory: “Maybe these boys are genetically like canaries in a coal mine, absorbing so many toxins and bad things in the environment that their DNA is shifting. Maybe they’re like those frogs—they’re more vulnerable or something, so they’ve gotten deformed.”

      Clearly, some percentage of boys are just temperamentally unsuited to college, at least at age 18 or 20, but without it, they have a harder time finding their place these days. “Forty years ago, 30 years ago, if you were one of the fairly constant fraction of boys who wasn’t ready to learn in high school, there were ways for you to enter the mainstream economy,” says Henry Farber, an economist at Princeton. “When you woke up, there were jobs. There were good industrial jobs, so you could have a good industrial, blue-collar career. Now those jobs are gone.”

      Since the 1980s, as women have flooded colleges, male enrollment has grown far more slowly. And the disparities start before college. Throughout the ’90s, various authors and researchers agonized over why boys seemed to be failing at every level of education, from elementary school on up, and identified various culprits: a misguided feminism that treated normal boys as incipient harassers (Christina Hoff Sommers); different brain chemistry (Michael Gurian); a demanding, verbally focused curriculum that ignored boys’ interests (Richard Whitmire). But again, it’s not all that clear that boys have become more dysfunctional—or have changed in any way. What’s clear is that schools, like the economy, now value the self-control, focus, and verbal aptitude that seem to come more easily to young girls.

      Researchers have suggested any number of solutions. A movement is growing for more all-boys schools and classes, and for respecting the individual learning styles of boys. Some people think that boys should be able to walk around in class, or take more time on tests, or have tests and books that cater to their interests. In their desperation to reach out to boys, some colleges have formed football teams and started engineering programs. Most of these special accommodations sound very much like the kind of affirmative action proposed for women over the years—which in itself is an alarming flip.

      Whether boys have changed or not, we are well past the time to start trying some experiments. It is fabulous to see girls and young women poised for success in the coming years. But allowing generations of boys to grow up feeling rootless and obsolete is not a recipe for a peaceful future. Men have few natural support groups and little access to social welfare; the men’s-rights groups that do exist in the U.S. are taking on an angry, antiwoman edge. Marriages fall apart or never happen at all, and children are raised with no fathers. Far from being celebrated, women’s rising power is perceived as a threat.

      What would a society in which women are on top look like? We already have an inkling. This is the first time that the cohort of Americans ages 30 to 44 has more college-educated women than college-educated men, and the effects are upsetting the traditional Cleaver-family dynamics. In 1970, women contributed 2 to 6 percent of the family income. Now the typical working wife brings home 42.2 percent, and four in 10 mothers—many of them single mothers—are the primary breadwinners in their families. The whole question of whether mothers should work is moot, argues Heather Boushey of the Center for American Progress, “because they just do. This idealized family—he works, she stays home—hardly exists anymore.”

      The terms of marriage have changed radically since 1970. Typically, women’s income has been the main factor in determining whether a family moves up the class ladder or stays stagnant. And increasing numbers of women—unable to find men with a similar income and education—are forgoing marriage altogether. In 1970, 84 percent of women ages 30 to 44 were married; now 60 percent are. In 2007, among American women without a high-school diploma, 43 percent were married. And yet, for all the hand-wringing over the lonely spinster, the real loser in society—the only one to have made just slight financial gains since the 1970s—is the single man, whether poor or rich, college-educated or not. Hens rejoice; it’s the bachelor party that’s over.

      The sociologist Kathryn Edin spent five years talking with low-income mothers in the inner suburbs of Philadelphia. Many of these neighborhoods, she found, had turned into matriarchies, with women making all the decisions and dictating what the men should and should not do. “I think something feminists have missed,” Edin told me, “is how much power women have” when they’re not bound by marriage. The women, she explained, “make every important decision”—whether to have a baby, how to raise it, where to live. “It’s definitely ‘my way or the highway,’” she said. “Thirty years ago, cultural norms were such that the fathers might have said, ‘Great, catch me if you can.’ Now they are desperate to father, but they are pessimistic about whether they can meet her expectations.” The women don’t want them as husbands, and they have no steady income to provide. So what do they have?

      “Nothing,” Edin says. “They have nothing. The men were just annihilated in the recession of the ’90s, and things never got better. Now it’s just awful.”

      The situation today is not, as Edin likes to say, a “feminist nirvana.” The phenomenon of children being born to unmarried parents “has spread to barrios and trailer parks and rural areas and small towns,” Edin says, and it is creeping up the class ladder. After staying steady for a while, the portion of American children born to unmarried parents jumped to 40 percent in the past few years. Many of their mothers are struggling financially; the most successful are working and going to school and hustling to feed the children, and then falling asleep in the elevator of the community college.

      Still, they are in charge. “The family changes over the past four decades have been bad for men and bad for kids, but it’s not clear they are bad for women,” says W. Bradford Wilcox, the head of the University of Virginia’s National Marriage Project.

      Over the years, researchers have proposed different theories to explain the erosion of marriage in the lower classes: the rise of welfare, or the disappearance of work and thus of marriageable men. But Edin thinks the most compelling theory is that marriage has disappeared because women are setting the terms—and setting them too high for the men around them to reach. “I want that white-picket-fence dream,” one woman told Edin, and the men she knew just didn’t measure up, so she had become her own one-woman mother/father/nurturer/provider. The whole country’s future could look much as the present does for many lower-class African Americans: the mothers pull themselves up, but the men don’t follow. First-generation college-educated white women may join their black counterparts in a new kind of middle class, where marriage is increasingly rare.

      As the traditional order has been upended, signs of the profound disruption have popped up in odd places. Japan is in a national panic over the rise of the “herbivores,” the cohort of young men who are rejecting the hard-drinking salaryman life of their fathers and are instead gardening, organizing dessert parties, acting cartoonishly feminine, and declining to have sex. The generational young-women counterparts are known in Japan as the “carnivores,” or sometimes the “hunters.”

      American pop culture keeps producing endless variations on the omega male, who ranks even below the beta in the wolf pack. This often-unemployed, romantically challenged loser can show up as a perpetual adolescent (in Judd Apatow’s Knocked Up or The 40-Year-Old Virgin ), or a charmless misanthrope (in Noah Baumbach’s Greenberg ), or a happy couch potato (in a Bud Light commercial). He can be sweet, bitter, nostalgic, or cynical, but he cannot figure out how to be a man. “We call each other ‘man,’” says Ben Stiller’s character in Greenberg, “but it’s a joke. It’s like imitating other people.” The American male novelist, meanwhile, has lost his mojo and entirely given up on sex as a way for his characters to assert macho dominance, Katie Roiphe explains in her essay “The Naked and the Conflicted.” Instead, she writes, “the current sexual style is more childlike; innocence is more fashionable than virility, the cuddle preferable to sex.”

      At the same time, a new kind of alpha female has appeared, stirring up anxiety and, occasionally, fear. The cougar trope started out as a joke about desperate older women. Now it’s gone mainstream, even in Hollywood, home to the 50-something producer with a starlet on his arm. Susan Sarandon and Demi Moore have boy toys, and Aaron Johnson, the 19-year-old star of Kick-Ass, is a proud boy toy for a woman 24 years his senior. The New York Times columnist Gail Collins recently wrote that the cougar phenomenon is beginning to look like it’s not about desperate women at all but about “desperate young American men who are latching on to an older woman who’s a good earner.” Up in the Air , a movie set against the backdrop of recession-era layoffs, hammers home its point about the shattered ego of the American man. A character played by George Clooney is called too old to be attractive by his younger female colleague and is later rejected by an older woman whom he falls in love with after she sleeps with him—and who turns out to be married. George Clooney! If the sexiest man alive can get twice rejected (and sexually played) in a movie, what hope is there for anyone else? The message to American men is summarized by the title of a recent offering from the romantic-comedy mill: She’s Out of My League .

      In fact, the more women dominate, the more they behave, fittingly, like the dominant sex. Rates of violence committed by middle-aged women have skyrocketed since the 1980s, and no one knows why. High-profile female killers have been showing up regularly in the news: Amy Bishop, the homicidal Alabama professor; Jihad Jane and her sidekick, Jihad Jamie; the latest generation of Black Widows, responsible for suicide bombings in Russia. In Roman Polanski’s The Ghost Writer , the traditional political wife is rewritten as a cold-blooded killer at the heart of an evil conspiracy. In her recent video Telephone , Lady Gaga, with her infallible radar for the cultural edge, rewrites Thelma and Louise as a story not about elusive female empowerment but about sheer, ruthless power. Instead of killing themselves, she and her girlfriend (played by Beyoncé) kill a bad boyfriend and random others in a homicidal spree and then escape in their yellow pickup truck, Gaga bragging, “We did it, Honey B.”

      The Marlboro Man, meanwhile, master of wild beast and wild country, seems too far-fetched and preposterous even for advertising. His modern equivalents are the stunted men in the Dodge Charger ad that ran during this year’s Super Bowl in February. Of all the days in the year, one might think, Super Bowl Sunday should be the one most dedicated to the cinematic celebration of macho. The men in Super Bowl ads should be throwing balls and racing motorcycles and doing whatever it is men imagine they could do all day if only women were not around to restrain them.

      Instead, four men stare into the camera, unsmiling, not moving except for tiny blinks and sways. They look like they’ve been tranquilized, like they can barely hold themselves up against the breeze. Their lips do not move, but a voice-over explains their predicament—how they’ve been beaten silent by the demands of tedious employers and enviro-fascists and women. Especially women. “I will put the seat down, I will separate the recycling, I will carry your lip balm.” This last one—lip balm—is expressed with the mildest spit of emotion, the only hint of the suppressed rage against the dominatrix. Then the commercial abruptly cuts to the fantasy, a Dodge Charger vrooming toward the camera punctuated by bold all caps: MAN’S LAST STAND. But the motto is unconvincing. After that display of muteness and passivity, you can only imagine a woman—one with shiny lips—steering the beast.

      We want to hear what you think about this article. Submit a letter to the editor or write to [email protected]

      Hanna Rosin , an Atlantic national correspondent, is the author of the book The End of Men based on her story in the July/August 2010 Atlantic.

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      Case studies

        Case study 1

        Background and issues affecting student:

        *James, in year 8, was referred to the learning mentors in November for anger management, lack of self-esteem and motivation issues. He became easily annoyed by pupils in his class and lashes out by throwing things and storming out. James became increasingly aggressive to his peers and defiant towards staff. He is unable to maintain friendships and feels that everyone in his class hates him. He is on report and receiving punishments almost every day.

