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★Introduction to Computer Science and Programming in Python


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Introduction to Computer Science and Programming in Python

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6.0001 is intended to teach basic programming concepts to students with no prior coding experience. ( Dboybaker , licensed CC-BY-NC-SA)

Instructor(s)

MIT Course Number

6.0001

As Taught In

Fall 2016

Level

Undergraduate


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This is one of over 2,200 courses on OCW. Find materials for this course in the pages linked along the left.

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Course Description

Course Features

  • Video lectures
  • Captions/transcript
  • Interactive assessments
  • Lecture notes
  • Assignments: problem sets (no solutions)
  • Assignments: programming with examples

Course Description

6.0001 Introduction to Computer Science and Programming in Python is intended for students with little or no programming experience. It aims to provide students with an understanding of the role computation can play in solving problems and to help students, regardless of their major, feel justifiably confident of their ability to write small programs that allow them to accomplish useful goals. The class uses the Python 3.5 programming language.

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  • Computer Science > Algorithms and Data Structures
  • Computer Science > Programming Languages

Ana Bell, Eric Grimson, and John Guttag. 6.0001 Introduction to Computer Science and Programming in Python. Fall 2016. Massachusetts Institute of Technology: MIT OpenCourseWare, https://ocw.mit.edu . License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA .

For more information about using these materials and the Creative Commons license, see our Terms of Use .

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MIT puts free programming course online

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MIT puts free programming course online


It’s all free, including lecture notes and videos. Just the thing for those rainy weekends.

If you’ve never written or debugged a program, here’s an opportunity – MIT has a free introduction to programming on its web site.

There’s a lot of these free courses floating around online – we recently pointed out that MIT has more than 2,000 online . You don’t get an MIT degree, but they might fit the bill if you’re the type that values having some knowledge under your belt.

Fortunately there’s "little or no" programming experience required for this one. The goal: write "small programs". Python is the weapon of choice.

According to the MIT syllabus, the course includes:

  • the process of writing and debugging a program
  • learning a basic set of "recipes"—algorithms
  • straight line, branching, and looping programs
  • algorithmic techniques
  • how to structure programs using decomposition and abstraction

More than a few weekends in there.

Also read: Learn electronics online for free

Copyright © PC & Tech Authority . All rights reserved.
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How Much Can You Really Learn With a Free Online Education?

The world’s most prestigious universities have begun posting entire curricula on the Web—for free. Is there such a thing as a free higher-education lunch? I enrolled to find out

By Josh Dean

posted Sep 1st, 2009 at 11:40am

Domo Schola / Doctrina Gratis

Jon Valk

I was not screwing around. When I took the first physics class of my life, at age 35, it was at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and my professor was Walter Lewin, one of that institution’s most respected instructors. Lewin is a man so comfortable with his vectors that he diagrams them in front of a classroom audience while wearing Teva sandals.

OK, I wasn’t really “at” MIT. And “took” the class may be a stretch. I was watching the video of one of Lewin’s lectures from the comfort of my backyard in Brooklyn, and I too was wearing sandals (but not Tevas; I have standards).

Lewin is the breakout star of MIT’s OpenCourseWare (OCW) program, what the school calls a “Web publication” of virtually every class taught in its hallowed halls. For his dynamic teaching and frequent stunts (building a human pendulum, firing golf balls at glass panels), he’s been downloaded by physics enthusiasts around the globe and profiled on the front page of the New York Times as the first luminary of online open learning. The professor’s fans are examples of a new type of student participating in a new kind of education, one built around the vast library of free online courseware offered by many of the world’s temples of higher learning, as well as museums, nonprofit organizations and other knowledgeable benevolents.

Why would someone who’s not paying $38,000 or getting a single credit subject themselves to the rigors of an MIT course? For one thing, OCW offers elite teaching on demand. College students at lesser schools can use a teacher like Lewin to stretch themselves (32 percent of MIT’s OCW users are enrolled at another college). A high-school physics teacher might tune in to brush up on the laws of thermodynamics — or become a better teacher by studying different methods of instruction. An engineer can beef up by taking tests from the advanced-level classes to identify stuff he ought to know but doesn’t and then dive into course notes to learn them.

And then there’s the just plain curious, a category that would include me. I wondered: What’s an MIT course like, anyway? Could I, more than a decade out of school, hang with those young brainiacs? To find out, I dusted off my three-ring binder and re-enrolled in school part-time from the comfort of my couch, drawing not just from MIT but from the many free sources online. Mimicking a typical course load, I would take a science course and a language course, attempt to cram in a computer-programming course, and watch as many miscellaneous lectures as I could stand. I wanted to see if I, in a month, operating as an adult balancing a semi-regular schedule and lots of other obligations, could actually learn something.

MIT for Free

The idea behind MIT’s OpenCourseWare program was born in 2000 on the recommendation of a faculty committee convened to answer two questions: How is the Internet going to change education? And what is MIT going to do about it?

Steve Carson, a spokesman for OCW, which is now a full entity within MIT with a $3.6-million budget, told me that the group was expected to recommend a for-profit distance-learning program. Once they started thinking hard about such a model, however, it didn’t make sense.

The problem is that MIT is, by its very nature, an exclusive institution, which accepts a mere 12 percent of its applicants and charges a small fortune for the privilege of attending. To put a scaled-back version of that online, available to a much larger audience, and still award credit would potentially devalue the existing university. Instead, they decided to do the opposite: put everything out there for free, but with no offer of credit or a degree. It would cost a lot of money, sure, but it would be great for the school’s image, and it would be a tremendous resource for actual MIT students — as Carson puts it, a “souped-up Wikipedia” for the MIT community to use. In the meantime, it would give the whole world the opportunity to sample an MIT education. Shigeru Miyagawa, a professor of Japanese and linguistics at MIT, was one of the key members of that committee. He speaks of the program with uncut idealism. “Why are we doing this?” he says. “We’re doing this because of the belief that knowledge, when you share it, expands.”

Mathematics on the Refrigerator

Jon Valk

Boy does it. OCW went live as a pilot program in 2002 with 50 courses. Five years later, MIT celebrated the publishing of its 1,800th course, and today more than 250 schools around the world have similar programs — many participating through the OCW Consortium, set up by MIT to help other schools follow its example. MIT estimates that 56 million people have accessed its courses alone, either directly from OCW or from its six translation sites. The 200-plus members of the OCW Consortium saw 15.7 million visits in the first quarter of this year alone. Apple created iTunes U to distribute classes in audio and video. YouTube has a channel called YouTube EDU.

And there’s much more beyond MIT — sites like Academic Earth (a clearinghouse for lectures from scholars and intellectuals), Google Code University, and thousands of free or for-profit sites teaching everything from Swedish to how to build and service solar cells. It’s a rich, burbling, overwhelming world. You could easily tumble down this rabbit hole and emerge weeks later, bearded, bleary-eyed and the most annoying party guest of all time. Or you could find that you’re not as smart as you thought you were.

Reality Check

“In physics we explore the very small to the very large,” Lewin said. He stood in front of the class in pleated khaki cargo pants and a blousy blue oxford and spoke with the sort of vague, undefined European accent that would make him an excellent foil for James Bond. (He turns out to be Dutch.) Lewin dismissed the American system of measure as “extremely uncivilized” and said his class would be based on the metric system. Then he rolled the film “Powers of 10,” at which point my screen went black and a note indicated that copyright prevented the film from being included.

Day one, and I’d already stumbled on an important limitation of the OCW experience. MIT (or any school) doesn’t have the right to give away copyrighted materials such as films or textbooks used in class. In the case of the former, it’s often not much of an issue; I just went to YouTube and dialed up the slightly dated (and moderately psychedelic) 1977 film made by Ray and Charles Eames to depict the relative size of things in the universe. But when it comes to books, it’s a stumbling block.

I was operating under the misguided notion that I could survive this experiment using only what was completely free, so I chose not to click the amazon.com link to order the textbook. That turned out to be a major problem. It quickly became clear that I was not equipped with the same foundational basis in math or physics that the students in this first-semester freshman physics course were, and without the supplemental text, I had no additional tool for decoding Lewin’s scribbles. Obviously, I couldn’t ask a question, either.

I stuck with it, for a while. In a week, I watched three of Lewin’s 50-minute lectures and understood almost none of them. The stunts for which he’s become famous are undeniably entertaining — I think it’s fair to call this prop-wielding genius the Gallagher of science — but at the end of each hour I’d look down at my scrawls and realize they were useless to me. They looked like hieroglyphics.

I got that long-dormant lost-in-class feeling that triggers notebook doodles and clock watching, and I started to dread “going.” And so, in a departure lounge at Miami International Airport, around the time Lewin said, “We now come to a much more difficult part, and that is multiplication of vectors,” I decided to drop the class.

Thank God for Flash Cards

The guilt I felt over my failure to absorb higher math was soon offset by two things. First, I realized that unlike in college, there was no consequence or embarrassment to dropping the class. No walk of shame to the registrar’s office, and it’s not as if Lewin would miss me. Two, I was getting more bilingual by the day.

After hunting for the perfect online language course, I’d settled on a Romanian class from BYKI (Before You Know It), a for-profit site with a broad selection of free options, including a boiled-down version of its software that enables you to study vocabulary and basic grammar using a program of downloadable pop-up flash cards. The idea is to hook you and hope you’ll pay up to $70 for the full version, but what’s free is substantial; plenty, it seemed, to crash-prepare for a trip. I wasn’t actually going to Romania, I was simply curious about the tongue that I’d recently learned is the fifth Romance language. In fact, I happened to have a trip scheduled to a place where Romanian would do me no good at all: Ecuador.

On day five, lying on the musty sheets of a hotel bed in Quito, I learned to count from one to 10 in Romanian in less than half an hour using the program’s highly intuitive card system. It starts by having you read and repeat the words in English and Romanian and then has you type the translation both ways. It’s self-correcting, and when you miss a word, that word is given higher priority and appears more often until you’ve proven that you’ve learned it. It works. By the time I headed out for the night, I could transcribe a phone number in Romanian.

Romanian on Refrigerator

Jon Valk

It turns out that this kind of itinerant self-schooling is pretty common. MIT says 61 percent of OCW users live outside the U.S. (the largest block is in East Asia, with 22 percent). Steve Carson shared case studies with me featuring students, educators and self-learners from Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Nigeria and St. Lucia.

Take the story of two Bostonians, Ann Nguyen and Alison Cole. Recent college grads (Nguyen from the University of Massachusetts — Amherst, Cole from Scotland’s Edinburgh Napier University), the two decamped this summer to India, where they plan to live cheaply for a few years while attempting a bold experiment. Nguyen and Cole saw in OCW’s freely available teachings the material for an “alternative grad school” of their own design. Theirs is the ultimate study-abroad program — self-imposed graduate-level distance learning conducted from a far-flung location that also happens to have plenty of opportunities for hands-on work related to the subject of study, environmental engineering. Cole told me that she’s not sure how well it will work but that the two want to answer a number of questions, foremost among them: Can a person conduct work with high academic integrity outside the auspices of an institution?

“I’m an academic at heart,” Cole says. “But the realization that continuing my education would only further my debt and reduce my ability to afford life and a family really bummed me out.” She and Nguyen are using the syllabi from MIT OCW’s courses in ground hydrology, soil behavior and aquatic chemistry to construct a program that will study arid-land restoration, a subject that has practical applications in India and will also be relevant out there in job-land when it comes time to move back. (How employers will feel about this self-governed education remains to be seen.)

Although Cole and Nguyen appear to be the first to attempt to use OCW as the basis for a full-blown graduate program, they’re hardly the only hardcore autodidacts. Consider “Deevani,” who e-mailed me one afternoon in response to a call for satisfied OCW students. Deevani turned out to be A. Ines Rooney, a 34-year-old music-industry executive who moonlights as a songwriter specializing in the Latin-inspired hip-hop known as reggaeton. Rooney is self-taught in 12 languages, including Urdu, Bengali and Mandarin, and spends whatever spare time she has after producing and recording records (and raising her children) to devour OCW language, culture, literature, economics and finance classes — some 80 of them so far, she estimates. “I think I have a Ph.D. right now,” she says, half-kidding. “I just don’t have the credit.”

Rooney is right. You’ll never earn a degree from your self-imposed studies. As Carson points out, no amalgam of text and video, no matter who builds it, will ever be a substitute for an actual MIT education. (Or an education from Carnegie Mellon, or Notre Dame, or anywhere else.) You can’t actually use the labs or interact with faculty, who are the real draw of a college.

Like any open-source program, however, free Internet education is evolving. “There are Yahoo groups that have formed around MIT content,” Carson says. “If [independent learners] don’t need certification but need content, they can go to OpenCourseWare and form a group.”

(Sort of) Living Up to My Potential

I could have used a support group. The second week of my experiment, a little shell-shocked by my failure in physics, I listened to three MIT biology lectures. It didn’t stick. Next I sought out something science-y that was both easier to handle and more practical. I opted for a seminar taught by the chemist Patricia Christie, a lecturer in MIT’s Experiment Study Group. “Cooking,” read the course description for Kitchen Chemistry, “may be the oldest and most widespread application of chemistry, and recipes may be the oldest practical result of chemical research.” It sounded perfect until I hit a snag: There were no video or audio lectures.

Dot Matrix Diploma

Jon Valk, Printer: iStock

I wrote to Carson in a panic, and he broke the news to me. Only 79 of the OCW courses come with video lectures (another 22 come with audio). The program was intended as a print-based initiative; whether to add video was the professor’s call. In essence, mine would be a lab class without the labs. I bit into the curriculum anyway. The class on bread obliged me to investigate the science of yeast, thought to be the oldest industrial biological agent. My curiosity piqued, I spent an entire afternoon bouncing around the Web reading about baking science.

Yeast cells coming to life are biochemistry in action. I tested the process by making a yeast air balloon, just like the students in the real class. I mixed yeast, sugar and water in a bottle and watched as the carbon dioxide given off inflated a balloon affixed to the neck. It was amateur science, sure, but it was science. And in the end I got something useful: some challah that my girlfriend, an aficionado of toast, declared the best bread she’d had all year. I began to look forward to each kitchen chemistry “class,” and by the last week of my experiment I had made my pancakes fluffier, attempted my first stew and my first pie, understood for the first time how baking soda works, and learned what an emulsion is. I even made a soft, lemony cheese. In the kitchen, at least, I was an improved person thanks to self-directed study.

Romanian was also proving a success. By the final week of my month-long experiment, I could meet and greet people in a Bucharest of my imagination, bargain a cabbie from 10 lei to 5 (though if he argued, I’d be stuck), and identify 16 different animals, including an eagle (the word, oddly enough, is vultur).

My foray into computer science, on the other hand, was only moderately better than the physics debacle. I started with the grand ambition of building an iPhone app, but the online Stanford University course I was considering required you to possess “C language and programming experience at the level of 106B or X.” I had no idea what these things meant, so I changed my mind. After spending two weeks of my “term” shopping for a new course (hey, no registration deadline here), I settled on trying to learn an old, elementary programming language called Logo. As one Logo site declared: So simple a child can do it!

Or me. A message board led me to a Logo class built by a generous British man. I downloaded the simple software and in minutes had mastered the first tutorial, which involved learning to direct a small turtle around the screen using simple commands. I could make squares, triangles and combinations of the two. I could also use Logo to complete equations both simple (addition) and more complex (trigonometric functions). A few tutorials later, I was making the program speak. It wasn’t long, though, before terms like “data types and values” and “flow control” crept into the syllabus and I felt myself falling behind, wishing I could raise my hand and ask someone to explain it to me. By the second or third lesson I was getting the dreads, and for days after I avoided it entirely, procrastinating by any means necessary, including Romanian.

My failure to keep up with even basic science courses told me something I already knew, which is that I’m a writer, not a scientist or programmer. And that leads me to the first of a few Free Online School Rules I’d learned by the end of my experiment:

1. You get what you pay for. “Free” means no asking questions in the middle of class, which can be a dealbreaker with a subject as potentially confusing as physics.
2. That said, it might help if you actually buy the textbook.
3. Free online learning is not going to teach you anything substantial overnight, or in a week (unless you are Rain Man, in which case you’re just memorizing anyway). Plan to do a whole course.
4. There are few things better than hot bread made with your own two hands, especially when you understand the science of why it’s so delicious.
5. We are at the beginning of this experiment, not the end.

“You know where we’re heading with this,” says Shigeru Miyagawa, who believes that OCW has enriched current students and faculty, enhanced MIT’s reputation as an institution at the forefront of innovation, and provided an invaluable opportunity to show off its smarts to those prospective geniuses that top schools fight for. “You can already see it. You” — here he means an institution — “can’t afford not to do OCW. I foresee that in five years, all major institutions will be opening courses to let the world see what they do. It’s a no-brainer, right?”

On the next page, our guide to the best places to learn on the web.

Who has time to search the web when there’s so much learning to be done? So we’ve put together a list of our favorite 10 free online resources here. The first lesson is that, if you can think of the topic, chances are you can find a course on it at one of these sites.

Learn from the Best: Many of the nation’s top schools have opened up online annexes

1. MIT OpenCourseWare
Its list of 1,900 courses includes Weight Training and Playwriting. But the majority of “students” visit the oldest open courseware program for the subjects that made the Institute so renowned: physics, math and electronics.

2. University of Berkeley
It’s no surprise that the top-ranked public university offers a few dozen online audio and video lectures each semester. And live videos from special campus events, like the Dalai Lama talking about peace through compassion, could make you feel like you’re in the middle of college life.

3. Johns Hopkins School of Public Health OpenCourseWare
If you’re interested in a softer side of science, you can find written, video and audio lectures on public health topics ranging from sexual health to the fundamentals of human nutrition.

Extracurriculars: Round out your education

4. Google Code U
Becoming a master of your own domain, speaking C++, and hackproofing your data are all possible at Google Code U. And if you feel inspired to give back to the community that teaches you all that computer science, you’re in luck. The site accepts appropriate course content from its users.

5. Hewlett-Packard Learning Center
Brush up on basic computer skills like Microsoft Word, Excel and Powerpoint, as well as life skills such as business etiquette, from the technology giant Hewlett-Packard. You can even opt to receive a degree to hang on the wall once you completed your course.

6. BYKI
“You know,” “generally speaking,” “in order to” learn a foreign language, you have to memorize the most common phrases and words. Or so goes the mantra of this online language resource that promises to have you speaking one of over 70 different languages “before you know it.”

7. Digital Photography School
The site offers tutorials and tips for digital photographers of all levels.

Cast the Net Wide: A trio of lecture aggregators

8. Academic Earth
Perusing video lectures from different universities on Academic Earth is so smooth and seamless that you will have plenty of brain cells left over for learning.

9. YouTube EDU
In the same familiar format used for scanning screenshots of fluffy kitty videos, YouTube aggregates video content from different learning centers.

10. iTunes U
Use your iPhone or iPod touch for a higher purpose than tweeting with iTunes U. The application brings a list of the most popular lectures from different universities and cultural institutions to your fingertips.


Tags:

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  • MIT
  • youtube
  • education
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  • September 2009
  • Science

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  • Writing A Profile Essay On A Person: Helpful Recommendations From An Expert

    The profile essay written about a person is a very unique type of writing designed to serve two functions. The first is an interview of the person in question and the second is a profile which you write based upon the interview. The goal of this is to create a biographical sketch which provides your reader with a sense of the character, appearance, behavior, and accomplishments of the person in question. You want to cover all of those areas within your interview by not only observing the answers that they provide but also asking the right questions and observing the individual physically as they answer the questions. This will give you some insight into their characteristics and mannerisms. But in order for you to create an effective profile on an individual you have to focus on one attribute that you think is very interesting or that you think your readers will want to know more about. Whatever your subject is the purpose is to make sure you bring out this feature were unique attributes that you think is most fascinating.

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Business Research Guide Anteater MascotHow It Works

The regular tabs links to resources, grouped by type.

  • Need an eBook?  Find one from the eBooks tab. 
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The dropdown tabs each have a menu of guides to relevant resources, grouped by subject. 

  • Looking for analyst reports?  Try the COMPANY menu.
  • POPULAR UCI BUSINESS TOPICS covers special subjects at UCI, like Healthcare, IT, and Consulting. 

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    Toggle Dropdown

    • Overviews:
      — Profiles, Hierarchies, and SWOT Analyses

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      — Financials, SEC Filings and Annual Reports

    • Analyst Reports and Earnings Conference Calls

    • Lists of Companies

    • Company Strategy

    • Supply Chains

    • NAICS / SIC codes

    • Executives and Employees

    • Mergers and Acquisitions

    • Nonprofits and Associations

  • INDUSTRY     


    Toggle Dropdown

    • Industry and Market Research

    • Market Size and Share

    • Trends

    • Lists of Companies

    • Ratios / Averages / Benchmarks

    • Career Exploration

    • NAICS / SIC codes

    • Supply Chains

    • Nonprofits and Associations

  • FINANCE     


    Toggle Dropdown

    • Accounting and Tax

    • Public Companies:
      — Financials, SEC Filings and Annual Reports

    • Analyst Reports and Earnings Conference Calls

    • Ratios / Averages / Benchmarks

    • Equity (Stock) Markets and Debt (Bond) Markets

    • Venture Capital (VC), Private Equity (PE), and Grant Funding

    • Alternative Investments:
      — Mutual Funds, Hedge Funds, and REITs

  • PEOPLE     


    Toggle Dropdown

    • Management and Organizational Behavior

    • Executives and Employees

    • Diversity in the Workplace

    • Career Exploration

    • Consumers

    • Social Media

    • Public Opinion and Consumer Polling

    • Doing Primary Research

    • Unions

  • GLOBAL     


    Toggle Dropdown

    • Country Information:
      — Overviews, Risk, Regulation, and Financial Data

    • Industries

    • Companies

    • People in Other Countries

    • Trade and Commodities

    • Foreign Direct Investment

    • Business with China

    • Tourism and Hospitality

  • MARKETING     


    Toggle Dropdown

    • Consumers

    • Brands

    • Advertising

    • Social Media

    • Industry and Market Research

    • Market Size and Share

    • Doing Primary Research

  • ENTREPRENEURS     


    Toggle Dropdown

    • Business Plans and Models

    • Venture Capital (VC), Private Equity (PE), and Grant Funding

    • Industry and Market Research

    • Patents

    • Support for UCI Entrepeneurs:
      — Entities, Competitions, and More

    • Orange County and SoCal

    • Readings and Research in Entrepreneurship

  • POPULAR UCI BUSINESS TOPICS  


    Toggle Dropdown

    • IT and Technology

    • Healthcare

    • Biotech

    • Engineering

    • Real Estate

    • Consulting

    • Advanced Research: Datasets

    • Ethical Business
      — Sustainability, Social Enterprise, and CSR / ESG

    • Orange County and SoCal

UCI Business & Economics Librarian

Annette Buckley's picture
Annette Buckley

Book Appointment

Contact:

949-824-0360
[email protected]

Due to question volume, my response time may be about 48 business hours.

Subjects: Business

Hello!

The Business Research Guide

Business Research Guide Anteater MascotHow It Works

The regular tabs links to resources, grouped by type.

  • Need an eBook?  Find one from the eBooks tab. 
  • Want to catch up on the Wall Street Journal?  Use the News tab.

The dropdown tabs each have a menu of guides to relevant resources, grouped by subject. 

  • Looking for analyst reports?  Try the COMPANY menu.
  • POPULAR UCI BUSINESS TOPICS covers special subjects at UCI, like Healthcare, IT, and Consulting. 

Nifty Note

Cue the *happy dance* music! 

The UCI Libraries has upgraded our subscription of S&P NetAdvantage to Capital IQ Logo

…drum-roll…

The one and only, S&P Capital IQ !*  Simply put, Capital IQ is one of the most important databases for company intelligence and financial research, both for industry practitioners and academics.  

*(S&P Capital IQ is restricted to current UCI students, faculty, & staff)


After-hours questions?  Try this:   Ask a librarian  

Connect

How To Connect:

Electronic & Print Content

  • Students

  • Faculty & Staff

  • Alumni

  • Visitors


  • Where’s the library?


  • Usage Policy

  • Next: Databases   >>
  • Last Updated: Oct 11, 2018 11:27 AM
  • Print Page
Login to LibApps

Subjects:
Business




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 Press Releases

Press Release

Brooklyn Public Library’s PowerUP! Business Plan Competition Awards Top Prize to Direct Bus Service from Nearby Cities to NYC’s Outer Boroughs

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Tuesday, December 12, 2017

More Than $30,000 Awarded to Local Entrepreneurs Including Greeting Cards for the LGBTQ Community and An App to Match Veterans with Employers

Brooklyn, NY—Brooklyn Public Library’s 14th annual PowerUP! Business Plan Competition awarded more than $30,000 to aspiring entrepreneurs at an awards ceremony Monday evening. A $15,000 prize was awarded to first-place winner Jared Moldonado, founder of Catch-A-Ride, a bus service which will connect Brooklyn to cities in the northeast such as Boston, Philadelphia, and Washington, D.C.

A judging panel of business owners, nonprofit leaders and academics selected Catch-a-Ride from a field of 66 entries and 12 finalists. The runners-up were Joshua Bloodworth and Victor Hunt for Paragon, an online marketplace to connect building managers with contractors to compare and track bids, and Michele Weisman for Meet the Writers, a program to bring authors and illustrators into underserved schools. Each runner-up received a $5,000 prize, while five other participants received $1,000 merit awards.

The 2017 participants came from every zip code in the borough. Over 75 percent were women; 80 percent identified as a minority. While many participants had college degrees, only half had entrepreneurial experience.

“Brooklyn is home to many innovative entrepreneurs, and BPL is proud to have helped over 100 of them launch businesses around the borough,” said Brooklyn Public Library President and CEO Linda E. Johnson. “We congratulate all of the PowerUP participants tonight for their tremendous commitment and hard work.”

Since its founding in 2003, the PowerUP! contest has provided a total of more than $350,000 to over 125 entrepreneurs. Many successful Brooklyn businesses launched with help from PowerUP! including Bogota Latin Bistro, Dog Parker, Argyle Yarn Shop, Tinsel & Twine Events, and Greenlight Bookstore. 

“The Power Up! Awards are a great resource to help aspiring young entrepreneurs who have an enormous impact on Brooklyn’s economy,” said Brooklyn Chamber of Commerce President and CEO Andrew Hoan. “As someone who leads a business advocacy organization, and served as a Power UP! juror, I have personally witnessed success stories of small businesses who have benefitted from start-up initiatives such as this. Kudos to Linda Johnson and the leadership at Brooklyn Public Library for offering this wonderful opportunity to the Brooklyn community.”

All participants attended classes on subjects like marketing, business finance and the utilization of library resources. They also received one-on-one business plan assistance from successful entrepreneurs and business experts. 

“Dime congratulates both the winners of the PowerUP! Business Plan Competition and every applicant who participated in this program that is committed to helping local entrepreneurs succeed,” said Kenneth J. Mahon, President and Chief Executive Officer of Dime Community Bank. “Dime recognizes the important role that entrepreneurs and small businesses play in the economic development of our communities and we stand ready to support them to grow and prosper.”

In addition to the winners, the PowerUP! finalists included:

Merit Awards:

•    Rebecca Bishop for Out of the Closet cards, sophisticated greeting cards for the LGBTQ market to celebrate special occasions in their lives.

•    Barika Edwards and Marie Roker Jones for OweYaa, a veteran and women-owned business app to match veterans and military spouses with employers.

•    Chris Egervary and Hannah Gall for Spent Granola Bar, a snack that uses healthy natural ingredients and spent grain, a nutritious byproduct from the beer brewing process.

•    Noel Gaskin and Xavier Stewart for NOLOGO backpacks, safe, ergonomically correct load-bearing storage to wear in the form of reconfigurable backpacks.

•    Natasha Gaspard for Mane Moves Media, providing narrative-based lifestyle video content to brands looking to reach the natural hair care market.

Honorable Mentions:

•    Matt Curinga, Loreto Dumitrescu, David Frackman, Cynthia Yahia for Zero Day Camp, providing computer science and robotics education for children in the Crown Heights/Prospect Heights community through summer camps, afterschool sessions and school year mini-camps.

•    Valerie Gurzenda for Pocketship, an e-commerce clothing shop which features women’s clothes with discreet pockets for phones, keys, and more.

•    Sergei Levashkin and Galina Shelomentseva for Child Care Match, an online platform that connects child care providers with customers, education professionals and vendors in one convenient, unified space.

•    Angeles Mojica for Dig It, a sustainable garden and landscape design company.

The awards ceremony was catered by PowerUP alumni: Island Pops, Tamra Teahouse, Jest Green, Bogota Latin Bistro and Soul Sister Quisine.

Brooklyn Public Library is grateful to the 2017 PowerUP! Business Plan Competition sponsors: Lead Sponsor Dime Community Bank, additional program support provided by Con Edison, Signature Bank, Ridgewood Savings Bank and M&T Bank. The PowerUP! reception is made possible through the generosity of ReferenceUSA from Infogroup.

###

About Brooklyn Public Library 

Brooklyn Public Library (BPL) is an independent library system for the 2.5 million residents of Brooklyn. It is the fifth largest library system in the United States with 60 neighborhood libraries located throughout the borough. BPL offers free programs and services for all ages and stages of life, including a large selection of books in more than 30 languages, author talks, literacy programs and public computers. BPL’s eResources, such as eBooks and eVideos, catalog information and free homework help, are available to customers of all ages 24 hours a day at our website:  http://www.bklynlibrary.org /.

 

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★Instructional Essay Topics – Vaughn Wamsley

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Instructional Essay Topics

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Instructional Essay Topics

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Instructional Essay Topics

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How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition
(2000)

Chapter: 6 The Design of Learning Environments


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Suggested Citation:“6 The Design of Learning Environments.” National Research Council. 2000. How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9853.

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6
The Design of Learning Environments

In this chapter we discuss implications of new knowledge about learning for the design of learning environments, especially schools. Learning theory does not provide a simple recipe for designing effective learning environments; similarly, physics constrains but does not dictate how to build a bridge (e.g., Simon, 1969). Nevertheless, new developments in the science of learning raise important questions about the design of learning environments—questions that suggest the value of rethinking what is taught, how it is taught, and how it is assessed. The focus in this chapter is on general characteristics of learning environments that need to be examined in light of new developments in the science of learning; Chapter 7 provides specific examples of instruction in the areas of mathematics, science, and history—examples that make the arguments in the present chapter more concrete.

We begin our discussion of learning environments by revisiting a point made in Chapter 1 —that the learning goals for schools have undergone major changes during the past century. Everyone expects much more from today’s schools than was expected 100 years ago. A fundamental tenet of modern learning theory is that different kinds of learning goals require different approaches to instruction ( Chapter 3 ); new goals for education require changes in opportunities to learn. After discussing changes in goals, we explore the design of learning environments from four perspectives that appear to be particularly important given current data about human learning, namely, the degree to which learning environments are learner centered, knowledge centered, assessment centered, and community centered. Later, we define these perspectives and explain how they relate to the preceding discussions in Chapters 1 – 4 .

CHANGES IN EDUCATIONAL GOALS

As discussed in Chapter 1 , educational goals for the twenty-first century are very different from the goals of earlier times. This shift is important to keep in mind when considering claims that schools are “getting worse.” In

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×

many cases, schools seem to be functioning as well as ever, but the challenges and expectations have changed quite dramatically (e.g., Bruer, 1993; Resnick, 1987).

Consider the goals of schooling in the early 1800s. Instruction in writing focused on the mechanics of making notation as dictated by the teacher, transforming oral messages into written ones. It was not until the mid to late 1800s that writing began to be taught on a mass level in most European countries, and school children began to be asked to compose their own written texts. Even then, writing instruction was largely aimed at giving children the capacity to closely imitate very simple text forms. It was not until the 1930s that the idea emerged of primary school students expressing themselves in writing (Alcorta, 1994; Schneuwly, 1994). As in writing, it was not until relatively recently that analysis and interpretation of what is read became an expectation of skilled reading by all school children. Overall, the definition of functional literacy changed from being able to sign one’s name to word decoding to reading for new information (Resnick and Resnick, 1977); see Box 6.1 .

In the early 1900s, the challenge of providing mass education was seen by many as analogous to mass production in factories. School administrators were eager to make use of the “scientific” organization of factories to structure efficient classrooms. Children were regarded as raw materials to be efficiently processed by technical workers (the teachers) to reach the end product (Bennett and LeCompte, 1990; Callahan, 1962; Kliebard, 1975). This approach attempted to sort the raw materials (the children) so that they could be treated somewhat as an assembly line. Teachers were viewed as workers whose job was to carry out directives from their superiors—the efficiency experts of schooling (administrators and researchers).

The emulation of factory efficiency fostered the development of standardized tests for measurement of the “product,” of clerical work by teachers to keep records of costs and progress (often at the expense of teaching), and of “management” of teaching by central district authorities who had little knowledge of educational practice or philosophy (Callahan, 1962). In short, the factory model affected the design of curriculum, instruction, and assessment in schools.

Today, students need to understand the current state of their knowledge and to build on it, improve it, and make decisions in the face of uncertainty (Talbert and McLaughlin, 1993). These two notions of knowledge were identified by John Dewey (1916) as “records” of previous cultural accomplishments and engagement in active processes as represented by the phrase “to do.” For example, doing mathematics involves solving problems, abstracting, inventing, proving (see, e.g., Romberg, 1983). Doing history involves the construction and evaluation of historical documents (see, e.g., Wineberg, 1996). Doing science includes such activities as testing theories

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×

BOX 6.1 Literacy: Then and Now

Colonists were literate enough if they could sign their name, or even an X, on deeds. When immigrants arrived in large numbers in the 1800s, educators urged schools to deliver “recitation literacy” to the foreign children who filled the schoolrooms. That literacy was the ability to hold a book and reel off memorized portions of basic American texts such as the opening paragraph of the Declaration of Independence, a part of the Gettysburg address, or some Bryant or Longfellow. With the coming of World War I, and the prospect of large numbers of men handling new equipment in foreign countries, Army testers redefined reading. Suddenly, to the dismay of men used to reading familiar passages, passing the army reading test meant being able to make sense, on the spot, of never-before-seen text. Currently, that kind of “extraction literacy,” revolutionary in 1914, looks meager. Finding out who, what, when, where or how simply does not yield the inferences, questions, or ideas we now think of as defining full or “higher literacy.” The idea of a classroom where young women, poor and minority students, and learning disabled students all read (not recite) and write about (not copy) Shakespeare or Steinbeck is a radical and hopeful departure from the long-running conception of literacy as serviceable skills for the many and generative, reflective reading and writing for the few (Wolf, 1988:1).

through experimentation and observation (e.g., Lehrer and Schauble, 1996a, b; Linn, 1992, 1994; Schwab, 1978). Society envisions graduates of school systems who can identify and solve problems and make contributions to society throughout their lifetime—who display the qualities of “adaptive expertise” discussed in Chapter 3 . To achieve this vision requires rethinking what is taught, how teachers teach, and how what students learn is assessed.

The remainder of this chapter is organized around Figure 6.1 , which illustrates four perspectives on learning environments that seem particularly important given the principles of learning discussed in earlier chapters. Although we discuss these perspectives separately, they need to be conceptualized as a system of interconnected components that mutually support one another (e.g., Brown and Campione, 1996); we first discuss each perspective separately and then describe how they interrelate.

LEARNER-CENTERED ENVIRONMENTS

We use the term “learner centered” to refer to environments that pay careful attention to the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and beliefs that learners bring to the educational setting. This term includes teaching practices that

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×

FIGURE 6.1 Perspectives on learning environments. SOURCE: Bransford et al. (1998).

have been called “culturally responsive,” “culturally appropriate,” “culturally compatible,” and “culturally relevant” (Ladson-Billings, 1995). The term also fits the concept of “diagnostic teaching” (Bell et al., 1980): attempting to discover what students think in relation to the problems on hand, discussing their misconceptions sensitively, and giving them situations to go on thinking about which will enable them to readjust their ideas (Bell, 1982a:7). Teachers who are learner centered recognize the importance of building on the conceptual and cultural knowledge that students bring with them to the classroom (see Chapters 3 and 4 ).

Diagnostic teaching provides an example of starting from the structure of a child’s knowledge. The information on which to base a diagnosis may be acquired through observation, questioning and conversation, and reflection on the products of student activity. A key strategy is to prompt children to explain and develop their knowledge structures by asking them to make predictions about various situations and explain the reasons for their predictions. By selecting critical tasks that embody known misconceptions, teachers can help students test their thinking and see how and why various ideas might need to change (Bell, 1982a, b, 1985; Bell et al., 1986; Bell and Purdy, 1985). The model is one of engaging students in cognitive conflict and then having discussions about conflicting viewpoints (see Piaget, 1973; Festinger, 1957). “To promote learning, it is important to focus on controlled changes

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×

of structure in a fixed context…or on deliberate transfer of a structure from one context to another” (Bell, 1985:72; see Chapter 7 ).

Learner-centered instruction also includes a sensitivity to the cultural practices of students and the effect of those practices on classroom learning. In a study of the Kamehameha School in Hawaii, teachers were deliberate in learning about students’ home and community cultural practices and language use and incorporated them in classroom literacy instruction (Au and Jordan, 1981). After using the native Hawaiian “talk-story” (jointly produced student narratives), shifting the focus of instruction from decoding to comprehending, and including students’ home experiences as a part of the discussion of reading materials, students demonstrated significant improvement in standardized test performance in reading.

Learner-centered teachers also respect the language practices of their students because they provide a basis for further learning. In science, one standard way of talking in both school and professional science is impersonal and expository, without any reference to personal or social intentions or experiences (Lemke, 1990; Wertsch, 1991). This way, which predominates in schools, privileges middle-class, mainstream ways of knowing and constitutes a barrier for students from other backgrounds who do not come to school already practiced in “school talk” (Heath, 1983). Everyday and scientific discourses need to be coordinated to assist students’ scientific understanding.

In science discourse as it develops in most classrooms, students’ talk frequently expresses multiple intentions or voices (see Ballenger, 1997; Bakhtin, 1984; Warren and Rosebery, 1996; Wertsch, 1991). In their narratives and arguments, students express both scientific and social intentions: scientific in that the students present evidence in support of a scientific argument; social in that they also talk about themselves as certain types of people (e.g., virtuous, honest, trustworthy). If the responses of other students and the teacher to these multivoiced narratives are always keyed to the scientific point, it helps to shape the meaning that is taken from them and relates them back to the context of the unfolding scientific argument (Ballenger, 1997). In standard science lessons, the scientific point in the talk of many students, particularly those whose discourse is not mainstream, is often missed, and the social intention is often devalued (Lemke, 1990; Michaels and Bruce, 1989; Wertsch, 1991; see Chapter 7 ).

In another example of connecting everyday talk and school talk, African American high school students were shown that many of their forms of everyday speech were examples of a very high form of literacy that was taught in school, but never before connected with their everyday experience (Lee, 1991, 1992). Like Proust who discovered he had been speaking prose all of his life, the students discovered that they were fluent in a set of competencies that were considered academically advanced.

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Suggested Citation:“6 The Design of Learning Environments.” National Research Council. 2000. How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9853.

×

Overall, learner-centered environments include teachers who are aware that learners construct their own meanings, beginning with the beliefs, understandings, and cultural practices they bring to the classroom. If teaching is conceived as constructing a bridge between the subject matter and the student, learner-centered teachers keep a constant eye on both ends of the bridge. The teachers attempt to get a sense of what students know and can do as well as their interests and passions—what each student knows, cares about, is able to do, and wants to do. Accomplished teachers “give learners reason,” by respecting and understanding learners’ prior experiences and understandings, assuming that these can serve as a foundation on which to build bridges to new understandings (Duckworth, 1987). Chapter 7 illustrates how these bridges can be built.

KNOWLEDGE-CENTERED ENVIRONMENTS

Environments that are solely learner centered would not necessarily help students acquire the knowledge and skills necessary to function effectively in society. As noted in Chapter 2 , the ability of experts to think and solve problems is not simply due to a generic set of “thinking skills” or strategies but, instead, requires well-organized bodies of knowledge that support planning and strategic thinking. Knowledge-centered environments take seriously the need to help students become knowledgeable (Bruner, 1981) by learning in ways that lead to understanding and subsequent transfer. Current knowledge on learning and transfer ( Chapter 3 ) and development ( Chapter 4 ) provide important guidelines for achieving these goals. Standards in areas such as mathematics and science help define the knowledge and competencies that students need to acquire (e.g., American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1989; National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1989; National Research Council, 1996).

Knowledge-centered environments intersect with learner-centered environments when instruction begins with a concern for students’ initial preconceptions about the subject matter. The story Fish Is Fish ( Chapter 1 ) illustrates how people construct new knowledge based on their current knowledge. Without carefully considering the knowledge that students’ bring to the learning situation, it is difficult to predict what they will understand about new information that is presented to them (see Chapters 3 and 4 ).

Knowledge-centered environments also focus on the kinds of information and activities that help students develop an understanding of disciplines (e.g., Prawat et al., 1992). This focus requires a critical examination of existing curricula. In history, a widely used history text on the American Revolution left out crucial information necessary to understand rather than merely memorize (Beck et al., 1989, 1991). In science, existing curricula tend to overemphasize facts and underemphasize “doing science” to ex-

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×

plore and test big ideas (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1989; National Research Council, 1996). As noted in Chapter 2 , the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (Schmidt et al., 1997) characterized American curricula in mathematics and science as being “a mile wide and an inch deep.” (Examples of teaching for depth rather than breadth are illustrated in Chapter 7 .)

As discussed in the first part of this book, knowledge-centered environments also include an emphasis on sense-making—on helping students become metacognitive by expecting new information to make sense and asking for clarification when it doesn’t (e.g., Palincsar and Brown, 1984; Schoenfeld, 1983, 1985, 1991). A concern with sense-making raises questions about many existing curricula. For example, it has been argued that many mathematics curricula emphasize

…not so much a form of thinking as a substitute for thinking. The process of calculation or computation only involves the deployment of a set routine with no room for ingenuity or flair, no place for guess work or surprise, no chance for discovery, no need for the human being, in fact (Scheffler, 1975:184).

The argument here is not that students should never learn to compute, but that they should also learn other things about mathematics, especially the fact that it is possible for them to make sense of mathematics and to think mathematically (e.g., Cobb et al., 1992).

There are interesting new approaches to the development of curricula that support learning with understanding and encourage sense making. One is “progressive formalization,” which begins with the informal ideas that students bring to school and gradually helps them see how these ideas can be transformed and formalized. Instructional units encourage students to build on their informal ideas in a gradual but structured manner so that they acquire the concepts and procedures of a discipline.

The idea of progressive formalization is exemplified by the algebra strand for middle school students using Mathematics in Context (National Center for Research in Mathematical Sciences Education and Freudenthal Institute, 1997). It begins by having students use their own words, pictures, or diagrams to describe mathematical situations to organize their own knowledge and work and to explain their strategies. In later units, students gradually begin to use symbols to describe situations, organize their mathematical work, or express their strategies. At this level, students devise their own symbols or learn some nonconventional notation. Their representations of problem situations and explanations of their work are a mixture of words and symbols. Later, students learn and use standard conventional algebraic notation for writing expressions and equations, for manipulating algebraic expressions and solving equations, and for graphing equations. Movement along this continuum is not necessarily smooth, nor all in one direction.

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×

Although students are actually doing algebra less formally in the earlier grades, they are not forced to generalize their knowledge to a more formal level, nor to operate at a more formal level, before they have had sufficient experience with the underlying concepts. Thus, students may move back and forth among levels of formality depending on the problem situation or on the mathematics involved.

Central to curriculum frameworks such as “progressive formalization” are questions about what is developmentally appropriate to teach at various ages. Such questions represent another example of overlap between learnercentered and knowledge-centered perspectives. Older views that young children are incapable of complex reasoning have been replaced by evidence that children are capable of sophisticated levels of thinking and reasoning when they have the knowledge necessary to support these activities (see Chapter 4 ). An impressive body of research shows the potential benefit of early access by students to important conceptual ideas. In classrooms using a form of “cognitively guided” instruction in geometry, second-grade children’s skills for representing and visualizing three-dimensional forms exceeded those of comparison groups of undergraduate students at a leading university (Lehrer and Chazan, 1998). Young children have also demonstrated powerful forms of early algebraic generalization (Lehrer and Chazan, 1998). Forms of generalization in science, such as experimentation, can be introduced before the secondary school years through a developmental approach to important mathematical and scientific ideas (Schauble et al., 1995; Warren and Rosebery, 1996). Such an approach entails becoming cognizant of the early origins of students’ thinking and then identifying how those ideas can be fostered and elaborated (Brown and Campione, 1994).

Attempts to create environments that are knowledge centered also raise important questions about how to foster an integrated understanding of a discipline. Many models of curriculum design seem to produce knowledge and skills that are disconnected rather than organized into coherent wholes. The National Research Council (1990:4) notes that “To the Romans, a curriculum was a rutted course that guided the path of two-wheeled chariots.” This rutted path metaphor is an appropriate description of the curriculum for many school subjects:

Vast numbers of learning objectives, each associated with pedagogical strategies, serve as mile posts along the trail mapped by texts from kindergarten to twelfth grade…. Problems are solved not by observing and responding to the natural landscape through which the mathematics curriculum passes, but by mastering time tested routines, conveniently placed along the path (National Research Council, 1990:4).

An alternative to a “rutted path” curriculum is one of “learning the landscape” (Greeno, 1991). In this metaphor, learning is analogous to learning

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×

to live in an environment: learning your way around, learning what resources are available, and learning how to use those resources in conducting your activities productively and enjoyably (Greeno, 1991:175). The progressive formalization framework discussed above is consistent with this metaphor. Knowing where one is in a landscape requires a network of connections that link one’s present location to the larger space.

Traditional curricula often fail to help students “learn their way around” a discipline. The curricula include the familiar scope and sequence charts that specify procedural objectives to be mastered by students at each grade: though an individual objective might be reasonable, it is not seen as part of a larger network. Yet it is the network, the connections among objectives, that is important. This is the kind of knowledge that characterizes expertise (see Chapter 2 ). Stress on isolated parts can train students in a series of routines without educating them to understand an overall picture that will ensure the development of integrated knowledge structures and information about conditions of applicability.

An alternative to simply progressing through a series of exercises that derive from a scope and sequence chart is to expose students to the major features of a subject domain as they arise naturally in problem situations. Activities can be structured so that students are able to explore, explain, extend, and evaluate their progress. Ideas are best introduced when students see a need or a reason for their use—this helps them see relevant uses of knowledge to make sense of what they are learning. Problem situations used to engage students may include the historic reasons for the development of the domain, the relationship of that domain to other domains, or the uses of ideas in that domain (see Webb and Romberg, 1992). In Chapter 7 we present examples from history, science, and mathematics instruction that emphasize the importance of introducing ideas and concepts in ways that promote deep understanding.

A challenge for the design of knowledge-centered environments is to strike the appropriate balance between activities designed to promote understanding and those designed to promote the automaticity of skills necessary to function effectively without being overwhelmed by attentional requirements. Students for whom it is effortful to read, write, and calculate can encounter serious difficulties learning. The importance of automaticity has been demonstrated in a number of areas (e.g., Beck et al., 1989, 1991; Hasselbring et al., 1987; LaBerge and Samuels, 1974; see Chapter 2 ).

ASSESSMENT-CENTERED ENVIRONMENTS

In addition to being learner centered and knowledge centered, effectively designed learning environments must also be assessment centered. The key principles of assessment are that they should provide opportunities

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×

for feedback and revision and that what is assessed must be congruent with one’s learning goals.

It is important to distinguish between two major uses of assessment. The first, formative assessment, involves the use of assessments (usually administered in the context of the classroom) as sources of feedback to improve teaching and learning. The second, summative assessment, measures what students have learned at the end of some set of learning activities. Examples of formative assessments include teachers’ comments on work in progress, such as drafts of papers or preparations for presentations. Examples of summative assessments include teacher-made tests given at the end of a unit of study and state and national achievement tests that students take at the end of a year. Ideally, teachers’ formative and summative assessments are aligned with the state and national assessments that students take at the end of the year; often, however, this is not the case. Issues of summative assessment for purposes of national, state, and district accountability are beyond the scope of this volume; our discussion focuses on classroom-based formative and summative assessments.

Formative Assessments and Feedback

Studies of adaptive expertise, learning, transfer, and early development show that feedback is extremely important (see Chapters 2 , 3 , and 4 ). Students’ thinking must be made visible (through discussions, papers, or tests), and feedback must be provided. Given the goal of learning with understanding, assessments and feedback must focus on understanding, and not only on memory for procedures or facts (although these can be valuable, too). Assessments that emphasize understanding do not necessarily require elaborate or complicated assessment procedures. Even multiple-choice tests can be organized in ways that assess understanding (see below).

Opportunities for feedback should occur continuously, but not intrusively, as a part of instruction. Effective teachers continually attempt to learn about their students’ thinking and understanding. They do a great deal of on-line monitoring of both group work and individual performances, and they attempt to assess students’ abilities to link their current activities to other parts of the curriculum and their lives. The feedback they give to students can be formal or informal. Effective teachers also help students build skills of self-assessment. Students learn to assess their own work, as well as the work of their peers, in order to help everyone learn more effectively (see, e.g., Vye et al., 1998a, b). Such self-assessment is an important part of the metacognitive approach to instruction (discussed in Chapters 3 , 4 , and 7 ).

In many classrooms, opportunities for feedback appear to occur relatively infrequently. Most teacher feedback—grades on tests, papers,

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×

worksheets, homework, and on report cards—represent summative assessments that are intended to measure the results of learning. After receiving grades, students typically move on to a new topic and work for another set of grades. Feedback is most valuable when students have the opportunity to use it to revise their thinking as they are working on a unit or project. The addition of opportunities for formative assessment increases students’ learning and transfer, and they learn to value opportunities to revise (Barron et al., 1998; Black and William, 1998; Vye et al., 1998b). Opportunities to work collaboratively in groups can also increase the quality of the feedback available to students (Barron, 1991; Bereiter and Scardamalia, 1989; Fuchs et al., 1992; Johnson and Johnson, 1975; Slavin, 1987; Vye et al., 1998a), although many students must be helped to learn how to work collaboratively. New technologies provide opportunities to increase feedback by allowing students, teachers, and content experts to interact both synchronously and asynchronously (see Chapter 9 ).

A challenge of implementing good assessment practices involves the need to change many teachers’, parents’, and students’ models of what effective learning looks like. Many assessments developed by teachers overly emphasize memory for procedures and facts (Porter et al., 1993). In addition, many standardized tests that are used for accountability still overemphasize memory for isolated facts and procedures, yet teachers are often judged by how well their students do on such tests. One mathematics teacher consistently produced students who scored high on statewide examinations by helping students memorize a number of mathematical procedures (e.g., proofs) that typically appeared on the examinations, but the students did not really understand what they were doing, and often could not answer questions that required an understanding of mathematics (Schoenfeld, 1988).

Appropriately designed assessments can help teachers realize the need to rethink their teaching practices. Many physics teachers have been surprised at their students’ inabilities to answer seemingly obvious (to the expert) questions that assessed their students’ understanding, and this outcome has motivated them to revise their instructional practices (Redish, 1996). Similarly, visually based assessments of “number sense” (see Case and Moss, 1996) have helped teachers discover the need to help their students develop important aspects of mathematical understanding (Bransford et al., 1998). Innovative assessments that reveal students’ understanding of important concepts in science and mathematics have also been developed (Lehrer and Schauble, 1996a, b).

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×

Formats for Assessing Understanding

Teachers have limited time to assess students’ performances and provide feedback, but new advances in technology can help solve this problem (see Chapter 9 ). Even without technology, however, advances have been made in devising simple assessments that measure understanding rather than memorization. In the area of physics, assessments like those used in Chapter 2 to compare experts and novices have been revised for use in classrooms. One task presents students with two problems and asks them to state whether both would be solved using a similar approach and state the reason for the decision:

  1. A 2.5-kilogram ball with a radius of 4 centimeters is traveling at 7 meters/second on a rough horizontal surface, but not spinning. At some later time, the ball is rolling without slipping 5 meters/second. How much work was done by friction?

  2. A 0.5-kilogram ball with a radius of 15 centimeters is initially sliding at 10 meters/second without spinning. The ball travels on a horizontal surface and eventually rolls without slipping. Find the ball’s final velocity.

Novices typically state that these two problems are solved similarly because they match on surface features—both involve a ball sliding and rolling on a horizontal surface. Students who are learning with understanding state that the problems are solved differently: the first can be solved by applying the work-energy theorem; the second can be solved by applying conservation of angular momentum (Hardiman et al., 1989); see Box 6.2 . These kinds of assessment items can be used during the course of instruction to monitor the depth of conceptual understanding.

Portfolio assessments are another method of formative assessment. They provide a format for keeping records of students’ work as they progress throughout the year and, most importantly, for allowing students to discuss their achievements and difficulties with their teachers, parents, and fellow students (e.g., Wiske, 1997; Wolf, 1988). They take time to implement and they are often implemented poorly—portfolios often become simply another place to store student work but no discussion of the work takes place— but used properly, they provide students and others with valuable information about their learning progress over time.

Theoretical Frameworks for Assessment

A challenge for the learning sciences is to provide a theoretical framework that links assessment practices to learning theory. An important step in this direction is represented by the work of Baxter and Glaser (1997), who

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BOX 6.2 How Do You Know?

A 1-kilogram stick that is 2 meters long is placed on a frictionless surface and is free to rotate about a vertical pivot through one end. A 50-gram lump of putty is attached 80 centimeters from the pivot. Which of the following principles would allow you to determine the magnitude of the net force between the stick and the putty when the angular velocity of the system is 3 radians/second?

  1. Newton’s second law,

  2. Angular momentum or conservation of angular momentum

  3. Linear momentum or conservation of linear momentum

  4. Work-energy theorem or conservation of mechanical energy

  5. Conservation of linear momentum followed by conservation of mechanical energy

Performance on this item was near random for students finishing an introductory calculus-based physics course. The temptation is to match the “rotation” surface feature of the problem with “angular momentum,” when in fact the problem is solved by a simple application of Newton’s second law. Data such as these are important for helping teachers guide students toward the development of fluid, transferable knowledge (Leonard et al., 1996).

provide a framework for integrating cognition and context in assessing achievement in science. In their report, performance is described in terms of the content and process task demands of the subject matter and the nature and extent of cognitive activity likely to be observed in a particular assessment situation. The framework provides a basis for examining how developers’ intentions are realized in performance assessments that purport to measure reasoning, understanding, and complex problem solving.

Characterizing assessments in terms of components of competence and the content-process demands of the subject matter brings specificity to generic assessment objectives such as “higher level thinking and deep understanding.” Characterizing student performance in terms of cognitive activities focuses attention on the differences in competence and subject-matter achievement that can be observed in learning and assessment situations. The kind and quality of cognitive activities in an assessment is a function of the content and process demands of the task involved. For example, consider the content-process framework for science assessment shown in Figure 6.2 (Baxter and Glaser, 1997). In this figure, task demands for content

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FIGURE 6.2 Content-process space of science assessments.

knowledge are conceptualized on a continuum from rich to lean (y axis). At one extreme are knowledge-rich tasks, tasks that require in-depth understanding of subject matter for their completion. At the other extreme are tasks that are not dependent on prior knowledge or related experiences; rather, performance is primarily dependent on the information given in the assessment situation. The task demands for process skills are conceptualized as a continuum from constrained to open (x axis). In open situations, explicit directions are minimized; students are expected to generate and carry out appropriate process skills for problem solution. In process-constrained situations, directions can be of two types: step-by-step, subject-specific procedures given as part of the task, or directions to explain the process skills that are necessary for task completion. In this situation, students are asked to generate explanations, an activity that does not require using the process skills. Assessment tasks can involve many possible combinations of content knowledge and process skills; Table 6.1 illustrates the relationship between the structure of knowledge and the organized cognitive activities.