        Strategies used:

        • Identification of key issues with James
        • Discussion of self-awareness, confidence and emotions
        • Looking at triggers to anger and anger management
        • How to form good relationships, making and maintaining friendships
        • Better communication, focusing on positive body language and listening skills
        • Use of a ‘time out’ card for when emotions become too heightened

        Outcomes and Suggestions for the Future

        James has maintained respect for staff and is achieving more academically. Recent teacher feedback states, ‘always helpful and polite in the group and to myself’ and ‘is keen to learn and tries hard’. James still has some areas for development, such as organisation and communication but his progress is evident. His mentoring sessions have been reduced from once a week to fortnightly. He met 3 out of 4 targets from his action plan and is generally much happier.

        Case study 2

        Background and issues affecting students:

        *Chayenne is in year 10 and had been permanently excluded last summer. Her parents are separated and she has little contact with her father although she is desperate to have more contact with him. She demonstrates inappropriate behaviours such as seeking attention from her male peers, verbally abusive to staff and is prone to unpredictable extreme bouts of anger. She is academically able with an interest in performing arts.

        Strategies used:

        • Daily mentoring sessions to discuss issues arising from the previous day or evening. These sessions focus on developing positive relationships, appropriate boundaries and consequences
        • A daily behaviour report
        • Work with attendance officer focused on improving punctuality
        • Referral to school health officer
        • Involvement in craft group and dance lessons
        • Regular contact with home

        Outcomes and suggestions for the future:

        Chayenne now has more positive interactions with male students. Her punctuality and behaviour are much improved, specifically more control over emotional outbursts. Relationships with staff and peers are improved and she is making more academic progress. Chayenne will stay in regular contact with her mentor to discuss emotional anxieties. She will be more involved in leadership opportunities within school and referred to the counsellor. She will continue to develop her interest in performing arts.

        Case study 3

        Background and issues affecting student:

        *Lewis is a year 7 student with issues around attendance identified in year 6. There is a family history of involvement with social services. Lewis is on the special needs register at school for social, emotional and behaviour difficulties and for a specific learning difficulty.

        Strategies used:

        • Met with Lewis on the first day of term to discuss attendance report card (a system that rewards attendance)
        • Lewis was signposted to summer holiday activities to help with home circumstances over the long break
        • Inclusion into the primary transition group to assist in forming friendships
        • Allocation of a ‘buddy’ to Lewis through the peer listening scheme
        • Weekly meetings with the learning mentor to review how the year was progressing

        Outcomes and Suggestions for the Future

        Lewis has responded extremely well to the systems set in place. Attendance is still an issue although it is greatly improved. He is gaining confidence within the new academic setting and is improving his attainment. LMs will support Lewis on a medium to long-term basis as many of his issues revolve around the family and home. He will be supported and encouraged to take responsibility for himself and his education. Regular contact with his mentor has helped Lewis to remain focused and his improved attendance means that he is performing better in school which, in turn, is helping his confidence.

        * names have been changed

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        Last updated: 14 Mar 2017

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                NYSE National is the New York Stock Exchange’s newest equities exchange, which aims to deliver greater choice to investors.

                NYSE National is a fully electronic market that combines the high performance of NYSE Pillar technology with a “taker/maker” fee schedule. With the highest exchange rebates available for removing liquidity, NYSE National is an attractive trading venue for investors using fee-sensitive strategies to take liquidity or for passive traders seeking to minimize their time-to-fill.

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                Tracing its history back to 1885 to when it was the Cincinnati Stock Exchange, it later became the world’s first stock exchange to become a fully automated, screen-based trading system in 1985. It is fitting that in its new life as NYSE National that it operates on the NYSE’s state-of-the-art trading system, NYSE Pillar .

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                Tuition and Financial Aid Information

                Pursuing your MBA is an investment in yourself and in your future. Wharton is committed to helping you explore financing options so that you make informed decisions.

                Tuition and Cost Breakdown

                First year budget, 2018-2019

                Tuition and Fees (Includes $2,000 Pre-Term Fee)$78,948
                Room and Board$22,350
                Books and Supplies$1,450
                Transportation$1,040
                Health Insurance, Personal$8,112
                Total$111,900

                Financial Aid

                Wharton strongly encourages you to discuss your financial options with your family or those who may provide support while you attend school to select the financial resources that best fit your needs. Understand that most students rely on multiple funding sources; financing options typically include personal resources, educational loans, external scholarships and sponsorships, and Wharton Fellowships. We encourage you to investigate all sources of funding, including government and private scholarships, prior to borrowing from any loan program. Below are some resources that may offer funding opportunities.

                We do not endorse any specific lender nor do we receive compensation from any lender, and we encourage you to compare the fees and terms of all student loan products to determine which are best suited to your individual needs. Information on loan programs and links to loan applications are available on the Student Financial Services website.

                Loans for U.S. Citizens/Permanent Residents

                Federal Direct and Direct Grad PLUS Loans

                Federal student loans available to graduate/professional students are all unsubsidized loans. Direct Unsubsidized loans will accrue interest while you are in school.

                Federal Direct and Direct GRAD PLUS Loans offer fixed interest rates, low fees, favorable repayment benefits, ease of application, and electronic disbursement of funds directly to your student account.

                Both loan programs require the completion of the Federal Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA).

                Private Alternative Loans

                A number of private lenders and other financial institutions offer education loans for students. These loans are called private alternative loans.

                Private alternative loans are not subsidized, and generally have tiered and fixed interest rates and fees based on your credit score. Cosigners may be required. Unlike Federal Direct and Grad PLUS loans, private loans do not have an income-based cap on monthly repayments. Therefore, we encourage U.S. citizens and permanent residents to first consider the Federal Direct and Direct Grad PLUS loan programs when you need to borrow. You can review a comparison of Grad PLUS and private alternative loans on the Student Financial Services website.

                Loans for International Students

                If you are an International student who is neither a dual U.S. citizen nor a U.S. permanent resident, we encourage you to investigate all sources of funding within your home country, including government and private scholarships and loans.

                Wharton has a new partnership with Quorum Federal Credit Union that will provide a non-cosigned loan product for incoming international students. This loan program does not require a U.S. cosigner, and specific information on this program will be made available to admitted students. Some U.S. banks will also permit international students to borrow through them provided you have a creditworthy U.S. citizen cosigner.

                Note 1: If you are an international student planning to borrow through the International Loan Program with Quorum Federal Credit Union, you will be limited to borrowing up to 80% of the MBA Student Budget for the first and second year of the program.

                Note 2 (OFAC Sanctions): In accordance with mandatory federal regulatory guidelines, students from the United States Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets (OFAC) sanctioned countries are not eligible for the private education line of credit through Quorum Federal Credit Union. If you are an applicant from these countries, please complete a thorough search of funding opportunities to help you with the cost of attendance.

                Scholarships for Specific Populations

                American Association of University Women

                Bureau of Indian Education

                Fulbright Scholarships 

                Giva Student Scholarship

                Hispanic Scholarship Fund (HSF)

                Instituto Ling Scholarship Program 

                Jack Kent Cooke Foundation

                National Society of Hispanic MBAs Scholarship Program

                Native American Finance Officers Association (NAFAO)

                Onsi Sawiris Scholarship Program

                Paul and Daisy Soros Fellowships for New Americans

                Thouron Award

                Toigo Fellowship

                Scholarship Search Engines

                FastWeb

                FinAid

                Graduate Management Admissions Council

                Sallie Mae Scholarship

                Scholarships.com

                The John M. Bendheim Loan Forgiveness Fund for Public Service

                Created in 2005 through a grant from the Leon Lowenstein Foundation—at the recommendation of John Bendheim, W’40, and his son Tom, WG/Lauder’90—the John Bendheim Loan Forgiveness Fund for Public Service is designed to encourage Wharton MBA graduates to pursue careers in the public and non-profit sectors. The fund is managed by the Wharton Social Impact Initiative.

                The Loan Forgiveness Award is open to Wharton MBAs during the first five years after graduation. The application process is competitive, and award selection is determined by a team representing Wharton Social Impact Initiative, MBA Career Management, MBA Admissions and Financial Aid, the MBA Program Office, and former recipients of the award.

                Eligible candidates must pursue careers in the public and non-profit sectors (and work for organizations recognized by the IRS as tax-exempt under the U.S. Internal Revenue Code). The awards are based on a combination of activity, career goals, and financial need.

                If selected for this program, we will send up to $20,000 per year to your lenders to pay down your loans. There is no limit to the number of times an alumnus/alumna may be chosen as a recipient during the first five years following graduation.

                Please visit the  Wharton Social Impact Initiative (WSII) to learn more about the application process for the Loan Forgiveness Fund for Public Service.

                Military Benefits – the Yellow Ribbon Program

                The Yellow Ribbon Program (YRB) is a provision of the Post-9/11 Veterans Educational Assistance Act of 2008. Wharton offers grant funds through the Yellow Ribbon Program for veterans and is committed to funding all students who are 100% eligible under the Post-9/11 GI Bill. You can find details and eligibility guidelines for the Post-9/11 benefits, including the Yellow Ribbon Program, at www.gibill.va.gov .

                If you are on active duty or are a veteran, we will waive your application fee; Please call the financial aid office (215) 898-8728 when you’re ready to submit your application.

                Eligible applicants may receive a maximum Yellow Ribbon Award of up to $12,500. The Dept. of Veteran Affairs (VA) will match the award amount that we grant. If you are eligible for the Yellow Ribbon Program, you must indicate Yellow Ribbon eligibility by submitting a VA Certificate of Eligibility (COE) to the Registrar’s Office.

                Wharton Fellowship Program

                Wharton provides a broad range of fellowship opportunities for many exceptional students, thanks to the generosity of individuals, corporate and foundation donors, and the Wharton School.

                All admitted students are considered for Wharton Fellowship support based on the application for admission. Criteria for fellowship selection includes unique personal qualities and background, academic achievement, exceptional professional development, and community involvement.

                • Awards are offered in the Admission and Financial Aid letter.
                • Fellowships are two-year awards, split equally over four semesters for a typical MBA student.
                • The Wharton Fellowship Committee does not offer reconsideration of fellowship support.

                The information below is a select list of special fellowships available at Wharton.

                Joseph Wharton Fellowships

                Joseph Wharton Fellowships are named in honor of Joseph Wharton, the founder of the Wharton School. These fellowships are awarded to students with outstanding records of academic, personal, and professional achievements.

                Howard E. Mitchell Fellowships

                Established in 1992, in honor of former Wharton professor Howard E. Mitchell, WG ’51, this fellowship is awarded to traditionally underrepresented domestic populations, specifically Black/African American, Latino/Hispanic, Native American/American Indian or Alaskan Native, and Native Hawaiian/Asian Pacific Islander to provide financial support to graduate students of color, based on proven leadership, academic excellence, work experience, and/or demonstrated commitment to empowering traditionally underrepresented groups. Each year, a cohort of students receives full tuition, engages in leadership programming, and joins a large network of other Mitchell Fellows and alumni.

                Emerging Economy Fellowships

                Emerging Economy Fellowships are offered to support students from emerging economies throughout the world.

                Forté Fellowships

                Forte Fellowships are awarded each year to outstanding female students who demonstrate exemplary leadership academically, professionally or creatively, as well as a proven commitment to the empowerment of women in education or the workplace.

                ROMBA Fellowship

                The Reaching Out LGBT MBA Fellowship was created as a joint effort between MBA programs and Reaching Out to demonstrate that business schools are the top destination to developed the out LGBT and active ally business leaders of tomorrow. This is awarded to candidates who self-identify as LGBT and have demonstrated leadership in LBGT related roles either academically, professionally, or in the community.

                Social Impact Fellowships

                Social Impact Fellowships are offered to students with demonstrated leadership in the public and/or not-for-profit sectors.

                Corporate and Foundation Fellowships

                The following select list of corporations and foundations are fellowship supporters of named Wharton MBA fellowships:

                • Alcoa Inc.
                • American Express Philanthropic Program
                • Bain & Company, Inc.
                • Bank of America Corporation
                • Bechtel Foundation
                • Citigroup Foundation
                • Credit Suisse
                • Daimler Chrysler Corporation Fund
                • Deutsche Bank
                • Exxon Mobil Corporation
                • Ford Motor Company Fund
                • General Mills, Inc.
                • General Motors Foundation
                • The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc.
                • Merrill Lynch & Co., Inc.
                • New America Alliance Institute
                • Pension Real Estate Association
                • Robert A. Toigo Foundation
                • Robert R. Nathan Memorial Foundation

                Wharton Fellowships for Current Students

                Throughout your time in the MBA Program, additional fellowship options become available to students in multiple areas. These have their own distinct application process, award amounts and criteria.

                2nd Year Financial Aid Awards

                Established to provide additional financial support to Wharton MBA students in their second year of the MBA Program. The fellowship support will be determined by the Wharton Fellowship Committee based on submitted application and a review of existing loan balances, prior fellowships, and other support received.

                Academic Fellowships

                • Ford Fellowship – First year, best student
                • Academic Excellence Fellowship – Terms 2 and 3, best student
                • Inselbag Fellowship – First year (Top 5% eligible)
                • McGowan Fellowship – First year (Top 5% eligible)
                • Director’s List Fellowship – Each semester (Top 10% eligible)

                Entrepreneurial Awards and Fellowships

                • Penn Wharton Innovation Fund
                • Summer Venture Award
                • Startup Internship Award
                • Edward B Shills / Leonard L Zeidman Fellowship

                Global Immersion Program Ambassadorships

                The GIP Ambassador Fellowship will provide two students from each program with fellowship support to cover the costs of their program fee. GIP Ambassadors will be academically engaged students, who hold a positive disposition to learning abroad, promote intercultural awareness and uphold the standards of the Wharton School.

                Leadership Fellowships

                • Behrman Family Fellowships (3) in demonstrated leadership and financial need.
                • Recipient selection process maintained within Leadership Program.

                Real Estate Fellowships

                Samuel Zell and Robert Lurie Real Estate Center Awards: Committed to excellence in education, the Center awards fellowships and scholarships to promising real estate students.

                Whitney M Young Fellowship

                Second-year, active member of the AAMBAA community who has demonstrated academic excellence and made outstanding contributions to the achievement of excellence by people of color in the Wharton, University of Pennsylvania and/or greater business communities.

                Toigo Fellowships

                The Toigo MBA Fellowship provides minority MBA candidates committed to careers in finance with an unmatched network of contacts, a prestigious point of difference in the eyes of employers, one-on-one career guidance, leadership training, a merit award—and more.

                Additional Revenue Sources

                Although a selective process by nature, there are many related work options and Fellow Programs available to current MBA Students. Beyond the compensation received, these roles provide the opportunity to enrich your personal experience in the Wharton MBA Program.  

                MBA Admission Fellows

                Second year students across many backgrounds, careers and interests that are available to speak with admitted students about the Wharton MBA Program.

                MBA Career Management Fellows

                Successful second year MBA’s that are hired and trained by MBACM to perform resume review for students, prep students for interviews and conduct mock interviews for students to prepare them for an interview in a particular industry.

                McNulty Leadership Program

                • Venture Fellows : Serving as a Venture Fellow is an incredibly rewarding experience with the opportunity to further develop as a leader and facilitate the leadership development of venture participants.
                • Leadership Fellows : Leadership Fellows are charged with providing every first year student the opportunity to enhance their leadership potential through the development of practical tools and concrete strategies applicable in every area of their lives.

                Wharton-Omnicom Fellows

                Omnicom Fellows are second-year MBA students who work with Communication Instructors to help first-year MBAs in the required communication class. They help students improve in public speaking and persuasion during their core communication courses in the fall and spring semester.

                Academic Fellows

                Academic Fellows are 2nd year students chosen by the MBA Program Office to serve as tutors to pairs/groups of 1st year students who are struggling academically. The Academic Fellows focus their tutoring on core classes and can be assigned to a specific subject or may also just set up general sessions where any core class can be addressed.

                Wharton SBDC

                • Business Building Program
                • High Impact Growth Consulting Program

                Teaching Assistants, Research Assistants and Student Coordinators

                • Student coordination with faculty member and/or department may be required.
                • Offered in many academic and administrative departments.

                University of Pennsylvania Resources

                Work-study and non-work study options available through the University of Pennsylvania Job Search tool.

                Summer Internship

                All students seeking summer employment received offers, with compensation packages ranging based on industry and specific role.

                 

                Paying It Forward

                How the Wharton Fellowship affords students the freedom to pursue their professional passions.

                Read the full story

                Penn Student Financial Services Office

                Student Financial Services
                University of Pennsylvania
                005 Franklin Building
                3451 Walnut Street
                Philadelphia, PA 19104-6270

                Email: [email protected]

                Website: www.sfs.upenn.edu

                Phone:  215-898-1988

                Wharton MBA Financial Aid Office

                MBA Admissions and Financial Aid
                The Wharton School
                University of Pennsylvania
                Vance Hall, Suite 111
                Philadelphia, PA 19104.6340

                Email: [email protected]

                Website: www.wharton.upenn.edu/mba

                Phone: 215-898-8728

                Get in Touch with MBA Admissions

                Start a conversation

                Financial Aid FAQs

                What is the current cost of the Wharton MBA Program?

                Tuition and living expenses for first-year students for the academic year of August 2017 – May 2018 is $109,450.

                Is funding available for my MBA?

                Yes. MBA students typically finance their educations through a combination of educational loans, fellowships, and scholarships. These are available through external sources or Wharton.

                How do I learn about my financing options?

                Information on financing options is available through the Wharton MBA Program website and through Student Financial Services .

                How are fellowships awarded?

                All admitted students are considered for fellowship support at the time of admission. There is no separate fellowship application. Wharton fellowships are merit based. Criteria for selection may include academic achievement, compelling leadership, exceptional professional development, and unique personal qualities. If you are selected for a fellowship, you will be notified within your admissions and financial aid letter.

                How will I be notified if I am chosen to receive a fellowship?

                If you are selected for a fellowship, you will be notified within your admission decision letter. You will also receive the financial aid Fellowship and Cost of Attendance Letters that detail the amount of the fellowship you have been awarded and loans you are eligible to borrow. This will be sent via email shortly after you receive your admission decision. If you are not chosen for a fellowship, the Cost of Attendance Letter will only reflect your loan eligibility for the upcoming year.

                Are there any other outside sources that I should consider?

                You should also consider any organizations to which you belong that might provide aid, such as: religious organizations, fraternal organizations, clubs, athletics, veteran groups, ethnic groups, unions, employers, Rotary clubs, and charitable foundations.

                Are grants or fellowships taxable?

                The Tax Reform Act of 1986 states that grant assistance is taxable income to the extent that it exceeds tuition, required education fees, and course-related expenses. Course-related expenses are those for books, supplies, and equipment required for your courses. For non-resident aliens, the University is required to withhold federal income tax on grants received in excess of the expenses described above.

                What do I need to know about educational loans?

                The University of Pennsylvania offers information on several educational financing programs to assist students in meeting their educational expenses. These programs include Federal Direct Loans, Federal Direct Grad PLUS Loans, and alternative private loan programs. Please visit the Student Financial Service (SFS) website for more information.

                Are credit cards accepted for my tuition payments?

                The University of Pennsylvania allows online payment of tuition through an American Express card. There is a 2% convenience fee for students who choose this option. The fee is reflected in your American Express billing statement. Please visit the Student Financial Services (SFS) website for more information.

                The Global Immersion Program (GIP) and Global Modular Courses (GMC) are not included in Whartons student budget. Will the University provide funding to cover these expenses?

                The director of the Global Immersion Program submits an official Participants List to Wharton’s Financial Aid Office. The student budget may be increased to make students eligible for additional loans to cover the cost of these programs.

                Are teaching and research assistantships available to students?

                MBA students are occasionally able to obtain a teaching or research assistantship through one of Wharton’s academic departments, research centers, or administrative offices. Time commitment and remuneration vary with the position. Qualified students should contact the department(s) of their choice directly. You are not limited to the Wharton School in your search for an assistantship. Your skills and expertise may be attractive to other schools within the University.

                How can we improve this page?

                Executive Education

                Executive MBA: Does Program Length Matter?

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                executive mba calendar

                It seems like a simple choice: if you can complete an Executive MBA program in 12 months, why follow a course of study that takes 22 months?

                There are the obvious considerations: more time, more money—both in the form of tuition and time spent away from your desk at your actual, day job. But the considerations are, in fact, a bit less clear when weighed.