COMMUNITY-CENTERED ENVIRONMENTS

New developments in the science of learning suggest that the degree to which environments are community centered is also important for learning. Especially important are norms for people learning from one another and continually attempting to improve. We use the term community centered to refer to several aspects of community, including the classroom as a commu-

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TABLE 6.1 Cognitive Activity and Structure of Knowledge

 

Structure of Knowledge

 

Organized Cognitive Activity

Fragmented

Meaningful

Problem Representation

Surface features and shallow understanding

Underlying principles and relevant concepts

Strategy Use

Undirected trial-and-error problem solving

Efficient, informative, and goal oriented

Self-Monitoring

Minimal and sporadic

Ongoing and flexible

Explanation

Single statement of fact of description of superficial factors

Principled and coherent

nity, the school as a community, and the degree to which students, teachers, and administers feel connected to the larger community of homes, businesses, states, the nation, and even the world.

Classroom and School Communities

At the level of classrooms and schools, learning seems to be enhanced by social norms that value the search for understanding and allow students (and teachers) the freedom to make mistakes in order to learn (e.g., Brown and Campione, 1994; Cobb et al., 1992). Different classrooms and schools reflect different sets of norms and expectations. For example, an unwritten norm that operates in some classrooms is never to get caught making a mistake or not knowing an answer (see, e.g., Holt, 1964). This norm can hinder students’ willingness to ask questions when they do not understand the material or to explore new questions and hypotheses. Some norms and expectations are more subject specific. For example, the norms in a mathematics class may be that mathematics is knowing how to compute answers; a much better norm would be that the goal of inquiry is mathematical understanding. Different norms and practices have major effects on what is taught and how it is assessed (e.g., Cobb et al., 1992). Sometimes there are different sets of expectations for different students. Teachers may convey expectations for school success to some students and expectations for school failure to others (MacCorquodale, 1988). For example, girls are sometimes discouraged from participating in higher level mathematics and science. Students, too, may share and convey cultural expectations that proscribe the participation of girls in some classes (Schofield et al., 1990).

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BOX 6.3 Talking in Class

A speech-language pathologist working in an Inuit school (in northern Canada) asked a principal—who was not an Inuit—to compile a list of children who had speech and language problems in the school. The list contained a third of the students in the school, and next to several names the principal wrote, “Does not talk in class.” The speech-language pathologist consulted a local Inuit teacher for help determining how each child functioned in his or her native language. She looked at the names and said, “Well raised Inuit children should not talk in class. They should be learning by looking

When the speech-language pathologist asked that teacher about one toddler she was studying who was very talkative and seemed to the non-Inuit researcher to be very bright, the teacher said: “Do you think he might have a learning problem? Some of these children who don’t have such high intelligence have trouble stopping themselves. They don’t know when to stop talking” (Crago, 1988:219).

Classroom norms can also encourage modes of participation that may be unfamiliar to some students. For example, some groups rely on learning by observation and listening and then becoming involved in ongoing activities; school-like forms of talking may be unfamiliar for the children whose community has only recently included schools (Rogoff et al., 1993); see Box 6.3 .

The sense of community in classrooms is also affected by grading practices, and these can have positive or negative effects depending on the students. For example, Navajo high school students do not treat tests and grades as competitive events the way that Anglo students do (Deyhle and Margonis, 1995). An Anglo high school counselor reported that Navajo parents complained about their children being singled out when the counselor started a “high achiever” bulletin board and wanted to put up the pictures of students with B averages or better. The counselor “compromised” by putting up happy stickers with the students’ names on them. A Navajo student, staring at the board, said “The board embarrasses us, to be stuck out like that” (Deyhle and Margonis, 1995:28).

More broadly, competition among students for teacher attention, approval, and grades is a commonly used motivator in U.S. schools. And in some situations, competition may create situations that impede learning. This is especially so if individual competition is at odds with a community ethic of individuals’ contributing their strengths to the community (Suina and Smolkin, 1994).

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An emphasis on community is also imortant when attempting to borrow successful educational practices from other countries. For example, Japanese teachers spend considerable time working with the whole class, and they frequently ask students who have made errors to share their thinking with the rest of the class. This can be very valuable because it leads to discussions that deepen the understanding of everyone in the class. However, this practice works only because Japanese teachers have developed a classroom culture in which students are skilled at learning from one another and respect the fact that an analysis of errors is fruitful for learning (Hatano and Inagaki, 1996). Japanese students value listening, so they learn from large class discussions even if they do not have many chances to participate. The culture of American classrooms is often very different—many emphasize the importance of being right and contributing by talking. Teaching and learning must be viewed from the perspective of the overall culture of the society and its relationship to the norms of the classrooms. To simply attempt to import one or two Japanese teaching techniques into American classrooms may not produce the desired results.

The sense of community in a school also appears to be strongly affected by the adults who work in that environment. As Barth (1988) states:

The relationship among adults who live in a school has more to do with the character and quality of the school and with the accomplishments of the students than any other factor.

Studies by Bray (1998) and Talbert and McLaughlin (1993) emphasize the importance of teacher learning communities. We say more about this in Chapter 8 .

Connections to the Broader Community

An analysis of learning environments from the perspective of community also includes a concern for connections between the school environment and the broader community, including homes, community centers, after-school programs, and businesses. Chapters 3 , 4 , and 5 showed that learning takes time; ideally, what is learned in school can be connected to out-of-school learning and vice versa. Often, however, this ideal is not reached. As John Dewey (1916) noted long ago:

From the standpoint of the child, the great waste in school comes from his inability to utilize the experience he gets outside…while on the other hand, he is unable to apply in daily life what he is learning in school. That is the isolation of the school—its isolation from life.

The importance of connecting the school with outside learning activities can be appreciated by considering Figure 6.3 , which shows the percentage of time during a typical school year that students spend in school, sleeping,

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and engaged in other activities (see Bransford et al., 2000). The percentage of time spent in school is comparatively small. If students spend one-third of their nonsleeping time outside of school watching television, this means that they spend more time watching television in a year than they spend in school. (We say more about television and learning in the next section.)

A key environment for learning is the family. Even when family members do not focus consciously on instructional roles, they provide resources for children’s learning, activities in which learning occurs, and connections to community (Moll, 1986a, b, 1990). Children also learn from the attitudes of family members toward skills and values of schooling.

The success of the family as a learning environment, especially in children’s early years (see Chapter 4 ), has provided inspiration and guidance for some of the changes recommended in schools. The phenomenal development of children from birth to age 4 or 5 is generally supported by family interactions in which children learn by engaging with and observing others in shared endeavors. Conversations and other interactions that occur around events of interest with trusted and skilled adult and child companions are especially powerful environments for children’s learning. Many of the recommendations for changes in schools can be seen as extensions of the learning activities that occur within families. In addition, recommendations

FIGURES 6.3 Comparison of time spent in school, home and community, and sleep. Percentages were calculated using 180 school days each year, and each school day was estimated to be 6.5 hours in length.

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to include families in classroom activities and planning hold promise of bringing together two powerful systems for supporting children’s learning.

Children participate in many other institutions outside their homes that can foster learning. Some of these institutions have learning as part of their goals, including many after-school programs, organizations such as Boy and Girl Scouts and 4-H Clubs, museums, and religious groups. Others make learning more incidental, but learning takes place nevertheless (see McLaughlin, 1990, on youth clubs; Griffin and Cole, 1984, on the Fifth Dimension Program).

Connections to experts outside of school can also have a positive influence on in-school learning because they provide opportunities for students to interact with parents and other people who take an interest in what students are doing. It can be very motivating both to students and teachers to have opportunities to share their work with others. Opportunities to prepare for these events helps teachers raise standards because the consequences go beyond mere scores on a test (e.g., Brown and Campione, 1994, 1996; Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt, in press b).

The idea of outside audiences who present challenges (complete with deadlines) has been incorporated into a number of instructional programs (e.g., Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt, 1997; Wiske, 1997). Working to prepare for outsiders provides motivation that helps teachers maintain student interest. In addition, teachers and students develop a better sense of community as they prepare to face a common challenge. Students are also motivated to prepare for outside audiences who do not come to the classroom but will see their projects. Preparing exhibits for museums represents an excellent example (see Collins et al., 1991). New technologies that enhance the ability to connect classrooms to others in the school, to parents, business leaders, college students, content area experts, and others around the world are discussed in Chapter 9 .

TELEVISION

For better or for worse, most children spent a considerable amount of time watching television; it has played an increasingly prominent role in children’s development over the past 50 years. Children watch a great deal of television before entering school, and television viewing continues throughout life. In fact, many students spend more hours watching television than attending school. Parents want their children to learn from television; at the same time they are concerned about what they are learning from the programs they watch (Greenfield, 1984).

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Watching Different Kinds of Programs

Television programming for children ranges from educational to purely entertaining (see Wright and Huston, 1995). And there are different ways of watching programs—a child may watch in isolation or with an adult. Furthermore, just as in domains like chess, physics, or teaching (see Chapter 2 ), people’s existing knowledge and beliefs affect what they notice, understand, and remember from viewing television (Newcomb and Collins, 1979). The same program can have different effects depending on who is watching and whether the viewing is a solo activity or part of an interactive group. An important distinction is whether the program is intended to be educational or not.

One group of preschoolers aged 2–4 and first-grade students aged 6–7 watched about 7–8 hours of noneducational programming per week; the preschool children also watched an average of 2 hours of educational programming per week, and the older students watched 1 hour. Despite the low ratio of educational to noneducational viewing, the educational programs seemed to have positive benefits. The 2- to 4-year-old preschoolers performed better than non-viewers of educational programs on tests of school readiness, reading, mathematics, and vocabulary as much as 3 years later (Wright and Huston, 1995). Specifically, viewing educational programs was a positive predictor of letter-word knowledge, vocabulary size, and school readiness on standardized achievement tests. For the older students, the viewing of educational programs was related to better performance on tests of reading comprehension and teachers’ judgments of school adjustment in first and second grades, compared with children who were infrequent viewers. Overall, the effects of television viewing were not as widespread for the older students, and there were fewer significant effects for the older children than for the preschoolers. It is important to note that the effects of watching educational programs were evident “even when initial language skills, family education, income, and the quality of the home environment are taken into account” (Wright and Huston, 1995:22).

Effects on Beliefs and Attitudes

Television also provides images and role models that can affect how children view themselves, how they see others, attitudes about what academic subjects they should be interested in, and other topics related to person perception. These images can have both positive and negative effects. For example, when 8- to 14-year-olds watched programs designed to show positive attributes of children around the world, they were less likely to say that children from their own country were more interesting or more intelligent (O’Brien, 1981), and they began to see more similarities among

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people around the world (Greenfield, 1984). And children who watched episodes of Sesame Street featuring handicapped children had more positive feelings toward children with disabilities.

However, children can also misinterpret programs about people from different cultures, depending on what they already know (Newcomb and Collins, 1979). Stereotyping represents a powerful effect of watching television that is potentially negative. Children bring sex role stereotypes with them to school that derive from television programs and commercials (Dorr, 1982).

As a powerful visual medium, television creates stereotypes even when there is no intent to sell an image. But experimental studies indicate that such stereotyping effects decrease with children as young as 5 if adults offer critiques of the stereotypic portrayals as the children watch programs (Dorr, 1982). Thus, entertainment programs can educate in positive ways and learned information can be extended through adult guidance and commentary.

In sum, television has an impact on children’s learning that must be taken seriously. But the medium is neither inherently beneficial nor harmful. The content that students watch, and how they watch it, has important effects on what they learn. Especially significant is the fact that informative or educational programming has been shown to have beneficial effects on school achievement and that a preponderance of non-educational, entertainment viewing can have negative effects. Furthermore, the benefits of informative viewing occur despite the fact that the ratio of young children’s viewing tends to be 7:1 in favor of entertainment television. These findings support the wisdom of continued attempts to develop and study television programs that can help students acquire the kinds of knowledge, skills, and attitudes that support their learning in school.

THE IMPORTANCE OF ALIGNMENT

In the beginning of this chapter we noted that the four perspectives on learning environments (the degree to which they are learner, knowledge, assessment, and community centered) would be discussed separately but ultimately needed to be aligned in ways that mutually support one another. Alignment is as important for schools as for organizations in general (e.g., Covey, 1990). A key aspect of task analysis (see Chapter 2 ) is the idea of aligning goals for learning with what is taught, how it is taught, and how it is assessed (both formatively and summatively). Without this alignment, it is difficult to know what is being learned. Students may be learning valuable information, but one cannot tell unless there is alignment between what they are learning and the assessment of that learning. Similarly, students may be learning things that others don’t value unless curricula and assess-

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ments are aligned with the broad learning goals of communities (Lehrer and Shumow, 1997).

A systems approach to promote coordination among activities is needed to design effective learning environments (Brown and Campione, 1996). Many schools have checklists of innovative practices, such as the use of collaborative learning, teaching for understanding and problem solving, and using formative assessment. Often, however, these activities are not coordinated with one another. Teaching for understanding and problem solving may be “what we do on Fridays”; collaborative learning may be used to promote memorization of fact-based tests; and formative assessments may focus on skills that are totally disconnected from the rest of the students’ curriculum. In addition, students may be given opportunities to study collaboratively for tests yet be graded on a curve so that they compete with one another rather than trying to meet particular performance standards. In these situations, activities in the classroom are not aligned.

Activities within a particular classroom may be aligned yet fail to fit with the rest of the school. And a school as a whole needs to have a consistent alignment. Some schools communicate a consistent policy about norms and expectations for conduct and achievement. Others send mixed messages. For example, teachers may send behavior problems to the principal, who may inadvertently undermine the teacher by making light of the students’ behavior. Similarly, schedules may or may not be made flexible in order to accommodate in-depth inquiry, and schools may or may not be adjusted to minimize disruptions, including nonacademic “pullout” programs and even the number of classroom interruptions made by a principal’s overzealous use of the classroom intercom. Overall, different activities within a school may or may not compete with one another and impede overall progress. When principals and teachers work together to define a common vision for their entire school, learning can improve (e.g., Barth, 1988, 1991; Peterson et al., 1995).

Activities within schools must also be aligned with the goals and assessment practices of the community. Ideally, teachers’ goals for learning fit with the curriculum they teach and the school’s goals, which in turn fit the goals implicit in the tests of accountability used by the school system. Often these factors are out of alignment. Effective change requires a simultaneous consideration of all these factors (e.g., Bransford et al., 1998). The new scientific findings about learning provide a framework for guiding systemic change.

CONCLUSION

The goals and expectations for schooling have changed quite dramatically during the past century, and new goals suggest the need to rethink

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such questions as what is taught, how it is taught, and how students are assessed. We emphasized that research on learning does not provide a recipe for designing effective learning environments, but it does support the value of asking certain kinds of questions about the design of learning environments.

Four perspectives on the design of learning environments—the degree to which they are student centered, knowledge centered, assessment centered, and community centered—are important in designing these environments.

A focus on the degree to which environments are learner centered is consistent with the strong body of evidence suggesting that learners’ use their current knowledge to construct new knowledge and that what they know and believe at the moment affects how they interpret new information. Sometimes learners’ current knowledge supports new learning, sometimes it hampers learning: effective instruction begins with what learners bring to the setting; this includes cultural practices and beliefs as well as knowledge of academic content.

Learner-centered environments attempt to help students make connections between their previous knowledge and their current academic tasks. Parents are especially good at helping their children make connections. Teachers have a harder time because they do not share the life experiences of each of their students. Nevertheless, there are ways to systematically become familiar with each student’s special interests and strengths.

Effective environments must also be knowledge centered. It is not sufficient only to attempt to teach general problem solving and thinking skills; the ability to think and solve problems requires well-organized knowledge that is accessible in appropriate contexts. An emphasis on being knowledge centered raises a number of questions, such as the degree to which instruction begins with students’ current knowledge and skills, rather than simply presents new facts about the subject matter. While young students are capable of grasping more complex concepts than was believed previously, those concepts must be presented in ways that are developmentally appropriate. A knowledge-centered perspective on learning environments also highlights the importance of thinking about designs for curricula. To what extent do they help students learn with understanding versus promote the acquisition of disconnected sets of facts and skills? Curricula that emphasize an excessively broad range of subjects run the risk of developing disconnected rather than connected knowledge; they fit well with the idea of a curriculum as being a well-worn path in a road. An alternative metaphor for curriculum is to help students develop interconnected pathways within a discipline so that they “learn their away around in it” and not lose sight of where they are.

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Issues of assessment also represent an important perspective for viewing the design of learning environments. Feedback is fundamental to learning, but opportunities to receive it are often scarce in classrooms. Students may receive grades on tests and essays, but these are summative assessments that occur at the end of projects; also needed are formative assessments that provide students opportunities to revise and hence improve the quality of their thinking and learning. Assessments must reflect the learning goals that define various environments. If the goal is to enhance understanding, it is not sufficient to provide assessments that focus primarily on memory for facts and formulas. Many instructors have changed their approach to teaching after seeing how their students failed to understand seemingly obvious (to the expert) ideas.

The fourth perspective on learning environments involves the degree to which they promote a sense of community. Ideally, students, teachers, and other interested participants share norms that value learning and high standards. Norms such as these increase people’s opportunities to interact, receive feedback, and learn. There are several aspects of community, including the community of the classroom, the school, and the connections between the school and the larger community, including the home. The importance of connected communities becomes clear when one examines the relatively small amount of time spent in school compared to other settings. Activities in homes, community centers, and after-school clubs can have important effects on students’ academic achievement.

Finally, there needs to be alignment among the four perspectives of learning environments. They all have the potential to overlap and mutually influence one another. Issues of alignment appear to be very important for accelerating learning both within and outside of schools.

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★My favourite hobby essay

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Each week, The Sentinel publishes stories we receive to prompts in Kids World and on www.cumberlink.com . This week’s Kids Speak Out prompt was “My favorite hobby is …”

•••

My favorite hobby is football, because you get strong and healthy.

Isaiah

First grade

Broad Street Elementary

•••

My favorite hobby is drawing because I’m good at it. I like to draw because I can draw anything. So when I got a box of crayons from my mom, I went upstairs and started drawing. I drew a dog, a cat, and people. Then my room was full of pictures that I drew.

Ana Potter, 8

Second grade

St. Patrick School

•••

My favorite hobby is crafts. I like drawing and lots of other things.

Madeline Stutzman, 9

Fourth grade

Fishing Creek Elementary

•••

My favorite hobby is playing video games, because it’s like if you were in a world of games. The video game’s name is Xbox One. I love that video game so much. I really like a game called “Destiny.” You can fight robots and aliens. I hope you can play it too.

Liam Burns, 7

Second grade

St. Patrick School

•••

My favorite hobby is singing and dancing. I like to sing Ariana Grande songs and dance at the studio. My dance teacher is Mr. David. I like to sing and dance in front of my parents, sister and my nanny and pappy.

Nayeli Jones, 8

Third grade

East Pennsboro Elementary

•••

My favorite hobby is collecting Pokémon cards and playing outside. When I am outside, I play at the park. My friends and I play sandman and tag. It is really fun to play outside and to collect Pokémon cards. You should really go outside because it is fresh air.

Evan MacCuish, 7

Second grade

St. Patrick School

•••

My favorite hobby is playing the violin because it is my favorite thing to do all the time. I like to play my violin. I learn how to the play the violin. The first time I got it, it was at Christmas. I asked Santa for my violin, and I got it for Christmas. I play my violin every day and every time I do it, it is my favorite.

Emma Wagner

Sixth grade

New Cumberland Middle School

•••

My favorite hobby is playing kickball outside with my friends on a hot summer day.

Conley Dunn, 9

Fourth grade

Fishing Creek Elementary

•••

My favorite hobby is collecting rocks. I love collecting rocks. I have smooth rocks, hard rocks, different colored rocks, bumpy rocks, sharp rocks and shiny rocks, and some rocks are two colors. Everywhere I go, I get a rock and I keep it in my very own chest with lock and key. I have lots of my very own rocks.

Evan Zinck,9

Third grade

East Pennsboro Elementary

•••

My favorite hobby is exercising. I can do 55 sit-ups and 67 push-ups. My dad can do 157 sit-ups and 188 push-ups. My dad can do much more sit-ups than push-ups. My brother is funny doing sit-ups. He lies down and lifts up his hips. He does two different sit-ups. The other one is more funny. He stands up and bows. It’s funny because he bends his knees. I love watching people do push-ups.

Jocelyn Zerance, 7

Second grade

St. Patrick School

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Hobby

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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For other uses, see Hobby (disambiguation) .
“Pastime” redirects here. For the film, see Pastime (film) . For the novel, see Pastime (novel) .

Hobby: Collecting Seashells

The origin of the word hobby in Tristram Shandy , a characters’ “hobby-horses”, or particular obsessions

A hobby is a regular activity that is done for enjoyment, typically during one’s leisure time. Hobbies can include collecting themed items and objects, engaging in creative and artistic pursuits, playing sports, or pursuing other amusements. A list of hobbies is lengthy and always changing as interests and fashions change. By continually participating in a particular hobby, one can acquire substantial skills and knowledge in that area. Engagement in hobbies has increased since the late nineteenth century as workers have more leisure time and advancing production and technology have provided more support for leisure activities. Hobbies tend to follow trends in society, for example stamp collecting was popular during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries as postal systems were the main means of communication, while video games are more popular nowadays following technological advances.

Hobbyists are a part of a wider group of people engaged in leisure pursuits where the boundaries of each group overlap to some extent. The Serious Leisure Perspective [1] groups hobbyists with amateurs and volunteers and identifies three broad groups of leisure activity with hobbies being found mainly in the Serious leisure category.

a. Casual leisure is intrinsically rewarding, short-lived, pleasurable activity requiring little or no preparation.

b. Serious leisure is the systematic pursuit of an amateur, hobbyist, or volunteer that is substantial, rewarding and results in a sense of accomplishment.

c. Project-based leisure is a short-term often a one-off project that is rewarding. [2]

Contents

  • 1 Etymology
  • 2 History
  • 3 Hobbies and related leisure activities
  • 4 Types of hobbies
    • 4.1 Collecting
    • 4.2 Making and tinkering
      • 4.2.1 Gardening
      • 4.2.2 Tinkering
    • 4.3 Activity Participation
      • 4.3.1 Outdoor recreation
    • 4.4 Liberal arts pursuits
    • 4.5 Sports and games
  • 5 Significant achievements by hobbyists and amateurs
  • 6 See also
  • 7 References
  • 8 External links

Etymology[ edit ]

Writing articles for Wikipedia is a hobby for some people.

In the 16th century, the term “hobyn” had the meaning of “small horse and pony”. The term ” hobby horse ” was documented in a 1557 payment confirmation for a “Hobbyhorse” from Reading, England. [3] The item, originally called a “Tourney Horse”, was made of a wooden or basketwork frame with an artificial tail and head. It was designed for a child to mimic riding a real horse . By 1816 the derivative , “hobby”, was introduced into the vocabulary of a number of English people. [4] Over the course of subsequent centuries, the term came to be associated with recreation and leisure . In the 17th century, the term was used in a pejorative sense by suggesting that a hobby was a childish pursuit, however, in the 18th century with a more industrial society and more leisure time, hobbies took on greater respectability [5] A hobby is also called a pastime, derived from the use of hobbies to pass the time. A hobby became an activity that is practised regularly and usually with some worthwhile purpose. [6] Hobbies are usually, but not always, practised primarily for interest and enjoyment, rather than financial reward.

History[ edit ]

The origins pursuits that others thought somewhat childish or trivial. However, as early as 1676 Sir Matthew Hale, in Contemplations Moral and Divine, wrote “Almost every person hath some hobby horse or other wherein he prides himself.” [7] He was acknowledging that a “hobby horse” produces a legitimate sense of pride. By the mid 18th century there was a flourishing of hobbies as working people had more regular hours of work and greater leisure time. They spent more time to pursue interests that brought them satisfaction. [8] However, there was concern that these working people might not use their leisure time in worthwhile pursuits. “The hope of weaning people away from bad habits by the provision of counter-attractions came to the fore in the 1830s, and has rarely waned since. Initially the bad habits were perceived to be of a sensual and physical nature, and the counter attractions, or perhaps more accurately alternatives, deliberately cultivated rationality and the intellect.” [9] The flourishing book and magazine trade of the day encouraged worthwhile hobbies and pursuits. The burgeoning manufacturing trade made materials used in hobbies cheap and was responsive to the changing interests of hobbyists.

The English have been identified as enthusiastic hobbyists, as George Orwell observed. “[A]nother English characteristic which is so much a part of us that we barely notice it … is the addiction to hobbies and spare-time occupations, the privateness of English life. We are a nation of flower-lovers, but also a nation of stamp-collectors, pigeon-fanciers, amateur carpenters, coupon-snippers, darts-players, crossword-puzzle fans. All the culture that is most truly native centres round things which even when they are communal are not official—the pub, the football match, the back garden, the fireside and the ‘nice cup of tea’.” [10]

Deciding what to include in a list of hobbies provokes debate because it is difficult to decide which pleasurable pass-times can also be described as hobbies. During the 20th century the term hobby usually brought to mind activities such as stamp collecting, embroidery, knitting, painting, woodwork, photography, but not activities like listening to music, watching television or reading. These latter activities bring pleasure but lack the sense of achievement that is usually associated with a hobby. They are usually not structured, organised pursuits, as most hobbies are. The pleasure of a hobby is usually associated with making something of value or achieving something of value. “Such leisure is socially valorised precisely because it produces feelings of satisfaction with something that looks very much like work but that is done of its own sake.” [6] “Hobbies are a contradiction: they take work and turn it into leisure, and take leisure and turn it into work.” [11]

Hobbies and related leisure activities[ edit ]

The terms amateur and hobbyist are often used interchangeably. Stebbins [1] has a framework which distinguishes the terms has a useful categorisation of leisure in which he separates casual leisure from serious Leisure. He describes serious leisure as undertaken by amateurs, hobbyists and volunteers. Amateurs engage in pursuits that have a professional counterpart, such as playing an instrument or astronomy. Hobbyists engage in five broad types of activity: collecting, making and tinkering (like embroidery and car restoration), activity participation (like fishing and singing), sports and games, and liberal-arts hobbies (like languages, cuisine, literature). Volunteers commit to organisations where they work as guides, counsellors, gardeners and so on. The separation of the amateur from the hobbyist is because the amateur has the ethos of the professional practitioner as a guide to practice. An amateur clarinetist is conscious of the role and procedures of a professional clarinetist.

A large proportion of hobbies are mainly solitary in nature. [12] However, individual pursuit of a hobby often includes club memberships, organised sharing of products and regular communication between participants. For many hobbies there is an important role in being in touch with fellow hobbyists. Some hobbies are of communal nature, like choral singing and volunteering.

During the 20th century there was extensive research into the important role that play has in human development. While most evident in childhood, play continues throughout life for many adults in the form of games, hobbies, and sport. [13]

The type of hobbies that people engage in changes with time. In the 21st century the video game industry is very large hobby involving millions of kids and adults in various forms of ‘play’. Stamp collecting has declined along with the decline in the importance of the postal system. Woodwork and knitting have declined as hobbies as manufactured goods provide cheap alternatives for handmade goods. Through the internet an online community has become a hobby for many people; sharing advice, information and support, and in some cases, allowing a traditional hobby, such as collecting , to flourish and support trading in a new environment.

People who engage in hobbies have an interest in and time to pursue them. Children have been an important group of hobbyists because they are enthusiastic for collecting, making and exploring, in addition to this they have the leisure time that allows them to pursue those hobbies. The growth in hobbies occurred during industrialisation which gave workers set time for leisure. During the Depression there was an increase in the participation in hobbies because the unemployed had the time and a desire to be purposefully occupied. [14] Hobbies are often pursued with an increased interest by retired people because they have the time and seek the intellectual and physical stimulation a hobby provides. Studies of ageing and society support the value of hobbies in healthy ageing.

Types of hobbies[ edit ]

For a more comprehensive list, see List of hobbies .

Hobbies are a diverse set of activities and it is difficult to categorize them in a logical manner. The following categorization of hobbies was developed by Stebbins. [2]

Collecting
  • Collectable
  • Antique
  • Antiquities
Terms
  • Ephemera
  • Premium
  • Prize
  • Souvenir
  • Special edition
Topics
  • List of collectables
  • List of hobbies
  • v
  • t
  • e

Collecting[ edit ]

This section does not cite any sources . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (November 2017) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message )
Main article: Collecting

Collecting includes seeking, locating, acquiring, organizing, cataloging, displaying and storing. Collecting is appealing to many people due to their interest in a particular subject and a desire to categorise and make order out of complexity. Some collectors are generalists, accumulating items from countries of the world. Others focus on a subtopic within their area of interest, perhaps 19th century postage stamps, milk bottle labels from Sussex, or Mongolian harnesses and tack.

text

A stamp album used in stamp collecting .