                Top Tier

                First and foremost, if you’re looking to crack the top-tier business schools for your Executive MBA program, note that none of them offer anything less than a 19-month long course of study in a traditional nights and weekends format. The fact that the top schools by-and-large do not support a shorter course of study hints that a speedy EMBA might very well not be the shortest path to longer term success.

                Chicago’s Booth school’s Executive MBA program clocks in at 21 months. Wharton’s program can be competed in 24 months and includes the same number of class hours (700+) as a full time MBA. Kellogg gives students the option of studying in monthly or bi-monthly course intervals in either Evanston or Miami—either way, it’ll be two years to finish your Executive MBA. Columbia’s weekend Executive MBA program also runs 24 months.

                The Fuqua School at Duke gives EMBA applicants some options for program length. If you participate in the Global Executive MBA—which includes both online learning and international travel—you can earn your degree in a mere 15 months. But it’ll cost you: the program runs upwards of $166,000—so shorter is not necessarily cheaper . The school’s more traditionally structured weekend EMBA program clocks in at 19 months in duration but costs substantially less at $122,500.

                Perhaps the top-ranked and shortest Executive MBA program is that of the MIT Sloan Fellows. However, this is not an option for executives trying to balance a shorter program with their day job—it’s a full-time, 12-month program that’s intended for “executives who want an opportunity to step away from their working lives and immerse themselves in an intense, transformative experience,” according to the MIT website. For those who cannot take a year off from their current positions, MIT offers a more traditionally-structured EMBA in 20-months.

                Trading brand recognition for time 

                If time frame is a non-negotiable factor for selecting an Executive MBA program, note well that you may have to trade off some brand recognition given that the top programs will not offer such a compressed degree.

                “There’s a prestige transference,” says Gayle Rigione, Director of Strategic Development for IvyExec. “Would you rather drive a Maserati or a Fiat? Most people will want the Maserati. But you can drive the Fiat. It’ll get you to your destination but it won’t necessarily have people racing to open a door for you.” 

                If you don’t feel that having access to the first class education, alumni connections and brand name recognition of a top-ranked school are as important as completing your program expediently, there are several schools that will cater to your need for speed.

                The Executive MBA program at Kansas City’s Benedictine College was one of the first to create a one-year trajectory for students on the fast track. The University of Toledo’s business school also has a 12-month track that meets on campus for only one weekend a month and even includes an international trip despite its compressed time frame.

                The Harvard Exception 

                Harvard Business School has a different tactic—one that bestows prestige if you’re in a hurry and can get accepted into the program. The school calls the Program for Leadership Development (PLD) an alternative to the Executive MBA or a “rapid-fire MBA”. Each program has a specific focus—ranging from topics in health care management to leading and transforming family businesses in China—and range in length from a few weeks to seven months.

                “Unlike an eMBA, PLD is tailored to your unique needs and leadership challenges,” the program’s website says. “One-on-one coaching, living groups, personal strategy projects, practical application, and a faculty composed of full-time HBS professors are hallmarks of this intensive program.”

                Of course, you’ll walk away from the program with the Harvard name attached to your resume—although you will not receive an EMBA degree. Then again, you’ll also have access to one of the world’s most respected alumni networks which might prove to be more valuable than any degree.

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                About the Author

                R. Kress is an Emmy Award winning journalist whose reporting and writing has appeared in national media from NBC News to the International Herald Tribune. She has covered news from cities around the world including Jerusalem, Krakow, Amman and Mumbai.

                + View comments

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                Which is Right for Me?

                MBA or EMBA

                Same Degree, Different Logistics

                Wharton offers one MBA degree in two formats: the traditional, full-time MBA in Philadelphia, or the Executive MBA in either San Francisco or Philadelphia. Both programs require the same high admissions standards, follow the same rigorous curriculum, and confer the same Wharton degree. The delivery and structure of the programs differ to meet the needs of different student types. The comparison table below details how the two programs are delivered.

                MBA PROGRAMMBA PROGRAM FOR EXECUTIVES
                Length20 months, including a 3.5 month summer internship (recommended)24 months
                Class Session LengthYear 1: August – MayYear 1: May – May
                Year 2: September – MayYear 2: June – May
                Weekly ScheduleMonday – ThursdayAlternate Friday/Saturday weekends with several extended sessions, plus a one-week international trip (Global Business Week)
                Total Credit Units19.019.0
                Core Curriculum9.510.0
                MajorUsually 4.0 in addition to the Core.Not required.
                Electives5.59.0. Students in the MBA Program for Executives vote to determine the electives that will be offered for their second year. Some students consider taking classes on the opposite coast for a term or even for one course.
                Majors and Program CustomizationYou have a choice from 19 majors. Approximately 40% of students complete their degree with a dual major.You may pursue a formal major, but you’re not required to do so. Elective requirements are increased to offer you better individualized study options.
                Global ExperienceYou can take part in dual-degree programs, study abroad options, Global Modular Courses, and a Global Immersion Program.A one week international trip (Global Business Week) is required. You can also take part in Global Modular Courses when courses are available without conflicting with class schedules.
                Entering Class Size864234 (Philadelphia and San Francisco total)
                Middle 80% GMAT Range570-760630-750
                Average Work Experience4 years11 years
                Tuition and Budget$157,896 — tuition only ($223,800 — estimated total budget)$205,200
                Housing and MealsHousing and meals are not included in the tuition.Tuition includes fees, most materials, and program-related housing and meals. Transportation, airfare for Global Business Week, and parking are not included.
                Career ServicesYou have access to on-campus recruiting services for summer internships and permanent positions. You also have access to MBA Career Management , industry specific coaching.You have access to career coaching, workshops, and resources through dedicated MBA Exec Career Coaching Team . Internships* are not permitted and only eligible students are permitted to participate in MBA on-campus recruiting.

                *Please consider that several post MBA careers, such as Investment Banking, require an internship for candidacy.

                Company Support/SponsorshipThere are no requirements or formal programs for sponsorship, although some companies do sponsor students.An endorsement from your company is required for time away from work. Financial support from your company is also required for Fellows applicants and is encouraged for others.
                Campus Locations Philadelphia , with one semester available in San Francisco by application Philadelphia and San Francisco

                Have additional questions? One of our Admissions Advisors will be happy to help.

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                ★Social Welfare and EU Law (Essays in European Law) Michael …

                Welfare Essay

                Essay on Welfare

                2968 Words | 12 Pages

                Welfare

                Welfare. Whether you collect it, or you pay for it (and for EVERY
                working American does one of the two), most citizens of our country are familiar
                with it. Yet as every second of the day passes, more and more of my money and
                yours is being allotted to this growing epidemic called welfare. The Personal
                Responsibility Act, signed by the President, was a monumental change in welfare
                as we know, or used to know it. The welfare system is still in need or more
                strict and stringent policy…

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                Welfare Reform

                3205 Words | 13 Pages

                Welfare Reform: A Permanent Solution or a Temporary Band-Aid?

                Welfare: handouts to the lazy, or a helping hand to those facing hard times? The debate continues, even in the face of sweeping welfare reform, which, for all of its sound and fury, has not helped or changed much. What’s wrong with welfare and how can we fix it? This is not a simple question, and there is no simple answer. However, one thing remains eminently clear. Welfare desperately needs to change. But where are we now? Are we…

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                Education and Welfare

                1463 Words | 6 Pages

                So why is it that the collectors of welfare and public aid are statistically the ones with the least amount of education? Within this paper I plan to address this issue and those that contribute to education, or lack there of, for welfare recipients. I feel this issue has a great deal to do with race, gender and lack of equality in all aspects of public policy.
                Let us start at the beginning. Most women on welfare were raised in homes that collected welfare. This is the first major issue. Unfortunately…

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                Welfare And Health Care Reform

                1527 Words | 7 Pages

                Introduction to American Politics covers the topic of social policy. The two main issues of social policy in today’s society are welfare and health care reform. They are considered the main issues because they require the most government spending, and are the two most controversial and debated parts of social policy in America.
                America has always had some sort of welfare state. Before the Great Depression, a time of great economic hardship in this country, local governments, churches and private…

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                Child Welfare Services Essay

                1439 Words | 6 Pages

                chose to research about is Child Welfare Services. This topic has a variety of different regulations and forms that makes this program run. Child Welfare Services have been around for quite some time and has been helping out as much as they are allowed to. This program has a time line of many important events that all build up the Child Welfare program.
                First off in 1909 the white house had the first national Conference on the Care of Dependent Children (Child Welfare League of America, n.d.). These…

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                Welfare Drug Testing Essay

                1383 Words | 6 Pages

                Welfare Drug Testing

                Trevor Brooks,

                SOC 110

                11/09/2011

                In today’s America, government aid is highly depended on. The US government has spent $498 billion dollars this year on welfare alone. The state of Tennessee has an average of 250,000 residents on welfare and has $3 billion dollars this year alone. To help cut costs and help tax payers, 36 states, including Tennessee, have proposed a bill to drug test all welfare recipients. Since the beginning of the year, the welfare rate…

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                Welfare: The Government's Failure Essay

                1330 Words | 6 Pages

                dollars into welfare but, ironically, the poverty rate is higher than when they started (Tanner, Welfare Reform). This outrageous amount of money proves that welfare will lead United States into debt. The original intent of current welfare benefits has failed; therefore the national welfare system must be reformed. To fully understand how to reform the welfare system Americans must know what the history of welfare is, illegitimate births’ obvious connection to crime and welfare, how welfare has failed…

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                The Issue of Child Welfare

                999 Words | 4 Pages

                The issue of child welfare is typified in the society mainly because of freedom of choice to be given to the children. There are certain social problems which are discussed frequently in this context. The major problems include the rights of child and access to privileges. It is argued that child is an individual who has no lesser rights than any other individual and he must be given the liberty to enjoy these rights. He must be given food, shelter and clothing without his contribution in the economic…

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                Social Policy, Social Welfare, and the Welfare State

                11346 Words | 46 Pages

                social welfare, and the welfare state
                John Baldock

                Contents
                ■ ■ ■

                Introduction Learning outcomes Social policy Defining social policy in terms of types of expenditure Analysing social policy Social policy as intentions and objectives Redistribution The management of risk Social inclusion Social policy as administrative and financial arrangements Social policy as social administration Social policy as public finance Social policy as outcomes Social welfare The welfare state Defining the welfare state…

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                Should Welfare Be Limited with Time