Collecting is an ancient hobby, with the list of coin collectors showing Caesar Augustus as one. Sometimes collectors have turned their hobby into a business, becoming commercial dealers that trade in the items being collected.

An alternative to collecting physical objects is collecting records of events of a particular kind. Examples include train spotting , bird-watching , aircraft spotting , railfans , and any other form of systematic recording a particular phenomenon. The recording form can be written, photographic, online, etc.

Making and tinkering[ edit ]

This section does not cite any sources . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (November 2017) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message )

Scale modeling is making a replica of a real life object in a smaller scale and dates back to prehistoric times with small clay “dolls” and other children’s toys that have been found near known populated areas. The Persians , Greeks , and Romans took the form to a greater depth during their years of domination of the Western World, using scale replicas of enemy fortifications , coastal defense lines, and other geographic fixtures to plan battles.

At the turn of the Industrial Age and through the 1920s, families could afford things such as electric trains , wind-up toys (typically boats or cars) and the increasingly valuable tin toy soldiers.

Model engineering refers to building functioning machinery in metal, such as internal combustion motors and live steam models or locomotives. This is a demanding hobby that requires a multitude of large and expensive tools, such as lathes and mills . This hobby originated in the United Kingdom in the late 19th century, later spreading and flourishing in the mid-20th century. Due to the expense and space required, it is becoming rare.

Scale modeling as we know it today became popular shortly after World War II . Before 1946, children as well as adults were content in carving and shaping wooden replicas from block wood kits, often depicting enemy aircraft to help with identification in case of an invasion.

A coffee-table sized model railroad

With the advent of modern plastics, the amount of skill required to get the basic shape accurately shown for any given subject was lessened, making it easier for people of all ages to begin assembling replicas in varying scales. Superheroes, aeroplanes, boats, cars, tanks, artillery, and even figures of soldiers became quite popular subjects to build, paint and display. Although almost any subject can be found in almost any scale, there are common scales for such miniatures which remain constant today.

3D Printing is a relatively new technology and already a major hobby as the cost of printers has fallen sharply. It is a good example of how hobbyists quickly engage with new technologies, communicate with one another and become producers related to their former hobby. 3D modeling is the process of making mathematical representations of three dimensional items and is an aspect of 3D printing.

Dressmaking has been a major hobby up until the late 20th century, in order to make cheap clothes, but also as a creative design and craft challenge. It has been reduced by the low cost manufactured clothes.

Cooking is for some people an interest, a hobby, a challenge and a source of significant satisfaction. For many other people it is a job, a chore, a duty, like cleaning. In the early 21st century the importance of cooking as a hobby was demonstrated by the high popularity of competitive television cooking programs.

Gardening[ edit ]

This section does not cite any sources . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (November 2017) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message )
Main article: Gardening

Gardening

Residential gardening most often takes place in or about one’s own residence, in a space referred to as the garden. Although a garden typically is located on the land near a residence, it may also be located on a roof , in an atrium , on a balcony , in a windowbox , or on a patio or vivarium .

Gardening also takes place in non-residential green areas, such as parks, public or semi-public gardens ( botanical gardens or zoological gardens ), amusement and theme parks , along transportation corridors, and around tourist attractions and hotels . In these situations, a staff of gardeners or groundskeepers maintains the gardens.

A variety of flowers and vegetables in an indoor garden.

Indoor gardening is growing houseplants within a residence or building, in a conservatory , or in a greenhouse . Indoor gardens are sometimes incorporated into air conditioning or heating systems.

Water gardening is growing plants that have adapted to pools and ponds. Bog gardens are also considered a type of water garden. These all require special conditions and considerations. A simple water garden may consist solely of a tub containing the water and plant(s).

Container gardening is concerned with growing plants in containers that are placed above the ground.

Tinkering[ edit ]

This section does not cite any sources . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (November 2017) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message )

Tinkering is ‘dabbling’ with the making process, often applied to the hobby of tinkering with car repairs, and various kinds of restoration: of furniture, antique cars , etc. It also applies to household tinkering: repairing a wall, laying a pathway, etc.

Making and Tinkering hobbies also include higher-end projects like building or restoring a car, or building a computer from individual parts, like CPUs and SSDs.
For computer savvy do-it-yourself hobbyists, CNC (Computer Numerical Control) machining is also popular. A CNC machine can be assembled and programmed to make different parts from wood or metal.

Activity Participation[ edit ]

Outdoor recreation[ edit ]

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Main article: Outdoor recreation

Outdoor pursuits are the group of activities which occur outdoors . These hobbies include gardening, hill walking , hiking , backpacking , cycling, canoeing , climbing , caving , fishing, hunting , wildlife viewing (as birdwatching ) and engaging in watersports and snowsports .

Depending on an individual’s desired level of adrenaline, outdoors experiences are considered one type of hobby. While many enjoy an adrenaline rush or just an escape from reality, outdoor recreational activities can also be an extremely effective medium in education and team building . [15]

As interest increases, so has the desire for commercial outdoor pursuits. Outdoor recreational supply stores have opened in large numbers and are thriving, as have outdoor pursuit journalism and magazines, both on paper and the Internet.

The increased accessibility of outdoor pursuit resources has been the source of some negative publicity over the years, with complaints of the destruction of landscape . An example is the destruction of hillsides as footpaths are eroded due to an excessive number of visitors.

Liberal arts pursuits[ edit ]

Main article: Liberal arts education
Main article: The arts

An amateur magician performing.

Many hobbies involve performances by the hobbyist, such as singing, acting, juggling , magic , dancing, playing a musical instrument , martial arts and other performing arts .

Some hobbies may result in an end product. Examples of this would be woodworking, photography, moviemaking , jewelry making , software projects such as Photoshopping and home music or video production , making bracelets , artistic projects such as drawing, painting, writing…, Cosplay (design, creation, and wearing a costume based on an already existing creative property), creating models out of card stock or paper – called papercraft . Many of these fall under the category visual arts .

Reading , books, ebooks , magazines, comics, or newspapers, along with browsing the internet is a common hobby, and one that can trace its origins back hundreds of years. A love of literature, later in life, may be sparked by an interest in reading children’s literature as a child. Many of these fall under the category literary arts .

Sports and games[ edit ]

Main article: Sport
Main article: Game

Stebbins [2] makes a distinction between an amateur sports person playing a sport that has a professional equivalent such as football or tennis and a hobbyist playing a less formal sport or game that are rule bound but have no professional equivalent like deck tennis and long distance trekking. Amateur sport ranges from very informal play to highly competitive practice.

Evidence suggests that playing sports helps improve physical and mental health. [16]

Significant achievements by hobbyists and amateurs[ edit ]

There have been many instances where hobbyists and amateurs have achieved significant discoveries and developments. These are a small sample.

  • Amateur astronomers have explored the skies for centuries and there is a long list of Notable amateur astronomers who have made major discoveries.
  • A substantial amount of early scientific research came from the amateur activities of the wealthy, such as Antoine Lavoisier ‘s contributions to the science of chemistry . [17] At that time there were few professional scientists and little formal study in the area. Another example is the experimentation in electricity that Benjamin Franklin undertook that resulted in his invention of the lightning rod . [18]
  • Open source is a development model using the internet to cooperate on projects. It is most notable in the development of software and widely used software has been developed and maintained by large numbers of people programming collectively. Many of these contributors are professional programmers, but a proportion are home-based amateurs, often with high level expertise. Open source contributes to many other projects, including those of the Wikimedia Foundation and notably the Wikipedia where thousands of hobbyists have built the most used reference source in the world. The highly significant Linux computer operating system began as a student’s hobby by Linus Torvalds . Linux is Linus plus X representing Unix upon which it was based.
  • While the general public was not aware of nature observation which was formally conducted as field research , during the 1930s, practitioners of the hobby went on to become the pioneers of the conservation movement that flourished in the UK from 1965 onwards. Eventually, it became a global political movement within a generation’s time span.[ citation needed ]

See also[ edit ]

  • Avocation
  • Community of interest
  • List of hobbies
  • Personal life
  • Play (activity)

References[ edit ]

  1. ^ a b “The Serious Leisure Perspective (SLP)” . The Serious Leisure Perspective (SLP). Retrieved 2016-02-18.

  2. ^ a b c Stebbins, Robert (2015). Serious Leisure – A Perspective for Our Time, Transaction Publishers, 2015,. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.
  3. ^ The Phrase Finder (1996–2012). “Hobby-horse” . The Phrase Finder. Gary Martin. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
  4. ^ Douglas Harper (2001–2012). “hobby” . Online Etymology Dictionary. Douglas Harper. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
  5. ^ Gelber S M. ‘’Hobbies: leisure and the Culture of Work in America’’ Columbia University Press, 1999, p. 11.
  6. ^ a b Gelber S M. ‘’Hobbies: leisure and the Culture of Work in America’’ Columbia University Press, 1999, p. 12.
  7. ^ Sir Matthew Hale (1676). Contemplations moral and divine . Printed by William Godbid, for William Shrowbury at the Bible in Duke-Lane, and John Leigh at the Blew Bell Fleet Street near Chancery-lane. p. 201.
  8. ^ Gelber S M. ‘’Hobbies: leisure and the Culture of Work in America’’ Columbia University Press, 1999, p. 3.
  9. ^ Thomson F M L. ‘’The Cambridge Social History of Britain, 1750–1950 Vol 2’’. Cambridge University Press, 1990, p. 327
  10. ^ Orwell, George (28 February 1941). “The Lion and the Unicorn: Socialism and the English Genius” . England Your England.
  11. ^ Gelber S M. ‘’Hobbies: leisure and the Culture of Work in America’’ Columbia University Press, 1999, p. 23.
  12. ^ Gelber S M. ‘’Hobbies: leisure and the Culture of Work in America’’ Columbia University Press, 1999, p. 28.
  13. ^ Carlisle R P Ed, ‘’Encyclopedia of Play in Today’s Society Vol 1’’, SAGE Publications, 2009 page x
  14. ^ Gelber, Steven. “A Job You Can’t Lose: Work and Hobbies in the Great Depression”. Oxford University Press. JSTOR   3788855 .
  15. ^ “6 Ways to Find a New Hobby” . Thrifty Crates. Thrifty Crates. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
  16. ^ “Analysis of health and educational benefits of sport and culture” . gov.uk. Retrieved 18 August 2015.
  17. ^ “Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier” . Science History Institute. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  18. ^ Turner 2014 , p. 233.

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      Posted by: | on December 8, 2018

      ★affirmative action essays

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      Topics in Paper
      • Affirmative Action
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        affirmative action



        4 Pages
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                     In reading the many articles in the Affirmative Action packet and viewing the film "Beyond Black and White: Affirmative Action in America" one can see many views on the subject. Both sides of affirmative action seem to be the right one until the other viewpoint is looked at. I, myself, if had to pick pro or con, would be torn between the two, because to me it seems like both point of views have a justifiable cause and make a reasonable argument.
                    
        First, in discussing the pro side of affirmative action there are many positive and meaningful reasons as to why this policy should exist. Affirmative action is defined as "vigorous efforts to bring qualified people of color into jobs from which they have previously been excluded." It was designed to "take positive steps to correct an imbalance in traditionally segregated job categories and to ensure an equal representation of all groups in the workforce." Affirmative action brings diversity into colleges and workplaces, which we need to help our current racial problems in America. If more minorities, including blacks and women are given opportunities to get further ahead than they could themselves in our system, then this would better the economy and overall improve the well-being of all Americans.
                    
        Another good point made on the pro side of affirmative action is that by offering a certain number of jobs to minorities only, in turn creates diversity within the workplace. By moving minorities into the mainstream of society, the stigmas and racial prejudices that people have will soon be eliminated by the simple fact of interaction. The more people interact with members of the opposite race or sex, the less stereotyping will occur.
                    
        Different viewpoints are required by colleges and workplaces in order to appeal to and deliver the type of equal opportunity atmospheres desired by Americans. In order to do this comp
                    

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          4 Pages
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                       In reading the many articles in the Affirmative Action packet and viewing the film "Beyond Black and White: Affirmative Action in America" one can see many views on the subject. Both sides of affirmative action seem to be the right one until the other viewpoint is looked at. I, myself, if had to pick pro or con, would be torn between the two, because to me it seems like both point of views have a justifiable cause and make a reasonable argument.
                      
          First, in discussing the pro side of affirmative action there are many positive and meaningful reasons as to why this policy should exist. Affirmative action is defined as "vigorous efforts to bring qualified people of color into jobs from which they have previously been excluded." It was designed to "take positive steps to correct an imbalance in traditionally segregated job categories and to ensure an equal representation of all groups in the workforce." Affirmative action brings diversity into colleges and workplaces, which we need to help our current racial problems in America. If more minorities, including blacks and women are given opportunities to get further ahead than they could themselves in our system, then this would better the economy and overall improve the well-being of all Americans.
                      
          Another good point made on the pro side of affirmative action is that by offering a certain number of jobs to minorities only, in turn creates diversity within the workplace. By moving minorities into the mainstream of society, the stigmas and racial prejudices that people have will soon be eliminated by the simple fact of interaction. The more people interact with members of the opposite race or sex, the less stereotyping will occur.
                      
          Different viewpoints are required by colleges and workplaces in order to appeal to and deliver the type of equal opportunity atmospheres desired by Americans. In order to do this comp
                      

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          MegaEssays. “affirmative action.” MegaEssays.com. MegaEssays.com, (December 31, 1969). Web. 12 Oct. 2018.
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          Posted by: | on December 7, 2018

          ★Summary and Analysis of The Alchemist: Based on the Book by Paulo …

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          Book Talk: The Alchemist

          Jennifer Mendez Literary Analysis

          Paulo Coelho , the famous author of The Pilgrimage and Aleph, is a prime example of what happens when you don’t give up. Once upon a time, to overcome his procrastination, he swore he’d write a novel if he saw a white feather. The day he saw one in the window of a shop, he began writing. Fast-forward several years, and he’s published 30 books.

          This month, we’ll be covering his most famous novel— The Alchemist , which is all about following your dreams. As cliche as it sounds, it’s life-changing and magically eye-opening. No other book can change your posture, and encourage self-improvement, quite like this.

          Synopsis

          First published in 1988, The Alchemist is translated from Portuguese. It’s been translated into approximately 70 languages. It is considered to be an allegorical novel, which makes sense, as it is about a boy following his dream.

          A young Andalusian shepherd—Santiago—is quite content with his simple life, but a recurring dream bothers him. It is about a child who tells him of hidden treasure, tucked away in the Egyptian pyramids. This confuses Santiago, so he tells an old, local woman. She tells him it is prophetic, and that he must go “follow his dream.”

          That is when Santiago meets Melchizedek, the King of Salem. This king gives Santiago two stones, Urim and Thummim, in order to interpret omens, and pursue his Personal Legend.

          Taking this as a sure sign that he must seek out the treasure, Santiago makes it to Tangier, in northern Africa. His money is stolen and he almost gives up until he finds a crystal merchant willing to give him work in his shop.

          After eleven months of hard work and money saving, Santiago joins a caravan to Egypt. That’s when he meets an Englishman who studies Alchemy—the process of turning any metal into gold. He claims to have learned it from the alchemist who resides in the pyramids.

          A bit of time goes by, but Santiago eventually meets the alchemist himself. Majestic and powerful, he offers to cross the desert with Santiago, until it is time for him to continue on alone.

          When Santiago finally makes it to the pyramids and digs, he finds nothing at all. Instead, thieves beat him and steal all his money—for the second time. After he tells them of his dream, one of the thieves tells Santiago of his own dream: a treasure hidden in an abandoned church.

          Santiago eventually makes it back to Andalusia, and goes to the church. He digs right where he slept originally, when he first had the dream, and there it was—his treasure.

          Pros

          The Alchemist is one of those books that you simply don’t forget. You could read it in your teens, or at any point in your adult life, and the memory of it would still be there 20, 30 years later. What seems like a simple story is actually much more.

          If readers were to put themselves in the place of Santiago, and substituted the treasure for a calling, or Personal Legend, the message of the novel would begin to show. The King of Salem, the Englishman and the alchemist himself are all mentors. They would be the connections made when first career building. The thieves? Obstacles, like hopelessness and financial difficulty.

          All of these allegories, and the use of the common story every human being shares, even in some small way, makes The Alchemist a relatable story.

          Cons

          The method in which the novel begins is quite simple, with the use of simple language that’s easy to read. This is not a criticism for most, but readers used to complexity of text would be turned off. However, the use of this language can be traced back to two simple reasonings: 1) Santiago is a simple shepherd, so the text is meant to convey that simplicity, and 2) the book is meant to convey its complexity through meaning, rather than language.

          Furthermore, it is a translated novel, so with that comes a certain limited use of detail that would be there in its original language. That being said, the story is not choppy, nor incomplete. In fact, it flows, reads well, and conveys its points effectively.

          Summary

          The Alchemist is a story of the ages, for all ages. It is a tale of turmoil, travel, self-exploration, and success. The objective is not to collect gold, it is to show the readers that gold comes in all forms. Each and every person has a dream they wish they could accomplish. Each and every person wants to pursue something or another.

          Will you seek out your Personal Legend?

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          Deictic Analysis of the book “The Alchemist” by Paolo Coelho.

          Research (PDF Available)  ·  October 2015with813 Reads

          DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.2480.2001

          Carlo Soberano at De La Salle University
          Carlo Soberano
          • De La Salle University

          Abstract
          Deictic Analysis of the book “The Alchemist” by Paolo Coelho.