                1714 Words | 7 Pages

                Should Welfare be Limited with Time Picture this, you’re in the grocery store and you have budgeted yourself down to the last dime. You then think how hard you have worked for two weeks and you’re already low on cash because you had to pay rent, utilities, and other necessary bills. In front of you is standing a woman with a grocery cart full of groceries. You wonder how she can afford all that with the way prices are up. Then she pulls out a card, which looks like a debit card and tells the clerk…

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                The Welfare System

                2768 Words | 12 Pages

                The Welfare System
                The welfare system is run by the government that runs different programs that was originally intended to help the unemployed or underemployed (Welfare Info, n.d.). It went from just helping those two groups and branched significantly into helping low income families, disabled, and single parent families be able to live the best life possible. Some of the programs include “Medicaid, Food Stamps, Supplemental Security Income (SSI), Housing and Urban Development (HUD), Temporary…

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                The Pros and Cons of Welfare

                1095 Words | 5 Pages

                When you hear the words “welfare” what comes to mind? To me, the word welfare has always had a very negative connotation. However, after looking further into the concept behind it all, welfare isn’t always such a bad thing. In general, welfare provides financial stability for those who are otherwise unable to do so. Welfare can be very beneficial to a multitude of people with many different ways to make life easier. Welfare in the United States refers to a federal welfare program that has been put…

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                Generational Welfare

                2289 Words | 10 Pages

                Generational Welfare

                For most of America’s history, farmers, entrepreneurs or shop owners could live their entire lives without getting any assistance from the federal government except maybe mail. But those days are long gone. In 2012 the total number of Americans on government assistance or welfare reached 4,3000,000. Many of which are 4th or 5th generation Welfare recipients. For whatever the reason, we have become a culture of dependency in which poverty is a trap. Long-term recipients loose…

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                Role of Government in Social Welfare

                1477 Words | 6 Pages

                ROLE OF GOVERNMENT IN SOCIAL WELFARE
                A Government consists of group of people who govern a state. The proper governing of state plays a very important role in the development of a country. The government should take all necessary steps for the betterment of the country and its people. A democratic country is for the people, by the people and to the people. Therefore government of any country should act wisely for the development of the community.
                Social welfare is a policy in which the well being…

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                The Welfare State Essay

                1669 Words | 7 Pages

                THE WELFARE STATE: The role and significance of the Beveridge Report in establishing the Welfare State in Britain.

                The purpose of this essay is to look at the long history of the Welfare State in Britain and the evolving social, economic and political changes in society today, as well as the birth of the Welfare State after the Second World War which was the turning point (watershed) in British History. The freshly appointed Labour government by then took on the job of setting up a ‘welfare state’…

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                The History of Welfare in America Essays

                2746 Words | 11 Pages

                Welfare has been a safety net for many Americans, when the alternative for them is going without food and shelter. Over the years, the government has provided income for the unemployed, food assistance for the hungry, and health care for the poor. The federal government in the nineteenth century started to provide minimal benefits for the poor. During the twentieth century the United States federal government established a more substantial welfare system to help Americans when they most needed it…

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                Workplace Health, Safety and Welfare

                4766 Words | 20 Pages

                temperature, light, etc.)
                • When and where people interact to exchange knowledge and information
                • An alternative definition of the workplace might be the environments enabling knowledge workers to produce economic value.

                HEALTH,SAFETY AND WELFARE

                DEFINITIONS:-

                • HEALTH
                -Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity according to the Werld health organization (WHO).
                -In 1986, WHO, in the Ottawa charter for health…

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                Welfare Essay

                2582 Words | 11 Pages

                Welfare1

                The United States or The United Welfare States – A Cost Benefit Analysis

                The role of welfare within our society has always been controversial. This problem emphasizes the need to understand the roles of variable factors when pertaining to the subject of welfare within our society. The proposed analysis will address the phenomenon of welfare assistance and several factors which may contribute to the increase or decrease of welfare assistance to the poor in 4 ways: (1) by defining…

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                Welfare Reform Essay

                801 Words | 4 Pages

                Is welfare a permanent solution or a temporary fix to a monumental epidemic in society today? Congress has implemented welfare reform legislation that simply has not helped or changed much. The question regarding the welfare system remains the same. What is wrong with welfare and how can it be fixed? This is not a simple question and does not have a simple answer. However, one thing is extremely clear; welfare is not working and desperately needs to change. The current welfare system is unfair to…

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                Drug Testing Welfare Recipients

                913 Words | 4 Pages

                we all know that can be tampered with, but what about the hair strand, how is that possible to cheat (Castleman-MacDonald)?
                Medicaid is a social service program that offers health insurance to children and certain needy families. The problem that welfare recipients are having with Medicaid is that it is a challenge for them to get medication because they have to wait until a physician’s approval. Medicaid is intended for those that need medical attention and cannot pay for themselves. These recipients…

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                Essay The Abuse of the Welfare System

                9684 Words | 39 Pages

                Welfare was established by the Social Security Act of 1935, and administered by individual states and territories for the government to help poverty stricken children and other dependent persons. Wicipedia defines welfare as ” money paid by the government to those who are in need of financial assistance, are unable to work, or whose circumstances mean the income they require for basic needs is in excess of their salary” (Welfare (financial aid)). This program helped many families survive during The…

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                Essay on France's Welfare System

                954 Words | 4 Pages

                The welfare system in France is founded on the principle of solidarity. Solidarity is sense of the responsibility of the individuals in the society to help each other out. This is all for the common good (Spicker). In order to promote solidarity, France has a welfare system that includes universal entitlements, social insurance, means-tested public assistance, and tax expenditures programs.
                One aspect of the French welfare system is universal entitlements. One universal entitlement under the French…

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                Essay about Welfare Reform

                1457 Words | 6 Pages

                Welfare and welfare reform has been a hot topic amongst politicians and their constituents for years. Feeling the pressure brought on by people crying out for welfare reform President Clinton brought about some changes in our welfare system. Prior to President Clinton’s sweeping reforms this is not the first time that the whole idea of welfare has come under fire; former California governor Wilson, was a strong opponent of welfare. It was he, along with many other people, which really were the ones…

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                Essay on The Welfare Reform Law

                1058 Words | 5 Pages

                Since the Welfare reform law was introduced in 1996 it has impacted American society greatly. The new welfare policy, named the Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF), replaced the Aid to Family and Dependent Children (AFDC) program; they have five known differences that only affect the ones who need the assistance. Critics argue that the TANF has negatively impacted the society while some argue that it has not. Linda Burnham, author of “Welfare Reform, Family Hardship & Woman of Color,”…

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                Women and Welfare Essay

                1335 Words | 6 Pages

                The Struggle of Women on Welfare

                Women in today’s society face many adversities. In this essay I will discuss fact versus stereotypical perceptions about the various social and economic problems women must face everyday. I grew up on the Upper East Side in Manhattan mostly comprised of wealthy, socialite families. I attended The Convent of Sacred Heart, also one of the top, private, all girl schools in Manhattan. The majority of the students come from very privileged families and are, more…

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                Poverty in Relation to Welfare

                1110 Words | 5 Pages

                none at all towards the steps needed to gain better, higher paying employment. Those steps can include improving ones education to increase job prospects. One way state governments have chosen to aid those in poverty is through the implementation of welfare programs. These programs help those in poverty by providing housing, food, and/or money. This creates more breathing room and allows more of one’s own money and time to be put towards the proper steps for gaining the skills for better employment.…

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                Welfare Recipients Abusing the System

                1063 Words | 4 Pages

                The welfare faults
                America spends an annual amount of 131.9 billion dollars on welfare alone (Department of Commerce). So many facts about welfare are overwhelming, such that over 12,800,000 Americans are on the welfare system. The entire social welfare system is in desperate need of a complete reform. In order for a proper reform to ensue, the people of America must combine efforts with the U.S. government to revitalize the current welfare system. This reform would involve answering two important…

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                Illegal Immigration and the Welfare State

                1725 Words | 7 Pages

                Composition and Rhetoric
                23 April 2010
                Illegal Immigration and the Welfare State
                “We must end welfare state subsidies for illegal immigrants. Some illegal immigrants—certainly not all—receive housing subsidies, food stamps, free medical care, and other forms of welfare.” In this statement by Ron Paul, a Texas congressman, it is obvious that this subject needs a serious look into modifying our current guidelines. He also states, “Illegal immigrants place a tremendous strain on social entitlement…

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                Welfare Fraud Essay

                1638 Words | 7 Pages

                afforded to individuals, I learned how and why these programs were implemented. For instance, the WIC (Women, Infant, and Children) program was established in 1968 after a group of physicians described to the Department of Health, Education and Welfare, and also the USDA that young women, often pregnant, came to their clinics with various ailments that were caused by lack of food. Those doctors would prescribe the needed foods, with prescription acting like a food voucher (Women, Infant and Children…

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                Women & Welfare

                1704 Words | 7 Pages

                Women and Welfare

                Women are beginning to face several problems in today’s time. Ranging from being treated as only sex symbols to having to live the stereotype of “you have to be skinny to be beautiful”, the last thing women need is another rising problem. Unfortunately for women and even society though, one exists. Several factors in the American society are to blame for the positive correlation between women and welfare, and if nothing is done about it, it will soon become a problem that needs…

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                Taking a Look at Social Welfare

                591 Words | 2 Pages

                Social welfare is the promotion and distribution of material and physical aid by the government for citizens in need. A lot of people think just because you are on Welfare that you’re automatically living off the government but that’s not true, they think you’re too lazy to get a job, but that’s not true at all. I was once on Welfare when I had my little girl when I was living with my grandmother. I had Medicaid, food stamps, WIC, and Family first for they both of us. I had to get on Welfare to get…

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                Globalization and the Decline of the Welfare State

                1172 Words | 5 Pages

                The idea that globalization and the welfare states can conflict comes from the fact that: while globalization is based on profit maximization, the welfare states main goal is to reduce, if not eliminate inequality, insecurity and poverty through proper redistribution of wealth mechanisms. The welfare state has to enhance “people’s adaptability, so that they, whatever their skills, can turn themselves from losers into winners through their own efforts” (Dennis J. Snower. Et al.137). The point…

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                Federalism in Welfare Programs Essay