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          Deictic Analysis of the book “The alchemist”
          by Paolo Coelho.
          Carlo G. Soberano
          1
          Table of Contents
          1.1 Brief Introduction
          Rationale…………………………………………………………………………..4
          Theoretical Framework…………………………………………………………..5
          1.2 Methodology
          Data Description…………………………………………………………………..7
          Data Coding……………………………………………………………………….8
          1.3 Results and Discussion
          Presentation of Data……………………………………………………………….9
          Discussion of Findings…………………………………………………………….54
          1.4 Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………58
          1.5 References……………………………………………………………………………..60
          2
          I. Introduction
          Language is a dynamic field to study which does not only comprise phonology, morphology,
          syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. It also includes the underlying principles of what, how, and
          why should language be learned. Language should be used as effective as possible in order for
          the users to meet their communicative needs (Huang, 2007). Language learning also undergoes
          a process which starts from the very basic cooing and babbling until the organization of words
          and understanding the meaning and the context as far as first language acquisition is concern
          (Yule, 2010). As time goes by, linguists have studied different discipline a language could have
          even the introduction of Pragmatics. According to Yule (2010), pragmatics is a speaker meaning
          where communication does not only depends on understanding the meaning of the words in
          each utterances but also to comprehend the speaker’s point of view. Yule (2010) added that
          pragmatics is understanding the “invisible” meaning of what was said likewise pragmatics does
          not only focus on the structure and semantics of the utterance but also recognizing what the
          speaker is trying to point out.
          This study presents how evident and useful pragmatics is especially in written communication.
          People now a days, express their story through written works like novel, short story, essay,
          letters and the like. Furthermore, authors and writers of such written works have their purpose,
          aim, or intention of composing such. Hence, writers compose written works using pragmatics.
          Writers use different expressions in their composition for the readers to understanding the
          meaning beyond what is written. Therefore, this study identifies, classifies, and interprets the
          expressions used by an author to point out the meaning.
          Deixis, on the other hand, is a linguistic phenomenon derived from a Greek word meaning “to
          show” or “to point out”. This concerns with analyzing the lexical means featured in the context of
          3
          the utterance or speech event. There are three basic categories of deixis namely: personal,
          temporal and spatial (Huang, 2007). The three deixis relies on the interpretation of speakers or
          characters that are in the same context. Deixis also denotes the marking of objects and events
          with respect to a certain reference point. It is usually marked by who, when and where a certain
          reference is uttered (Brinton, 2000). Deictic expressions are usually employed by
          demonstratives, personal pronouns, tense markers, adverbs of time and space, and motions
          verbs.
          This study analyzes the deixis of a certain novel written by Paolo Coelho entitled “The
          alchemist”. Thus, deixis is used to analyze the utterances of the characters in the chapter one of
          the book. This analysis includes the identification of the deictic expression uttered by the
          characters or speakers in the story, classification of deictic expressions, and the interpretation of
          deictic expressions used in the utterance. In addition, researcher uses the descriptive qualitative
          method to analyze the data collected from the utterances based in the chapter one of the book.
          Comprehensive reading and taking notes were also used as the techniques to collect data from
          the source. Furthermore, the data have been analyzed through reading, identification,
          classification and interpretation.
          Pragmatic approach applies in the analysis of the deictics of the novel. Searching for the
          speaker’s meaning (author’s meaning) with the use of deixis would help the readers to develop
          critical thinking, subjective criticisms, making a description about the book and the author, and
          effective summarizing.
          4
          Rationale
          Linguistic has constantly evolved by time and its users. In line with this, the analysis of
          contextual meaning and its structure will be studied. This study shows how visible deictic
          expressions even in written works. The researcher found his interest in analyzing a particular
          novel entitled “The Alchemist” written by Paolo Coelho which was translated into English
          Language by Alan R. Clarke and published by HarperCollins and was revised in 2006. The
          novel is an internationally bestselling phenomenon characterized by inspiration, perseverance,
          motivation, adventure, destiny, and success. The novel represents how a certain person is
          eager to follow his dreams learning from the experiences along his journey.
          Deictic expressions, on the other hand, are usually found in the dialogue of a written work.
          Thus, researcher focuses on the literal conversation of the characters in the Chapter One of the
          novel. This paper analyzes the pragmatic side of language focusing on how the author used
          deictic expressions and how the readers understand its textual meaning. This analysis aims to
          educate people that human language contains deixis which can serve the communicative needs
          of the language users (Huang, 2007).
          This research aims to prove that deixis is not only present in verbal communication but even in
          written composition. Through analyzing a text using pragmatics approach, the researcher can
          determine what the purpose or intention of the writer and what the writer is trying to convey to
          the readers. The objectives of this study are as follows:
          1. To identify the deictic expression present in the chapter one of the novel;
          2. To classify the deictic expressions accordingly based on the basic category of deixis;
          3. To interpret how a certain deixis was used and how does it functions in the utterance.
          5
          Theoretical Framework
          Deixis is derived from a Greek word meaning “to show” or “to point out” (Huang, 2007). This
          involves the speaker and the hearer of the utterance where deictic expressions are present and
          connotes meaning. Hypothetically, deixis are expressions that both speaker and addressee
          would understand seldom without specification depending on the situation. These expressions
          are referential to a topic previously talked about, an event, an individual, or a location. Example
          of a deixis is, You are not allowed to go here”. Deictic expressions present in the utterance
          were you, go, and here. The addressee of such utterance would comprehend what the speaker
          means even without demonstration. The addressee would understand that he is the one the
          speaker is referring to. In contrast, a deictic expression requires a physical demonstration if
          there are more than one person hears such utterance. Therefore, deictic expressions could be
          gestural in nature or symbolic in character as described by Huang, 2007. In addition, deixis are
          present in all human languages because it meets the communicative requirement of the
          language users.
          This study, on the other hand, uses a pragmatic approach in analyzing deictic expressions
          based in a text. Thus, this study uses deixis as an element to analyze a novel entitled “the
          Alchemist” written by Paolo Coelho. Researcher has used Huang’s definition of deixis as a
          reference to this study. There are three basic categories of deixis namely: person deixis, time
          deixis, and space deixis. These categories serve as a guide to identify all the deictic
          expressions present in the chapter one of the novel.
          Person deixis is usually employed by personal pronouns such as I, me, my, our first person;
          you and yours second person; and he, she, it, they, and their third person. Hence, person
          deixis is concerned with the identification of the interlocutors or participant-roles in a speech
          event as defined by Huang, 2007. The first person is syntactically and semantically referring to
          6
          him- or herself as the speaker of the utterance. The second person is an addressee-referenced
          pronoun. However, there are pronouns in first person which encodes as speaker and addressee
          inclusion like we and us. Third person, on the other hand, is referred to persons or entities which
          are neither speakers nor addressee in the situation of the utterance. Thus, third person does not
          refer to any specific participant-role in the speech event.
          Time deixis is characterized by the moment of the utterance and the moment of reception. It
          employs the adverbs of time such as now (proximal), then (distal), today, tomorrow, yesterday,
          next Friday, year, last year, this month, etc.
          The last basic category of deixis is space also known as spatial deixis. Space deixis is usually
          expressed using motion verbs such as come/go and bring/take which marks a movement either
          away from the speaker or towards the speaker. Most of the spatial deixis present in written
          compositions are demonstratives such as this, that, these, those, there, and here. All shows
          distance relatively close to either the speaker or the addressee.
          Moreover, the examples given above may be indicated in the utterance but may not function as
          deixis. Therefore, the researcher emphasizes the importance of analyzing a situation as a factor
          to be considered in order to determine who, when, where, and how the expression is uttered.
          7
          II. Methodology
          This chapter explains the methodology of research used by the researcher namely:
          source of the data, data description, and technique of coding the data.
          Data Description
          The researcher uses the descriptive qualitative method of analyzing the data. Qualitative
          research has been used to analyze a process, meaning, and understanding gained
          through words or pictures. It follows an inductive process where researcher creates
          abstraction, concepts, interpretation, hypotheses and theories from the details. In this
          case, researcher describes and analyzes the deictic expressions in the chapter one of
          the novel written by Paolo Coelho entitled “The Alchemist”. The data analyzed focus on
          the dialogues or direct speeches of the characters in the story where the deixis is
          present and eventually will be classified and interpreted accordingly.
          The chapter one of the novel is presented at the end of the paper.
          8
          Data Coding
          The initial process was to read comprehensively the chapter one of the book to identify
          the possible deictic expressions. The researcher focuses only in the direct speech or
          dialogues of the speakers in the story. Researcher has presented the chapter one of the
          story highlighting the dialogue using a quotation mark (“) and italicized text. The data
          were coded by enumerating all the direct speeches of the speakers that need to be
          analyzed presented in a tabulated form. The procedure in analyzing the data is divided
          into the following steps:
          1. Identification
          This part presents the identification of the deictic expressions used in every
          utterance.
          2. Classification
          After identifying all the deictic expressions, researcher then classified each
          expression accordingly into its deictic category namely: personal, temporal, and
          spatial.
          3. Interpretation
          This section presents the descriptive analysis of each expression.
          9
          III. Results and Discussion
          Presentation of data
          Utterances
          Identification
          Classification
          Interpretation
          “They are so used to me that
          they know my schedule,”
          They
          Person deixis
          The speaker is referring to his sheep.
          The word they” can be either
          gestural or symbolic depending on
          how it was uttered by the speaker.
          Me
          Person deixis
          The speaker is referring to himself. It
          could be expressed with or without
          demonstration.
          That
          Spatial deixis
          Distal demonstrative
          They
          Person deixis
          Speaker is referring to the sheep.
          My
          Person deixis
          First person singular dependent.
          “I need to sell some wool,”
          I
          Person deixis
          The speaker is referring to himself.
          “I didn’t know shepherd knew
          how to read,”
          I
          Person deixis
          The speaker is referring to himself.
          “Well, usually I learn more from
          my sheep than from books,”
          I
          Person deixis
          The speaker is referring to himself.
          My
          Person deixis
          First person singular dependent.
          “How did you learn to read?”
          You
          Person deixis
          The speaker is referring to the
          second person addressee.
          “Like everybody learns,” he
          said. “In school.”
          None
          None
          No deictic expression present in the
          utterance.
          10
          “Well, if you know how to read,
          why are you just a shepherd?”
          You
          Person deixis
          The speaker is referring to the
          second person addressee.
          You
          Person deixis
          The speaker is referring to the
          second person addressee.
          “It doesn’t matter.” He said to
          his sheep. “I know other girls in
          other places.”
          It
          Person deixis
          Third-person objective. The speaker
          is referring to his thought.
          I
          Person deixis
          The speaker is referring to himself.
          “People from all over the world
          have passed through this
          village, son.” said his father.
          “They come in search of new
          things, but when they leave they
          are basically the same people
          they were when they arrived.
          They climb the mountain to see
          the castle, and they wind up
          thinking that the past was better
          than what we have now. They
          have blond hair, or dark skin,
          but basically they’re the same
          as the people who live right
          here”.
          This
          Spatial deixis
          Demonstrative. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          Son
          Person deixis
          Vocative addresses.
          They
          Person deixis
          Speaker is referring to the people,
          describing what the people do.
          Come
          Spatial deixis
          Motion verb. It marks a movement
          towards the speaker’s location
          (village).
          They
          Person deixis
          Speaker is referring to the people,
          describing what the people do.
          They
          Person deixis
          Speaker is referring to the people,
          describing what the people do.
          They
          Person deixis
          Speaker is referring to the people,
          describing what the people do.
          They
          Person deixis
          Speaker is referring to the people,
          describing what the people do.
          They
          Person deixis
          Speaker is referring to the people,
          11
          describing what the people do.
          They
          Person deixis
          Speaker is referring to the people,
          describing what the people do.
          That
          None
          It is not used as a deictic expression
          but as a conjunction.
          We
          Person deixis
          Speaker and addressee inclusion.
          Now
          Temporal deixis
          Proximal coding time.
          They
          Person deixis
          Speaker is describing how the
          people look like.
          They
          Person deixis
          Speaker is referring to the people,
          describing what the people do.
          Here
          Spatial deixis
          Speaker is referring to his and
          addressee’s location. It could be
          gestural or symbolic.
          “But I’d like to see the castles in
          the towns where they live.” The
          boy explained.
          I
          Person deixis
          The speaker is referring to himself
          about what he would like to see.
          They
          Person deixis
          The speaker is referring to the
          people described in the previous
          utterance.
          “Those people, when they see
          our land, say that they would
          like to live here forever,” father
          continued.
          Those
          Spatial deixis
          It is used as a demonstrative adverb
          of space. It could be gestural or
          symbolic.
          They
          Person deixis
          Speaker is referring to the people,
          describing what the people do.
          12
          That
          None
          It is not used as a deictic expression
          but as a conjunction.
          They
          Person deixis
          Third-person. Speaker is referring to
          the people.
          Here
          Spatial deixis
          Speaker is referring to his and
          addressee’s location. It could be
          gestural or symbolic.
          “Well, I’d like to see their land,
          and see how they live,” said his
          son.
          I
          Person deixis
          The speaker is referring to himself.
          Their
          Person deixis
          Speaker-addressee exclusion.
          Speaker is referring to the people.
          They
          Person deixis
          Third-person. Speaker is referring to
          the people.
          “The people who come here
          have a lot of money to spend,
          so they can afford to travel,” his
          father said.
          Come
          Spatial deixis
          Motion verb. Marks a movement
          towards the speaker and
          addressee’s location.
          Here
          Spatial deixis
          Speaker is referring to his and
          addressee’s location. It could be
          gestural or symbolic.
          They
          Person deixis
          Third-person. Speaker is referring to
          the people.
          “Amongst us, the only ones who
          travel are the shepherds.”
          Us
          Person deixis
          Speaker and addressee inclusion.
          “Well, then I’ll be a shepherd.”
          Then
          Temporal deixis
          Distal time. It can indicate time either
          in the past or in the future.
          I
          Person deixis
          The speaker is referring to himself of
          13
          what he would like to be.
          “I found this one day in the
          fields. I wanted them to be a
          part of your inheritance, but use
          them to buy your flock. Take to
          the fields, and someday you’ll
          learn that our countryside is the
          best, and our women the most
          beautiful.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          This
          Spatial deixis
          Demonstrative. The speaker is
          showing an object. It could be
          gestural or symbolic.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          Them
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker is
          referring to the object.
          Your
          Person deixis
          Second person. Addressee inclusion.
          Them
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker is
          referring to the object.
          Your
          Person deixis
          Second person. Addressee inclusion.
          Take
          Spatial deixis
          Motion verb. It marks a movement
          away from the speaker.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. Addressee inclusion.
          That
          None
          It is not used as a deictic expression
          but as a conjunction.
          Our
          Person deixis
          First person. Speaker and addressee
          inclusion.
          Our
          Person deixis
          First person. Speaker and addressee
          inclusion.
          “Very interesting,” said the
          woman,
          None
          None
          No deictic expression present in the
          utterance.
          14
          “I didn’t come here to have you
          read my palm,” he said,
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          Come
          Spatial deixis
          Motion verb. Marks a movement
          towards the speaker and
          addressee’s location.
          Here
          Spatial deixis
          Speaker is referring to his and
          addressee’s location. It could be
          gestural or symbolic.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. Addressee inclusion.
          It could be gestural or symbolic.
          My
          Person deixis
          First person. Speaker inclusion.
          “You came so that you could
          learn about your dreams,” said
          the old woman. “And dreams
          are the language of God. When
          he speaks in our language, I
          can interpret what he has said.
          But if he speaks in the language
          of the soul, it is only you who
          can understand. But, whichever
          it is. I’m going to charge you for
          your consultation.”
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          Came
          Spatial deixis
          Motion verb. Marked a movement
          towards the speaker’s location.
          That
          None
          It is not used as a deictic expression
          but as a conjunction.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          Your
          Person deixis
          Second person. Addressee inclusion.
          He
          Person deixis
          The speaker is referring to his GOD.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          He
          Person deixis
          The speaker is referring to his GOD.
          He
          Person deixis
          The speaker is referring to his GOD.
          15
          It
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker is
          referring to the language of the soul.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. Addressee inclusion.
          It
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker is
          referring to either GOD’s speaks in
          their language or in their soul.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          Your
          Person deixis
          Second person. Addressee inclusion.
          “I have had the same dream
          twice,” he said. “I dreamed that I
          was in a field with my sheep,
          when a child appeared and
          began to play with the animals. I
          don’t like people to do that,
          because the sheep are afraid of
          strangers, but children always
          seem to be able to play with
          them without frightening them. I
          don’t know why. I don’t know
          how animals know the age of
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          That
          None
          It is not used as a deictic expression
          but as a conjunction.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          My
          Person deixis
          First person. Speaker inclusion.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          That
          Spatial deixis.
          It is used as a symbolic deictic
          16
          human beings.”
          expression where the speaker is
          referring to the people whom the
          speakers consider as strangers in
          playing with the animals.
          Them
          Person deixis
          The speaker is referring to the
          animals.
          Them
          Person deixis
          The speaker is referring to the
          animals.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          “Tell me more about your
          dream,” said the woman. “I
          have to get back to my cooking,
          and since you don’t have much
          money, I can’t give you a lot of
          time.”
          Me
          Person deixis
          First person. Speaker inclusion.
          Your
          Person deixis
          Second person. Addressee inclusion.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          My
          Person deixis
          First person. Speaker inclusion.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          “The child went on playing with
          My
          Person deixis
          First person. Speaker inclusion.
          17
          my sheep for quite a while,”
          continued the boy, a bit upset.
          “And suddenly, the child took
          me by both hands and
          transported me to the Egyptian
          pyramids.”
          Took
          Spatial deixis
          Motion verb. It marked a movement
          away from the speaker’s location.
          Me
          Person deixis
          First person. Speaker inclusion.
          Me
          Person deixis
          First person. Speaker inclusion.
          “Then, at the Egyptian
          pyramids,” he said the last
          three words slowly, so that the
          old woman would understand
          “the child said to me. ‘if you
          come here, you will find a
          hidden treasure.’ And just as
          she was about to show me the
          exact location, I woke up. Both
          times.”
          Then
          Temporal deixis
          Distal time. It is used a transitional
          word like telling a story.
          Me
          Person deixis
          First person. Speaker inclusion.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          Come
          Spatial deixis
          Motion verb. Marks a movement of
          the addressee towards the speaker’s
          location.
          Here
          Spatial deixis
          Speaker is referring to his and
          addressee’s location. It could be
          gestural or symbolic.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          She
          Person deixis
          Third person which function as a
          deictic expression.
          Me
          Person deixis
          First person. Speaker inclusion.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          “I’m not going to charge you
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          18
          anything now,” she said. “But I
          want one-tenth of the treasure,
          if you find it.”
          to himself.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          Now
          Temporal deixis
          Proximal coding time.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          It
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker is
          referring to the treasure.
          “Well, interpret the dream,” he
          said.
          None
          None
          No deictic expression present in the
          utterance.
          “First, swear to me. Swear that
          you will give me one-tenth of
          your treasure in exchange for
          what I am going to tell you.”
          Me
          Person deixis
          First person. Speaker inclusion.
          That
          Spatial deixis
          It is not used as a deictic expression
          but as a conjunction.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          Me
          Person deixis
          First person. Speaker inclusion.
          Your
          Person deixis
          Second person. Addressee inclusion.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          “It’s a dream in the language of
          the world,” she said. “I can
          It
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker is
          referring to a dream.
          19
          interpret it, but the interpretation
          is very difficult. That’s why I feel
          that I deserved a part of what
          you find.”
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          It
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker is
          referring to a dream.
          That
          Spatial deixis
          It is not used as a deictic expression
          but as a conjunction.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          That
          Spatial deixis
          It is not used as a deictic expression
          but as a conjunction.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          “And this is my interpretation:
          you must go to the pyramids in
          Egypt. I have never heard of
          them, but, if it was a child who
          showed them to you, they exist.
          There you will find a treasure
          that will make you a rich man.”
          This
          Spatial deixis
          Demonstrative. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          My
          Person deixis
          First person. Speaker inclusion.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          Go
          Spatial deixis
          Motion verb. It marks a movement
          away from the speaker’s location.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          Them
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker is
          referring to the pyramids in Egypt.
          20
          It
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker is
          referring to a dream.
          Them
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker is
          referring to the pyramids in Egypt.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          They
          Person deixis
          The speaker is referring to the
          pyramids in Egypt.
          There
          Spatial deixis
          Demonstrative (distal). Relatively
          close to addressee.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          That
          Spatial deixis
          It is not used as a deictic expression
          but as a conjunction.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          “I didn’t need to waste my time
          just for this.” He said.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          My
          Person deixis
          First person. Speaker inclusion.
          This
          Spatial deixis
          Demonstrative. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          “I told you that your dream was
          a difficult one. It’s the simple
          things in life that are the most
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          21
          extraordinary; only wise are
          able to understand them. And
          since I am not wise, I have had
          to learn other arts, such as the
          reading of palms.”
          or symbolic.
          That
          Spatial deixis
          It is not used as a deictic expression
          but as a conjunction.
          Your
          Person deixis
          Second person. Addressee inclusion.
          It
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker is
          referring to the boy’s dream.
          That
          Spatial deixis
          It is not used as a deictic expression
          but as a conjunction.
          Them
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker is
          referring to the boy’s dream.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          “Well, how am I going to get to
          Egypt?”
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          “I only interpret dreams. I don’t
          know how to turn them into
          reality. That’s why I have to live
          off what my daughters provide
          me with.”
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          Them
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker is
          referring to the boy’s dream.
          That
          Spatial deixis
          It is not used as a deictic expression
          but as a conjunction.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          22
          to himself.
          My
          Person deixis
          First person. Speaker inclusion.
          Me
          Person deixis
          First person. Speaker inclusion.
          “And what if I never get to
          Egypt?”
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          “Then If I don’t get paid. It
          wouldn’t be the first time.”
          Then
          Temporal deixis
          Distal time. It denotes a possibility.
          It
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker is
          referring to the idea of not getting
          paid.
          "What are they doing?" the old
          man asked, pointing at the
          people in the plaza.
          They
          Person deixis
          The speaker is referring to the pople
          in the plaza. It used a gestural type
          of deixis.
          "Working," the boy answered
          dryly,
          None
          None
          No deictic expression present in the
          utterance.
          "This is an important book, but
          it's really irritating."
          This
          Spatial deixis
          Demonstrative. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          It
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker is
          referring to the book.
          "It's a book that says the same
          thing almost all the other books
          in the world say," continued the
          old man. "It describes people's
          inability to choose their own
          destinies. And it ends up saying
          It
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker is
          referring to the book.
          That
          Spatial deixis
          It is not used as a deictic expression
          but as a conjunction.
          It
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker is
          referring to the book.
          23
          that everyone believes the
          world's greatest lie."
          Their
          Person deixis
          Speaker-addressee exclusion.
          Speaker is referring to the people.
          It
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker is
          referring to the book.
          That
          Spatial deixis
          It is not used as a deictic expression
          but as a conjunction.
          "What's the world's greatest
          lie?" the boy asked, completely
          surprised.
          None
          None
          No deictic expression present in the
          utterance.
          "It's this: that at a certain point
          in our lives, we lose control of
          what's happening to us, and our
          lives become controlled by fate.
          That's the world's greatest lie."
          It
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker is
          referring to the world's greatest lie
          This
          Spatial deixis
          Demonstrative. It I used as symbolic
          type of deixis.
          That
          Spatial deixis
          It is not used as a deictic expression
          but as a conjunction.
          We
          Person deixis
          Speaker and addressee inclusion.
          Us
          Person deixis
          Speaker and addressee inclusion.
          Our
          Person deixis
          First person. Speaker and addressee
          inclusion.
          That
          Spatial deixis
          Distal demonstrative. The speaker is
          pointing out the description of the
          world’s greatest lie.
          "That's never happened to me,"
          the boy said. "They wanted me
          to be a priest, but I decided to
          That
          Spatial deixis
          Distal demonstrative. The speaker is
          comparing previous situation.
          Me
          Person deixis
          First person. Speaker inclusion.
          24
          become a shepherd."
          They
          Person deixis
          The speaker is referring to his family.
          Me
          Person deixis
          First person. Speaker inclusion.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          "Much better," said the old man.
          "Because you really like to
          travel."
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          "He knew what I was thinking,"
          the boy said to himself.
          He
          Person deixis
          Third person. The person. Speaker
          and addressee exclusion.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          "Where are you from?" the boy
          asked.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          "From many places."
          None
          None
          No deictic expression present in the
          utterance.
          "No one can be from many
          places," the boy said. "I'm a
          shepherd and I have been to
          many places, but I come from
          only one placefrom a city
          near an ancient castle. That's
          where I was born."
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          Come
          Spatial deixis
          Motion verb. It marks a movement
          towards the speaker’s location.
          That
          Spatial deixis
          Distal demonstrative. Speaker is
          pointing out where he was born.
          25
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          "Well then, we could say that I
          was born in Salem."
          Then
          Temporal deixis
          Distal time. It can indicate time either
          in the past or in the future.
          We
          Person deixis
          Speaker and addressee inclusion.
          That
          Spatial deixis
          It is not used as a deictic expression
          but as a conjunction.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          "So, what is Salem like?" he
          asked,
          None
          None
          No deictic expression present in the
          utterance.
          "It's like it always has been."
          It
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker is
          referring to a location (Salem).
          It
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker is
          referring to a location (Salem).
          "And what do you do in Salem?"
          he insisted.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          "What do I do in Salem?" The
          old man laughed. "Well, I'm the
          king of Salem!"
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          "My name is Melchizedek," said
          the old man. "How many sheep
          do you have?"
          My
          Person deixis
          First person. Speaker inclusion.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          26
          "Well, then, we've got a
          problem. I can't help you if you
          feel you've got enough sheep."
          Then
          Temporal deixis
          Distal time. It can indicate time either
          in the past or in the future.
          We
          Person deixis
          Speaker and addressee inclusion.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          "Give me my book," the boy
          said. "I have to go and gather
          my sheep and get going."
          Me
          Person deixis
          First person. Speaker inclusion.
          My
          Person deixis
          First person. Speaker inclusion.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          Go
          Spatial deixis
          Motion verb. It marks a movement
          away from the speaker’s location.
          My
          Person deixis
          First person. Speaker inclusion.
          "Give me one-tenth of your
          sheep," said the old man, "and
          I'll tell you how to find the
          hidden treasure."
          Me
          Person deixis
          First person. Speaker inclusion.
          Your
          Person deixis
          Second person. Addressee inclusion.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          27
          or symbolic.
          "I'm the king of Salem," the old
          man had said.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          "Why would a king be talking
          with a shepherd?" the boy
          asked, awed and embarrassed.
          None
          None
          No deictic expression present in the
          utterance.
          "For several reasons. But let's
          say that the most important is
          that you have succeeded in
          discovering your destiny."
          Us
          Person deixis
          Speaker and addressee inclusion.
          That
          Spatial deixis
          It is not used as a deictic expression
          but as a conjunction.
          That
          Spatial deixis
          It is not used as a deictic expression
          but as a conjunction.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          Your
          Person deixis
          Second person. Addressee inclusion.
          "It's what you have always
          wanted to accomplish.
          Everyone, when they are
          young, knows what their destiny
          is.
          It
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker is
          referring to destiny.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          They
          Person deixis
          The speaker is referring to the
          people.
          Their
          Person deixis
          Speaker-addressee exclusion.
          Speaker is referring to the people.
          "At that point in their lives,
          everything is clear and
          everything is possible. They are
          That
          Spatial deixis
          Distal demonstrative.
          Their
          Person deixis
          Speaker-addressee exclusion.
          Speaker is referring to the people.
          28
          not afraid to dream, and to
          yearn for everything they would
          like to see happen to them in
          their lives. But, as time passes,
          a mysterious force begins to
          convince them that it will be
          impossible for them to realize
          their destiny."
          They
          Person deixis
          The speaker is referring to the
          people.
          They
          Person deixis
          The speaker is referring to the
          people.
          Them
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker is
          referring to the people.
          Their
          Person deixis
          Speaker-addressee exclusion.
          Speaker is referring to the people.
          Them
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker is
          referring to the people.
          That
          Spatial deixis
          It is not used as a deictic expression
          but as a conjunction.
          It
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker is
          referring to a mysterious force.
          Them
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker is
          referring to the people.
          Their
          Person deixis
          Speaker-addressee exclusion.
          Speaker is referring to the people.
          "It's a force that appears to be
          negative, but actually shows
          you how to realize your destiny.
          It prepares your spirit and your
          will, because there is one great
          truth on this planet: whoever
          you are, or whatever it is that
          It
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker is
          referring to a mysterious force.
          That
          Spatial deixis
          It is not used as a deictic expression
          but as a conjunction.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          Your
          Person deixis
          Second person. Addressee inclusion.
          29
          you do, when you really want
          something, it's because that
          desire originated in the soul of
          the universe. It's your mission
          on earth."
          It
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker is
          referring to a mysterious force.
          Your
          Person deixis
          Second person. Addressee inclusion.
          Your
          Person deixis
          Second person. Addressee inclusion.
          There
          Spatial deixis
          Demonstrative (distal). Relatively
          close to addressee.
          This
          Spatial deixis
          Demonstrative. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          It
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker is the
          things a person do.
          That
          Spatial deixis
          It is not used as a deictic expression
          but as a conjunction.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          It
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker refers to
          the things a person does.
          That
          Spatial deixis
          Distal demonstrative.
          It
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker refers to
          the things a person does
          30
          Your
          Person deixis
          Second person. Addressee inclusion.
          "Even when all you want to do
          is travel? Or marry the daughter
          of a textile merchant?"
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          "Yes or even search for
          treasure. The Soul of the World
          is nourished by people's
          happiness. And also by
          unhappiness, envy, and
          jealousy. To realize one's
          destiny is a person's only real
          obligation. All things are one.
          None
          None
          No deictic expression present in the
          utterance.
          "And, when you want
          something, all the universe
          conspires in helping you to
          achieve it."
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          It
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker refers to
          the achievements.
          "Why do you tend a flock of
          sheep?"
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          "Because I like to travel."
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          "When he was a child, that man
          wanted to travel, too. But he
          decided first to buy his bakery
          He
          Person deixis
          Third person. It is used a symbolic
          type of deixis.
          That
          Spatial deixis
          Distal demonstrative.
          31
          and put some money aside.
          When he's an old man, he's
          going to spend a month in
          Africa. He never realized that
          people are capable, at any time
          in their lives, of doing what they
          dream of."
          He
          Person deixis
          Third person. It is used a symbolic
          type of deixis.
          His
          Person deixis
          The person. Speaker and addressee
          exclusion.
          He
          Person deixis
          Third person. It is used a symbolic
          type of deixis.
          He
          Person deixis
          Third person. It is used a symbolic
          type of deixis.
          A month
          Temporal deixis
          Deictic adverb of time.
          He
          Person deixis
          Third person. It is used a symbolic
          type of deixis.
          That
          Spatial deixis
          It is not used as a deictic expression
          but as a conjunction.
          Their
          Person deixis
          Speaker-addressee exclusion.
          Speaker is referring to the people.
          They
          Person deixis
          The speaker is referring to the
          people.
          "Well, he thought about that,"
          the old man said. "But bakers
          are more important people than
          shepherds. Bakers have
          homes, while shepherds sleep
          out in the open. Parents would
          He
          Person deixis
          Third person. It is used a symbolic
          type of deixis.
          That
          Spatial deixis
          Distal demonstrative. The speaker
          refers to the previous topic.
          32
          rather see their children marry
          bakers than shepherds."
          Their
          Person deixis
          Speaker-addressee exclusion.
          Speaker is referring to the parents.
          "In the long run, what people
          think about shepherds and
          bakers becomes more
          important for them than their
          own destinies."
          Them
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker is
          referring to the people.
          Their
          Person deixis
          Speaker-addressee exclusion.
          Speaker is referring to the people’s
          destinies.
          "Why are you telling me all
          this?"
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          Me
          Person deixis
          First person. Speaker inclusion.
          This
          Spatial deixis
          Demonstrative. It is used as a
          symbolic type of deixis.
          "Because you are trying to
          realize your destiny. And you
          are at the point where you're
          about to give it all up."
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          Your
          Person deixis
          Second person. Addressee inclusion.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          It
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker refers to
          the destiny.
          "And that's when you always
          appear on the scene?"
          That
          Spatial deixis
          Distal demonstrative.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          33
          or symbolic.
          "Not always in this way, but I
          always appear in one form or
          another. Sometimes I appear in
          the form of a solution, or a good
          idea. At other times, at a crucial
          moment, I make it easier for
          things to happen. There are
          other things I do, too, but most
          of the time people don't realize
          I've done them."
          This
          Spatial deixis
          Demonstrative. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          It
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker is
          referring to ways.
          There
          Spatial deixis
          Demonstrative that does not function
          as deixis.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          Them
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker is
          referring to the people.
          "People learn, early in their
          lives, what is their reason for
          being," said the old man, with
          certain bitterness. "Maybe that's
          why they give up on it so early,
          too. But that's the way it is."
          Their
          Person deixis
          Speaker-addressee exclusion.
          Speaker is referring to the people.
          Their
          Person deixis
          Speaker-addressee exclusion.
          Speaker is referring to the people.
          That
          Spatial deixis
          Distal demonstrative.
          They
          Person deixis
          The speaker is referring to the
          34
          people.
          It
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker is
          referring to something.
          That
          Spatial deixis
          Distal demonstrative.
          It
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker is
          referring to something.
          "Treasure is uncovered by the
          force of flowing water, and it is
          buried by the same currents,"
          said the old man. "If you want to
          learn about your own treasure,
          you will have to give me one-
          tenth of your flock."
          It
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker is
          referring to something.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          Your
          Person deixis
          Second person. Addressee inclusion.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          Me
          Person deixis
          First person. Speaker inclusion.
          Your
          Person deixis
          Second person. Addressee inclusion.
          "What about one-tenth of my
          treasure?"
          My
          Person deixis
          First person. Speaker inclusion.
          "If you start out by promising
          what you don't even have yet,
          you'll lose your desire to work
          toward getting it."
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          Your
          Person deixis
          Second person. Addressee inclusion.
          35
          It
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker is
          referring to something.
          "Gypsies are experts at getting
          people to do that," sighed the
          old man. "In any case, it's good
          that you've learned that
          everything in life has its price.
          This is what the Warriors of the
          Light try to teach."
          That
          Spatial deixis
          Distal demonstrative.
          It
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker is
          referring to something.
          That
          Spatial deixis
          It is not used as a deictic expression
          but as a conjunction.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          That
          Spatial deixis
          It is not used as a deictic expression
          but as a conjunction.
          This
          Spatial deixis
          Demonstrative. It used as a symbolic
          type of deixis.
          "Tomorrow, at this same time,
          bring me a tenth of your flock.
          And I will tell you how to find the
          hidden treasure. Good
          afternoon."
          Tomorrow
          Temporal deixis
          The diurnal span following today.
          This
          Spatial deixis
          Demonstrative. It used as a symbolic
          type of deixis.
          Bring
          Spatial deixis
          Motion verb. It marks a movement
          towards a speaker.
          Me
          Person deixis
          First person. Speaker inclusion.
          Your
          Person deixis
          Second person. Addressee inclusion.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          36
          or symbolic.
          "Can I help you?" asked the
          man behind the window.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          "Maybe tomorrow," said the
          boy, moving away.
          Tomorrow
          Temporal deixis
          The diurnal span following today.
          "Another dreamer," said the
          ticket seller to his assistant,
          watching the boy walk away.
          "He doesn't have enough
          money to travel."
          He
          Person deixis
          Speaker and addressee exclusion.
          "That baker…" he said to
          himself,
          That
          Spatial deixis
          Distal demonstrative.
          "I'm surprised," the boy said.
          "My friend bought all the other
          sheep immediately. He said that
          he had always dreamed of
          being a shepherd, and that it
          was a good omen."
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          My
          Person deixis
          First person. Speaker inclusion.
          Brought
          Spatial deixis
          Motion verb. It marked a movement
          towards the speaker.
          He
          Person deixis
          Speaker and addressee exclusion.
          That
          Spatial deixis
          It is not used as a deictic expression
          but as a conjunction.
          He
          Person deixis
          Speaker and addressee exclusion.
          That
          Spatial deixis
          It is not used as a deictic expression
          but as a conjunction.
          37
          It
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker is
          referring to something.
          "That's the way it always is,"
          said the old man. "It's called the
          principle of favorability. When
          you play cards the first time,
          you are almost sure to win.
          Beginner's luck."
          That
          Spatial deixis
          Distal demonstrative.
          It
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker is
          referring to something.
          It
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker is
          referring to something.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          "Why is that?"
          That
          Spatial deixis
          Distal demonstrative.
          "Because there is a force that
          wants you to realize your
          destiny; it whets your appetite
          with a taste of success."
          There
          Spatial deixis
          Demonstrative (distal). Relatively
          close to addressee.
          That
          Spatial deixis
          It is not used as a deictic expression
          but as a conjunction.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          Your
          Person deixis
          Second person. Addressee inclusion.
          It
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker is
          referring to a force.
          Your
          Person deixis
          Second person. Addressee inclusion.
          "Where is the treasure?" he
          asked.
          "It's in Egypt, near the
          It
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker is
          referring to something.
          38
          Pyramids."
          "In order to find the treasure,
          you will have to follow the
          omens. God has prepared a
          path for everyone to follow. You
          just have to read the omens that
          he left for you."
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          That
          Spatial deixis
          It is not used as a deictic expression
          but as a conjunction.
          He
          Person deixis
          Speaker and addressee exclusion.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          "That's right," said the old man,
          able to read the boy's thoughts.
          "Just as your grandfather taught
          you. These are good omens."
          That
          Spatial deixis
          Distal demonstrative.
          Your
          Person deixis
          Second person. Addressee inclusion.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          These
          Spatial deixis
          It is used as a demonstrative adverb
          of space. It could be gestural or
          symbolic.
          "Take these," said the old man,
          Take
          Spatial deixis
          Motion verb. It marks a movement
          away from the speaker.
          These
          Spatial diexis
          It is used as a demonstrative adverb
          of space. It could be gestural or
          symbolic.
          "They are called Urim and
          Thummim. The black signifies
          They
          Person deixis
          The speaker is referring to the
          stones.
          39
          'yes,' and the white 'no.' When
          you are unable to read the
          omens, they will help you to do
          so. Always ask an objective
          question.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          They
          Person deixis
          The speaker is referring to the
          stones.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          "But, if you can, try to make
          your own decisions. The
          treasure is at the Pyramids; that
          you already knew. But I had to
          insist on the payment of six
          sheep because I helped you to
          make your decision."
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          Your
          Person deixis
          Second person. Addressee inclusion.
          That
          Spatial deixis
          It is not used as a deictic expression
          but as a conjunction.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          Your
          Person deixis
          Second person. Addressee inclusion.
          "Don't forget that everything you
          deal with is only one thing and
          nothing else. And don't forget
          the language of omens. And,
          above all, don't forget to follow
          That
          Spatial deixis
          It is not used as a deictic expression
          but as a conjunction.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          40
          your Personal Legend through
          to its conclusion.
          Your
          Person deixis
          Second person. Addressee inclusion.
          "But before I go, I want to tell
          you a little story.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          Go
          Spatial deixis
          Motion verb. It marks a movement
          away from the speaker’s location
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          "A certain shopkeeper sent his
          son to learn about the secret of
          happiness from the wisest man
          in the world. The lad wandered
          through the desert for forty
          days, and finally came upon a
          beautiful castle, high atop a
          mountain. It was there that the
          wise man lived.
          "Rather than finding a saintly
          man, though, our hero, on
          entering the main room of the
          His
          Person deixis
          Speaker and addressee exclusion.
          Came
          Spatial deixis
          Motion verb. It marked a movement
          towards the speaker’s location.
          It
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker is
          referring to something.
          There
          Spatial deixis
          Demonstrative (distal). Relatively
          close to addressee.
          That
          Spatial deixis
          It is not used as a deictic expression
          but as a conjunction.
          41
          castle, saw a hive of activity:
          tradesmen came and went,
          people were conversing in the
          corners, a small orchestra was
          playing soft music, and there
          was a table covered with
          platters of the most delicious
          food in that part of the world.
          The wise man conversed with
          everyone, and the boy had to
          wait for two hours before it was
          his turn to be given the man's
          attention.
          Our
          Person deixis
          First person. Speaker and addressee
          inclusion.
          Came
          Spatial deixis
          Motion verb. It marked a movement
          towards the speaker’s location.
          There
          Spatial deixis
          Demonstrative (distal). Relatively
          close to addressee.
          That
          Spatial deixis
          Distal demonstrative.
          It
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker is
          referring to something.
          His
          Person deixis
          Speaker and addressee exclusion.
          "The wise man listened
          attentively to the boy's
          explanation of why he had
          come, but told him that he didn't
          have time just then to explain
          the secret of happiness. He
          suggested that the boy look
          around the palace and return in
          two hours.
          He
          Person deixis
          Speaker and addressee exclusion.
          Come
          Spatial deixis
          Motion verb. It marks a movement
          towards the speaker’s location.
          Him
          Person deixis
          Third person. Speaker and
          addressee exclusion.
          That
          Spatial deixis
          It is not used as a deictic expression
          but as a conjunction.
          He
          Person deixis
          Speaker and addressee exclusion.
          Then
          Temporal deixis
          Distal time. It can indicate time either
          in the past or in the future.
          42
          He
          Person deixis
          Speaker and addressee exclusion.
          That
          Spatial deixis
          It is not used as a deictic expression
          but as a conjunction.
          “‘Meanwhile, I want to ask you
          to do something,' said the wise
          man, handing the boy a
          teaspoon that held two drops of
          oil. ‘As you wander around,
          carry this spoon with you
          without allowing the oil to spill.'
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          This
          Spatial deixis
          Demonstrative. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          "The boy began climbing and
          descending the many stairways
          of the palace, keeping his eyes
          fixed on the spoon. After two
          hours, he returned to the room
          where the wise man was.
          His
          Person deixis
          Third person. Speaker and
          addressee exclusion.
          He
          Person deixis
          Third person. Speaker and
          addressee exclusion.
          “‘Well,' asked the wise man, 'did
          you see the Persian tapestries
          that are hanging in my dining
          hall? Did you see the garden
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          That
          Spatial deixis
          It is not used as a deictic expression
          but as a conjunction.
          43
          that it took the master gardener
          ten years to create? Did you
          notice the beautiful parchments
          in my library?'
          My
          Person deixis
          First person. Speaker inclusion.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          That
          Spatial deixis
          It is not used as a deictic expression
          but as a conjunction.
          It
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker is
          referring to something.
          Took
          Spatial deixis
          Motion verb. It marked a movement
          away from the speaker.
          Years
          Temporal deixis
          Deictic adverb of time.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          My
          Person deixis
          First person. Speaker inclusion.
          “‘Then go back and observe the
          marvels of my world,' said the
          wise man.
          Then
          Temporal deixis
          Distal time. It can indicate time either
          in the past or in the future.
          Go
          Spatial deixis
          Motion verb. It marks a movement
          away from the speaker’s location.
          My
          Person deixis
          First person. Speaker inclusion.
          'You cannot trust a man if you
          don't know his house.'
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          His
          Person deixis
          Third person. Speaker and
          addressee exclusion.
          44
          “‘But where are the drops of oil I
          entrusted to you?' asked the
          wise man.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          “‘Well, there is only one piece of
          advice I can give you,' said the
          wisest of wise men. ’The secret
          of happiness is to see all the
          marvels of the world, and never
          to forget the drops of oil on the
          spoon.' "
          There
          Spatial diexis
          Demonstrative but does not function
          as deixis.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          "I know it's the vanity of
          vanities, as you said, my Lord.
          But an old king sometimes has
          to take some pride in himself."
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          It
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker is
          referring to something.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          My
          Person deixis
          First person. Speaker inclusion.
          Take
          Spatial deixis
          Motion verb. It marks a movement
          away from the speaker.
          "Who are you?"
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          "How come you speak
          Spanish?" he asked.
          Come
          Spatial deixis
          Motion verb. It marks a movement
          towards the speaker’s location.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          45
          or symbolic.
          "Almost everyone here speaks
          Spanish. We're only two hours
          from Spain."
          Here
          Spatial deixis
          Speaker is referring to his and
          addressee’s location. It could be
          gestural or symbolic.
          We
          Person deixis
          Speaker and addressee inclusion.
          "Sit down, and let me treat you
          to something," said the boy.
          "And ask for a glass of wine for
          me. I hate this tea."
          Me
          Person deixis
          First person. Speaker inclusion.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          Me
          Person deixis
          First person. Speaker inclusion.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          This
          Spatial deixis
          Demonstrative. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          "There is no wine in this
          country," the young man said.
          "The religion here forbids it."
          There
          Spatial deixis
          Demonstrative but does not function
          as deixis.
          This
          Spatial deixis
          Demonstrative. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          Here
          Spatial deixis
          Speaker is referring to his and
          addressee’s location. It could be
          gestural or symbolic.
          It
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker is
          referring to wines.
          "I'd like you to take me there if
          you can. I can pay you to serve
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          46
          as my guide."
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          Take
          Spatial deixis
          Motion verb. It marks a movement
          away from the speaker.
          Me
          Person deixis
          First person. Speaker inclusion.
          There
          Spatial deixis
          Demonstrative (distal). Relatively
          close to addressee.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          My
          Person deixis
          First person. Speaker inclusion.
          "Do you have any idea how to
          get there?" the newcomer
          asked.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          There
          Spatial deixis
          Demonstrative (distal). Relatively
          close to addressee.
          "You have to cross the entire
          Sahara desert," said the young
          man. "And to do that, you need
          money. I need to know whether
          you have enough."
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          That
          Spatial deixis
          Distal demonstrative.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          47
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          "Let's get out of here" said the
          new arrival. "He wants us to
          leave."
          Us
          Person deixis
          Speaker and addressee inclusion.
          Here
          Spatial deixis
          Speaker is referring to his and
          addressee’s location. It could be
          gestural or symbolic.
          He
          Person deixis
          Third person. Speaker and
          addressee exclusion.
          Us
          Person deixis
          Speaker and addressee inclusion.
          "He wanted your money," he
          said. "Tangier is not like the rest
          of Africa. This is a port, and
          every port has its thieves."
          He
          Person deixis
          Third person. Speaker and
          addressee exclusion.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          This
          Spatial deixis
          Demonstrative. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          "We could get to the Pyramids
          by tomorrow," said the other,
          taking the money. "But I have to
          buy two camels."
          We
          Person deixis
          Speaker and addressee inclusion.
          Tomorrow
          Temporal deixis
          The diurnal span following today.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          "I'll just watch him," he said to
          himself.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          Him
          Person deixis
          Third person. Speaker and
          addressee exclusion.
          48
          "Ask the owner of that stall how
          much the sword costs," he said
          to his friend.
          That
          Spatial deixis
          Distal demonstrative.
          "I'm like everyone elseI see
          the world in terms of what I
          would like to see happen, not
          what actually does."
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          "When you want something, all
          the universe conspires in
          helping you to achieve it," he
          had said.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          It
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker is
          referring to something.
          "They're called Urim and
          Thummim, and they can help
          you to read the omens."
          They
          Person deixis
          The speaker is referring to the
          stones.
          They
          Person deixis
          The speaker is referring to the
          stones.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          "Am I going to find my
          treasure?" he asked.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          My
          Person deixis
          First person. Speaker inclusion.
          "Learn to recognize omens, and
          Them
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker is
          49
          follow them," the old king had
          said.
          referring to the people.
          "I promised that I would make
          my own decisions," he said to
          himself.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          That
          Spatial deixis
          It is not used as a deictic expression
          but as a conjunction.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          My
          Person deixis
          First person. Speaker inclusion.
          "I'm an adventurer, looking for
          treasure," he said to himself.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          "All things are one," the old man
          had said.
          None
          None
          No deictic expression present in the
          utterance.
          "I can clean up those glasses in
          the window, if you want," said
          the boy.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          Those
          Spatial deixis
          It is used as a demonstrative adverb
          of space. It could be gestural or
          symbolic.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          "The way they look now,
          nobody is going to want to buy
          them."
          They
          Person deixis
          The speaker is referring to the
          people.
          Now
          Temporal deixis
          Proximal coding time.
          Them
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker is
          referring to the people.
          50
          "In exchange, you could give
          me something to eat."
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          Me
          Person deixis
          First person. Speaker inclusion.
          "Let's go and have some lunch,"
          said the crystal merchant.
          Us
          Person deixis
          Speaker and addressee inclusion.
          Go
          Spatial deixis
          Motion verb. It marks a movement
          away from the speaker’s location.
          "You didn't have to do any
          cleaning," he said. "The Koran
          requires me to feed a hungry
          person."
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          Me
          Person deixis
          First person. Speaker inclusion.
          "Well then, why did you let me
          do it?" the boy asked.
          Then
          Temporal deixis
          Distal time. It can indicate time either
          in the past or in the future.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          Me
          Person deixis
          First person. Speaker inclusion.
          It
          Person deixis
          Third person. The speaker is
          referring to something.
          "Because the crystal was dirty.
          And both you and I needed to
          cleanse our minds of negative
          thoughts."
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          Our
          Person deixis
          First person. Speaker and addressee
          inclusion.
          "I'd like you to work in my shop.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          51
          Two customers came in today
          while you were working, and
          that's a good omen."
          to himself.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          My
          Person deixis
          First person. Speaker inclusion.
          Came
          Spatial deixis
          Motion verb. It marked a movement
          towards the speaker’s location,
          Today
          Temporal deixis
          The diurnal span including Coding
          Time.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          That
          Spatial deixis
          Distal demonstrative.
          "Do you want to go to work for
          me?" the merchant asked.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          Go
          Spatial deixis
          Motion verb. It marks a movement
          away from the speaker’s location.
          Me
          Person deixis
          First person. Speaker inclusion.
          "I can work for the rest of
          today," the boy answered. "I'll
          work all night, until dawn, and
          I'll clean every piece of crystal
          in your shop. In return, I need
          money to get to Egypt
          tomorrow."
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          Today
          Temporal deixis
          The diurnal span including Coding
          Time.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          52
          Your
          Person deixis
          Second person. Addressee inclusion.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          Tomorrow
          Temporal deixis
          The diurnal span following today.
          "Even if you cleaned my crystal
          for an entire year… even if you
          earned a good commission
          selling every piece, you would
          still have to borrow money to
          get to Egypt. There are
          thousands of kilometers of
          desert between here and there."
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          My
          Person deixis
          First person. Speaker inclusion.
          Year
          Temporal deixis
          Deictic adverb of time.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          There
          Spatial deixis
          Demonstrative but does not function
          as deixis.
          Here
          Spatial deixis
          Speaker is referring to his and
          addressee’s location. It could be
          gestural or symbolic.
          There
          Spatial deixis
          Demonstrative (distal). Relatively
          close to addressee.
          "I can give you the money you
          need to get back to your
          country, my son," said the
          crystal merchant.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          53
          Your
          Person deixis
          Second person. Addressee inclusion.
          My
          Person deixis
          First person. Speaker inclusion.
          Son
          Person deixis
          Vocative addresses.
          "I'll work for you," he said.
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          You
          Person deixis
          Second person. It could be gestural
          or symbolic.
          "I need money to buy some
          sheep."
          I
          Person deixis
          First person. The speaker is referring
          to himself.
          54
          Findings
          This part provides vivid explanation about the results derived from the given data. This
          study ought to identify the deictic expressions used by the writer to express his ideas
          and emotions. These deictic expressions were then classified and interpreted. From the
          analysis of data, findings were as follows:
          1. There are five hundred sixty-six utterances collected from the chapter one of the
          book “The Alchemist” written by Paolo Coelho. Four hundred fifteen of them were
          person deixis, one hundred twenty-one were classified as space deixis, twenty
          are time deixis, while ten of the utterances do not have deictic expression.
          Utterances
          Basic categories of Deixis
          # of utterance
          Person deixis
          Space deixis
          Time deixis
          566
          415
          121
          20
          10
          No deictic expression
          Table 1.0 Data collected
          2. Majority of the deictic expressions used by the writer were person deixis. To be
          accurate, Four hundred fifteen person deixis were used in the chapter of the
          novel. This case is evident that a writer uses entities to express his emotions and
          55
          ideas indirectly. The writer puts himself to the speaker’s or character’s role in the
          story. This is summarized in the table shown.
          Person Deixis
          First Person
          Second Person
          Third Person
          Singular
          Plural
          Singular
          Plural
          Singular
          Plural
          I (90)
          We (5)
          You (105)
          __
          He (18)
          They (28)
          Me (23)
          Us (6)
          Your (26)
          __
          She (1)
          Them (14)
          Our (5)
          __
          __
          __
          It (33)
          Their (11)
          My (23)
          __
          __
          __
          Him (2)
          __
          __
          __
          __
          __
          His (5)
          __
          Son (2) Vocatives
          Table 1.1 Person Deixis
          Most of the utterances were addressed to the second person. You as a second person
          pronoun was uttered one hundred five times. Second to the list is the first person I which
          was uttered 90 times. Followed by the third person it which represents the object and
          ideas in the utterances.
          56
          3. Space deixis are also present in the chapter one of the novel. There were one
          hundred twenty-one expressions classified as spatial deixis. However, thirty-six
          of them were classified as spatial deixis but do not function as a deictic
          expression rather as a conjunction. Motion verbs which show change in
          movement and action were also identified. Twenty-five were listed as motion
          verbs.
          Space Deixis
          Spatial deixis
          Motion verbs
          Conjunctions
          Demonstratives
          but not deixis
          There (8)
          Come/Came (9)
          That (36)
          There (4)
          Here (9)
          Take/Took (6)
          __
          __
          Those (2)
          Go (6)
          __
          __
          This (14)
          Bring/Brought (2)
          __
          __
          That (20)
          __
          __
          __
          These (2)
          __
          __
          __
          Table 1.2 Space Deixis
          57
          There were six demonstrative adverbs which functions as deixis in the utterances. Most
          of which is the demonstrative adverb that which shows distance followed by this which
          was uttered fourteen times.
          4. There were twenty time deixis present in the chapter one of the novel. Eight of
          them were “then” which can indicate time either in the past or in the future.
          Followed by “tomorrow” which was uttered four times and last is “now” which was
          used three times.
          Time Deixis
          Now (3)
          Then (8)
          A month (1)
          Tomorrow (4)
          Year/s (2)
          Today (2)
          Table 1.3 Time Deixis
          5. Out of five hundred fifty-six utterances found in the chapter one of the novel, ten
          of which does not have deictic expressions. Nevertheless, the objective of the
          study is attained since deictic expressions were identified, classified according to
          the basic category of deixis, and interpreted by analyzing how the expression
          was used by the speaker considering the person, time and location of the
          utterance.
          58
          IV. Conclusion
          Based on the analysis of the book entitled “The alchemist”, is it is indeed evident that
          language is powerful and influential. The researcher concludes that every human
          language has deictic expressions which points to a person, place, and or time. This is
          also supported by Huang (2007) who stated that all human languages contains deixis in
          order to meet the communicative needs of the language users. Deixis can be found not
          only through verbal utterances but even in written texts especially in novels since
          dialogues and literal conversations among the characters or speaker in the story interact
          they actual humans do. Written texts are just the representation of what the writer would
          like to convey considering the writer’s main purpose. The researcher also assumes that
          the use of deixis can move the emotions of the readers. Readers can easily relate and
          involve themselves if proper use of deixis is made. The findings of this study shows that
          person deixis dominates the chapter one of the novel. This simply means that the writer
          speaks to the readers. The writer is trying to interact with the readers by educating and
          motivating the readers to follow their destinies. The novel can also be interpreted as
          person-centered inspirational book since person deixis is dominating in the novel. It can
          be assumes that if a novel is dominated by a time diexis, it can be interpreted that a
          writer gives importance to the time of the story. On the other hand, if space deixis
          dominates in a story then it can be interpreted that a wrter is trying to show or point-out a
          location or a place significant to the writer.
          This study emphasizes that a novel should have its purpose and intention in order for the
          composition to be meaningful. The pragmatic approach is used in the novel to convey
          the meaning behind the words. Although, linguistic and literary approach differ in terms
          of analyzing the text, it is still possible that findings may be the same. The researcher
          59
          does not only focus on the linguistic analysis of the novel but also providing qualitative
          values and pedagogical implications for the readers of the novel.
          60
          V. References
          Brinton, L. (2000) The Structure of Modern English, A linguistic introduction,
          University of British Columbia
          Coelho, P. (2006) The Alchemist, HarperCollins Publishers
          Creswell, J. W. (1994). Research design: Qualitative and quantitative
          approaches. Thousand Oaks, Ca: Sage Publications
          Huang, Y. (2007). Pragmatics. New York: Oxford University Press.
          Merriam, S. B. (1988). Case study research in education: A qualitative approach.
          San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
          Mokodompit, W. (2013). Analysis of Deixis in Short Story “The Little Mermaid”
          By Hans Christian Andersen.
          Yule, G. (2010). The study of language. New York: Cambridge University Press
          61
          THE ALCHEMIST
          by Paolo Coelho
          The boy’s name was Santiago. Dusk was falling as the boy arrived with his herd at an
          abandoned church. The roof had fallen in long ago, and enormous had grown on the spot where
          the sacristy had once stood.
          He decided to spend the night there. He saw to it that all the sheep entered through the ruined
          gate, and then the laid some planks across it to prevent the flock from wandering away during
          the night. There were no wolves in the region, but once an animal had strayed during the night,
          and the boy had to spend the entire next day searching for it.
          The swept the floor with his jacket and lay down, using the book he had just finished reading as
          a pillow. He told himself that he would have to start reading thicker books: they lasted longer, ad
          made more comfortable pillows.
          It was still dark when he awoke, and looking u, he could see the stars through the half-
          destroyed roof. I wanted sleep longer, he thought. He had had same dream that night as a week
          ago, and once again he had awakened before it ended.
          He arose and, taking up his crook, began to awaken the sheep that still slept. He had noticed
          that, as soon as he awoke, most of his animal also began to stir. It was as if some mysterious
          energy bound his life to that of the sheep, with whom he had spent the past two years, leading
          them through the country side in search of food and water. “They are so used to me that they
          know my schedule,” he muttered. Thinking about that for a moment, he realized that if could be
          the other way around: that it was he who had become accustomed to their schedule.
          But there were certain of them, who took a bit longer to awaken. The boy prodded them, one by
          one, with his crook, calling each by name. He had always believed that the sheep were able to
          62
          understand what he said. So there were times when he read them parts of his books that had
          make an impression on him, or when he would tell them of the loneliness or the happiness of a
          shepherd in the fields. Sometimes he would comment to them on the things he had seen in the
          villages thy passed.
          But for the past few days he had spoken to them about only one thing: the girl, the daughter of
          merchant who lived in the village they would reach in about four days. He had been to the
          village only once, the year before. The merchant was proprietor of a dry goods shop, and he
          always demanded that the sheep be sheared in his presence, so that he would not cheated, a
          friend had told the boy about the shop, he had taken his sheep there.
          “I need to sell some wool,” the boy told the merchant.
          The shop was busy, and the man asked the shepherd to wait until the afternoon. So the boy sat
          on the steps of the shop and took a book from his bag.
          “I didn’t know shepherd knew how to read,” said a girl’s voice behind him.
          The girl was typical region of Andalusia, with flowing black hair, and eyes that vaguely recalld
          the Moorish conquerors.
          “Well, usually I learn more from my sheep than from books,” he answered. During the two hours
          that they talked, she told him, and spoke of life in the village m she was the merchant’s
          daughter, and spoke of life in the village, where each day was like all the others. The shepherd
          told her the Andalusian countryside, and related the news from the other towns where he had
          stopped. It was a pleasant change from talking to his sheep.
          “How did you learn to read?” the girl asked at one point.
          63
          “Like everybody learns,” he said. “In school.”
          “Well, if you know how to read, why are you just a shepherd?”
          The boy mumbled an answer that allowed him to avoid responding to her question. He was sure
          the girl would never understand. He went on telling stories about his travels, and her bright,
          Moorish eyes went wide with fear and surprise. As the time passed, the boy found himself
          wishing that the day would never end, that her father would stay busy and keep him waiting for
          three days. He recognized that he was feeling something he had never experienced before: the
          desire to live in one place forever. With the girl with the raven hair, his days would never be the
          same again.
          But finally the merchant appeared, and asked the boy to shear four sheep. The paid for the wool
          and asked the shepherd to come back the following year.
          And now it was only four days before he would be back in that same village. He was excited,
          and at the same time uneasy: maybe the girl had already forgotten him. Lots of shepherd
          passed through, selling their wool.
          “It doesn’t matter.” He said to his sheep. “I know other girls in other places.”
          But in his heart he knew that it did matter. And he knew the shepherd, like seamen and like
          traveling salesman, always found a ton where there was someone who would make them forget
          the joys of carefree wandering.
          The day was dawning, and they never have to make any decisions, he thought. Maybe that’s
          why they always stay close to me.
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          The only things that concerned the sheep were food and water. As long as the boy knew how to
          find the best pastures in Andalusia, they would be his friends. Yes, their days were all the same,
          with the seemingly endless hours between sunrise and dusk; and they had never read a book in
          their young lives,
          And didn’t understand when the boy told them about the sights of the cities they were content
          with just food and water, and, in change, they generously gave of their wool, their company,
          and– once in a while-their meat.
          If became a monster today, and decided to kill them, one by one, they would become aware
          only after most of the flock had been slaughtered, through the boy. They trust me, and they’ve
          forgotten how to rely on their own instinct, because I lead them to nourishment.
          The boy was surprised at his thoughts. Maybe the church, with the sycamore growing from
          within, had been haunted. It had caused him to have the same dream for a second time, and it
          was causing him to feel anger toward his faithful companions. He drank a bit from the wine that
          remained from his dinner of the night before, and he gathered his jacket closer to his body. He
          knew that a few hours from now, with the sun at its zenith, the heat would be so great that he
          would not able to lead his flock across the fields. It was the same of the day when all of Spain
          slept during the summer. The heat lasted until nightfall, and all that time he had to carry his
          jacket. But when he thought to complain about the burden of its weight, he remembered that,
          because he had the jacket, he had withstood the cold of the dawn.
          We have to be prepared for change, he thought, and he was grateful for the jacket’s weight and
          warmth.
          The jacket had purposed, and so did the boy. His purpose in life was to travel, and. After two
          years of walking the Andalusian terrain, he knew all the cities of the region. He was planning, on
          the visit, to explain to the girl how it was that a simple shepherd knew how to read. That he had
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          attended a seminary until he was sixteen. His parents had wanted him to become a priest, and
          thereby a source of pride for a simple farm family. They worked hard just to have food and
          water, like the sheep. He had studied Latin, Spanish and theology. But ever since he had been
          a child, he had wanted to know the world, and this was much more important to him than
          knowing God and learning about man’s sins. One afternoon, on a visit to his family, He had
          summoned up the courage to tell his father that he didn’t want to become a priest. That he
          wanted to travel.
          “People from all over the world have passed through this village, son.” said his father. “They
          come in search of new things, but when they leave they are basically the same people they
          were when they arrived. They climb the mountain to see the castle, and they wind up thinking
          that the past was better than what we have now. They have blond hair, or dark skin, but
          basically they’re the same as the people who live right here”.
          “But I’d like to see the castles in the towns where they live.” The boy explained.
          “Those people, when they see our land, say that they would like to live here forever,” father
          continued.
          “Well, I’d like to see their land, and see how they live,” said his son.
          “The people who come here have a lot of money to spend, so they can afford to travel,” his
          father said.
          “Amongst us, the only ones who travel are the shepherds.”
          “Well, then I’ll be a shepherd.”
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          His father said no more. The next day, he gave his son a pouch that held three ancient Spanish
          gold coins.
          “I found this one day in the fields. I wanted them to be a part of your inheritance, but use them to
          buy your flock. Take to the fields, and someday you’ll learn that our countryside is the best, and
          our women the most beautiful.”
          And he gave the boy his blessing. The boy could see in his father’s gaze a desire to be able,
          himself, to travel the world- a desire that was still alive, despite his father’s having had a bury it,
          over dozen of years, under burden struggling for water to drink, food to eat, and the same time
          place to sleep every night of his life.
          The horizon was tinged with red, and suddenly the sun appeared. The boy thought back to that
          conversation with his father, and felt happy; he had already seen many castles, and met many
          women (but none the equal of the one who awaited him several hence). He owned a jacket, a
          book that he could trade for another and a flock of sheep. But, most important, he was able
          every day to live out his dream. If he were to tire of the Andalusian fields, he could sell his
          sheep and go to sea. By the time he had enough of the sea, he would already have known other
          cities, other women, and other chance to be happy. I couldn’t have found God in the seminary;
          he thought, as he looked at the sunrise.
          Whenever he could, he sought out a new rod to travel. He had never been to that ruined church
          before, in spite of having traveled through those part many times. The world was huge and
          inexhaustible; he had only to allow his sheep to set the route for a while, and he would discover
          other interesting things. The problem is that they don’t even realize that they’re walking a new
          road every day. They don’t see that the fields are new and the season change. All they think
          about food and water.
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          Maybe we’re all that way, the boy mused. Even meI haven’t thought of other women since I
          met the merchant’s daughter. Looking in the sun, he calculated that he could reach Tarifa
          before midday. There, he could exchange his book for a thicker one, fill his wine bottle shave,
          and have a haircut; he had to prepare himself for his meeting with the girl, and he didn’t want to
          think about the possibility that some other shepherd, with a larger flock of sheep, had arrived
          there before him asked for her hand.
          It’s the possibility of having a dream come true that make life interesting, he thought, as he
          looked again at the position of the sun, and hurried his pace. He had suddenly remembered
          that, in Tarifa, there was an old woman who interpreted dreams.
          The old woman led the boy a room at the back of their house; it was separated from their living
          room by a curtain of colored beads. The room’s furnishing consisted of a table, an image of the
          Sacred Heart of Jesus, and two chairs.
          The woman sat down, and told him to be seated as well. Then she took both of his hands in
          hers, and began quietly to pray.
          It sounded like a Gypsy prayer. The boy had already had experience on the road with Gypsies;
          they also traveled, but they had no flock of sheep. People said that Gypsies spent their lives
          tricking others. It was also said that they had a pact with the devil, and they kidnapped children
          and, taking them away to their mysterious camps, made them their slaves. As a child, the boy
          had always been frightened to death that he would captured by Gypsies, and this childhood fear
          returned when the old woman took his hands in hers.
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          But she has the Sacred Heart of Jesus there, he thought, trying to reassure him. He didn’t want
          his hand to begin trembling, showing the old woman that he was fearful. He recited an Our
          Father silently.
          “Very interesting,” said the woman, never taking her eyes from the boy’s hands, and then she
          fell silent.
          The boy was becoming nervous. His hands began to tremble and the woman sensed it. He
          quickly pulled his hands away.
          “I didn’t come here to have you read my palm,” he said, already regretting having come. He
          thought for a moment that it would be better to pay her fee and leave without learning thing, that
          he was giving o much importance to his recurrent dream.
          “You came so that you could learn about your dreams,” said the old woman. “And dreams are
          the language of God. When he speaks in our language, I can interpret what he has said. But if