                1628 Words | 7 Pages

                Federalism In Welfare Programs

                POL 201

                August 15, 2013
                Federalism and Welfare Programs
                This essay is to inform you of federal policy issues involving welfare causing conflicting debates between national, state, and local government and how these conflicting issues relate to federalism. Federalism is “A government system where power and authority are shared by national and states governments, with the ultimate authority derived from the people. (Levin-Waldman, 2012). This paper will also describe…

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                Welfare-Friendly Practices in Farming

                741 Words | 3 Pages

                farming. Livestock and poultry producers face a tremendous amount of pressure from the public to introduce environmental standards and welfare-friendly practices into their farming. Farmers, in response, often go beyond the demands and expectations in order to meet consumer’s requests. However, Siegford et al (2008)show through various examples that animal welfare and environmental stewardship may be projects that have opposite objectives.
                One example is the high fiber diets of pasture-based dairy…

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                Welfare: A Hammock to a Trampoline Essay

                1658 Words | 7 Pages

                goal of welfare is to help individuals afford the basic necessities of life, however, it has become apparent that throughout the generations people have become too comfortable and secure being on welfare and thus are not striving for self-sufficiency. As with all government run programs there is a budget for welfare services, and with more and more people applying for welfare and fewer returning to self-sufficiency there is simply not enough money to go around. Putting time limits on welfare is a hot…

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                Criticism Over the Welfare Programs

                555 Words | 2 Pages

                Welfare is a government system, which gives aid, financial and otherwise, to individuals and families based upon level of need. It is intended to help people get back on their feet, but it has been criticized for breeding dependency, along with other problems. Recipients feel that the system is degrading, and taxpayers feel that it is too expensive. Welfare is a failing system that has not only been unsuccessful in its goal of ending poverty, but has also created new issues for recipients and taxpayers…

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                Approaches to Labour Welfare

                1756 Words | 8 Pages

                APPROACHES TO LABOUR WELFARE

                INTRODUCTION:

                The various approaches to labour welfare reflect the attitudes and belief of the agencies, which are, engages in welfare activities. Welfare facilities may be provided on religious, philanthropic or some other grounds. Moreover, the different approaches to labour welfare reflect the evolution of the concept of welfare. In the bygone days, the government of the land had to compel the owner of the industrial establishment to provide such basic amenities…

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                Welfare Reform Essay

                1456 Words | 6 Pages

                debated about a systematical program called welfare. Some perceive it as dead weight to our nation and they question whether the programs offered are helping the community. As taxpayer’s, the American populous funds contribute to welfare for others. Due to the large number of people who receive government assistance, it is not that simple to monitor every individual. However, I propose that welfare should be reformed. Society is abusing the access to social welfare and to prevent the downfall sure to come…

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                The Welfare System

                1632 Words | 6 Pages

                within the welfare system as a result of policy shifts and by new thinking, more generally in the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), have had many methods, but the one that seemed most important, was that welfare recipients were required to do much more to justify their income support payments than before. The foundation of this new idea is that income support programs should allow individuals to maximise their participation in work. Due to the general shift in welfare administration…

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                Social Welfare Administration

                10174 Words | 41 Pages

                Social Welfare Administration
                Administrative arrangements for Social Welfare in India S.Rengasamy Madurai Institute of Social Sciences

                2

                S.Rengasamy. Social Welfare Administration. Administrative Arrangements for Social Welfare in India

                CONTENT
                Concept, Objectives and Principles of Social Welfare Administration Definitions of Social Welfare Social Welfare is centered around two basic concepts Administration Social Welfare / Work Administration Social Welfare / Work administration distinguishing…

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                Welfare Essay

                1456 Words | 6 Pages

                Welfare, it is on just about everyones’ mind, whether it is Medicare or the A.F.D.C. Some believe there is too much and others think there is too little. As the years go by, the need for welfare reform increases. President Clinton had pledged in his 1992 campaign to “end welfare as we know it”. Only time will tell by what extremes welfare will change.

                As technology continues to increase and jobs continue to go overseas, the United States must decide what direction the welfare system should take…

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                Essay Welfare-To-Work: Welfare Programming

                1070 Words | 5 Pages

                a horse to water but, if you don’t teach him to read, he won’t know its poison. This is exactly how the current welfare programs in the United States are run. The current Welfare Reform is failing due to Political indulgence in statistics, focusing on the percentage of individuals attaining employment instead of the quality of employee and employment. In order to be successful Welfare Reform must contain vocational education with proper job placement and fair sanctions on recipients.
                The numbers…

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                Essay on Welfare

                1280 Words | 6 Pages

                Welfare

                “Welfare, it is on just about everyone’s’ mind, whether it is Medicare or the Aid to Families with Dependent Children, which is also called the AFDC. Some believe there is too much and others think there is too little. As the years go by, the need for welfare reform increases.”(Sara) Welfare is constantly being taken advantage of, and it needs to be reformed to solve this problem. Welfare in its current state is a tremendous drain on our economy. With reform, we can keep our economy…

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                Essay about Welfare

                792 Words | 4 Pages

                How Single Mothers Survive Welfare and Low-Wage Work
                Many struggle to live without government aid and other public assistance, but
                now we are living in a system where people went from welfare to work and back to welfare with a slowing economy those who got off of welfare went on make 9 to 12 hour for the first time in there lives and now what is happening once again is the is that people are back to a lower paying jobs or no job having to make a decisions about the ends justifying the means the…

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                The Success of the Welfare State Essay

                883 Words | 4 Pages

                The Success of the Welfare State

                The Welfare State is a system set up in Britain that takes care of its
                citizens “from the cradle to the grave.” From the day they are born in
                the hospital to the day they are buried and given a funeral service.
                This includes responsibilities such as health, education, provision of
                services and benefits, which ensure that people are looked after and
                taken care of. In Britain, the Welfare State was set up as a safety
                net to protect the…

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                Gdp .. Measure of Welfare ?

                2473 Words | 10 Pages

                ENPC-EHTP-MBAXIV A

                MA 1407 : Business Economics in a Global Market Individual Assignment GDP vs. Welfare The Moroccan Example

                Othmane Bouzoubaa Student ID : MA14 – 016 April – May 2012

                This paper emphasis on GDP as an inefficient measure of welfare using arguments from the Moroccan example.

                MBAXIV A – MA 1407 – Business Economics in a Global Market GDP & Welfare – The Moroccan Example

                Table of Contents
                1. 2. 2.1 2.2 2.3 3. 3.1 3.2 4. 5. Introduction ………………………..…

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                Welfare Should Be Temporary. Essay

                680 Words | 3 Pages

                cause is not hard to find. Welfare should be temporary.

                One of America’s biggest misconceptions about public assistance is that of people on welfare. Rita Jensen, an investigative journalist in New York city and a former welfare recipient states that, “[W]hen one says ‘Welfare mother’ the listener hears ‘black welfare mother.’ This is a skewed perception that leads to an ongoing underlying racial motive against the welfare program. In general, when speaking about welfare most Americans believe it…

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                Inmates Welfare and Development

                1885 Words | 8 Pages

                And to address the increasing and recurring problems inside detention facilities not to mention the different personalities and varied needs of inmates, the Bureau of Jail Management and Penology has intensified the implementation of the Inmates Welfare and Development Program.

                Theoretical Framework

                This study is anchored on the Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs which states that if motivation is driven by the existence of unsatisfied needs, then it is worthwhile for a manager to understand which…

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                Welfare Reform Essay

                2746 Words | 11 Pages

                Welfare Reform

                “The U.S. Congress kicked off welfare reform nationwide last October with the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, heralding a new era in which welfare recipients are required to look for work as a condition of benefits.” http://www.detnews.com/1997/newsx/welfare/rules/rules.htm. Originally, the welfare system was created to help poor men, women, and children who are in need of financial and medical assistance. Over the years, welfare has become…

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                Private Interests and Social Welfare

                2341 Words | 10 Pages

                people is not a constant-sum game, that is to say, theoretically, if we can reallocate resources, rights and duties in a certain way, the humankind may benefit maximally. In the most ideal case, the self-interest of each individual and the collective welfare should not outbalance each other. This essay will discuss the thoughts of three of the great thinkers on this matter.
                Focus of analysis

                Consulting works by Huang Zongxi, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and Adam Smith, the essay will analyse this problem…

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                +
                All Welfare Essays