          he speaks in the language of the soul, it is only you who can understand. But, whichever it is.
          I’m going to charge you for your consultation.”
          Another trick, the boy thought. But he decided to take a chance. A shepherd always takes his
          chances with wolves and with droughts, and that’s what makes a shepherd’s life exciting.
          “I have had the same dream twice,” he said. “I dreamed that I was in a field with my sheep,
          when a child appeared and began to play with the animals. I don’t like people to do that,
          because the sheep are afraid of strangers, but children always seem to be able to play with
          them without frightening them. I don’t know why. I don’t know how animals know the age of
          human beings.”
          “Tell more about your dream,” said the woman. “I have to get back to my cooking, and since you
          don’t have much money, I can’t give you a lot of time.”
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          “The child went on playing with my sheep for quite a while,” continued the boy, a bit upset. “And
          suddenly, the child took me by both hands and transported me to the Egyptian pyramids.”
          He paused for a moment to see if the woman knew what the Egyptian pyramids were. But she
          said nothing.
          “Then, at the Egyptian pyramids,” he said the last three words slowly, so that the old woman
          would understand“the child said to me. “If you come here, you will find a hidden treasure.’ And
          just as she was about to show me the exact location, I woke up. Both times.”
          The woman was silent for some time. Then she again took his hands and studied them
          carefully.
          “I’m not going to charge you anything now,” she said. “But I want one-tenth of the treasure, if
          you find it.”
          The boy laughedout of happiness. He was going to be able to save the little money he had
          because of a dream about hidden treasure!
          “Well, interpret the dream,” he said.
          “First, swear to me. Swear that you will give me one-tenth of your treasure in exchange for what
          I am going to tell you.”
          The shepherd swore that he would. The old woman asked him to swear again while looking at
          the image of the Sacred heart of Jesus.
          “It’s a dream in the language of the world,” she said. “I can interpret it, but the interpretation is
          very difficult. That’s why I feel that I deserved a part of what you find.”
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          “And this is my interpretation: you must go to the pyramids in Egypt. I have never heard of them,
          but, if it was a child who showed them to you, they exist. There you will find a treasure that will
          make you a rich man.”
          The boy was surprised, and then irritated. He didn’t need to seek out the old woman for this! But
          the he remembered that he wasn’t going to have to pay for anything.
          “I didn’t need to waste my time just for this.” He said.
          “I told you that your dream was a difficult one. It’s the simple things in life that are the most
          extraordinary; only wise are able to understand them. And since I am not wise, I have had to
          learn other arts, such as the reading of palms.”
          “Well, how am I going to get to Egypt?”
          “I only interpret dreams. I don’t know how to turn them into reality. That’s why I have to live off
          what my daughters provide me with.”
          “And what if I never get to Egypt?”
          “Then I don’t get paid. It wouldn’t be the first time.”
          And the woman told the boy to leave, saying she had already wasted too much time with him.
          So the boy was disappointed; he decided that he would never again believe in dreams. He
          remembered that he had a number of things he had to take care of: he went to the market for
          something to eat, he traded his book for one that was thicker, and he found a bench in the plaza
          where he could sample the new wine he had bought. The day was hot, and the wine was
          refreshing. The sheep were at the gates of the city, in a stable that belonged to a friend. The
          boy knew a lot of people in the city. That was what made travelling appeal to himhe always
          made new friends, and he didn’t need to spend all of his time with them. When someone sees
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          the same people every day, as had happened with him at the seminary, they wind up becoming
          a part of this person’s life. And then they want a person to change. If someone isn’t what others
          want them to be, the others become angry. Everyone seems to have a clear idea of how other
          people should lead their lives, but none about his or her own.
          He decided to wait until the sun had sunk a bit lower in the sky before following his flock back
          through the fields. Three days from now, he would be with the merchant's daughter.
          He started to read the book he had bought. On the very first page it described a burial
          ceremony. And the names of the people involved were very difficult to pronounce. If he ever
          wrote a book, he thought, he would present one person at a time, so that the reader wouldn't
          have to worry about memorizing a lot of names.
          When he was finally able to concentrate on what he was reading, he liked the book better; the
          burial was on a snowy day, and he welcomed the feeling of being cold. As he read on, an old
          man sat down at his side and tried to strike up a conversation.
          "What are they doing?" the old man asked, pointing at the people in the plaza.
          "Working," the boy answered dryly, making it look as if he wanted to concentrate on his reading.
          Actually, he was thinking about shearing his sheep in front of the merchant's daughter, so that
          she could see that he was someone who was capable of doing difficult things. He had already
          imagined the scene many times; every time, the girl became fascinated when he explained that
          the sheep had to be sheared from back to front. He also tried to remember some good stories to
          relate as he sheared the sheep. Most of them he had read in books, but he would tell them as if
          they were from his personal experience. She would never know the difference, because she
          didn't know how to read.
          Meanwhile, the old man persisted in his attempt to strike up a conversation.
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          He said that he was tired and thirsty, and asked if he might have a sip of the boy's wine. The
          boy offered his bottle, hoping that the old man would leave him alone.
          But the old man wanted to talk, and he asked the boy what book he was reading. The boy was
          tempted to be rude, and move to another bench, but his father had taught him to be respectful
          of the elderly. So he held out the book to the manfor two reasons: first, that he, himself,
          wasn't sure how to pronounce the title; and second, that if the old man didn't know how to read,
          he would probably feel ashamed and decide of his own accord to change benches.
          "Hmm…" said the old man, looking at all sides of the book, as if it were some strange object.
          "This is an important book, but it's really irritating."
          The boy was shocked. The old man knew how to read, and had already read the book. And if
          the book was irritating, as the old man had said, the boy still had time to change it for another.
          "It's a book that says the same thing almost all the other books in the world say," continued the
          old man. "It describes people's inability to choose their own destinies. And it ends up saying that
          everyone believes the world's greatest lie."
          "What's the world's greatest lie?" the boy asked, completely surprised.
          "It's this: that at a certain point in our lives, we lose control of what's happening to us, and our
          lives become controlled by fate. That's the world's greatest lie."
          "That's never happened to me," the boy said. "They wanted me to be a priest, but I decided to
          become a shepherd."
          "Much better," said the old man. "Because you really like to travel."
          "He knew what I was thinking," the boy said to himself. The old man, meanwhile, was leafing
          through the book, without seeming to want to return it at all. The boy noticed that the man's
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          clothing was strange. He looked like an Arab, which was not unusual in those parts. Africa was
          only a few hours from Tarifa; one had only to cross the narrow straits by boat. Arabs often
          appeared in the city, shopping and chanting their strange prayers several times a day.
          "Where are you from?" the boy asked.
          "From many places."
          "No one can be from many places," the boy said. "I'm a shepherd and I have been to many
          places, but I come from only one placefrom a city near an ancient castle. That's where I was
          born."
          "Well then, we could say that I was born in Salem."
          The boy didn't know where Salem was, but he didn't want to ask, fearing that he would appear
          ignorant. He looked at the people in the plaza for a while; they were coming and going, and all
          of them seemed to be very busy.
          "So, what is Salem like?" he asked, trying to get some sort of clue.
          "It's like it always has been."
          No clue yet. But he knew that Salem wasn't in Andalusia. If it were, he would already have
          heard of it.
          "And what do you do in Salem?" he insisted.
          "What do I do in Salem?" The old man laughed. "Well, I'm the king of Salem!"
          People say strange things, the boy thought. Sometimes it's better to be with the sheep, who
          don't say anything. And better still to be alone with one's books. They tell their incredible stories
          74
          at the time when you want to hear them. But when you're talking to people, they say some
          things that are so strange that you don't know how to continue the conversation.
          "My name is Melchizedek," said the old man. "How many sheep do you have?"
          "Enough," said the boy. He could see that the old man wanted to know more about his life.
          "Well, then, we've got a problem. I can't help you if you feel you've got enough sheep."
          The boy was getting irritated. He wasn't asking for help. It was the old man who had asked for a
          drink of his wine, and had started the conversation.
          "Give me my book," the boy said. "I have to go and gather my sheep and get going."
          "Give me one-tenth of your sheep," said the old man, "and I'll tell you how to find the hidden
          treasure."
          The boy remembered his dream, and suddenly everything was clear to him.
          The old woman hadn't charged him anything, but the old manmaybe he was her husband
          was going to find a way to get much more money in exchange for information about something
          that didn't even exist. The old man was probably a Gypsy, too.
          But before the boy could say anything, the old man leaned over, picked up a stick, and began to
          write in the sand of the plaza. Something bright reflected from his chest with such intensity that
          the boy was momentarily blinded. With a movement that was too quick for someone his age, the
          man covered whatever it was with his cape. When his vision returned to normal, the boy was
          able to read what the old man had written in the sand.
          There, in the sand of the plaza of that small city, the boy read the names of his father and his
          mother and the name of the seminary he had attended.
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          He read the name of the merchant's daughter, which he hadn't even known, and he read things
          he had never told anyone.
          ____________________________________________________________________________
          "I'm the king of Salem," the old man had said.
          "Why would a king be talking with a shepherd?" the boy asked, awed and embarrassed.
          "For several reasons. But let's say that the most important is that you have succeeded in
          discovering your destiny."
          The boy didn't know what a person's "destiny" was.
          "It's what you have always wanted to accomplish. Everyone, when they are young, knows what
          their destiny is.
          "At that point in their lives, everything is clear and everything is possible. They are not afraid to
          dream, and to yearn for everything they would like to see happen to them in their lives. But, as
          time passes, a mysterious force begins to convince them that it will be impossible for them to
          realize their destiny."
          None of what the old man was saying made much sense to the boy. But he wanted to know
          what the "mysterious force" was; the merchant's daughter would be impressed when he told her
          about that!
          "It's a force that appears to be negative, but actually shows you how to realize your destiny. It
          prepares your spirit and your will, because there is one great truth on this planet: whoever you
          are, or whatever it is that you do, when you really want something, it's because that desire
          originated in the soul of the universe. It's your mission on earth."
          "Even when all you want to do is travel? Or marry the daughter of a textile merchant?"
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          "Yes or even search for treasure. The Soul of the World is nourished by people's happiness.
          And also by unhappiness, envy, and jealousy. To realize one's destiny is a person's only real
          obligation. All things are one.
          "And, when you want something, all the universe conspires in helping you to achieve it."
          They were both silent for a time, observing the plaza and the townspeople.
          It was the old man who spoke first.
          "Why do you tend a flock of sheep?"
          "Because I like to travel."
          The old man pointed to a baker standing in his shop window at one corner of the plaza. "When
          he was a child, that man wanted to travel, too. But he decided first to buy his bakery and put
          some money aside. When he's an old man, he's going to spend a month in Africa. He never
          realized that people are capable, at any time in their lives, of doing what they dream of."
          "He should have decided to become a shepherd," the boy said.
          "Well, he thought about that," the old man said. "But bakers are more important people than
          shepherds. Bakers have homes, while shepherds sleep out in the open. Parents would rather
          see their children marry bakers than shepherds."
          The boy felt a pang in his heart, thinking about the merchant's daughter. There was surely a
          baker in her town.
          The old man continued, "In the long run, what people think about shepherds and bakers
          becomes more important for them than their own destinies."
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          The old man leafed through the book, and fell to reading a page he came to. The boy waited,
          and then interrupted the old man just as he himself had been interrupted. "Why are you telling
          me all this?"
          "Because you are trying to realize your destiny. And you are at the point where you're about to
          give it all up."
          "And that's when you always appear on the scene?"
          "Not always in this way, but I always appear in one form or another. Sometimes I appear in the
          form of a solution, or a good idea. At other times, at a crucial moment, I make it easier for things
          to happen. There are other things I do, too, but most of the time people don't realize I've done
          them."
          The old man related that, the week before, he had been forced to appear before a miner, and
          had taken the form of a stone. The miner had abandoned everything to go mining for emeralds.
          For five years he had been working a certain river, and had examined hundreds of thousands of
          stones looking for an emerald. The miner was about to give it all up, right at the point when, if he
          were to examine just one more stonejust one more he would find his emerald. Since the
          miner had sacrificed everything to his destiny, the old man decided to become involved. He
          transformed himself into a stone that rolled up to the miner's foot. The miner, with all the anger
          and frustration of his five fruitless years, picked up the stone and threw it aside. But he had
          thrown it with such force that it broke the stone it fell upon, and there, embedded in the broken
          stone, was the most beautiful emerald in the world.
          "People learn, early in their lives, what is their reason for being," said the old man, with certain
          bitterness. "Maybe that's why they give up on it so early, too. But that's the way it is."
          The boy reminded the old man that he had said something about hidden treasure.
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          "Treasure is uncovered by the force of flowing water, and it is buried by the same currents," said
          the old man. "If you want to learn about your own treasure, you will have to give me one-tenth of
          your flock."
          "What about one-tenth of my treasure?"
          The old man looked disappointed. "If you start out by promising what you don't even have yet,
          you'll lose your desire to work toward getting it."
          The boy told him that he had already promised to give one-tenth of his treasure to the Gypsy.
          "Gypsies are experts at getting people to do that," sighed the old man. "In any case, it's good
          that you've learned that everything in life has its price. This is what the Warriors of the Light try
          to teach."
          The old man returned the book to the boy.
          "Tomorrow, at this same time, bring me a tenth of your flock. And I will tell you how to find the
          hidden treasure. Good afternoon."
          And he vanished around the corner of the plaza.
          The boy began again to read his book, but he was no longer able to concentrate. He was tense
          and upset, because he knew that the old man was right. He went over to the bakery and bought
          a loaf of bread, thinking about whether or not he should tell the baker what the old man had said
          about him. Sometimes it's better to leave things as they are, he thought to himself, and decided
          to say nothing. If he were to say anything, the baker would spend three days thinking about
          giving it all up, even though he had gotten used to the way things were. The boy could certainly
          resist causing that kind of anxiety for the baker. So he began to wander through the city, and
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          found himself at the gates. There was a small building there, with a window at which people
          bought tickets to Africa. And he knew that Egypt was in Africa.
          "Can I help you?" asked the man behind the window.
          "Maybe tomorrow," said the boy, moving away. If he sold just one of his sheep, he'd have
          enough to get to the other shore of the strait. The idea frightened him.
          "Another dreamer," said the ticket seller to his assistant, watching the boy walk away. "He
          doesn't have enough money to travel."
          While standing at the ticket window, the boy had remembered his flock, and decided he should
          go back to being a shepherd. In two years he had learned everything about shepherding: he
          knew how to shear sheep, how to care for pregnant ewes, and how to protect the sheep from
          wolves. He knew all the fields and pastures of Andalusia. And he knew what was the fair price
          for every one of his animals.
          He decided to return to his friend's stable by the longest route possible. As he walked past the
          city's castle, he interrupted his return, and climbed the stone ramp that led to the top of the wall.
          From there, he could see Africa in the distance. Someone had once told him that it was from
          there that the Moors had come, to occupy all of Spain.
          He could see almost the entire city from where he sat, including the plaza where he had talked
          with the old man. Curse the moment I met that old man, he thought. He had come to the town
          only to find a woman who could interpret his dream. Neither the woman nor the old man was at
          all impressed by the fact that he was a shepherd. They were solitary individuals who no longer
          believed in things, and didn't understand that shepherds become attached to their sheep. He
          knew everything about each member of his flock: he knew which ones were lame, which one
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          was to give birth two months from now, and which were the laziest. He knew how to shear them,
          and how to slaughter them. If he ever decided to leave them, they would suffer.
          The wind began to pick up. He knew that wind: people called it the levanter, because on it the
          Moors had come from the Levant at the eastern end of the Mediterranean.
          The levanter increased in intensity. Here I am, between my flock and my treasure, the boy
          thought. He had to choose between something he had become accustomed to and something
          he wanted to have. There was also the merchant's daughter, but she wasn't as important as his
          flock, because she didn't depend on him. Maybe she didn't even remember him. He was sure
          that it made no difference to her on which day he appeared: for her, every day was the same,
          and when each day is the same as the next, it's because people fail to recognize the good
          things that happen in their lives every day that the sun rises.
          I left my father, my mother, and the town castle behind. They have gotten used to my being
          away, and so have I. The sheep will get used to my not being there, too, the boy thought.
          From where he sat, he could observe the plaza. People continued to come and go from the
          baker's shop. A young couple sat on the bench where he had talked with the old man, and they
          kissed.
          "That baker…" he said to himself, without completing the thought. The levanter was still getting
          stronger, and he felt its force on his face. That wind had brought the Moors, yes, but it had also
          brought the smell of the desert and of veiled women. It had brought with it the sweat and the
          dreams of men who had once left to search for the unknown, and for gold and adventureand
          for the Pyramids. The boy felt jealous of the freedom of the wind, and saw that he could have
          the same freedom. There was nothing to hold him back except himself. The sheep, the
          merchant's daughter, and the fields of Andalusia were only steps along the way to his Personal
          Legend.
          81
          The next day, the boy met the old man at noon. He brought six sheep with him.
          "I'm surprised," the boy said. "My friend bought all the other sheep immediately. He said that he
          had always dreamed of being a shepherd, and that it was a good omen."
          "That's the way it always is," said the old man. "It's called the principle of favorability. When you
          play cards the first time, you are almost sure to win. Beginner's luck."
          "Why is that?"
          "Because there is a force that wants you to realize your destiny; it whets your appetite with a
          taste of success."
          Then the old man began to inspect the sheep, and he saw that one was lame. The boy
          explained that it wasn't important, since that sheep was the most intelligent of the flock, and
          produced the most wool.
          "Where is the treasure?" he asked.
          "It's in Egypt, near the Pyramids."
          The boy was startled. The old woman had said the same thing. But she hadn't charged him
          anything.
          "In order to find the treasure, you will have to follow the omens. God has prepared a path for
          everyone to follow. You just have to read the omens that he left for you."
          Before the boy could reply, a butterfly appeared and fluttered between him and the old man. He
          remembered something his grandfather had once told him: that butterflies were a good omen.
          Like crickets, and like expectations; like lizards and four-leaf clovers.
          82
          "That's right," said the old man, able to read the boy's thoughts. "Just as your grandfather taught
          you. These are good omens."
          The old man opened his cape, and the boy was struck by what he saw. The old man wore a
          breastplate of heavy gold, covered with precious stones.
          The boy recalled the brilliance he had noticed on the previous day.
          He really was a king! He must be disguised to avoid encounters with thieves.
          "Take these," said the old man, holding out a white stone and a black stone that had been
          embedded at the center of the breastplate. "They are called Urim and Thummim. The black
          signifies 'yes,' and the white 'no.' When you are unable to read the omens, they will help you to
          do so. Always ask an objective question.
          "But, if you can, try to make your own decisions. The treasure is at the Pyramids; that you
          already knew. But I had to insist on the payment of six sheep because I helped you to make
          your decision."
          The boy put the stones in his pouch. From then on, he would make his own decisions.
          "Don't forget that everything you deal with is only one thing and nothing else. And don't forget
          the language of omens. And, above all, don't forget to follow your Personal Legend through to
          its conclusion.
          "But before I go, I want to tell you a little story.
          "A certain shopkeeper sent his son to learn about the secret of happiness from the wisest man
          in the world. The lad wandered through the desert for forty days, and finally came upon a
          beautiful castle, high atop a mountain. It was there that the wise man lived.
          83
          "Rather than finding a saintly man, though, our hero, on entering the main room of the castle,
          saw a hive of activity: tradesmen came and went, people were conversing in the corners, a
          small orchestra was playing soft music, and there was a table covered with platters of the most
          delicious food in that part of the world. The wise man conversed with everyone, and the boy had
          to wait for two hours before it was his turn to be given the man's attention.
          "The wise man listened attentively to the boy's explanation of why he had come, but told him
          that he didn't have time just then to explain the secret of happiness. He suggested that the boy
          look around the palace and return in two hours.
          “‘Meanwhile, I want to ask you to do something,' said the wise man, handing the boy a teaspoon
          that held two drops of oil. ‘As you wander around, carry this spoon with you without allowing the
          oil to spill.'
          "The boy began climbing and descending the many stairways of the palace, keeping his eyes
          fixed on the spoon. After two hours, he returned to the room where the wise man was.
          “‘Well,' asked the wise man, 'did you see the Persian tapestries that are hanging in my dining
          hall? Did you see the garden that it took the master gardener ten years to create? Did you
          notice the beautiful parchments in my library?'
          "The boy was embarrassed, and confessed that he had observed nothing.
          His only concern had been not to spill the oil that the wise man had entrusted to him.
          “‘Then go back and observe the marvels of my world,' said the wise man.
          'You cannot trust a man if you don't know his house.'
          "Relieved, the boy picked up the spoon and returned to his exploration of the palace, this time
          observing all of the works of art on the ceilings and the walls. He saw the gardens, the
          84
          mountains all around him, the beauty of the flowers, and the taste with which everything had
          been selected. Upon returning to the wise man, he related in detail everything he had seen.
          “‘But where are the drops of oil I entrusted to you?' asked the wise man.
          "Looking down at the spoon he held, the boy saw that the oil was gone.
          “‘Well, there is only one piece of advice I can give you,' said the wisest of wise men. ’The secret
          of happiness is to see all the marvels of the world, and never to forget the drops of oil on the
          spoon.' "
          The shepherd said nothing. He had understood the story the old king had told him. A shepherd
          may like to travel, but he should never forget about his sheep.
          The old man looked at the boy and, with his hands held together, made several strange
          gestures over the boy's head. Then, taking his sheep, he walked away.
          At the highest point in Tarifa there is an old fort, built by the Moors. From atop its walls, one can
          catch a glimpse of Africa. Melchizedek, the king of Salem, sat on the wall of the fort that
          afternoon, and felt the levanter blowing in his face. The sheep fidgeted nearby, uneasy with their
          new owner and excited by so much change. All they wanted was food and water.
          Melchizedek watched a small ship that was plowing its way out of the port.
          He would never again see the boy, just as he had never seen Abraham again after having
          charged him his one-tenth fee. That was his work.
          The gods should not have desires, because they don't have Personal Legends. But the king of
          Salem hoped desperately that the boy would be successful.
          85
          It's too bad that he's quickly going to forget my name, he thought. I should have repeated it for
          him. Then when he spoke about me he would say that I am Melchizedek, the king of Salem.
          He looked to the skies; feeling a bit abashed, and said, "I know it's the vanity of vanities, as you
          said, my Lord. But an old king sometimes has to take some pride in himself."
          How strange Africa is, thought the boy.
          He was sitting in a bar very much like the other bars he had seen along the narrow streets of
          Tangier. Some men were smoking from a gigantic pipe that they passed from one to the other.
          In just a few hours he had seen men walking hand in hand, women with their faces covered,
          and priests that climbed to the tops of towers and chantedas everyone about him went to their
          knees and placed their foreheads on the ground.
          "A practice of infidels," he said to himself. As a child in church, he had always looked at the
          image of Saint Santiago Matamoros on his white horse; his sword unsheathed, and figures such
          as these kneeling at his feet. The boy felt ill and terribly alone. The infidels had an evil look
          about them.
          Besides this, in the rush of his travels he had forgotten a detail, just one detail, which could keep
          him from his treasure for a long time: only Arabic was spoken in this country.
          The owner of the bar approached him, and the boy pointed to a drink that had been served at
          the next table. It turned out to be a bitter tea. The boy preferred wine.
          But he didn't need to worry about that right now. What he had to be concerned about was his
          treasure, and how he was going to go about getting it. The sale of his sheep had left him with
          enough money in his pouch, and the boy knew that in money there was magic; whoever has
          86
          money is never really alone. Before long, maybe in just a few days, he would be at the
          Pyramids. An old man, with a breastplate of gold, wouldn't have lied just to acquire six sheep.
          The old man had spoken about signs and omens, and, as the boy was crossing the strait, he
          had thought about omens. Yes, the old man had known what he was talking about: during the
          time the boy had spent in the fields of Andalusia, he had become used to learning which path he
          should take by observing the ground and the sky. He had discovered that the presence of a
          certain bird meant that a snake was nearby, and that a certain shrub was a sign that there was
          water in the area. The sheep had taught him that.
          If God leads the sheep so well, he will also lead a man, he thought, and that made him feel
          better. The tea seemed less bitter.
          "Who are you?" he heard a voice ask him in Spanish.
          The boy was relieved. He was thinking about omens, and someone had appeared.
          "How come you speak Spanish?" he asked. The new arrival was a young man in Western
          dress, but the color of his skin suggested he was from this city. He was about the same age and
          height as the boy.
          "Almost everyone here speaks Spanish. We're only two hours from Spain."
          "Sit down, and let me treat you to something," said the boy. "And ask for a glass of wine for me.
          I hate this tea."
          "There is no wine in this country," the young man said. "The religion here forbids it."
          The boy told him then that he needed to get to the Pyramids. He almost began to tell about his
          treasure, but decided not to do so. If he did, it was possible that the Arab would want a part of it
          87
          as payment for taking him there. He remembered what the old man had said about offering
          something you didn't even have yet.
          "I'd like you to take me there if you can. I can pay you to serve as my guide."
          "Do you have any idea how to get there?" the newcomer asked.
          The boy noticed that the owner of the bar stood nearby, listening attentively to their
          conversation. He felt uneasy at the man's presence. But he had found a guide, and didn't want
          to miss out on an opportunity.
          "You have to cross the entire Sahara desert," said the young man. "And to do that, you need
          money. I need to know whether you have enough."
          The boy thought it a strange question. But he trusted in the old man, who had said that, when
          you really want something, the universe always conspires in your favor.
          He took his money from his pouch and showed it to the young man. The owner of the bar came
          over and looked, as well. The two men exchanged some words in Arabic, and the bar owner
          seemed irritated.
          "Let's get out of here" said the new arrival. "He wants us to leave."
          The boy was relieved. He got up to pay the bill, but the owner grabbed him and began to speak
          to him in an angry stream of words. The boy was strong, and wanted to retaliate, but he was in
          a foreign country. His new friend pushed the owner aside, and pulled the boy outside with him.
          "He wanted your money," he said. "Tangier is not like the rest of Africa. This is a port, and every
          port has its thieves."
          The boy trusted his new friend. He had helped him out in a dangerous situation. He took out his
          money and counted it.
          88
          "We could get to the Pyramids by tomorrow," said the other, taking the money. "But I have to
          buy two camels."
          They walked together through the narrow streets of Tangier. Everywhere there were stalls with
          items for sale. They reached the center of a large plaza where the market was held. There were
          thousands of people there, arguing, selling, and buying; vegetables for sale amongst daggers,
          and carpets displayed alongside tobacco. But the boy never took his eye off his new friend.
          After all, he had all his money. He thought about asking him to give it back, but decided that
          would be unfriendly. He knew nothing about the customs of the strange land he was in.
          "I'll just watch him," he said to himself. He knew he was stronger than his friend.
          Suddenly, there in the midst of all that confusion, he saw the most beautiful sword he had ever
          seen. The scabbard was embossed in silver, and the handle was black and encrusted with
          precious stones. The boy promised himself that, when he returned from Egypt, he would buy
          that sword.
          "Ask the owner of that stall how much the sword costs," he said to his friend. Then he realized
          that he had been distracted for a few moments, looking at the sword. His heart squeezed, as if
          his chest had suddenly compressed it. He was afraid to look around, because he knew what he
          would find. He continued to look at the beautiful sword for a bit longer, until he summoned the
          courage to turn around.
          All around him was the market, with people coming and going, shouting and buying, and the
          aroma of strange foods… but nowhere could he find his new companion.
          The boy wanted to believe that his friend had simply become separated from him by accident.
          He decided to stay right there and await his return.
          89
          As he waited, a priest climbed to the top of a nearby tower and began his chant; everyone in the
          market fell to their knees, touched their foreheads to the ground, and took up the chant. Then,
          like a colony of worker ants, they dismantled their stalls and left.
          The sun began its departure, as well. The boy watched it through its trajectory for some time,
          until it was hidden behind the white houses surrounding the plaza. He recalled that when the
          sun had risen that morning, he was on another continent, still a shepherd with sixty sheep, and
          looking forward to meeting with a girl. That morning he had known everything that was going to
          happen to him as he walked through the familiar fields. But now, as the sun began to set, he
          was in a different country, a stranger in a strange land, where he couldn't even speak the
          language. He was no longer a shepherd, and he had nothing, not even the money to return and
          start everything over.
          All this happened between sunrise and sunset, the boy thought. He was feeling sorry for
          himself, and lamenting the fact that his life could have changed so suddenly and so drastically.
          He was so ashamed that he wanted to cry. He had never even wept in front of his own sheep.
          But the marketplace was empty, and he was far from home, so he wept. He wept because God
          was unfair, and because this was the way God repaid those who believed in their dreams.
          When I had my sheep, I was happy, and I made those around me happy.
          People saw me coming and welcomed me, he thought. But now I'm sad and alone. I'm going to
          become bitter and distrustful of people because one person betrayed me. I'm going to hate
          those who have found their treasure because I never found mine. And I'm going to hold on to
          what little I have, because I'm too insignificant to conquer the world.
          90
          He opened his pouch to see what was left of his possessions; maybe there was a bit left of the
          sandwich he had eaten on the ship. But all he found was the heavy book, his jacket, and the two
          stones the old man had given him.
          As he looked at the stones, he felt relieved for some reason. He had exchanged six sheep for
          two precious stones that had been taken from a gold breastplate. He could sell the stones and
          buy a return ticket. But this time I'll be smarter, the boy thought, removing them from the pouch
          so he could put them in his pocket. This was a port town, and the only truthful thing his friend
          had told him was that port towns are full of thieves.
          Now he understood why the owner of the bar had been so upset: he was trying to tell him not to
          trust that man. "I'm like everyone elseI see the world in terms of what I would like to see
          happen, not what actually does."
          He ran his fingers slowly over the stones, sensing their temperature and feeling their surfaces.
          They were his treasure. Just handling them made him feel better. They reminded him of the old
          man.
          "When you want something, all the universe conspires in helping you to achieve it," he had said.
          The boy was trying to understand the truth of what the old man had said.
          There he was in the empty marketplace, without a cent to his name, and with not a sheep to
          guard through the night. But the stones were proof that he had met with a kinga king who
          knew of the boy's past.
          "They're called Urim and Thummim, and they can help you to read the omens." The boy put the
          stones back in the pouch and decided to do an experiment. The old man had said to ask very
          clear questions, and to do that, the boy had to know what he wanted. So, he asked if the old
          man's blessing was still with him.
          91
          He took out one of the stones. It was "yes."
          "Am I going to find my treasure?" he asked.
          He stuck his hand into the pouch, and felt around for one of the stones. As he did so, both of
          them pushed through a hole in the pouch and fell to the ground. The boy had never even
          noticed that there was a hole in his pouch. He knelt down to find Urim and Thummim and put
          them back in the pouch. But as he saw them lying there on the ground, another phrase came to
          his mind.
          "Learn to recognize omens, and follow them," the old king had said.
          An omen. The boy smiled to himself. He picked up the two stones and put them back in his
          pouch. He didn't consider mending the holethe stones could fall through any time they
          wanted. He had learned that there were certain things one shouldn't ask about, so as not to flee
          from one's own destiny. "I promised that I would make my own decisions," he said to himself.
          But the stones had told him that the old man was still with him, and that made him feel more
          confident. He looked around at the empty plaza again, feeling less desperate than before. This
          wasn't a strange place; it was a new one.
          After all, what he had always wanted was just that: to know new places. Even if he never got to
          the Pyramids, he had already traveled farther than any shepherd he knew. Oh, if they only knew
          how different things are just two hours by ship from where they are, he thought. Although his
          new world at the moment was just an empty marketplace, he had already seen it when it was
          teeming with life, and he would never forget it. He remembered the sword. It hurt him a bit to
          think about it, but he had never seen one like it before. As he mused about these things, he
          realized that he had to choose between thinking of himself as the poor victim of a thief and as
          an adventurer in quest of his treasure.
          92
          "I'm an adventurer, looking for treasure," he said to himself.
          He was shaken into wakefulness by someone. He had fallen asleep in the middle of the
          marketplace, and life in the plaza was about to resume.
          Looking around, he sought his sheep, and then realized that he was in a new world. But instead
          of being saddened, he was happy. He no longer had to seek out food and water for the sheep;
          he could go in search of his treasure, instead. He had not a cent in his pocket, but he had faith.
          He had decided, the night before, that he would be as much an adventurer as the ones he had
          admired in books.
          He walked slowly through the market. The merchants were assembling their stalls, and the boy
          helped a candy seller to do his. The candy seller had a smile on his face: he was happy, aware
          of what his life was about, and ready to begin a day's work. His smile reminded the boy of the
          old manthe mysterious old king he had met. "This candy merchant isn't making candy so that
          later he can travel or marry a shopkeeper's daughter. He's doing it because it's what he wants to
          do," thought the boy. He realized that he could do the same thing the old man had donesense
          whether a person was near to or far from his destiny. Just by looking at them. It's easy, and yet
          I've never done it before, he thought.
          When the stall was assembled, the candy seller offered the boy the first sweet he had made for
          the day. The boy thanked him, ate it, and went on his way. When he had gone only a short
          distance, he realized that, while they were erecting the stall, one of them had spoken Arabic and
          the other Spanish.
          And they had understood each other perfectly well.
          93
          There must be a language that doesn't depend on words, the boy thought. I've already had that
          experience with my sheep, and now it's happening with people.
          He was learning a lot of new things. Some of them were things that he had already experienced,
          and weren't really new, but that he had never perceived before. And he hadn't perceived them
          because he had become accustomed to them. He realized: If I can learn to understand this
          language without words, I can learn to understand the world.
          Relaxed and unhurried, he resolved that he would walk through the narrow streets of Tangier.
          Only in that way would he be able to read the omens. He knew it would require a lot of patience,
          but shepherds know all about patience. Once again he saw that, in that strange land, he was
          applying the same lessons he had learned with his sheep.
          "All things are one," the old man had said.
          The crystal merchant awoke with the day, and felt the same anxiety that he felt every morning.
          He had been in the same place for thirty years: a shop at the top of a hilly street where few
          customers passed. Now it was too late to change anythingthe only thing he had ever learned
          to do was to buy and sell crystal glassware. There had been a time when many people knew of
          his shop: Arab merchants, French and English geologists, German soldiers who were always
          well-heeled. In those days it had been wonderful to be selling crystal, and he had thought how
          he would become rich, and have beautiful women at his side as he grew older.
          But, as time passed, Tangier had changed. The nearby city of Ceuta had grown faster than
          Tangier, and business had fallen off. Neighbors moved away, and there remained only a few
          small shops on the hill. And no one was going to climb the hill just to browse through a few
          small shops.
          94
          But the crystal merchant had no choice. He had lived thirty years of his life buying and selling
          crystal pieces, and now it was too late to do anything else.
          He spent the entire morning observing the infrequent comings and goings in the street. He had
          done this for years, and knew the schedule of everyone who passed. But, just before lunchtime,
          a boy stopped in front of the shop.
          He was dressed normally, but the practiced eyes of the crystal merchant could see that the boy
          had no money to spend. Nevertheless, the merchant decided to delay his lunch for a few
          minutes until the boy moved on.
          A card hanging in the doorway announced that several languages were spoken in the shop. The
          boy saw a man appear behind the counter.
          "I can clean up those glasses in the window, if you want," said the boy.
          "The way they look now, nobody is going to want to buy them."
          The man looked at him without responding.
          "In exchange, you could give me something to eat."
          The man still said nothing, and the boy sensed that he was going to have to make a decision. In
          his pouch, he had his jackethe certainly wasn't going to need it in the desert. Taking the
          jacket out, he began to clean the glasses. In half an hour, he had cleaned all the glasses in the
          window, and, as he was doing so, two customers had entered the shop and bought some
          crystal.
          When he had completed the cleaning, he asked the man for something to eat. "Let's go and
          have some lunch," said the crystal merchant.
          95
          He put a sign on the door, and they went to a small café nearby. As they sat down at the only
          table in the place, the crystal merchant laughed.
          "You didn't have to do any cleaning," he said. "The Koran requires me to feed a hungry person."
          "Well then, why did you let me do it?" the boy asked.
          "Because the crystal was dirty. And both you and I needed to cleanse our minds of negative
          thoughts."
          When they had eaten, the merchant turned to the boy and said, "I'd like you to work in my shop.
          Two customers came in today while you were working, and that's a good omen."
          People talk a lot about omens, thought the shepherd. But they really don't know what they're
          saying. Just as I hadn't realized that for so many years I had been speaking a language without
          words to my sheep.
          "Do you want to go to work for me?" the merchant asked.
          "I can work for the rest of today," the boy answered. "I'll work all night, until dawn, and I'll clean
          every piece of crystal in your shop. In return, I need money to get to Egypt tomorrow."
          The merchant laughed. "Even if you cleaned my crystal for an entire year… even if you earned
          a good commission selling every piece, you would still have to borrow money to get to Egypt.
          There are thousands of kilometers of desert between here and there."
          There was a moment of silence so profound that it seemed the city was asleep. No sound from
          the bazaars, no arguments among the merchants, no men climbing to the towers to chant. No
          hope, no adventure, no old kings or destinies, no treasure, and no Pyramids. It was as if the
          world had fallen silent because the boy's soul had. He sat there, staring blankly through the
          door of the café wishing that he had died, and that everything would end forever at that moment.
          96
          The merchant looked anxiously at the boy. All the joy he had seen that morning had suddenly
          disappeared.
          "I can give you the money you need to get back to your country, my son," said the crystal
          merchant.
          The boy said nothing. He got up, adjusted his clothing, and picked up his pouch.
          "I'll work for you," he said.
          And after another long silence, he added, "I need money to buy some sheep."

          • The Structure of Modern English, A linguistic introduction
            • Jan 1994
            • J. W
            • L Brinton
            Brinton, L. (2000) The Structure of Modern English, A linguistic introduction,
            University of British Columbia
            Coelho, P. (2006) The Alchemist, HarperCollins Publishers
            Creswell, J. W. (1994). Research design: Qualitative and quantitative
            approaches. Thousand Oaks, Ca: Sage Publications
            Huang, Y. (2007). Pragmatics. New York: Oxford University Press.

          • Analysis of Deixis in Short Story "The Little Mermaid
            • Jan 2013
            • W Mokodompit
            Mokodompit, W. (2013). Analysis of Deixis in Short Story "The Little Mermaid"
            By Hans Christian Andersen.

          • The study of language
            • Jan 2010
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            Yule, G. (2010). The study of language. New York: Cambridge University Press

          • Case Study Research in Education: A Qualitative Approach
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            • Jan 1988
            • Sharan B. Merriam

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                  Summary and Analysis of The Alchemist: Based on the Book by Paulo Coehlo

                  Summary and Analysis of The Alchemist: Based on the Book by Paulo Coehlo

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                  Overview

                  Summary and Analysis of The Alchemist: Based on the Book by Paulo Coehlo by Worth Books

                  So much to read, so little time? This brief overview of The Alchemist tells you what you need to know—before or after you read Paulo Coelho’s book.
                   
                  Crafted and edited with care, Worth Books set the standard for quality and give you the tools you need to be a well-informed reader.
                   
                  This short summary and analysis of The Alchemist by Paulo Coelho includes:
                   

                  • Historical context
                  • Part-by-part summaries
                  • Analysis of the main characters
                  • Themes and symbols
                  • Important quotes
                  • Fascinating trivia
                  • Glossary of terms
                  • Supporting material to enhance your understanding of the original work

                   
                  About The Alchemist by Paulo Coelho:
                   
                  A beloved international bestseller, The Alchemist has enchanted and inspired readers for generations.
                   
                  Santiago, an Andalusian shepherd, is content to spend his days tending his sheep, but when he begins having recurring dreams about finding treasure at the base of the Egyptian pyramids, he understands that he must leave the comforts of home to follow his heart and live his destiny. Along the way, he meets many people who help him in his journey and he learns to interpret the omens that guide him on his path to self-discovery.
                   
                  Combining mysticism, legends, dreams, history, and adventure, The Alchemist is much more than a story about a man’s search for treasure—it is a fable about destiny, finding one’s path in life, and pursuing it wholeheartedly.
                   
                  The summary and analysis in this ebook are intended to complement your reading experience and bring you closer to a great work of fiction.
                   

                  Show More

                  Product Details

                  ISBN-13:9781504043359
                  Publisher: Worth Books
                  Publication date:12/13/2016
                  Series: Smart Summaries
                  Sold by:Barnes & Noble
                  Format:NOOK Book
                  Pages:30
                  File size:2 MB

                  About the Author

                  So much to read, so little time? Each volume in the Worth Books catalog presents a summary and analysis to help you stay informed in a busy world, whether you’re managing your to-read list for work or school, brushing up on business strategies on your commute, preparing to wow at the next book club, or continuing to satisfy your thirst for knowledge. Get ready to be edified, enlightened, and entertained—all in about 30 minutes or less!
                  Worth Books’ smart summaries get straight to the point and provide essential tools to help you be an informed reader in a busy world, whether you’re browsing for new discoveries, managing your to-read list for work or school, or simply deepening your knowledge. Available for fiction and nonfiction titles, these are the book summaries that are worth your time.
                   

                  Read an Excerpt

                  Summary and Analysis of The Alchemist


                  By Paulo Coelho

                  OPEN ROAD INTEGRATED MEDIA

                  Copyright © 2016 Open Road Integrated Media, Inc.
                  All rights reserved.
                  ISBN: 978-1-5040-4335-9


                  CHAPTER 1

                  Summary


                  Prologue

                  An alchemist picks up a book and begins reading. It tells the Greek myth of Narcissus who, infatuated with his own beautiful image reflected in the waters of a lake, falls in and drowns. A flower grows in the place where he fell.

                  Unlike the traditional myth, however, the book the alchemist has found continues the story. Forest goddesses visit the lake, the water of which has transformed into tears. When the goddesses ask the lake why it cries, they learn the lake weeps for Narcissus.

                  The goddesses erroneously infer from the lake’s crying that it misses Narcissus’s beauty. Instead, they learn that the lake did not know he was beautiful, but cry because it can no longer see its own beauty reflected in Narcissus’s eyes. The prologue ends with the alchemist musing, “What a lovely story.”


                  Part One

                  An Andalusian shepherd boy, Santiago, stops for the night with his flock of sheep at an abandoned church. A sycamore tree has grown in the sacristy, stretching up beyond the now-collapsed roof. As he does every night, Santiago uses a book as a pillow — he enjoys reading, and buying and selling books when he’s ready for something new.

                  That night, he dreams the same dream from the week before; and once again, awakens before it ends. Instead of dwelling on the dream, he looks forward to reaching the town of Tarifa in four days’ time where he will once again see the daughter of a merchant who buys his wool.

                  They had met the previous year when Santiago was at the merchant’s shop to make a sale. Having noticed a book in his hands, she inquired about how he — a shepherd — became literate. He dodged the question, regaling the raven-haired beauty with stories of his travels.

                  Though once a seminary student with aspirations of becoming a priest, he gave up on his studies, with his father’s blessing, in order to become a shepherd, thereby allowing him to roam the land. His feelings for the merchant’s daughter, however, make him think it might be good to stay in one place — with her.

                  When Santiago arrives in town, he seeks counsel from a Gypsy fortune-teller, who he hopes will explain his recurring dream to him. In this dream, he meets a child who takes him by the hand and leads him to the Egyptian pyramids. It is here, the child tells him, that treasure awaits. But, both times, he wakes up before the child can show him the exact location.

                  The Gypsy woman offers to divulge the meaning of his dreams for ten percent of his treasure. Once he makes his promise, she tells Santiago he must pursue his dream, and go to Egypt to find the treasure. Somewhat frustrated with this literal interpretation, he resolves to, instead, find the merchant’s daughter and ask her to marry him.

                  Later, after getting a new book in town and sitting down to eat, a mysterious man dressed in Arab garb appears. At first, he seems to be a nuisance, but it isn’t long before he impresses Santiago with knowledge of the book he was reading. It contains, the old man says, the greatest lie ever told: A person cannot control his destiny. Santiago proudly asserts that, in choosing to become a shepherd, rather than a priest, he has already taken control of his own path.

                  Melchizedek, the King of Salem, describes the notion of a Personal Legend. Everyone has one, and everyone believes in it until they grow older and become distracted by life and weary of ever achieving their dreams. That is, after all, what the Personal Legend is: that which a person most wants to accomplish in life. He then tells Santiago that he worries for the boy’s own Personal Legend, because Santiago is about toabandon his.

                  Santiago puzzles over his meeting with Melchizedek. As a gust of wind kicks up, Santiago is reminded of the freedom to roam the world, and he decides in that moment to pursue his Personal Legend.

                  The next day, he brings six of his sheep to Melchizedek, who speaks of “the language of omens” and Melchizedek, in turn, opens his cloak to reveal a gem-studded breastplate, from which he takes two stones, Urim and Thummim. These, Melchizedek says, are used for fortune-telling, but should not replace one’s own decision-making. Santiago will follow this warning.

                  Having sold his remaining sheep to a friend, Santiago purchases a ticket to Tangier. Upon arrival, he realizes that he does not speak the language. Then a young man appears at the bar where Santiago sits alone. He speaks Spanish as well as Arabic. Santiago offers to pay the young man to serve as a guide to the pyramids. Shortly after he turns over his money, the guide — and Santiago’s money — disappear.

                  Now penniless, with only his book and jacket to his name, Santiago resolves to continue his quest. He offers his services to a crystal merchant, whose hilltop business has declined over the years, and with it, his enthusiasm. Santiago is momentarily distraught by the idea that he’ll have to work for years cleaning crystal pieces in order to earn enough money to reach the pyramids. He figures, at the very least, he can earn enough to buy some sheep and eventually make money that way.


                  Part Two

                  Over time, Santiago’s marketing ideas — and the crystal merchant’s reluctant trust in his young employee — return the business to its former glory, and beyond. Santiago has earned a considerable amount of money in the process, and plans to purchase sheep.

                  While packing to leave the crystal merchant, Santiago comes across the stones given to him by the King of Salem and thinks about how he and other people have helped him on his journey so far. He chooses to pursue his dream, which spurs him to find a caravan he can join to reach the pyramids of Egypt.

                  Among the members of the caravan is an Englishman who, Santiago learns, wants to learn the universal language of the world. After studying for years at university, he is now in search of a 200-year-old alchemist who can teach him how to produce gold from metal. Santiago, in turn, explains that he, too, is in search of treasure. Unimpressed, the Englishman returns to his books.

                  During their trek across the desert, Santiago also befriends a camel driver. Despite the fact that the man has lost his successful orchard in a flood, he is happy. Having made the pilgrimage to Mecca, the devout Muslim now devotes his life to serving God through the omens he discerns. Santiago is impressed by the man’s commitment to living in the present, and tucks this bit of wisdom away in his thoughts.

                  Warned by passing Bedouins about thieves and tribal wars, the caravan makes its way to Al-Fayoum, an oasis nearly halfway to Santiago’s destination. There, like other oases in the desert, people are protected; the oasis is considered neutral territory. Fighting in areas surrounding the oasis, however, will keep the caravan stationary for some time.

                  During his stay, Santiago helps the Englishman look for the alchemist. At one point, he stops to ask a young woman about the mysterious man, and immediately feels the Soul of the World. By this, he understands the universal language is love, and Fatima, the young woman, expresses that love perfectly. They meet frequently, and he tells her about his Personal Legend. Eventually, she tells him that she has learned from him about omens, and that his legend is maktub; it is written, and he must pursue it.

                  Instead, Santiago decides he wants to remain with Fatima in the desert, that she is enough treasure for him. But when he observes two hawks in the sky attacking each other, he has a vision of an army invading the oasis. He tells the camel driver, who insists he also alert the tribal chieftains. They are suspicious of a desert novice who claims to understand what the desert has to say. Finally an elder tells Santiago that if he is wrong, he will be killed.

                  The marauders do arrive, but because the oasis was prepared, everyone survives. Santiago does not want to leave Fatima, but she insists that he must fulfill his destiny. She will wait for him.

                  Meanwhile, the alchemist has taken note of Santiago and approaches him dramatically on horseback. After passing a test of courage, in which Santiago demonstrates his ability to find life in the desert — another omen — the shepherd and the alchemist take leave of Al-Fayoum.

                  Along their journey, the two travelers are captured by a group of warriors. The alchemist gives the chief all of Santiago’s money, and tells him that the boy is an alchemist who can destroy them by becoming a devastating wind within three days. The tribesmen scoff at the idea, but threaten to kill Santiago if he doesn’t follow through with it.

                  Performing a sort of elemental alchemy with the wind, the sun, and heaven, Santiago convinces the tribesmen that he has become the wind: a great windstorm rises, and Santiago “reached through to the Soul of the World,” and could perform miracles.

                  The shepherd and the alchemist are released and continue their journey. Before reaching the pyramids, they stop at a monastery where the alchemist produces a gold disk, portions of which he gives to a kindly monk and Santiago. Then, they part ways.

                  Santiago listens to his heart as he travels alone, and is brought to tears at the sight of the pyramids visible in the moonlight, and by his gratitude to God for “making him believe in his Personal Legend.” In the sand, he spies a scarab beetle, and recognizes it to be an omen — a symbol of God. There, he digs all night for the treasure.

                  Soon after, two tribal warriors arrive steal the portion of the gold disk he carried, and, believing he is digging for more, force him to continue. When nothing appears, they severely beat him. Suffering greatly, Santiago tells them he dreamt of treasure. Thinking he is insane, they leave Santiago — but not before one of them says that he too had a dream about a treasure. In the robber’s dream, it was buried at the roots of a sycamore tree growing in the ruins of a church, but he wasn’t stupid enough to search for it.


                  Epilogue

                  Having returned to Spain, Santiago digs near the tree in the old church. There, he finds a chest full of treasure. To it, he adds his precious Urim and Thummim.

                  In the end, Santiago knows he has fulfilled his Personal Legend — not because he found the chest, which was in his own backyard, but because he followed his dream and traveled farther than he, a simple shepherd, thought possible.

                  When the levanter wind next blows in from Africa, it bears a kiss from his true love — his destiny — Fatima, to whom he will return.


                  (Continues…)


                  Excerpted from Summary and Analysis of The Alchemist by Paulo Coelho. Copyright © 2016 Open Road Integrated Media, Inc.. Excerpted by permission of OPEN ROAD INTEGRATED MEDIA.
                  All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
                  Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.


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                  Electricity and its dangers cause many people to die yearly. We must do something to stop this. One way is by telling people how to prevent and protect. The first thing to know is electrical fire.Electrical fires are different than other fires. Because water conducts electricity, throwing water on an electrical fire can cause the fire to get larger. In that case, it is very important to NEVER use water on an electrical fire. The next step is to tell an adult to turn off the main power to the house. If the fire can be put out safely, tell an adult to use a proper chemical fire extinguisher. If the fire cannot be put out safely, leave the house and take everyone with you. Call 911 or your emergency number and tell them it is an electrical fire.The next topic is electric shock. You can never tell when contact with electricity will be fatal, but you can be sure it will always hurt. Electric shock can cause muscle spasms, weakness, shallow breathing, rapid pulse, severe burns, unconsciousness, or death. In a shock incident, the path that electric current takes through the body gets very hot. Burns occur all along that path, including the places on the skin where the current enters and leaves the body. It’s not only giant that can kill or injure you if you contact them. You can also be killed by a shock from an appliance or power cord in your home. It is good to put toothpaste or cream to cool down the burns of electric shock.That’s why it’s important to avoid electrical hazards and always have an extinguisher to prevent electrical fire.
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                • Home Essay/Articles Essay : Today’s Students Tomorrow’s Nation Builders

                  Essay : Today’s Students Tomorrow’s Nation Builders
                  Wednesday, 18 July 2012 10:06


                  Today’s Students Tomorrow’s Nation Builders

                  The backbone of any strong nation is its students. Students who are the youth of a country help the nation in times of emergency, drought, floods or any type of riots. Students, by virtue for their energy, are best suited for tough jobs for building the foundation of a nation. They can undergo any type of sacrifice. Students have a fund of immense knowledge which if channelised in proper direction can prove to be of great help and value. Whenever the honour and freedom of a nation is facing danger, it is students who come to the fore front and protect it at the cost of their lives. 
                  Students are full of energy and have sufficient time for their studies. Student life is not very long. As such, it becomes the duty of students to acquire as much information and knowledge as possible during this short period. Only them, they can prove themselves to be the true and proud sons of their motherland. Students have to build a high quality character during their studies because a nation is known by the character of its citizens. The moral character has gone downwards during about three hundred years of foreign rule. Students must learn from the very beginning of their education life the lessons of self reliance and sacrifice & sympathy towards the causes of nation building. Even in the classroom, they should live with love and co-operate with their class fellows. 
                  A nation with indisciplined youth is always in the danger of extinction and can never prosper. Indiscipline can play havoc with the social life of a nation. 
                  Today’s students will be tomorrow’s citizens. As such, if our students today start learning and following a disciplined life, then tomorrow they will be matured and disciplined citizens of the nation. These students can pave the way for building a strong and progressive nation in future. The will be responsible and honourable leaders in assemblies and parliament. Such disciplined students will not indulge in public property damage, burning of buses and killing of innocent people. 
                  Disciplined students become literate citizens of a nation. They understand the dirty play of politics. They know how to keep religion away from politics. They will be proved to be best voters because they know the misue of various issues by political parties to win votes. Students should also try to follow the path of non-violence because violence leads to terrorism and loss of public property. Students should participate in reforming and contributing towards political stability but not at the cost of their routine studies. It is first education. Which is essential for them to help do something for nation building. They have to prepare themselves today for the bright future of the nation. 
                  Today’s students should equip themselves both mentally and physically so as to make themselves strong foundation of a great nation tomorrow. They can build the best work force for the upliftment of the country. Today’s students will be required to tale place of present leaders who are going to retire in future. Moreover, today’s student will be the best judges to analyse the problems of future. Students have contributed to check price-rise, un-employment and unnecessary reservation. They have the capacity to spread the message of co-operation and sportsmanship as they learn the same while playing in the sports and games at various levels of education. 
                  Students also learn the whole nation’s diversified cultures, people, languages and ways of living under different environments. As such, these students will be best agents of national unity and integration. Students learn to adjust themselves to new conditions under various hardships and, therefore, they can play better a role towards nation building.
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                  Pakistan Today

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                  Role of students in society

                  by PakistanToday , (Last Updated September 20, 2012)

                  Society is a group of people who commonly share values, requirements and interests. Student is an important pillar in building and educated society as education is the basis for living in a world community as trade, industry, economic or political.
                  For the prosperity and betterment of a society, the foremost role of student is to gather knowledge and wisdom and must not waste his/her precious time carelessly. He must submit himself to the rules of discipline to build a civilized society. They must realize their roles and duties towards a cultured society. They must develop habits of self-reliance and try not to use unfair means in every aspect. A student can understand and help common people to understand their rights. He is expected to be well informed as well as balanced in his views. He must know that he is prepared to offer his co-operation and services for the well being of the society. As he is conscious of right and wrong, good and bad; he will not follow another man dictates blindly. Student must contribute himself for improvement, judge and act for a civilized society. They may stand for the strength of will, truthfulness, high sense of duty and honor, spirit of service and sacrifice. A student must know his talent and utilize it in a right manner. Material consideration and getting fame should not move him from the right path.
                  If we had a look on history, we see that students played vital role during struggle for independence. But unfortunately, now-a-days students waste their time and attention in pursuits, as education is only away to get academic degrees. Today the behavior of students is very casual, which if not diverted into a healthy channel could take shape of destruction. Students of today are leaders of tomorrow so they should perform their tasks for the goodness of their society and ultimately for their beloved homeland
                  MARIA AHMED
                  Islamabad

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