                • Identify the Current Lgislations, Guidelines, Policies and Procedures for Safegaurding the Welfare of Children and Young People
                • Biography of President Ronald Wilson Reagan
                • Substance Use And Substance Abuse
                • Corporate Social Responsibility
                • Controlling Images of Black Womanhood
                • Education and Social Welfare: Personal Reflections
                • Family Interventions During The Child Welfare
                • Social Worker And Child Welfare Social Field
                • Unit 5001 Unit 5001- Personal Development as a Manager and Leader
                • Causes of American Poverty and Possible Solutions
                • Social Welfare Beneficiaries on Illegal Drugs
                • Comment on the pros and cons of privatization of social welfare services in Hong Kong society. Use the “LINK-REIT” as an example to illustrate your answer.
                • Welafre reform
                • Welfare Drug Testing
                • Livin' in the Trailerhood: Sterotypes of Living in a Trailer Park
                • Zoos: The Federal Animal Welfare Act
                • Domestic Issues of the 1970s
                • Labour Welfare Measures
                • The Implications of Current Child Policy for the Welfare of Children
                • The Increase of Social Welfare in the United States
                • Unit 9 the Welfare System Human Services and Social Policy
                • Encyclopedia Entry : Work Ethic
                • Explain, and Illustrate Using Graphs, Whether You Think a Perfectly Competitive Industry or a Monopoly Industry Leads to More Efficient Outcomes for an Economy
                • Discuss the Difficulties in Seeking to Adopt a Common Social Policy and Social Welfare Agenda Among the E.U. Member States.
                • 5.2 Summarise the Policies and Procedures Schools May Have Relating to: • Staff • Pupil Welfare • Teaching and Learning • Equality, Diversity and Inclusion • Parental Engagement.
                • Comparing Codes of Ethics
                • Strengthening The Foster Care and Adoption System
                • Safeguarding and Welfare of Children and Young People.
                • Argument for Welfare in the United States
                • The Welfare Programs and The Economy in the United States
                • The Problem of Poverty: Welfare in America
                • The Progressive Era
                • Elimination of Poverty in the Welfare State
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                • Welfare and Pogressive Tax Rates
                • Is Our Government Family Friendly? The United States Welfare System
                • Proposal To Reduce Unemployment
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                • Difficult Life On and Off the Battle Fields of the Civil War
                • The Transracial Adoption and the Multi-Ethnic Placement Act
                • Combating Poverty in America: Time For a Change
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                • The Concept of Government Welfare
                • Black Athlete
                • Comparing Welfare Provision in Germany and England
                • Important Changes in the Political, Social and Economic Life in the UK
                • Inequality in Australia
                • Qcf641 Conforming to General Health, Safety and Welfare in the Workplace
                • The Significant Role of Economics in Social Issues
                • Nature and Social problems
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                • Questions on Social Administration
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                • From Welfare To Workfare
                • Is Taxation is Theft?
                • Country Analysis: Sweden and Its Political Economy
                • Recommendation On Welfare Reform
                • The State of Welfare
                • Why State Aid Applicants Need To Be Drug Tested Persuasive
                • Unwanted Children: Adoption and Foster Care in the US
                • A Social Injustice: the effects of social inequalities in foster care and child welfare
                • The Challenges of Implementing The GAIN Program
                • Describe Why Schools Have Policies and Procedures and Identify the Policies and Procedures Schools May Have Relating to Staff Pupil Welfare and Teaching and Learning
                • Homeless Children In America
                • Welfare to Work: A New Response to Poverty
                • The Welfare Problem
                • What Is the Function of the Welfare State?
                • Industry Standards – Health & Safety
                • Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996
                • The Effectiveness of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program to the Education of Its Beneficiaries
                • British Child Protection Policies
                • How Soical Programs Are Bring Down the United States Economy
                • Welfare System and Poverty in the UK
                • Argument Essay: Drug Testing for Welfare
                • Tda 2.2: Safeguarding the Welfare of Children and Young People
                • Programs to Take Families Off the Welfare System
                • The Changing Roles of Trade Unions in India: a Case Study of National Thermal Power Corporation (Ntpc), Unchahar
                • Non Governmental Organizations Today in Bangladesh
                • Strategies of Youth Justice Policies
                • United-Continental Meerger
                • The Field of Child Welfare
                • Unanswered Questions about Welfare Reform
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                • Liberalism, Civic Reformism and Democracy
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                • The Differences Between The And The British Welfare State
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                • Several Cases of Violence Against Children
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                • How Have Social Policies and Changes to the Australian Welfare State Affected the Aged Population.
                • Workfare: A Critical Examination
                • The Undeserving and Deserving Poor Structure
                • Benefits of Drug Testing for Welfare Recipients
                • poverty should be fixed
                • Special Populations
                • Analysis of Johnson's The Great Society
                • The Sixties Scoop in Canada
                • Welfare – Greedy Mothers and Lazy Families
                • Drug Testing and Public Assistance
                • Politics and Poverty
                • Overview of Social Responsibility
                • Portrait of 2 Pioneers; Phillip Fontaine & Laura Holland
                • The And Social Work Welfare History
                • Changes to Two Welfare States
                • Chapter 30 Ap Euro Outline
                • Dd208 Exam Notes
                • Life Blood Doctrine
                • Research Project on Employee Welfare
                • Explain How Economic Systems Attempt to Allocate and Make Effective Use of Resources.
                • Welfare Programs Cause Crime
                • History of Social Work
                • Paradoxes of the Culture of Fear
                • Policy: The Animal Wlfare Act
                • The Us Constitution
                • The Evolution of Anticruelty Laws
                • Tracking Metastasis and Tricking Cancer
                • Key Findings of Amy Burns' Research on Welfare Policy
                • Why the Way We Helped, Needed Help
                • Youth Among The Homeless
                • Social Problems and Social Welfare
                • The Australian Welfare State and How to Kick it
                • Ngo and Development in India
                • People Collecting Welfare Should Undergo Testing
                • The Ideological Debate Over Social Welfare
                • Benefits Supporting Staff Welfare
                • The History of Social Work in the Caribbean
                • Drug Testing for TANF Recipients
                • Workers' Welfare and Productivity Improvement: a Comparative Analysis
                • The Modern Welfare State
                • Indonesian Demographic Transition
                • Hcr 230 Week 3 Assignment the Welfare Reform Act
                • Intro to Human Services
                • How Does the Notion of Harm Reveal Entangled Relationships Between Social Welfare and Crime Control?
                • The Welfare State and Government Responses to Economic Openness
                • The Pros and Cons of Welfare Reform
                • Animal Rights
                • Welfare Reform: Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Legislation
                • Welfare Fraud: Betting Against the Odds
                • Government: Less is More
                • A Report to Determine the Benefits of a Good Staff Welfare System
                • Poverty in America: Government Welfare Programs are the Solution
                • A Campaign Against Kfc
                • income inequality
                • Law Breakers: The Cost of Illegal Immigrants
                • Legislation: Health, Safety, and Welfare in the Workplace
                • Making a new deal
                • What causes black market?
                • Crime and Youth Care Facility
                • Precious
                • Policy Analysis and Implications for Social Work Practice
                • Is the Job in Fast-Food Restaurant Exploitative?
                • Evolution of the Typical American Family
                • Ehrenreich’s Nickel and Dimed: On (Not) Getting By in America
                • The Protection and Welfare of Children
                • Social Welfare System in Hong Kong
                • The Social Work Policies
                • Our Current US Welfare System Is in Urgent Need of Reform
                • Welfare to Work
                • Charles Dickens and William Marley's Beliefs in the Welfare for Children
                • British Welfare Reforms Between 1880-1914
                • The Negative Effects of Raising the Minimum Wage
                • Welfare Reform: Promoting Independence and Self-Reliance
                • Feminism
                • For Any Inner City and Rural Area Summarise the Contrasts Between Them and Explain the Implications of These Contrasts on Social Welfare (15 Marks)
                • Welfare Reform Is Needed in New York
                • Comparing British Welfare Systems with 2 Other Countries
                • Drug Testing Welfare Recipients
                • General Welfare
                • Welfare Reform Should Require Recipients to Work
                • Identify the Current Legislation, Guidelines, Policies and Procedures for Safeguarding the Welfare of Children and Young People.
                • The Potential Abolishment of Government Assistance Programs
                • The Nursing Profession: Patient Rights and Patient Welfare
                • Outline Current Legislation, Guidelines, Policies and Procedure Within Own Uk Home Nation Affecting the Safeguarding of Children and Young People
                • Childhood and Child Welfare in Progressive Era
                • Effects of Welfare Reform on Illicit Drug Use
                • Welfare Reform: Drug Testing for Government Assistance
                • Social Welfare
                • Poverty in America
                • Welfare Reform: A Matter Of Justice
                • What Is the Evidence of Welfare State Retrenchment ?
                • Poverty, Social Security, and Conspiracy Theories
                • Economic welfare analysis in India Rubber
                • School Shootings – Failures of Welfare Society
                • Economic Effects of Immigration
                • Welfare Causes Poverty in America
                • Drug Testing the Less Fortunate
                • Government Intervention in Economic Welfare
                • Evolution and Growth of Administrative Law
                • Should Child Welfare Regulations Be Changed?
                • Federal Welfare Reform
                • Poverty in America: Government Welfare Programs are the Solution
                • Welfare Reform
                • Current US Welfare Reform
                • Kfc Peta Case
                • Problems and Issues in Implementing of Ra 9344 of Isabela
                • Ethical Teachings in Christianity and Islam
                • Government Spending: What Can Be Done?
                • Is Lloyd George the Founding Father of Welfare State?
                • Cmi Leadership and Management Level 5 Mod 1
                • Indigenous Population in Australia
                • Health and Safety – Roles and Responsabilities
                • Drug Testing For Welfare Recipients
                • Social Security And The Welfare System
                • The Social Welfare And Import Trade Of Britain And China
                • Cmi 3001v1 You as a Manager
                • Liberation Ideology Essay
                • Immigration Needs to be Restricted in America
                • Agenda-Setting and the Presidential Election Essay
                • Welfare Reform: A Matter of Public Debate
                • The U.S. Welfare System
                • Evolution of Personnel Towards Hrm
                • The Limitations of GDP as a Measure of Well Being
                • Political Ideology and Social Problem Analysis
                • To what extent is the welfare state of the 21st century similar to that envisaged by William Beveridge?
                • Urban Poverty in China
                • Economic Policies Implemented During President Reagan's Administration From 1981-1989
                • Analysis of Marketing Effectiveness
                • Causing Child Support Problems
                • A Narrative Report
                • Child Poverty
                • Safeguarding the Welfare of Children
                • History of the National Health Service
                • Welfare to Work: Does It Really Benefit Single Parents?
                • The Impact of the Three Principles of the People on China and Taiwan
                • What is a Great Company?
                • Student Republican Party Platform
                • The Fatherhood Movement
                • Welfare Recipients Should Be Periodically Tested for Drugs
                • Greed – Vital to Human Welfare
                • Tda 2.2 Safeguarding the Welfare of Children and Young People. -3.1 Identify the Characteristics of Different Types of Child Abuse.
                • Tda 2.2 Safeguarding the Welfare of Children and Young People.
                • A Project on Industrial Relations and Labour Welfare
                • Your Blue's Aint Like Mine
                • Poverty in American Society
                • Group Influence Paper
                • Student
                • Social Policy: Definition, Concept, Source, Model & Assumptions
                • The Pros and Cons of Illegal Immigration in the USA
                • Drug Testing Welfare Recipients
                • Social Democracy – Pluralism
                • Analysis of Seping-Anderson Three Worlds of the Welfare Capitalism
                • Welfare Reform System: Building American Economy Back Up
                • Welfare Reform – Welfare Recipients MUST take Personal Responsibility
                • 1Compare and contrast the social policies of the Clark Labour Government 1999 2008 with those of the Key Government 2008 present
                • The Typical Progression a Child Makes through a State Welfare System
                • Teachers Welfare and Its Effect on Workers Productivity
                • Contribution of Psychology and Social Psychology to the Study of Health and Welfare Issues
                • Solutions to Poverty: First, End Welfare Fraud
                • Foster Care and Adoptive Parents in the Latino Community
                • Welfare Recipients Drug Tested
                • The Role of Adult Basic and Literacy Education
                • Women in the Mixed Economy of Welfare
                • Immigrants Are Americans Too
                • The Status of Single Mothers
                • The Economics of Domestic Violence
                • Ethics in Nursing
                • Wellfare Reform
                • Social Policy and Welfare System
                • Social Policy
                • Mandatory Drug Testing for Welfare Recipients and Public Assistance
                • Rationale Behind Marketisation Of Care
                • Immagration Benefits
                • Welfare Reform
                • UNICEF and Children's Welfare
                • What Is Welfare Fraud and Who’s Paying the Price?
                • Animal Testing: Alternatives
                • new zealand politics 1984-1993
                • The Effects of the Ageing Population on the British Welfare State
                • The Detriments of the Welfare System
                • Ethics of Welfare and Government Assistance
                • Review of Shipler's the Working Poor
                • Exploring Factors Affecting the Quality of Life for Australia’s Rural Population
                • Republicans vs Democrats
                • Collusive Behavior in the Industrial Thread Industry
                • collective bargaining
                • Volunteering and Attitudes Toward Social Welfare Spending
                • United States Government Welfare
                • Animals Must Be Protected
                • Drug Testing For Missouri Welfare Recipients
                • The United States: The Reluctant Welfare State
                • Exemplification Essay: Welfare, A Vicious Circle
                • The Three-Ring Prison
                • Safeguarding the Welfare of Children and Young Pepole
                • Poverty and Social Work
                • Teen Pregnancy
                • Amartya Sen's What is Equality?
                • The Working Poor
                • Cold War
                • Employee Safety, Health, and Welfare Law Paper
                • America’s Broken Social Contract
                • The Pros and Cons of Welfare
                • Making Drug Testing Mandatory for Welfare
                • The British Welfare State
                • Identify the current legislation ,guidelines ,policies ad procedure for safeguarding the welfare of children and young people including e.safety
                • Locke On Distribution
                • Eating Animals, by Jonathan Safran Foer
                • Inflation
                • Annotated Argument-The Belle Curve
                • Economics of Immigration
                • The Welfare System Makes People Dependent
                • America Needs More Government Programs to Pull Children Out of Poverty
                • Attempting to Measure Welfare in the Philippines
                • Tda 2:2 Safeguarding the Welfare of Children and Young People
                • Teen Pregnancy
                • Steps of the New Induction Program
                • Long-Term Investment Decisions
                • Work Challenges Faced by People with Mental Health Issues after Living on Welfare
                • Why Do We Need a Government?
                • Swedish Vampire Films and Their Effect On Youth
                • Who Should Receive Entitlements?
                • The Need for Appropriate Government Response to the Global Financial Crisis
                • Why Do People Commit Crimes?
                • Welfare to Work Programs
                • The Role of Zoos in Conservation
                • Social Citizenship vs. Civil Citizenship
                • Employee Welfare Facilities
                • The Center For Children of Incarcerated Parents
                • Poverty in America: Government Welfare Programs are the Problem
                • Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) and Teen Parents
                • Drug Testing
                • Child Welfare Worker
                • Social Welfare: Sucking Off the Tit of America
                • Racial Discrimination
                • Social Policies And Welfare And Social Issues
                • Roosevelt's Socialist Plans
                • THE EVOLUTION OF CARIBBEAN SOCIAL POLICY
                • Health Ana Safety
                • The Social Aid Regulation Reform
                • Infuriating Cases of Animal Abuse
                • Cmi 5001
                • Welfare State: An Introduction to Social Policy
                • Argumentation on TANF a form of Medicaid
                • Taking a Look at Ronald Reagan
                • Employee Safety
                • Public Sector Agencies are Best Equiped to Fight Social Injustice
                • Child Welfare Services Is A Social Work
                • The Influence Of Ideologies In The Formulation Of Social Policies
                • Evolution of Personnel Management
                • Outline the Current Legislation Covering Home Based Childcare and the Role of Regulatory Bodies.
                • Why Relying on Welfare System Should Be Avoided
                • What Moral and Ethical Obligations do Humans Have to Animals
                • Reaction Paper II: Economic Restructuring
                • Economic Ideas of Kautilya
                • Management Issues of Implementing Welfare to Work Programs In California
                • Research Proposal Social Work
                • Malnutrition
                • Social Welfare
                • Natural Disasters and Political Issues in Bangladesh
                • Health of People Living in Rural Australia
                • Safeguarding the Welfare of Children and Young People
                • The Politics Of Welfare Reform Moving From Afdc To Tanf
                • The Department of Health, Education, and Welfare
                • Why is There so Much Poverty?
                • The Negative Effects of Mass Immigration
                • Animal Rights in Germany vs. Switzerland
                • Tda 2.2 Safeguarding the Welfare of Children and Young People
                • Expanding Our Horizons – Animal Welfare Concerns
                • A Study on the Employee Welfare Measures Ai Nagarjuna Ayurvedic Herbal Concentratesltd
                • Phi 103 Informal Logic
                • Child Welfare Policy: Past, Present, and Future
                • Positive Accounting Theory
                • A Life is a Life
                • Competency Based Performance Management
                • Oppression in America
                • The Effects of Immigration In The U.S. Economy
                • Welfare For Children of Illegal Immigrants
                • Government Controlled Social Service
                • Welfare Reform in the Early Republic
                • social policy
                • Obama and the National Debt
                • The American Constitution and Drug War
                • The British Family
                • State and Employment Relationship
                • Public Policy Evalution
                • Upamanyu Chatterjee: A Study of his Image and Symbols
                • Child Welfare
                • Inequality and Redistribution
                • Social Policy
                • HOW CAN WE STOP THE ABUSE OF THE AMERICAN WELFARE SYSTEM?
                • 5 Written Assignment 5 Unit 5001V1 Revision 1
                • Health, Safety and Welfare in Ecce Setting
                • Health, Safety and Welfare at Work
                • Juvenile Courts
                • The Elizabeth Poor Law
                • Role of Chemistry in Human Welfare
                • Tda2.2 Safeguarding the Welfare of Children and Young People
                • Globalization and Human Welfare
                • Operations of Voluntary Health and Welfare Organizations
                • Flat Broke with Children: Women in the Age of Welfare Reform
                • A Brief Look at Child Welfare
                • The Pro's and Con's of Government Welfare Programs
                • Has your Welfare Benefits Been Shut Down?
                • Racially Oppressive Policies in the US
                • How Successful Has the Welfare State Been in Delivering Equality?
                • The Downsides of Government Handouts
                • Denmark : Globalization and the Welfare State
                • Safeguarding the Welfare of Children and Young People
                • America Doesn’t Need More Welfare Checks
                • Socioeconomic Status
                • Strengths and Weaknesses of Using Food Subsidies in Improving the Welfare of the Poor in Middle Eastern Economies
                • The American Government is Retracting its Social Contract
                • America Needs Welfare Reform
                • The Welfare Fraud Crisis
                • Welfare Reform
                • Exploring Social Care Policy and Provision
                • It's Time for More Bible and Less Welfare
                • Welfare Reform
                • 2. What is “New Public Management‟? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this trend for the delivery of human services? What are its implications for non-government welfare organisations?
                • Social Welfare Past and Present
                • Mandatory Drug Testing For Welfare Recipients
                • Juvenile Delinquency
                • Has Globalization Change Culture and Societal Norms?
                • Welfare Reform
                • Welfare in the United States: A Complex and Controversial Subject
                • The Role of the Concept of Need and Inequality Social Policy
                • You Can Lead a Horse to Water, but You Can't Make It Drink
                • Conditions that Led to the Great Depression
                • Gender Inequality in Hong Kong
                • Promote children's welfare and well being in the early years
                • Social Welfare and Single Mothers
                • A Fast Paced, Business Ordinated Technological World The Overall Welfare Of A Company
                • Meat the Truth: The Humane Problem
                • Multiracial Families In Canada And Their Struggle Living In A Radicalized Society
                • Safety, Health, and Welfare of the Employees
                • Drug Testing for Welfare Recipients
                • Liberalism is define by the desire to minimise the role of the state, discuss.
                • Effects of Coloniztionon First Nations
                • The Problems with Using GDP/GNP as a Measurement to Compare Welfare Between Countries
                • Flat Broke with Children by Sharon Hays
                • Should People on Welfare be Required to work?
                • Characteristics of Public Administration
                • Cadbury : A Typical Example Of 19th Century Family Capitalism
                • Beveridge Report
                • Plan Accounting : Defined Benefit Pension Plan, Health And Welfare Benefit Plans
                • Animal Testing and The Animal Welfare Act
                • The Labour Government as The Creator Of The Welfare State
                • 2.2/1.1 Identify the Current Legislation, Guidelines, Policies and Procedures for Safeguarding the Welfare of Children and Young People, Including E-Safety.
                • The Differences of the Child Welfare Policy in the United States to Those in Finland and Germany
                • The Policy Behind the Welfare Reform Act
                • Proposed Solutions to Solving America's Economic Crisis- Legalize Marijuana and Re-evaluate Welfare Policies
                • Effects of the Industrial Meat Indutry
                • The Role of the Government in Reducing Poverty
                • Tda 2.2 Safeguarding the Welfare of Children and Young People
                • Pros and Cons of Workers' Unions in America Today
                • Malthusian Theory in relation to the Caribbean
                • Economics
                • America Needs to Invest the Social Security Trust Fund
                • Identify the Current Legislations, Guidelines, Policies and Procedures for Safeguarding the Welfare of Children and Young People Including E-Safety.
                • Roles and Responsibilities of School Governors, Senior Management Team, and Other Statutory Roles

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                Helga Maria Hernes: Welfare State and Woman Power. Essays in State Feminism, Norwegian University Press, Oslo 1987, 176 pp.

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                  Writing essays and academic papers is any student’s nightmare. Do you find it difficult and time consuming to write college essays?
                  Uk.bestessays.com provides you with a premier, UK essay-writing service.

                  You will receive a top-quality custom essay, written by an experienced essay writer for every order you place with us.
                  Our team of essay writers has been where you are.
                  They were once students like you and
                  remember wishing for a helping hand with their custom essays, term papers, and other assignments that had to be
                  submitted on or before deadlines. You can be sure that no deadline is impossible to meet. With us, your nightmare
                  is over because we have a customer support team available 24/7, 365 days of the year!

                  Uk.Bestessays.com is more than just an “essay service.” We handle all types of academic assignments,
                  ranging from essays and case studies to term papers, research papers, dissertations, and thesis projects.

                  Over the last decade, our essay-writing service has provided custom essays to students studying in every academic field.
                  Uk.bestessays.com has a proven track record of matching the perfect essay writer to the right customer and assignment every single time.
                  This ensures that the end product is a custom essay that will withstand any and all academic scrutiny, at an affordable price.

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